Read by QxMD icon Read

Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews

Fengna Li, Yinghui Li, Yehui Duan, Chien-An A Hu, Yulong Tang, Yulong Yin
Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue are the two largest organs in the body. Skeletal muscle is an effector organ, and adipose tissue is an organ that stores energy; in addition, they are endocrine organs that secrete cytokines, namely myokines and adipokines, respectively. Myokines consist of myostatin, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-15, irisin, fibroblast growth factor 21, and myonectin; adipokines include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, chemerin, and visfatin. Furthermore, certain cytokines, such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, are released by both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and exhibit a bioactive effect; thus, they are called adipo-myokines...
October 13, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Xi Chen, Heng Qiu, Chao Wang, Yu Yuan, Jennifer Tickner, Jiake Xu, Jun Zou
Choline, a hydrophilic cation, has versatile physiological roles throughout the body, including cholinergic neurotransmission, memory consolidation and membrane biosynthesis and metabolism. Choline kinases possess enzyme activity that catalyses the conversion of choline to phosphocholine, which is further converted to cytidine diphosphate-coline (CDP-choline) in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). PC is a major constituent of the phospholipid bilayer which constitutes the eukaryotic cell membrane, and regulates cell signal transduction...
October 8, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Maryam Saberi Karimian, Matteo Pirro, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Monocyte chemoattractant/chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), a member of the CC chemokine family, is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and tissue infiltration of monocytes/macrophages. Its role in the pathophysiology of several inflammatory diseases has been widely recognized, thus making MCP-1 a possible target for anti-inflammatory treatments. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a natural polyphenol derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma Longa L. (turmeric). Anti-inflammatory action underlies numerous pharmacological effects of curcumin in the control and prevention of several diseases...
October 8, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Lorena Pérez, Natalia Muñoz-Durango, Claudia A Riedel, Cesar Echeverría, Alexis M Kalergis, Claudio Cabello-Verrugio, Felipe Simon
During the last decade, the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) process has attracted considerable attention due to associations with the onset of certain diseases, such as organ fibrosis and cancer. Several studies have assessed the mechanisms and signaling pathways that regulate endothelial fibrosis in the context of human pathologies. A number of inflammatory mediators, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, oxidative stress, and toxins, induce the conversion of endothelial cells into mesenchymal fibroblast-like cells that promote disease progression...
September 23, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Shreeram C Nallar, Dhan V Kalvakolanu
Cytokines induce cell proliferation or growth suppression depending on the context. It is increasingly becoming clear that success of standard radiotherapy and/or chemotherapeutics to eradicate solid tumors is dependent on IFN signaling. In this review we discuss the molecular mechanisms of tumor growth suppression by a gene product isolated in our laboratory using a genome-wide expression knock-down strategy. Gene associated with retinoid-IFN-induced mortality -19 (GRIM-19) functions as non-canonical tumor suppressor by antagonizing oncoproteins...
September 15, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Alma Y Galvez-Contreras, Tania Campos-Ordonez, Veronica Lopez-Virgen, Jesus Gomez-Plascencia, Rodrigo Ramos-Zuniga, Oscar Gonzalez-Perez
The psychiatric disorders are one of the most disabling illnesses in the world and represent a major problem for public health. These disorders are characterized by neuroanatomical or biochemical changes and it has been suggested that such changes may be due to inadequate neurodevelopment. Diverse alterations in the gene expression and/or serum level of specific growth factors have been implicated in the etiology, symptoms and progression of some psychiatric disorders. Herein, we summarize the latest information regarding the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), neuroregulin-1 (NGR-1), erythropoietin (EPO), vascular growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), nerve growth factor (NGF) and others cytokines in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, depression, bipolar and anxiety disorders...
