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Heart Failure Reviews

Shasha Zhu, Zhe Han, Yan Luo, Yulin Chen, Qun Zeng, Xiushan Wu, Wuzhou Yuan
Heart failure places an enormous burden on health and economic systems worldwide. It is a complex disease that is profoundly influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Neither the molecular mechanisms underlying heart failure nor effective prevention strategies are fully understood. Fortunately, relevant aspects of human heart failure can be experimentally studied in tractable model animals, including the fruit fly, Drosophila, allowing the in vivo application of powerful and sophisticated molecular genetic and physiological approaches...
December 1, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Matteo Cameli, Giulia Elena Mandoli, Sergio Mondillo
Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has emerged as an important public health issue in recent years. It represents the most common type of HF in ambulatory setting, and it has been recognized as a different entity from the reduced ejection fraction (EF) form. In HFpEF, continuous growing attention has been focused on the role of the left atrium (LA) in preserving good ventricular function and asymptomatic condition of the patient since the very first stages of diastolic dysfunction (DD)...
November 22, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Priyanka Parihar, Mordhwaj Singh Parihar
The heart failure accounts for the highest mortality rate all over the world. The development of preventive therapeutic approaches is still in their infancy. Owing to the extremely high energy demand of the heart, the bioenergetics pathways need to respond efficiently based on substrate availability. The metabolic regulation of such heart bioenergetics is mediated by various rate limiting enzymes involved in energy metabolism. Although all the pertinent mechanisms are not clearly understood, the progressive decline in the activity of metabolic enzymes leading to diminished ATP production is known to cause progression of the heart failure...
November 17, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Pavlos G Myserlis, Antonia Malli, Dimitrios K Kalaitzoglou, Grigorios Kalaitzidis, Michael Miligkos, Damianos G Kokkinidis, Andreas P Kalogeropoulos
Cognitive impairment and dementia are established complications of heart failure (HF) in adult patients and impair medication adherence and self-care. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is suggested to play an independent role in the cognitive decline in patients with HF. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of AF on cognitive function in these patients. Medline (PubMed), Scopus, and the CENTRAL databases were queried from their inception up to April 30, 2016. The search included primary research articles evaluating the effect of AF on cognition in HF patients...
November 15, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Brijesh Patel, Mahek Shah, Alehegn Gelaye, Raman Dusaj
Cardiac sarcoidosis is one of the uncommon causes of heart failure. Generally, it presents in the form of varying clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to fatal arrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia and complete heart block. It is difficult to make a diagnosis strictly based on clinical grounds. However, in the setting of extracardiac sarcoidosis and patients presenting with advanced heart block or ventricular arrhythmia, direct cardiac involvement should be suspected. The definitive diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis can be made from endomyocardial biopsy, but it is falling out of favor due to patchy myocardial involvement, considerable procedure-related risks, and advancement in additional imaging modalities...
November 5, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Sophia Z Liu, David J Marcinek
Changes in mitochondrial capacity and quality play a critical role in skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction. In vivo measurements of mitochondrial capacity provide a clear link between physical activity and mitochondrial function in aging and heart failure, although the cause and effect relationship remains unclear. Age-related decline in mitochondrial quality leads to mitochondrial defects that affect redox, calcium, and energy-sensitive signaling by altering the cellular environment that can result in skeletal muscle dysfunction independent of reduced mitochondrial capacity...
November 5, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Pallav Deka, Bunny Pozehl, Mark A Williams, Bernice Yates
Exercise training has been shown to be beneficial in patients with heart failure, and its effectiveness is connected to adherence to the exercise program. Nonetheless, adherence to exercise in these patients remains a concern. Heart failure patients can be considered adherent to an exercise program if they meet 80 % of the recommended dose. We summarize exercise recommendations for patients with heart failure, identify exercise prescription methodologies used in studies that have reported exercise adherence, identify strategies and tools used to improve adherence and examine whether these strategies were developed using a theoretical platform with the primary aim to change behavior and improve adherence to exercise...
