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Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews

Nadia A Al-Banna, Farhan Cyprian, M John Albert
Campylobacter jejuni is an important enteric pathogen that causes diarrheas of different degrees of severity and several extra-intestinal manifestations, including Guillain-Barre syndrome. The variability of disease outcomes is thought to be linked to the immune response induced by C. jejuni. The virulence factors of C. jejuni induce a pro-inflammatory response, that is initiated by the intestinal epithelial cells, propagated by innate immune cells and modulated by the cells of the adaptive immune response...
March 10, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Nicolas Noël, Béatrice Jacquelin, Nicolas Huot, Cécile Goujard, Olivier Lambotte, Michaela Müller-Trutwin
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces a persistent and incurable infection. However, the combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) has markedly changed the evolution of the infection and transformed a deadly disease into a manageable chronic infection. Withdrawal of cART generally leads though to resumption of the viral replication. The eradication of the virus from its cellular and anatomical reservoirs remains a goal-to-achieve for a cure. In this context, developing novel therapies contributing to this aim are an important field of research...
March 9, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Christian Krapp, Kasper Jønsson, Martin R Jakobsen
Sensing of DNA is essential for the innate immune system to detect threats, like viruses, intracellular bacteria or cellular DNA damage. At the centre of this conserved mammalian mechanism stands the adaptor protein STING. STING is highly regulated and is part of a complex signalling network. This network depends on the sensors cGAS and IFI16 to detect misplaced DNA in the cytoplasm as well as on the kinase TBK1 and the transcription factor IRF3. The DNA sensing machinery has been implicated in many diseases, among others HIV...
March 9, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Anvita Bhargava, Xavier Lahaye, Nicolas Manel
The nuclear envelope is a physical barrier that isolates the cellular DNA from the rest of the cell, thereby limiting pathogen invasion. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has a remarkable ability to enter the nucleus of non-dividing target cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. While this step is critical for replication of the virus, it remains one of the less understood aspects of HIV infection. Here, we review the viral and host factors that favor or inhibit HIV entry into the nucleus, including the viral capsid, integrase, the central viral DNA flap, and the host proteins CPSF6, TNPO3, Nucleoporins, SUN1, SUN2, Cyclophilin A and MX2...
February 27, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Daniel Sauter, Frank Kirchhoff
HIV-1, the main causative agent of AIDS, and related primate lentiviruses show a striking ability to efficiently replicate throughout the lifetime of an infected host. In addition to their high variability, the acquisition of several accessory genes has enabled these viruses to efficiently evade or counteract seemingly strong antiviral immune responses. The respective viral proteins, i.e. Vif, Vpr, Vpu, Vpx and Nef, show a stunning functional diversity, acting by various mechanisms and targeting a large variety of cellular factors involved in innate and adaptive immunity...
February 23, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Alessandra Soriani, Helena Stabile, Angela Gismondi, Angela Santoni, Giovanni Bernardini
Three groups of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) can be defined based on transcription factor requirements, cytokine production profiles, and roles in immunity. Given their strategic anatomical location into barrier tissues and the ability to rapidly produce cytokines and to cross-talk with other immune and non-immune cells, ILCs play fundamental functions in tissue homeostasis and regulation of immune responses. Several members of the chemokine family influence ILC tissue localization in the correct microenvironment by regulating their release from the bone marrow as well as their homing and retention in the tissues...
February 14, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Kathrin Sutter, Julia Dickow, Ulf Dittmer
Type I interferons (IFN), which are immediately induced after most virus infections, are central for direct antiviral immunity and link innate and adaptive immune responses. However, several viruses have evolved strategies to evade the IFN response by preventing IFN induction or blocking IFN signaling pathways. Thus, therapeutic application of exogenous type I IFN or agonists inducing type I IFN responses are a considerable option for future immunotherapies against chronic viral infections. An important part of the type I IFN family are 12 IFNα subtypes, which all bind the same receptor, but significantly differ in their biological activities...
February 13, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Chao Zhong, Mingzhu Zheng, Jinfang Zhu
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that are capable of producing effector cytokines reminiscent of CD4+ T helper (Th) cells during infections and tissue inflammations have drawn much attention in the immunology field in recent years. Within the ILCs, the lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells that play a critical role in lymphoid organogenesis were identified long before the establishment of the ILC concept. LTi cells, developed and functioning mainly at the fetal stage, and LTi-like cells, presumably generated during the adulthood, are regarded as a subset of type 3 ILCs (ILC3s) because they express the ILC3 lineage-defining transcription factor RORγt, and like other ILC3s, can produce an ILC3 signature cytokine IL-22 and initiate protective immune responses against extracellular bacteria...
February 13, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
David Olagnier, John Hiscott
At the 5th Annual meeting of the International Cytokine and Interferon Society held in Kanazawa, Japan from Oct. 29-Nov. 2 2017, new research was presented in the broad field of cytokine and interferon research. The meeting provided an outstanding platform for investigators in basic science and clinical research to communicate, share and discuss their recent findings in this fast moving area of research.
February 4, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Francesca Cirillo, Pietro Lazzeroni, Cecilia Catellani, Chiara Sartori, Sergio Amarri, Maria Elisabeth Street
MicroRNAs are involved in multiple pathophysiological networks and in the pathogenesis of a broad spectrum of human disorders, including cancer and inflammatory diseases. Impaired linear growth is encountered in children with chronic inflammatory conditions such as cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, celiac disease and in subjects born intrauterine growth restricted/small for gestational age. Children with inflammatory conditions may also be at risk of developing insulin resistance as a result of the inflammatory process and concurrent therapy...
