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Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634022/goals-and-objectives-of-the-italian-network-for-tumor-biotherapy-nibit
#1
Vincenzo Russo, Alberto Amadori, Marco Bregni, Luana Calabrò, Mario Paolo Colombo, Massimo Di Nicola, Pier Francesco Ferrucci, Enrico Proietti, Michele Maio, Matteo Bellone
The explosion in the immuno-oncology field, exemplified by the clinical implementation of immune checkpoint inhibitor blockade and other immunotherapeutic strategies was quickly recognized by the Italian biomedical community, thanks to the networking activities of the Italian Network for Tumor Biotherapy (NIBIT), which has been active since 2004 in the diffusion of new scientific and clinical findings in the fields of tumor immunology and immunotherapy. Numerous activities of NIBIT have also helped to overcome the hurdles associated with the clinical implementation of cancer immune-biotherapeutic strategies at the national and international levels...
June 16, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629762/targeting-the-tumor-and-its-associated-stroma-one-and-one-can-make-three-in-adoptive-t-cell-therapy-of-solid-tumors
#2
Anna Mondino, Gerlanda Vella, Laura Icardi
Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) has become a promising immunotherapeutic option for cancer patients. The proof for ACT therapeutic efficacy was first obtained with allogenic T cells and then reproduced with T cells isolated from patients' tumor samples (i.e. tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes). It is now clear that specificity of ACT products can be educated by genetically engineering T cells with classical T Cell Receptors (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). To date a poor accessibility of the tumor mass and a hostile microenvironment, influenced by genetic and epigenetic instability, mainly limit ACT therapeutic efficacy in the case of solid tumors...
June 15, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606733/tumor-derived-factors-affecting-immune-cells
#3
Vincenzo Russo, Maria Pia Protti
Tumor progression is accompanied by the production of a wide array of immunosuppressive factors by tumor and non-tumor cells forming the tumor microenvironment. These factors belonging to cytokines, growth factors, metabolites, glycan-binding proteins and glycoproteins are responsible for the establishment of immunosuppressive networks leading towards tumor promotion, invasion and metastasis. In pre-clinical tumor models, the inactivation of some of these suppressive networks reprograms the phenotypic and functional features of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, ultimately favoring effective anti-tumor immune responses...
June 8, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629761/cytokines-for-the-induction-of-antitumor-effectors-the-paradigm-of-cytokine-induced-killer-cik-cells
#4
Elisa Cappuzzello, Roberta Sommaggio, Paola Zanovello, Antonio Rosato
Cytokine-Induced killer (CIK) cells are raising growing interest in cellular antitumor therapy, as they can be easily expanded with a straightforward and inexpensive protocol, and are safe requiring only GMP-grade cytokines to obtain very high amounts of cytotoxic cells. CIK cells do not need antigen-specific stimuli to be activated and proliferate, as they recognize and destroy tumor cells in an HLA-independent fashion through the engagement of NKG2D. In several preclinical studies and clinical trials, CIK cells showed a reduced alloreactivity compared to conventional T cells, even when challenged across HLA-barriers; only in a few patients, a mild GVHD occurred after treatment with allogeneic CIK cells...
June 3, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599834/effects-of-interleukin-1beta-polymorphisms-on-brain-function-and-behavior-in-healthy-and-psychiatric-disease-conditions
#5
REVIEW
Shih-Jen Tsai
A high level of Interleukin-1beta (IL1B), a key mediator of inflammation, is expressed in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus, which plays a pivotal role in memory and mood regulation. In the brain, IL1B exerts a myriad of effects such as neuronal proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and long-term potentiation. Considering its pleiotropic effects in the brain, IL1B has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various psychiatric disorders as well as cognitive function in normal individuals. Thus, IL1B has been considered a candidate gene for the study of psychiatric diseases as well as brain function in normal individuals...
June 3, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606732/constitutive-and-acquired-mechanisms-of-resistance-to-immune-checkpoint-blockade-in-human-cancer
#6
Matteo Bellone, Angela Rita Elia
Cancer immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies directed against regulatory pathways in T lymphocytes has been revolutionizing medical oncology, and the clinical success of monoclonal antibodies targeting either cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) or program death-1 (PD-1) in patients affected by melanoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and head and neck, bladder, renal cell or non-small cell lung cancer is way beyond the most optimistic expectation. However, immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has failed to arrest progression in a consistent amount of patients affected by those tumors, and various histological types, including breast, colon and prostate cancer, are less sensitive to this therapeutic approach...
