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Heart Failure Reviews

G P T Areas, A Mazzuco, F R Caruso, R B Jaenisch, R Cabiddu, S A Phillips, R Arena, A Borghi-Silva
Endothelial dysfunction plays as an important role on mismatch responses that occur during exercise in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). However, cardiac rehabilitation, a core component of management of CHF patients, can improve endothelial function, contributing to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these patients. The primary aims of this review were to describe the importance of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) as a non-invasive validation tool to assess endothelial dysfunction and to highlight the relevance of scientific studies that evaluated the effects of exercise interventions on peripheral vascular endothelial function as measured by FMD in patients with CHF with both preserved and reduced ejection fraction...
July 11, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Emiri Tarbit, Indu Singh, Jason N Peart, Roselyn B Rose'Meyer
Experimental research has recognized the importance of cardiac fibroblast and myofibroblast cells in heart repair and function. In a normal healthy heart, the cardiac fibroblast plays a central role in the structural, electrical, and chemical aspects within the heart. Interestingly, the transformation of cardiac fibroblast cells to cardiac myofibroblast cells is suspected to play a vital part in the development of heart failure. The ability to differentiate between the two cells types has been a challenge. Myofibroblast cells are only expressed in the stressed or failing heart, so a better understanding of cell function may identify therapies that aid repair of the damaged heart...
July 10, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Michael Dandel, Gerd Wallukat, Roland Hetzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 7, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi
The cardiovascular system is particularly sensitive to androgens, but some controversies exist regarding the effect of testosterone on the heart. While among anabolic abusers, cases of sudden cardiac death have been described, recently it was reported that low serum level of testosterone was correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and mortality rate. This review aims to evaluate the effect of testosterone on myocardial tissue function, coronary artery disease (CAD), and death. Low testosterone level is associated with increased incidence of CAD and mortality...
July 6, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Baiyan Zhuang, Arlene Sirajuddin, Shuli Wang, Andrew Arai, Shihua Zhao, Minjie Lu
T1 mapping and extracellular volume (ECV) fraction are useful new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to evaluate myocardial fibrosis; however, their prognostic value has not been well described. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the prognostic value of these techniques is performed in patients with ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Meta-Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies that utilized T1 mapping and ECV and that also had ≥ 12 months of follow-up data...
July 3, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Anne Pernille Ofstad, Dan Atar, Lars Gullestad, Gisle Langslet, Odd Erik Johansen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Dasheng Lu, Hao Zhang, Hongxiang Zhang
Right ventricular pacing (RVP) exerts a detrimental effect on left ventricular (LV) remodeling. In patients with atrioventricular block (AVB) that require ventricular pacing, the effect of biventricular pacing (BiVP) versus RVP on LV remodeling and function has not been comprehensively assessed in a meta-analysis. Electric databases MEDLINE and Cochrane Library were retrieved for randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing RVP and BiVP in patients with AVB. Data on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and LV volumes were analyzed, stratified by different time points...
July 2, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Paulien Vinke, Suzanne M Jansen, Renger F Witkamp, Klaske van Norren
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease primarily affecting the pulmonary vasculature and heart. PAH patients suffer from exercise intolerance and fatigue, negatively affecting their quality of life. This review summarizes current insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PAH. It zooms in on the potential involvement of nutritional status and micronutrient deficiencies on PAH exercise intolerance and fatigue, also summarizing the potential benefits of exercise and nutritional interventions...
June 16, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Bharathi Upadhya, Mark J Haykowsky, Dalane W Kitzman
Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is the most common form of HF. Among elderly women, HFpEF comprises more than 80% of incident HF cases. Adverse outcomes-exercise intolerance, poor quality of life, frequent hospitalizations, and reduced survival-approach those of classic HF with reduced EF (HFrEF). However, despite its importance, our understanding of the pathophysiology of HFpEF is incomplete, and despite intensive efforts, optimal therapy remains uncertain, as most trials to date have been negative...
June 7, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Monika Bartekova, Jana Radosinska, Marek Jelemensky, Naranjan S Dhalla
By virtue of their actions on NF-κB, an inflammatory nuclear transcription factor, various cytokines have been documented to play important regulatory roles in determining cardiac function under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Several cytokines including TNF-α, TGF-β, and different interleukins such as IL-1 IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-18 are involved in the development of various inflammatory cardiac pathologies, namely ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiomyopathies...
June 4, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Ankit Gupta, Stuart F Quan, Olaf Oldenburg, Atul Malhotra, Sunil Sharma
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is the most common cause of hospital admission in the USA costing the taxpayers billions of dollars. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a common co-morbid condition associated with CHF with prevalence estimated to be 60-70%. Despite substantial evidence supporting the negative impact of SDB on CHF, the condition is underrecognized and undertreated. Patients admitted to the hospital with CHF and SDB are prime candidates for intervention with positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy as they form a "captive audience," and timely intervention and education may mitigate sub-optimal outcomes...
May 31, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Liang Chen, Jiangping Song, Shengshou Hu
Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome caused by a decline in cardiac systolic or diastolic function, which leaves the heart unable to pump enough blood to meet the normal physiological requirements of the human body. It is a serious disease burden worldwide affecting nearly 23 million patients. The concept that heart failure is "an engine out of fuel" has been generally accepted and metabolic remodeling has been recognized as an important aspect of this condition; it is characterized by defects in energy production and changes in metabolic pathways involved in the regulation of essential cellular functions such as the process of substrate utilization, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and high-energy phosphate metabolism...