September 26, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Li Tao, Linna Jia, Yuntian Li, Chengyun Song, Zheng Chen
Heart diseases are major causes of mortality. Cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial infarction (MI), viral cardiomyopathy, ischemic and reperfusion (I/R) heart injury finally lead to heart failure and death. Insulin and IGF1 signal pathways play key roles in normal cardiomyocyte growth and physiological cardiac hypertrophy while inflammatory signal pathway is associated with pathological cardiac hypertrophy, MI, viral cardiomyopathy, I/R heart injury, and heart failure. Adapter proteins are the major family proteins, which transduce signals from insulin, IGF1, or cytokine receptors to the downstream pathways and have been shown to regulate variety of heart diseases...
September 13, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Ward A Heggermont, Marc Goethals, Riet Dierckx, Sofie Verstreken, Jozef Bartunek, Marc Vanderheyden
The brand new 2016 ESC guidelines for the treatment of acute and chronic heart failure continue to give a prominent place to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in the treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). In the prevention of HF hospitalization and death, a class I, level of recommendation A, is given to MRAs for patients with HFrEF, who remain symptomatic despite treatment with an ACE-inhibitor and a beta-blocker and have an LVEF below 35 %. This recommendation is primarily based on two landmark trials, the RALES trial (for spironolactone) and the EMPHASIS-HF trial (for eplerenone)...
September 12, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Despina Bournele, Dimitris Beis
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The most significant risk factors associated with the development of heart diseases include genetic and environmental factors such as hypertension, high blood cholesterol levels, diabetes, smoking, and obesity. Coronary artery disease accounts for the highest percentage of CVD deaths and stroke, cardiomyopathies, congenital heart diseases, heart valve defects and arrhythmias follow. The causes, prevention, and treatment of all forms of cardiovascular disease remain active fields of biomedical research, with hundreds of scientific studies published on a weekly basis...
November 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Bernard Swynghedauw
Mechanotransduction, MT, is an ancient evolutionary legacy existing in every living species and involving complex rearrangements of multiple proteins in response to a mechanical stress. MT includes three different interrelated processes: mechanosensation, mechanotransmission, and mechanoresponse. Each process is specifically adapted to a given tissue and stress. Both cardiac and arterial remodeling involve MT. Physiological or pathological cardiac remodeling, CR, is firstly a beneficial mechanoresponse, MR, which allows the heart to recover to a normal economy, better adapted to the new working conditions...
November 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Ana L Neves, Tiago Henriques-Coelho, Adelino Leite-Moreira, José C Areias
The aim of this article is to evaluate the clinical utility of cardiac injury biomarkers in paediatric age. In December 2015, a literature search was performed (PubMed access to MEDLINE citations; ). The search strategy included the following medical subject headings and text terms for the key words: "cardiac injury biomarkers", "creatine kinase-MB", "myoglobin", "troponin", "children", "neonate/s", "newborn/s", "infant/s" and echocardiography. In the paediatric population, troponins show a good correlation with the extent of myocardial damage following cardiac surgery and cardiotoxic medication and can be used as predictors of subsequent cardiac recovery and mortality...
November 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Kevin L Sack, Neil H Davies, Julius M Guccione, Thomas Franz
Predictive computational modelling in biomedical research offers the potential to integrate diverse data, uncover biological mechanisms that are not easily accessible through experimental methods and expose gaps in knowledge requiring further research. Recent developments in computing and diagnostic technologies have initiated the advancement of computational models in terms of complexity and specificity. Consequently, computational modelling can increasingly be utilised as enabling and complementing modality in the clinic-with medical decisions and interventions being personalised...