June 2, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606734/the-interplay-between-histone-deacetylases-and-rho-kinases-is-important-for-cancer-and-neurodegeneration
#7
REVIEW
Sonja Mertsch, Oliver H Krämer
Rho associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCKs) respond to defined extra- and intracellular stimuli to control cell migration, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic modifiers that regulate nuclear and cytoplasmic signaling through the deacetylation of histones and non-histone proteins. ROCK and HDAC functions are important compounds of basic and applied research interests. Recent evidence suggests a physiologically important interplay between HDACs and ROCKs in various cells and organisms...
June 1, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595838/deciphering-the-loop-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-inflammatory-cytokines-and-cancer-immunoediting
#8
REVIEW
Antonella Sistigu, Francesca Di Modugno, Gwenola Manic, Paola Nisticò
Tumorigenesis and tumor progression relies on the dialectics between tumor cells, the extracellular matrix and its remodelling enzymes, neighbouring cells and soluble cues. The host immune response is crucial in eliminating or promoting tumor growth and the reciprocal coevolution of tumor and immune cells, during disease progression and in response to therapy, shapes tumor fate by activating innate and adaptive mechanisms. The phenotypic plasticity is a common feature of epithelial and immune cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a dynamic process, governed by microenvironmental stimuli, critical in tumor cell shaping, increased tumor cell heterogeneity and stemness...
May 31, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583723/control-of-b-lymphocyte-development-and-functions-by-the-mtor-signaling-pathways
#9
REVIEW
Terri N Iwata, Julita A Ramírez-Komo, Heon Park, Brian M Iritani
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase originally discovered as the molecular target of the immunosuppressant rapamycin. mTOR forms two compositionally and functionally distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which are crucial for coordinating nutrient, energy, oxygen, and growth factor availability with cellular growth, proliferation, and survival. Recent studies have identified critical, non-redundant roles for mTORC1 and mTORC2 in controlling B cell development, differentiation, and functions, and have highlighted emerging roles of the Folliculin-Fnip protein complex in regulating mTOR and B cell development...
May 22, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576287/2017-keystone-symposia-at-the-fairmont-banff-springs-exploring-new-concepts-in-innate-immunity-and-interferon-signaling-at-the-haunted-castle
#10
Camilla Gunderstofte, Christian K Holm, David Olagnier
At the 2017 Keystone Symposia meeting, new research was presented in the fields of innate immunity and type I interferon regulation. Gathering experts from these research communities offered a unique opportunity to discuss new concepts and formulate novel approaches to modulate pathological mechanisms in human inflammatory diseases.
May 20, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545736/amino-acid-sensing-and-degrading-pathways-in-immune-regulation
#11
Ursula Grohmann, Giada Mondanelli, Maria L Belladonna, Ciriana Orabona, Maria T Pallotta, Alberta Iacono, Paolo Puccetti, Claudia Volpi
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenases (IDOs) - belonging in the heme dioxygenase family and degrading tryptophan - are responsible for the de novo synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). As such, they are expressed by a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate species. In mammals, IDO1 has remarkably evolved to expand its functions, so to become a prominent homeostatic regulator, capable of modulating infection and immunity in multiple ways, including local tryptophan deprivation, production of biologically active tryptophan catabolites, and non-enzymatic cell-signaling activity...
May 18, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551321/microrna-driven-deregulation-of-cytokine-expression-helps-development-of-drug-resistance-in-metastatic-melanoma
#12
Luigi Fattore, Andrea Sacconi, Rita Mancini, Gennaro Ciliberto
microRNAs are major components of the eukaryotic post-transcriptional machinery and are frequently deregulated during cancer development. Increasing evidence points to them also as key players in the establishment of drug resistance. In this review, we provide an updated overview of the role of miRNAs in melanoma development and drug resistance and postulate that they are able to drive these processes in concert with deregulation of inflammatory and angiogenic cytokine expression. Notably, we have identified by querying the Cancer Genome Atlas database, a defined set of miRNAs which mostly have an impact on the development of melanoma and have recognized the main downstream pathways controlled by them...
May 17, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532674/cytokine-expression-levels-in-als-a-potential-link-between-inflammation-and-bmaa-triggered-protein-misfolding
#13
Nara Michaelson, Dominic Facciponte, Walter Bradley, Elijah Stommel
Recently, it has been shown that proinflammatory cytokines play a complex and important role in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To help facilitate future discoveries and more effective treatment strategies, we highlight the role that both innate and adaptive immune systems play in ALS and summarize the main observations that relate to cytokine expression levels in this disease. Furthermore, we propose a mechanism by which a known neurotoxin, β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), may trigger this cytokine expression profile through motor neuron protein misfolding and subsequent NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3) inflammasome activation...