May 23, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Tom Hendriks, Remco A J Schurer, Lawien Al Ali, Ad F M van den Heuvel, Pim van der Harst
Even in the era of percutaneous reperfusion therapy, left ventricular (LV) remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) leading to heart failure remains a major health concern. Contractile dysfunction of the infarcted myocardium results in an increased pressure load, leading to maladaptive reshaping of the LV. Several percutaneous transcatheter procedures have been developed to deliver devices that restore LV shape and function. The purposes of this review are to discuss the spectrum of transcatheter devices that are available or in development for attenuation of adverse LV remodeling and to critically examine the available evidence for improvement of functional status and cardiovascular outcomes...
May 17, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Abdosaleh Jafari, Aziz Rezapour, Marjan Hajahmadi
Measuring the level of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), as a guide to pharmacotherapy, can increase the survival of patients with heart failure. This study is aimed at systematically reviewing the studies conducted on the cost-effectiveness of BNP-guided care in patients with heart failure. Using the systematic review method, we reviewed the published studies on the cost-effectiveness of BNP-guided care in patients with heart failure during the years 2004 to 2017. The results showed that all studies clearly stated the time horizon of the study and included direct medical costs in their analysis...
May 10, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Genzou Takemura, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Hideshi Okada, Nagisa Miyazaki, Takatomo Watanabe, Akiko Tsujimoto, Kazuko Goto, Rumi Maruyama, Takako Fujiwara, Hisayoshi Fujiwara
Anti-apoptotic therapy for cardiomyocytes could be an effective strategy for preventing or treating heart failure. Notably, however, morphological evidence definitively demonstrating cardiomyocyte apoptosis has been very rare in actual heart diseases such as acute myocardial infarction and heart failure. By contrast, within the postinfarction heart, interstitial noncardiomyocytes such as granulation tissue cells do die via apoptosis to form scar tissue. Blockade of this apoptosis improves survival and mitigates ventricular remodeling and dysfunction during the chronic stage...
May 8, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Vincenzo Teneggi, Nithy Sivakumar, Deborah Chen, Alex Matter
Acute heart failure (AHF) is a major burden disease, with a complex physiopathology, unsatisfactory diagnosis, treatment and a very poor prognosis. In the last two decades, a number of drugs have progressed from preclinical to early and late clinical development, but only a few of them have been approved and added to a stagnant pharmacological armamentarium. We have reviewed the data published on drugs developed for AHF since early 2000s, trying to recognise factors that have worked for a successful approval or for the stoppage of the program, in an attempt to delineate future trajectories for AHF drug development...
May 8, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Angelos G Rigopoulos, Stefanos Sakellaropoulos, Muhammad Ali, Sophie Mavrogeni, Athanassios Manginas, Matthias Pauschinger, Michel Noutsias
Transcatheter alcohol septal ablation (ASA) treatment of symptomatic patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is based on the existence and degree of intraventricular obstruction. Patients with significant gradient and symptoms who do not respond to optimal medical therapy are eligible to gradient reduction through a surgical (septal myectomy) or a transcatheter (alcohol septal ablation) septal reduction. The latter encompasses occlusion of a septal branch perfusing the hypertrophied septum, which is involved in the generation of obstruction, by injecting ethanol into the supplying septal branch(es)...
May 8, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Benedetta Guidi, Giovanni Donato Aquaro, Marco Gesi, Michele Emdin, Marco Di Paolo
Postmortem imaging is increasingly used in forensic practice as good complementary tool to conventional autopsy investigations. Over the last decade, postmortem cardiac magnetic resonance (PMCMR) imaging was introduced in forensic investigations of natural deaths related to cardiovascular diseases, which represent the most common causes of death in developed countries. Postmortem CMR application has yielded interesting results in ischemic myocardium injury investigations and in visualizing other pathological findings in the heart...
May 4, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Stefania Paolillo, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Fabiana De Martino, Francesca Ferrazzano, Fabio Marsico, Paola Gargiulo, Elisabetta Pirozzi, Caterina Marciano, Santo Dellegrottaglie, Pasquale Perrone Filardi
Exercise intolerance is a typical manifestation of patients affected by heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF); however, the relationship among functional capacity, mortality, and exercise-induced heart rate response during exercise remains unclear in either sinus rhythm or atrial fibrillation subjects. Heart rate increase during incremental load exercise has a typical pattern in normal subjects, whereas it is commonly compromised in HFrEF patients, mainly due to the imbalance of the autonomic nervous system...
July 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Max-Paul Winter, Patrick Sulzgruber, Lorenz Koller, Philipp Bartko, Georg Goliasch, Alexander Niessner
Deleterious inflammatory responses are seen to be the trigger of heart failure in myocarditis and therapies directed towards immunomodulation have been assumed to be beneficial. The objective of the present review was to systematically assess the effect of immunomodulation in lymphocytic myocarditis. Studies were included if diagnosis of lymphocytic myocarditis was based on EMB as well as on the exclusion of other etiologies of heart failure and if the patients had at least moderately decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (< 45%)...
July 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
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