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Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews

F De Santis, M Del Vecchio, L Castagnoli, F De Braud, D Franceschini, G Fucà, J Hiscott, K J Malmberg, N McGranahan, F Pietrantonio, L Rivoltini, S Sangaletti, E Tagliabue, C Tripodo, C Vernieri, L Zitvogel, S M Pupa, M Di Nicola
The eighth annual conference of "Innovative therapy, monoclonal antibodies, and beyond" was held in Milan on Jan. 26, 2018, and hosted by Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (Fondazione IRCCS INT). The conference was divided into two main scientific sessions, of i) pre-clinical assays and novel biotargets, and ii) clinical translation, as well as a third session of presentations from young investigators, which focused on recent achievements within Fondazione IRCCS INT on immunotherapy and targeted therapies...
October 30, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Rik Janssens, Sofie Struyf, Paul Proost
CXCL12 is a CXC chemokine that traditionally has been classified as a homeostatic chemokine. It contributes to physiological processes such as embryogenesis, hematopoiesis and angiogenesis. In contrast to these homeostatic functions, increased expression of CXCL12 in general, or of a specific CXCL12 splicing variant has been demonstrated in various pathologies. In addition to this increased or differential transcription of CXCL12, also upregulation of its receptors CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3) contributes to the onset or progression of diseases...
October 23, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Tiantian Wang, Chengqi He
Osteoarthritis (OA), characterized by joint malfunction and chronic disability, is the most common form of arthritis. Clinical and animal experiments reveal that age-related OA is associated with many factors such as age, sex, trauma, and obesity. One of the most influential and modifiable risk factors is obesity. Obesity not only increases mechanical stress on the tibiofemoral cartilage, but also leads to a higher prevalence of OA in non-weight-bearing areas. There is a link between obesity and inflammation...
October 11, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Volatiana Rakotoarivelo, Bhavesh Variya, Subburaj Ilangumaran, Marie-France Langlois, Sheela Ramanathan
Chronic inflammation in adipose tissues has been associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome over the years. Various studies using animal models have contributed to our knowledge on the pro- and anti- inflammatory mediators that regulate obesity. Analyses of cytokine profiles in humans have not revealed a clear scenario. Likewise, treatments targeting inflammation to control obesity and insulin resistance has not yielded promising results. In this review we summarize the data available in human obesity and discuss the possible reasons that could explain the difficulties in treating obesity and insulin resistance by targeting pro-inflammatory cytokines...
October 4, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Stephanie Binder, Michela Luciano, Jutta Horejs-Hoeck
Cytokines exert profound effects on the progression of hematopoietic malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Critical roles of cytokines in the context of inflammation have gained special interest. While pro-inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 tend to increase AML aggressiveness, anti-inflammatory mediators such as TGF-β and IL-10 appear to impede AML progression. Dysregulation of the complex interactions between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in AML may create a pro-tumorigenic microenvironment with effects on leukemic cell proliferation, survival and drug-resistance...
October 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Arita Dubnika, Martin A C Manoukian, M Rezaa Mohammadi, Mansi Bharat Parekh, Abhijit Achyut Gurjarpadhye, Mohammed Inayathullah, Viktors Dubniks, Jonathan R T Lakey, Jayakumar Rajadas
Cytokine therapies have emerged during the past decade as promising noninvasive treatments for heart disease. In general, current drug treatments are directed towards symptom control and prevention of disease progression; however, many agents also produce cause side effects that alter quality of life. Cytokine based therapies have the potential to reduce post-infarct heart failure and chronic ischemia by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of endothelial cells and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells and mobilizing these cells toward ischemic tissue...
October 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Giuseppe Sciumè
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Beatrice Zitti, Yenan T Bryceson
First described 40 years ago, natural killer (NK) cells represent the founding members of the innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family. They were initially defined by their ability to kill cancer cells of hematopoietic origin. More recently, NK cells are recognized not only for their ability to kill infected or malignant cells, but also for mediating cytotoxicity against a range of normal immune cells. They thereby play an important physiological role in controlling immune responses and maintaining homeostasis. Besides cytotoxic activity, NK cells activation is accompanied by secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
August 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Yohei Mikami, Yoshiaki Takada, Yuya Hagihara, Takanori Kanai
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently identified family of lymphoid effector cells. ILCs are mainly clustered into 3 groups based on their unique cytokine profiles and transcription factors typically attributed to the subsets of T helper cells. ILCs have a critical role in the mucosal immune response through promptly responding to pathogens and producing large amount of effector cytokines of type 1, 2, or 3 responses. In addition to the role of early immune responses against infections, ILCs, particularly group 2 ILCs (ILC2), have recently gained attention for modulating remodeling and fibrosis especially in the mucosal tissues...
August 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Helena Stabile, Cinzia Fionda, Angela Santoni, Angela Gismondi
Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic members of type I innate lymphocytes (ILC1) with a prominent role in anti-tumor and anti-viral immune responses. Despite the increasing insight into NK cell biology, the steps and stages leading to mature circulating NK cells require further investigation. Natural killer cell development and functional maturation are complex and multi-stage processes that occur predominantly in the bone marrow (BM) and originate from haematopoietic stem cells CD34+ (HSC). Within the BM, NK cell precursor (NKP) and NK cell development intermediates reside in specialized niches that are characterized by particular cellular components that provide signals required for their maturation...
