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Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532674/cytokine-expression-levels-in-als-a-potential-link-between-inflammation-and-bmaa-triggered-protein-misfolding
#1
Nara Michaelson, Dominic Facciponte, Walter Bradley, Elijah Stommel
Recently, it has been shown that proinflammatory cytokines play a complex and important role in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To help facilitate future discoveries and more effective treatment strategies, we highlight the role that both innate and adaptive immune systems play in ALS and summarize the main observations that relate to cytokine expression levels in this disease. Furthermore, we propose a mechanism by which a known neurotoxin, β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), may trigger this cytokine expression profile through motor neuron protein misfolding and subsequent NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3) inflammasome activation...
May 10, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499577/metabolic-regulation-of-suppressive-myeloid-cells-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Antonio Sica, Laura Strauss, Francesca Maria Consonni, Cristina Travelli, Armando Genazzani, Chiara Porta
Cancer cells rewire their metabolism to promote growth, survival, proliferation and long-term maintenance. The common feature of this altered metabolism is the increased glucose uptake and fermentation of glucose to lactate, which is observed even in the presence of completely functioning mitochondria. This effect is known as the 'Warburg Effect' and its intensive investigation in the last decade has partially established either its causes or its functions. It is now emerging that a major side effect of the Warburg Effect is immunosuppression, which limits the immunogenicity of cancer cells and therefore restricts the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer immunotherapy...
May 3, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455216/impairment-of-the-type-i-interferon-response-by-hiv-1-potential-targets-for-hiv-eradication
#3
REVIEW
Teslin S Sandstrom, Nischal Ranganath, Jonathan B Angel
By interfering with the type I interferon (IFN1) response, human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) can circumvent host antiviral signalling and establish persistent viral reservoirs. HIV-1-mediated defects in the IFN pathway are numerous, and include the impairment of protein receptors involved in pathogen detection, downstream signalling cascades required for IFN1 upregulation, and expression or function of key IFN1-inducible, antiviral proteins. Despite this, the activation of IFN1-inducible, antiviral proteins has been shown to facilitate the killing of latently HIV-infected cells in vitro...
April 24, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479044/glucocorticoid-resistance-as-a-major-drive-in-sepsis-pathology
#4
REVIEW
Karen Dendoncker, Claude Libert
Sepsis is an acute systemic inflammatory disease. Glucocorticoids (GCs), which function by binding to the GC receptor GR have very powerful anti-inflammatory activities, yet they are hardly useful in sepsis. We can thus consider sepsis as a GC resistant disease. We here review the literature which has investigated this GC resistance, and summarize the mechanisms of GC resistance that have been observed in other diseases and in experimental models. We also discuss the importance of GC resistance in sepsis, in terms of the contribution of this phenomenon to the pathogenesis of sepsis...
April 23, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456467/dysfunctional-t-cell-metabolism-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#5
REVIEW
Kathryn E Beckermann, Stephanie O Dudzinski, Jeffrey C Rathmell
Metabolic and signaling pathways are integrated to determine T cell fate and function. As stimulated T cells gain distinct effector functions, specific metabolic programs and demands are also adopted. These changes are essential for T cell effector function, and alterations or dysregulation of metabolic pathways can modulate T cell function. One physiological setting that impacts T cell metabolism is the tumor microenvironment. The metabolism of cancer cells themselves can limit nutrients and accumulate waste products...
April 23, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442214/regulatory-t-cells-as-suppressors-of-anti-tumor-immunity-role-of-metabolism
#6
REVIEW
Veronica De Rosa, Francesca Di Rella, Antonio Di Giacomo, Giuseppe Matarese
Novel concepts in immunometabolism support the hypothesis that glucose consumption is also used to modulate anti-tumor immune responses, favoring growth and expansion of specific cellular subsets defined in the past as suppressor T cells and currently reborn as regulatory T (Treg) cells. During the 1920s, Otto Warburg and colleagues observed that tumors consumed high amounts of glucose compared to normal tissues, even in the presence of oxygen and completely functioning mitochondria. However, the role of the Warburg Effect is still not completely understood, particularly in the context of an ongoing anti-tumor immune response...
