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Heart Failure Reviews

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191605/integrating-palliative-care-into-routine-care-of-patients-with-heart-failure-models-for-clinical-collaboration
#1
REVIEW
Warren H Lewin, Kristen G Schaefer
Heart failure (HF) affects nearly 5.7 million Americans and is described as a chronic incurable illness carrying a poor prognosis. Patients living with HF experience significant symptoms including dyspnea, pain, anxiety, fatigue, and depression. As the illness advances into later stages, symptoms become more intense and refractory to standard treatments, leading to recurrent acute-care utilization and contributing to poor quality of life. Advanced HF symptoms have been described to be as burdensome, if not more than, those in cancer populations...
February 13, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164253/heart-failure-in-the-elderly-ten-peculiar-management-considerations
#2
Feras Bader, Bassam Atallah, Lisa F Brennan, Rola H Rimawi, Mohammed E Khalil
Chronic heart failure (HF) is a disease with significantly higher prevalence in the elderly or patients older than 65 years old. Typically, older patients have more risk factors for HF, more comorbidities, and are more likely to have recurrent admissions for acute decompensations. With HF burden on health care systems primarily related to hospital and nursing home costs, it is critical that elderly patients are approached with a clear understanding of certain unique clinical, laboratory, imaging, and pharmacokinetic differences that can alter their management and outcomes...
February 6, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160116/family-caregiving-for-persons-with-heart-failure-at-the-intersection-of-heart-failure-and-palliative-care-a-state-of-the-science-review
#3
J Nicholas Dionne-Odom, Stephanie A Hooker, David Bekelman, Deborah Ejem, Gwen McGhan, Lisa Kitko, Anna Strömberg, Rachel Wells, Meka Astin, Zehra Gok Metin, Gisella Mancarella, Salpy V Pamboukian, Lorraine Evangelista, Harleah G Buck, Marie A Bakitas
Many of the 23 million individuals with heart failure (HF) worldwide receive daily, unpaid support from a family member or friend. Although HF and palliative care practice guidelines stipulate that support be provided to family caregivers, the evidence base to guide care for this population has not been comprehensively assessed. In order to appraise the state-of-the-science of HF family caregiving and recommend areas for future research, the aims of this review were to summarize (1) how caregivers influence patients, (2) the consequences of HF for caregivers, and (3) interventions directed at HF caregivers...
February 4, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150111/spect-and-pet-in-ischemic-heart-failure
#4
George Angelidis, Gregory Giamouzis, Georgios Karagiannis, Javed Butler, Ioannis Tsougos, Varvara Valotassiou, George Giannakoulas, Nikolaos Dimakopoulos, Andrew Xanthopoulos, John Skoularigis, Filippos Triposkiadis, Panagiotis Georgoulias
Heart failure is a common clinical syndrome associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of heart failure, at least in the industrialized countries. Proper diagnosis of the syndrome and management of patients with heart failure require anatomical and functional information obtained through various imaging modalities. Nuclear cardiology techniques play a main role in the evaluation of heart failure. Myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with thallium-201 or technetium-99 m labelled tracers offer valuable data regarding ventricular function, myocardial perfusion, viability, and intraventricular synchronism...
February 2, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105542/hospice-in-heart-failure-why-when-and-what-then
#5
Jeffrey L Spiess
Hospice is a model of care for patients nearing the end of their lives that emphasizes symptom management, quality of life (QOL), and support of the patient and caregiving family through the death of the patient and the family's bereavement. It is associated with high patient and caregiver satisfaction and appears to not shorten lifespan for appropriately referred patients. Patients with advanced heart failure are being referred to hospice care more often than in the past, but the majority of deaths occur without this benefit...
January 20, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091824/exercise-capacity-physical-activity-and-morbidity
#6
Danielle L Brunjes, Peter J Kennel, P Christian Schulze
Muscle weakness and atrophy are key characteristics of the aging adult but can also be found in chronically ill patients with heart failure, cancer, renal failure, and chronic infectious diseases all associated with an accelerated level of muscle dysfunction. Reduced physical activity levels and exercise intolerance increase muscle loss and decrease quality of life in both the aging and heart failure populations. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the effects of aging and heart failure on skeletal muscle function and how exercise training can improve long-term outcomes associated with skeletal muscle dysfunction...