February 2, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Haize Goikuria, Koen Vandenbroeck, Iraide Alloza
Inflammation in carotid atherosclerotic plaque is linked to plaque rupture and cerebrovascular accidents. The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators governs development of the plaque, and may mediate enhancement of lesion broadening or, on the contrary, delay progression. In addition to macrophages and endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which are the dominant cell subset in advanced plaques, are crucial players in carotid atherosclerosis development given their ability to differentiate into distinct phenotypes in reponse to specific signals received from the environment of the lesion...
January 30, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Anna Stunova, Lucie Vistejnova
Dermal fibroblasts, which make up the major cell type in the dermis, have, historically, been considered to be relatively 'passive' cells which are responsible for the synthesis and remodeling of extracellular matrix proteins. However, the dermal fibroblast population is composed of heterogeneous and distinct cell types, and it has been established that, under the stress conditions of healing wound environments, dermal fibroblasts participate in the regulation of ongoing inflammation and cell proliferation by secreting a variety of signaling molecules that modulate the functions of immune cells, keratinocyte, endothelial cells and mast cells via both direct cell to cell communication and autocrine and paracrine interactions...
January 29, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Abhijit A Ghadge, Amrita A Khaire, Aniket A Kuvalekar
Adiponectin is an important adipocytokine secreted chiefly by fat containing adipocytes, and plays a crucial role in glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. Alterations in adiponectin levels have been shown to directly affect lipid and glucose metabolism that further increase the synthesis of lipids, free fatty acids and inflammatory cytokines. Changes in adiponectin levels also contribute to insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. In the present review, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of the role of adiponectin and its molecular mechanisms in metabolic syndrome...
January 12, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Arundhoti Das, Christelle Harly, Qi Yang, Avinash Bhandoola
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are immune cells that lack specific antigen receptors but possess similar effector functions as T cells. Concordantly, ILCs express many transcription factors known to be important for T cell effector function. ILCs develop from lymphoid progenitors in fetal liver and adult bone marrow. However, the identification of ILC progenitor (ILCP) and other precursors in peripheral tissues raises the question of whether ILC development might occur at extramedullary sites. We discuss central and local generation in maintaining ILC abundance at peripheral sites...
January 12, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Saeed Farajzadeh Valilou, Mahsa Keshavarz-Fathi, Nicola Silvestris, Antonella Argentiero, Nima Rezaei
Pancreatic cancer is considered as one of the most lethal types of cancer due to its poor prognosis and lack of effective therapeutic approaches. Although many studies have been done on pancreatic cancer, the current treatment methods did not exhibit successful results. Hence, novel strategies are needed for treatment of pancreatic cancer. The microenvironment of pancreatic cancer contains many factors such as inflammatory cytokines and tumor associated macrophages (TAMs), which influence the tumor's status...
January 12, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Thomas Garraud, Mathilde Harel, Marie-Astrid Boutet, Benoit Le Goff, Frédéric Blanchard
IL-38 is the most recently discovered cytokine of the IL-1 family and is considered a potential inhibitor of the IL-1 and Toll-like receptor families. IL-38 exerts anti-inflammatory properties, especially on macrophages, by inhibiting secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to reduced T-lymphocyte TH17 maturation. IL-38 has been studied most extensively in the context of chronic inflammatory diseases, particularly arthritis, where it is considered an attractive new drug candidate. IL-38 research has entered a new phase, with the realization that IL-38 is important in the pathophysiology of TH17 dependent-diseases (psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis)...
January 12, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Sidrah Naseem, Tabinda Hussain, Sobia Manzoor
Liver pathologies (fibrosis, cirrhosis, alcoholic, non-alcoholic diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma) represent one of the most common causes of death worldwide. A number of genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of liver diseases. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine, exerting variety of effects on inflammation, liver regeneration, and defence against infections by regulating adaptive immunity. Due to its high abundance in inflammatory settings, IL-6 is often viewed as a detrimental cytokine...
January 12, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Laura M Jenkins, Ben Horst, Carly L Lancaster, Karthikeyan Mythreye
Aberrant cell signaling in response to secreted growth factors has been linked to the development of multiple diseases, including cancer. As such, understanding mechanisms that control growth factor availability and receptor-growth factor interaction is vital. Dually modified transmembrane proteoglycans (DMTPs), which are classified as cell surface macromolecules composed of a core protein decorated with covalently linked heparan sulfated (HS) and/or chondroitin sulfated (CS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, provide one type of regulatory mechanism...
December 22, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Jolien Souffriau, Claude Libert
Sepsis, a systemic inflammation as a response to a bacterial infection, is a huge unmet medical need. Data accumulated over the last decade suggest that the nutritional status of patients as well as composition of their gut microbiome, are strongly linked with the risk to develop sepsis, the severity of the disease and prognosis. In particular, the essential micronutrient zinc is essential in the resistance against sepsis and has shown to be protective in animal models as well as in human patients. The potential mechanisms by which zinc protects in sepsis are discussed in this review paper: we will focus on the inflammatory response, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, immune response, oxidative stress and modulation of the microbiome...
December 22, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Marta Skoda, Aleksandra Stangret, Dariusz Szukiewicz
Inflammation and angiogenesis are two interdependent processes underlying pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. The initiation and progression of atherosclerosis strongly depends on specific patterns of cytokine expression. In this review, we analyze correlation between expression of two members of the cytokine family and the processes of inflammation and angiogenesis related to atherosclerosis. Placental growth factor and chemokine CX3XL1 (fractalkine) promote inflammatory cell infiltration, angiogenesis and plaque rupture...
December 20, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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