May 10, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499577/metabolic-regulation-of-suppressive-myeloid-cells-in-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Antonio Sica, Laura Strauss, Francesca Maria Consonni, Cristina Travelli, Armando Genazzani, Chiara Porta
Cancer cells rewire their metabolism to promote growth, survival, proliferation and long-term maintenance. The common feature of this altered metabolism is the increased glucose uptake and fermentation of glucose to lactate, which is observed even in the presence of completely functioning mitochondria. This effect is known as the 'Warburg Effect' and its intensive investigation in the last decade has partially established either its causes or its functions. It is now emerging that a major side effect of the Warburg Effect is immunosuppression, which limits the immunogenicity of cancer cells and therefore restricts the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer immunotherapy...
May 3, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455216/impairment-of-the-type-i-interferon-response-by-hiv-1-potential-targets-for-hiv-eradication
#15
REVIEW
Teslin S Sandstrom, Nischal Ranganath, Jonathan B Angel
By interfering with the type I interferon (IFN1) response, human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) can circumvent host antiviral signalling and establish persistent viral reservoirs. HIV-1-mediated defects in the IFN pathway are numerous, and include the impairment of protein receptors involved in pathogen detection, downstream signalling cascades required for IFN1 upregulation, and expression or function of key IFN1-inducible, antiviral proteins. Despite this, the activation of IFN1-inducible, antiviral proteins has been shown to facilitate the killing of latently HIV-infected cells in vitro...
April 24, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479044/glucocorticoid-resistance-as-a-major-drive-in-sepsis-pathology
#16
REVIEW
Karen Dendoncker, Claude Libert
Sepsis is an acute systemic inflammatory disease. Glucocorticoids (GCs), which function by binding to the GC receptor GR have very powerful anti-inflammatory activities, yet they are hardly useful in sepsis. We can thus consider sepsis as a GC resistant disease. We here review the literature which has investigated this GC resistance, and summarize the mechanisms of GC resistance that have been observed in other diseases and in experimental models. We also discuss the importance of GC resistance in sepsis, in terms of the contribution of this phenomenon to the pathogenesis of sepsis...
April 23, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456467/dysfunctional-t-cell-metabolism-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#17
REVIEW
Kathryn E Beckermann, Stephanie O Dudzinski, Jeffrey C Rathmell
Metabolic and signaling pathways are integrated to determine T cell fate and function. As stimulated T cells gain distinct effector functions, specific metabolic programs and demands are also adopted. These changes are essential for T cell effector function, and alterations or dysregulation of metabolic pathways can modulate T cell function. One physiological setting that impacts T cell metabolism is the tumor microenvironment. The metabolism of cancer cells themselves can limit nutrients and accumulate waste products...
April 23, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442214/regulatory-t-cells-as-suppressors-of-anti-tumor-immunity-role-of-metabolism
#18
REVIEW
Veronica De Rosa, Francesca Di Rella, Antonio Di Giacomo, Giuseppe Matarese
Novel concepts in immunometabolism support the hypothesis that glucose consumption is also used to modulate anti-tumor immune responses, favoring growth and expansion of specific cellular subsets defined in the past as suppressor T cells and currently reborn as regulatory T (Treg) cells. During the 1920s, Otto Warburg and colleagues observed that tumors consumed high amounts of glucose compared to normal tissues, even in the presence of oxygen and completely functioning mitochondria. However, the role of the Warburg Effect is still not completely understood, particularly in the context of an ongoing anti-tumor immune response...
April 11, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377062/cytokines-and-cytokine-networks-target-neurons-to-modulate-long-term-potentiation
#19
G Aleph Prieto, Carl W Cotman
Cytokines play crucial roles in the communication between brain cells including neurons and glia, as well as in the brain-periphery interactions. In the brain, cytokines modulate long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular correlate of memory. Whether cytokines regulate LTP by direct effects on neurons or by indirect mechanisms mediated by non-neuronal cells is poorly understood. Elucidating neuron-specific effects of cytokines has been challenging because most brain cells express cytokine receptors. Moreover, cytokines commonly increase the expression of multiple cytokines in their target cells, thus increasing the complexity of brain cytokine networks even after single-cytokine challenges...
March 29, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190785/crosstalk-between-insulin-like-growth-factor-igf-receptor-and-integrins-through-direct-integrin-binding-to-igf1
#20
REVIEW
Yoshikazu Takada, Yoko K Takada, Masaaki Fujita
It has been generally accepted that integrin cell adhesion receptors are involved in growth factor signaling (integrin-growth factor crosstalk), since antagonists to integrins often suppress growth factor signaling. Partly because integrins have been originally identified as cell adhesion receptors to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, current models of the crosstalk between IGF1 and integrins propose that ECM ligands (e.g., vitronectin) bind to integrins and IGF1 binds to IGF receptor type 1 (IGF1R), and two separate signals merge inside the cells...
April 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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