January 16, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091823/skeletal-muscle-inflammation-and-atrophy-in-heart-failure
#7
Kory J Lavine, Oscar L Sierra
Heart failure represents a systemic disease with profound effects on multiple peripheral tissues including skeletal muscle. Within the context of heart failure, perturbations in skeletal muscle physiology, structure, and function strongly contribute to exercise intolerance and the morbidity of this devastating disease. There is growing evidence that chronic heart failure imparts specific pathological changes within skeletal muscle beds resulting in muscle dysfunction and tissue atrophy. Mechanistically, systemic and local inflammatory responses drive critical aspects of this pathology...
January 14, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942913/genomic-and-rapid-effects-of-aldosterone-what-we-know-and-do-not-know-thus-far
#8
Milla Marques Hermidorff, Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro de Assis, Mauro César Isoldi
Aldosterone is the most known mineralocorticoid hormone synthesized by the adrenal cortex. The genomic pathway displayed by aldosterone is attributed to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling. Even though the rapid effects displayed by aldosterone are long known, our knowledge regarding the receptor responsible for such event is still poor. It is intense that the debate whether the MR or another receptor-the "unknown receptor"-is the receptor responsible for the rapid effects of aldosterone. Recently, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1) was elegantly shown to mediate some aldosterone-induced rapid effects in several tissues, a fact that strongly places GPER-1 as the unknown receptor...
December 12, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904993/molecular-mechanisms-of-heart-failure-insights-from-drosophila
#9
Shasha Zhu, Zhe Han, Yan Luo, Yulin Chen, Qun Zeng, Xiushan Wu, Wuzhou Yuan
Heart failure places an enormous burden on health and economic systems worldwide. It is a complex disease that is profoundly influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Neither the molecular mechanisms underlying heart failure nor effective prevention strategies are fully understood. Fortunately, relevant aspects of human heart failure can be experimentally studied in tractable model animals, including the fruit fly, Drosophila, allowing the in vivo application of powerful and sophisticated molecular genetic and physiological approaches...
January 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873135/left-atrium-the-last-bulwark-before-overt-heart-failure
#10
Matteo Cameli, Giulia Elena Mandoli, Sergio Mondillo
Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has emerged as an important public health issue in recent years. It represents the most common type of HF in ambulatory setting, and it has been recognized as a different entity from the reduced ejection fraction (EF) form. In HFpEF, continuous growing attention has been focused on the role of the left atrium (LA) in preserving good ventricular function and asymptomatic condition of the patient since the very first stages of diastolic dysfunction (DD)...
January 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817119/a-complete-heart-block-in-a-young-male-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature-of-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#11
Brijesh Patel, Mahek Shah, Alehegn Gelaye, Raman Dusaj
Cardiac sarcoidosis is one of the uncommon causes of heart failure. Generally, it presents in the form of varying clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to fatal arrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia and complete heart block. It is difficult to make a diagnosis strictly based on clinical grounds. However, in the setting of extracardiac sarcoidosis and patients presenting with advanced heart block or ventricular arrhythmia, direct cardiac involvement should be suspected. The definitive diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis can be made from endomyocardial biopsy, but it is falling out of favor due to patchy myocardial involvement, considerable procedure-related risks, and advancement in additional imaging modalities...
January 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671166/adherence-to-recommended-exercise-guidelines-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#12
REVIEW
Pallav Deka, Bunny Pozehl, Mark A Williams, Bernice Yates
Exercise training has been shown to be beneficial in patients with heart failure, and its effectiveness is connected to adherence to the exercise program. Nonetheless, adherence to exercise in these patients remains a concern. Heart failure patients can be considered adherent to an exercise program if they meet 80 % of the recommended dose. We summarize exercise recommendations for patients with heart failure, identify exercise prescription methodologies used in studies that have reported exercise adherence, identify strategies and tools used to improve adherence and examine whether these strategies were developed using a theoretical platform with the primary aim to change behavior and improve adherence to exercise...
January 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623843/recent-advances-of-adapter-proteins-in-the-regulation-of-heart-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Li Tao, Linna Jia, Yuntian Li, Chengyun Song, Zheng Chen
Heart diseases are major causes of mortality. Cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial infarction (MI), viral cardiomyopathy, ischemic and reperfusion (I/R) heart injury finally lead to heart failure and death. Insulin and IGF1 signal pathways play key roles in normal cardiomyocyte growth and physiological cardiac hypertrophy while inflammatory signal pathway is associated with pathological cardiac hypertrophy, MI, viral cardiomyopathy, I/R heart injury, and heart failure. Adapter proteins are the major family proteins, which transduce signals from insulin, IGF1, or cytokine receptors to the downstream pathways and have been shown to regulate variety of heart diseases...