November 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Craig M Alpert, Michael A Smith, Scott L Hummel, Ellen K Hummel
Evidence-based management has improved long-term survival in patients with heart failure (HF). However, an unintended consequence of increased longevity is that patients with HF are exposed to a greater symptom burden over time. In addition to classic symptoms such as dyspnea and edema, patients with HF frequently suffer additional symptoms such as pain, depression, gastrointestinal distress, and fatigue. In addition to obvious effects on quality of life, untreated symptoms increase clinical events including emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and long-term mortality in a dose-dependent fashion...
September 3, 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Heiko Bugger, Constantin N Witt, Christoph Bode
Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD(+)-dependent enzymes that catalyze deacylation of protein lysine residues. In mammals, seven sirtuins have been identified, SIRT1-7. SIRT3-5 are mainly or exclusively localized within mitochondria and mainly participate in the regulation of energy metabolic pathways. Since mitochondrial ATP regeneration is inevitably linked to the maintenance of cardiac pump function, it is not surprising that recent studies revealed a role for mitochondrial sirtuins in the regulation of myocardial energetics and function...
September 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Donato Mele, Marianna Nardozza, Paolo Spallarossa, Antonio Frassoldati, Carlo G Tocchetti, Christian Cadeddu, Rosalinda Madonna, Michele Malagù, Roberto Ferrari, Giuseppe Mercuro
Anthracyclines are well established and effective anticancer agents used to treat a variety of adult and pediatric cancers. Unfortunately, these drugs are also among the commonest chemotherapeutic agents that have been recognized to cause cardiotoxicity. In the last years, several experimental and clinical investigations provided new information and perspectives on anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity. In particular, molecular mechanisms of cardiotoxicity have been better elucidated, early diagnosis has improved through the use of advanced noninvasive cardiac imaging techniques, and emerging data indicate a genetic predisposition to develop anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity...
September 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Pietro Ameri, Edoardo Bertero, Giovanni Meliota, Martino Cheli, Marco Canepa, Claudio Brunelli, Manrico Balbi
During the last decade, hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems (SNS and RAAS, respectively) has repeatedly been related to the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and PAH-related right ventricular failure (PAH-RVF), raising the question of whether neurohormonal inhibition may be indicated for these conditions. Experimental data indicate that the RAAS may be involved in pulmonary vascular remodeling, which is in fact halted by RAAS antagonism. Favorable actions of β-blockers on the pulmonary vasculature have also been described, even if information about β-adrenergic receptors in PAH is lacking...
September 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
A P Vanezis, G C Rodrigo, I B Squire, N J Samani
Remote ischaemic conditioning (rIC) has demonstrated its effectiveness as a powerful cardioprotective tool in number of preclinical and limited clinical settings. More recently, ischaemic postconditioning given after an ischaemic event such as a myocardial infarction (MI) has shown not only to reduce infarct size but also to have beneficial effects on acute remodelling post-MI and to reduce the burden of heart failure and other detrimental outcomes. Building on this platform, repeated rIC over a number of days has the potential to augment the protective process even further...
September 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
George H Kunkel, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Suresh C Tyagi
Mitochondrial dysfunction underlines a multitude of pathologies; however, studies are scarce that rescue the mitochondria for cellular resuscitation. Exploration into the protective role of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and its mitochondrial functions respective to cardiomyocyte death are in need of further investigation. TFAM is a gene regulator that acts to mitigate calcium mishandling and ROS production by wrapping around mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) complexes. TFAM's regulatory functions over serca2a, NFAT, and Lon protease contribute to cardiomyocyte stability...
September 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
Ankur Jain, Nikhil Agrawal, Amir Kazory
Ultrafiltration (UF) has emerged as an alternative therapy for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) due to its physiological benefits such as improvement in neurohormonal activation. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and the impact on outcomes for UF therapy as compared to conventional medical treatment. The PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched from inception to December 2015 for randomized controlled trials that examined UF therapy in ADHF and used diuretic-based regimens as the control group...
September 2016: Heart Failure Reviews
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