August 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Alessandra Soriani, Helena Stabile, Angela Gismondi, Angela Santoni, Giovanni Bernardini
Three groups of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) can be defined based on transcription factor requirements, cytokine production profiles, and roles in immunity. Given their strategic anatomical location into barrier tissues and the ability to rapidly produce cytokines and to cross-talk with other immune and non-immune cells, ILCs play fundamental functions in tissue homeostasis and regulation of immune responses. Several members of the chemokine family influence ILC tissue localization in the correct microenvironment by regulating their release from the bone marrow as well as their homing and retention in the tissues...
August 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Chao Zhong, Mingzhu Zheng, Jinfang Zhu
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that are capable of producing effector cytokines reminiscent of CD4+ T helper (Th) cells during infections and tissue inflammations have drawn much attention in the immunology field in recent years. Within the ILCs, the lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells that play a critical role in lymphoid organogenesis were identified long before the establishment of the ILC concept. LTi cells, developed and functioning mainly at the fetal stage, and LTi-like cells, presumably generated during the adulthood, are regarded as a subset of type 3 ILCs (ILC3s) because they express the ILC3 lineage-defining transcription factor RORγt, and like other ILC3s, can produce an ILC3 signature cytokine IL-22 and initiate protective immune responses against extracellular bacteria...
August 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Arundhoti Das, Christelle Harly, Qi Yang, Avinash Bhandoola
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are immune cells that lack specific antigen receptors but possess similar effector functions as T cells. Concordantly, ILCs express many transcription factors known to be important for T cell effector function. ILCs develop from lymphoid progenitors in fetal liver and adult bone marrow. However, the identification of ILC progenitor (ILCP) and other precursors in peripheral tissues raises the question of whether ILC development might occur at extramedullary sites. We discuss central and local generation in maintaining ILC abundance at peripheral sites...
August 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Yun Ge, Man Huang, Yong-Ming Yao
Autophagy is a ubiquitous cellular process that regulates cell growth, survival, development and death. Its process is closely associated with diverse conditions, such as liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, myopathy, heart diseases, cancer, immunization, and inflammatory diseases. Thus, understanding the modulation of autophagy may provide novel insight into potential therapeutic targets. Autophagy is closely intertwined with inflammatory and immune responses, and cytokines may help mediate this interaction...
July 18, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Gustav van Niekerk, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht
Inflammatory mediators have a well-established role in mediating metabolic disturbances. Chronic low-grade inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and the development of metabolic syndrome. This phenomenon is even more pronounced in severe inflammatory states such as in critically ill patients where hyperglycaemia invariably manifests. Similarly, though inflammatory mediators have a well-established role in promoting bone resorption, the adaptive function of this process remains unknown. Here we review emerging evidence from the field of immunometabolism suggesting that these two processes serve a common goal, namely, to sustain the rapid proliferation of immune cells during an infection...
June 28, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Virgínea de Araújo Farias, Ana Belén Carrillo-Gálvez, Francisco Martín, Per Anderson
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent a promising cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine and for the treatment of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. Importantly, MSCs have emerged as an important contributor to the tumor stroma with both pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects. However, the successful translation of MSCs to the clinic and the prevention of their tumorigenic and metastatic effect require a greater understanding of factors controlling their proliferation, differentiation, migration and immunomodulation in vitro and in vivo...
June 13, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Mohammed Alasseiri, Afsar U Ahmed, Bryan R G Williams
Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) has emerged as a critical adaptor and mediator protein in cell signaling pathways that is commonly deregulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This has led to the expectation that therapeutic targeting of ILK may be a useful option in treating leukemia. Although ILK can regulate many cellular processes, including cell differentiation, survival, migration, apoptosis and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, its role in promoting AML is still unclear. However, its ability to mediate phosphorylation and regulate the important hematopoietic stem cell regulators protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β supports ILK as an attractive target for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics...
June 7, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Laura Forcina, Carmen Miano, Antonio Musarò
Skeletal muscle is a complex, dynamic tissue characterized by an elevated plasticity. Although the adult muscle is mainly composed of multinucleated fibers with post mitotic nuclei, it retains a remarkable ability to regenerate in response to traumatic events. The regenerative potential of the adult skeletal muscle relies in the activity of satellite cells, mononucleated cells residing within the muscle in intimate association with myofibers. Satellite cells normally remain quiescent in their sublaminar position, sporadically entering the cell cycle to guarantee an efficient cellular turnover, by fusing with pre-existing myofibers, and to maintain the stem cell pool...
June 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Heleen H Van Acker, Diana Campillo-Davo, Gils Roex, Maarten Versteven, Evelien L Smits, Viggo F Van Tendeloo
Cytokines of the common gamma-chain receptor family, comprising interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21, are vital with respect to organizing and sustaining healthy immune cell functions. Supporting the anti-cancer immune response, these cytokines inspire great interest for their use as vaccine adjuvants and cancer immunotherapies. It is against this background that gamma delta (γδ) T cells, as special-force soldiers and natural contributors of the tumor immunosurveillance, also received a lot of attention the last decade...
June 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Yuehong Chen, Neetu Sud, Aubryanna Hettinghouse, Chuan-Ju Liu
Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of beta-glucocerebrosidase (GCase) resulting in lysosomal accumulation of its glycolipid substrate glucosylceramide. The activity of GCase depends on many factors such as proper folding and lysosomal localization, which are influenced by mutations in GCase encoding gene, and regulated by various GCase-binding partners including Saposin C, progranulin and heat shock proteins. In addition, proinflammatory molecules also contribute to pathogenicity of GD...
June 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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