September 8, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Qian Liu, Anping Li, Yijun Tian, Jennifer D Wu, Yu Liu, Tengfei Li, Yuan Chen, Xinwei Han, Kongming Wu
Persistent infection or chronic inflammation contributes significantly to tumourigenesis and tumour progression. C-X-C motif ligand 8 (CXCL8) is a chemokine that acts as an important multifunctional cytokine to modulate tumour proliferation, invasion and migration in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Studies have suggested that CXCL8 and its cognate receptors, C-X-C chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1) and C-X-C chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), mediate the initiation and development of various cancers including breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, colorectal carcinoma and melanoma...
October 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Cassandra M Berry
Type I and III interferons (IFNs) of the innate immune system belong to a polygenic family, however the individual subtype mediators of the antiviral response in viral infections have been hindered by a lack of reagents. Evaluation studies using different IFN subtypes have distinguished distinct protein properties with different efficacies towards different viruses, opening promising avenues for immunotherapy. This review largely focuses on the application of IFN-α/β and IFN-λ therapies for viral infections, influenza, herpes, HIV and hepatitis...
October 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
M Alper Kursunel, Gunes Esendagli
Interferon (IFN)-γ is the uppermost cytokine implicated in anti-tumor immunity. With its cytostatic, pro-apoptotic and immune-provoking effects, IFN-γ plays a central role in the recognition and elimination of transformed cells. Considering well-characterized anti-tumor effects of this cytokine, many clinical trials and immunotherapy approaches have been designed to reinforce IFN-γ-mediated immunity for different types of cancer. However, the outcomes were not satisfactory and leaded to questioning of alternative actions of IFN-γ...
October 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Manoj Patidar, Naveen Yadav, Sarat K Dalai
Interleukin (IL)-15, a member of the immunoregulatory cytokines family, is a pluripotent molecule with therapeutic potential. It is predominantly expressed by the myeloid cells, as well as other cell types. IL-15 serves multiple functions including dictating T cell response, regulating tissue repair and B cell homing, modulating inflammation, and activating NK cells. Among cytokines, IL-15 is unique because of its wide expression, tightly regulated secretion, trans-presentation, and therapeutic potential. IL-15 has been investigated for its therapeutic potential for the induction and maintenance of T cell responses...
October 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Sascha Rutz, Celine Eidenschenk, James R Kiefer, Wenjun Ouyang
Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt) is a nuclear receptor, which is selectively expressed by various lymphocytes. RORγt is critical for the development of secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs, and for the thymic development of the T cell lineage. RORγt has been extensively studied as the master transcription factor of IL-17 expression and Th17 cells, which are strongly associated with various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Given its essential role in promoting pro-inflammatory responses, it is not surprising that the expression of RORγt is tightly controlled...
August 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Alexander V Pronin, Alexander N Narovlyansky, Andrey E Shulzhenko, Alexander V Sanin, Alexander M Sedov
Fortepren(®), a product of the phosphorylation of polyprenols from fir needles (with sodium polyprenyl phosphate being the main active ingredient), belongs to the class of antiviral drugs with immunomodulating activity. Fortepren(®) may be used as the drug of choice in the treatment of herpes diseases. It was shown that treatment with Fortepren(®) of patients with a chronic recurrent herpes infection after acute phase termination with acyclovir decreased the recurrence rate, as well as the severity of local symptoms...
August 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Anupama Sahoo, Shradha Wali, Roza Nurieva
Type 2 immunity is characterized by expression of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13, which can function in mediating protective immunity in the host or possess a pathogenic role. T helper (Th) 2 cells have emerged to play a beneficial role in mediating anti-parasitic immunity and are also known to be key players in mediating allergic diseases. In addition to the Th2 cells, recent studies have identified T follicular helper (Tfh) cells as an alternative source of IL-4 to regulate type 2 humoral immune responses, indicating that Th2 and Tfh cells exhibit overlapping phenotypical and functional characteristics...