January 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592330/symptom-burden-in-heart-failure-assessment-impact-on-outcomes-and-management
#14
REVIEW
Craig M Alpert, Michael A Smith, Scott L Hummel, Ellen K Hummel
Evidence-based management has improved long-term survival in patients with heart failure (HF). However, an unintended consequence of increased longevity is that patients with HF are exposed to a greater symptom burden over time. In addition to classic symptoms such as dyspnea and edema, patients with HF frequently suffer additional symptoms such as pain, depression, gastrointestinal distress, and fatigue. In addition to obvious effects on quality of life, untreated symptoms increase clinical events including emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and long-term mortality in a dose-dependent fashion...
January 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858186/metabolic-enzymes-dysregulation-in-heart-failure-the-prospective-therapy
#15
Priyanka Parihar, Mordhwaj Singh Parihar
The heart failure accounts for the highest mortality rate all over the world. The development of preventive therapeutic approaches is still in their infancy. Owing to the extremely high energy demand of the heart, the bioenergetics pathways need to respond efficiently based on substrate availability. The metabolic regulation of such heart bioenergetics is mediated by various rate limiting enzymes involved in energy metabolism. Although all the pertinent mechanisms are not clearly understood, the progressive decline in the activity of metabolic enzymes leading to diminished ATP production is known to cause progression of the heart failure...
November 17, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844178/atrial-fibrillation-and-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-heart-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Pavlos G Myserlis, Antonia Malli, Dimitrios K Kalaitzoglou, Grigorios Kalaitzidis, Michael Miligkos, Damianos G Kokkinidis, Andreas P Kalogeropoulos
Cognitive impairment and dementia are established complications of heart failure (HF) in adult patients and impair medication adherence and self-care. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is suggested to play an independent role in the cognitive decline in patients with HF. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of AF on cognitive function in these patients. Medline (PubMed), Scopus, and the CENTRAL databases were queried from their inception up to April 30, 2016. The search included primary research articles evaluating the effect of AF on cognition in HF patients...
November 15, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815651/skeletal-muscle-bioenergetics-in-aging-and-heart-failure
#17
Sophia Z Liu, David J Marcinek
Changes in mitochondrial capacity and quality play a critical role in skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction. In vivo measurements of mitochondrial capacity provide a clear link between physical activity and mitochondrial function in aging and heart failure, although the cause and effect relationship remains unclear. Age-related decline in mitochondrial quality leads to mitochondrial defects that affect redox, calcium, and energy-sensitive signaling by altering the cellular environment that can result in skeletal muscle dysfunction independent of reduced mitochondrial capacity...
November 5, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554493/recent-advances-in-the-noninvasive-strategies-of-cardiac-amyloidosis
#18
Lei Zhao, Quan Fang
The heart, like any organ in the body, is susceptible to amyloid deposition. Although more than 30 types of protein can cause amyloidosis, only two types commonly deposit in the ventricular myocardium: amyloid light chain and amyloid transthyretin. Amyloid cardiomyopathy is usually a major determinant of patient outcomes, and the diagnosis of heart involvement can be often relatively under-diagnosed, owing to nonspecific presenting symptoms and signs at a subclinical stage. The diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis is usually performed by endomyocardial biopsy; however, the invasive nature and related high-risk complications restrict its wide use in clinical settings...
November 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503203/zebrafish-models-of-cardiovascular-disease
#19
Despina Bournele, Dimitris Beis
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The most significant risk factors associated with the development of heart diseases include genetic and environmental factors such as hypertension, high blood cholesterol levels, diabetes, smoking, and obesity. Coronary artery disease accounts for the highest percentage of CVD deaths and stroke, cardiomyopathies, congenital heart diseases, heart valve defects and arrhythmias follow. The causes, prevention, and treatment of all forms of cardiovascular disease remain active fields of biomedical research, with hundreds of scientific studies published on a weekly basis...
November 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440137/darwinian-evolution-and-cardiovascular-remodeling
#20
REVIEW
Bernard Swynghedauw
Mechanotransduction, MT, is an ancient evolutionary legacy existing in every living species and involving complex rearrangements of multiple proteins in response to a mechanical stress. MT includes three different interrelated processes: mechanosensation, mechanotransmission, and mechanoresponse. Each process is specifically adapted to a given tissue and stress. Both cardiac and arterial remodeling involve MT. Physiological or pathological cardiac remodeling, CR, is firstly a beneficial mechanoresponse, MR, which allows the heart to recover to a normal economy, better adapted to the new working conditions...
November 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
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