August 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Aradhana Rani, Roseanna Greenlaw, Richard A Smith, Christine Galustian
Hairy and enhancer of split homolog-1 (HES1) is a part of an extensive family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins and plays a crucial role in the control and regulation of cell cycle, proliferation, cell differentiation, survival and apoptosis in neuronal, endocrine, T-lymphocyte progenitors as well as various cancers. HES1 is a transcription factor which is regulated by the NOTCH, Hedgehog and Wnt signalling pathways. Aberrant expression of these pathways is a common feature of cancerous cells. There appears to be a fine and complicated crosstalk at the molecular level between the various signalling pathways and HES1, which contributes to its effects on the immune response and cancers such as leukaemia...
August 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Nicola Ivan Lorè, Alessandra Bragonzi, Cristina Cigana
The interleukin (IL)-17A/IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) axis is emerging as a key player in host defence. Several studies have demonstrated that IL-17A-mediated responses play a critical role in both acute and chronic inflammation induced by infectious agents, environmental stimuli and genetic diseases in the airways. In this regard, it is becoming evident that IL-17A/IL-17RA signalling may have a protective and beneficial impact on health, but that it can also result in detrimental outcomes. On one hand, the IL-17A/IL-17RA axis can contribute to the elimination of noxious stimuli and to the resolution of acute inflammatory processes; on the other hand, it can exacerbate immunopathological responses, contributing to the development and progression of chronic respiratory illnesses...
August 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Nadia Kavrochorianou, Melina Markogiannaki, Sylva Haralambous
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered as a T cell mediated autoimmune disease of the CNS, although a pathogenic role has also been attributed to other immune cell types as well as to environmental and genetic factors. Considering that T cells are interesting from an immunopathogenic point of view and consequently from a therapeutic perspective, various T cell targeted therapies have been approved for MS. Interferon beta (IFN-β) is widely used as first-line intervention for modulating T cell responses, although its pleiotropic and multifaceted activities influence its effectiveness on the disease development, with mechanisms that are not yet fully understood...
August 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Giorgio Mangino, Maria Vincenza Chiantore, Marco Iuliano, Gianna Fiorucci, Giovanna Romeo
More than 15% of the global cancer burden is attributable to infectious agents. Pathogens that cause persistent infections are strongly associated with cancer, inflammation being a major component of the chronic infections as revealed by basic, clinical and epidemiological studies. Persistent infection and viral oncoproteins induce specific cellular pathways modifications that promote tumorigenesis. Deregulated and continuous immune response leads to severe tissue and systemic damage, impaired tumor surveillance and consequent carcinogenesis promotion by selecting for metastatic and therapeutically resistant tumor phenotypes...
August 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Ornella Bonavita, Matteo Massara, Raffaella Bonecchi
The role of neutrophils in cancer and metastasis is still debated and controversial since they have been shown to be endowed with both pro- and antitumor functions. These contradictory results seem to be now explained by recent discoveries of tumor-associated neutrophils plasticity and multiple neutrophil subsets. Chemokines and chemokine receptors are known to tightly regulate the release of neutrophils from the bone marrow, their passage into circulation and transmigration into the tissues as well as tumor infiltration...
August 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Loreen Zegenhagen, Chaitanya Kurhade, Nikolaus Koniszewski, Anna K Överby, Andrea Kröger
The central nervous system (CNS) is a highly complex organ with highly specialized cell subtypes. Viral infections often target specific structures of the brain and replicate in certain regions. Studies in mice deficient in type I Interferon (IFN) receptor or IFN-β have highlighted the importance of the type I IFN system against viral infections and non-viral autoimmune disorders in the CNS. Direct antiviral effects of type I IFNs appear to be crucial in limiting early spread of a number of viruses in CNS tissues...
August 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Víctor González-Motos, Kai A Kropp, Abel Viejo-Borbolla
Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines whose main function is to direct cell migration. The chemokine network is highly complex and its deregulation is linked to several diseases including immunopathology, cancer and chronic pain. Chemokines also play essential roles in the antiviral immune response. Viruses have therefore developed several counter strategies to modulate chemokine activity. One of these is the expression of type I transmembrane or secreted proteins with the ability to bind chemokines and modulate their activity...
August 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"