April 11, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377062/cytokines-and-cytokine-networks-target-neurons-to-modulate-long-term-potentiation
#7
G Aleph Prieto, Carl W Cotman
Cytokines play crucial roles in the communication between brain cells including neurons and glia, as well as in the brain-periphery interactions. In the brain, cytokines modulate long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular correlate of memory. Whether cytokines regulate LTP by direct effects on neurons or by indirect mechanisms mediated by non-neuronal cells is poorly understood. Elucidating neuron-specific effects of cytokines has been challenging because most brain cells express cytokine receptors. Moreover, cytokines commonly increase the expression of multiple cytokines in their target cells, thus increasing the complexity of brain cytokine networks even after single-cytokine challenges...
March 29, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365229/the-role-of-interleukin-10-in-human-papilloma-virus-infection-and-progression-to-cervical-carcinoma
#8
REVIEW
Fernanda Costa Brandão Berti, Ana Paula Lombardi Pereira, Guilherme Cesar Martelossi Cebinelli, Kleber Paiva Trugilo, Karen Brajão de Oliveira
Although Human Papillomavirus (HPV) exerts a vital influence on cervical carcinogenesis, other factors influence the development of a squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) that may or not progress to cervical cancer. Among several cytokines, Interleukin 10 (IL-10) stands out as an important anti-inflammatory factor, leading to immune system evasion through an immunosuppressive state. In the cervical microenvironment, during different stages of HPV infection, IL-10 production can be induced and maintained by different cell sources, including infected keratinocytes, some subsets of dendritic cells (DC), tumor associated macrophages (TAM), T regulatory cells (Treg) and tumor cells...
March 23, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363692/il-6-signaling-in-diabetic-nephropathy-from-pathophysiology-to-therapeutic-perspectives
#9
Eva Feigerlová, Shyue-Fang Battaglia-Hsu
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling participates in inflammation responses central to the progression of DN. Current evidence suggests that these IL-6 responses are mediated via gp130-STAT3 dependent mechanisms which, on one hand, trigger globally the transition from innate to adaptive immune response, and on the other hand act locally for tissue remodeling and immune cell infiltration. In diabetic conditions the role of IL-6 is not well elucidated...
March 23, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363691/myc-and-hif-in-shaping-immune-response-and-immune-metabolism
#10
REVIEW
J N Rashida Gnanaprakasam, John William Sherman, Ruoning Wang
Upon antigen stimulation, quiescent naive T cells undergo a phase of cell mass accumulation followed by cell cycle entry, clonal expansion, differentiation into functional subsets and back again to a quiescent state as they develop into memory cells. The transitions between these distinct cellular states place unique metabolic demands on energy, redox and biosynthesis. To fulfill these demands, T cells switch back and forth between their primary catabolic pathways. While quiescent naive and memory T cells largely rely on the oxidation of fatty acids and glucose, active T cells rely on glycolysis and glutaminolysis to sustain cell growth, proliferation and differentiation...
March 23, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285098/role-of-leptin-as-a-link-between-metabolism-and-the-immune-system
#11
REVIEW
Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Teresa Vilariño-García, Patricia Fernández-Riejos, Jenifer Martín-González, Juan José Segura-Egea, Víctor Sánchez-Margalet
Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone not only with an important role in the central control of energy metabolism, but also with many pleiotropic effects in different physiological systems. One of these peripheral functions of leptin is a regulatory role in the interplay between energy metabolism and the immune system, being a cornerstone of the new field of immunometabolism. Leptin receptor is expressed throughout the immune system and the regulatory effects of leptin include cells from both the innate and adaptive immune system...
March 4, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258821/corrigendum-to-the-untold-story-of-ifn-%C3%AE-in-cancer-biology-cytokine-growth-factor-rev-31-2016-73-81
#12
M Alper Kursunel, Gunes Esendagli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190785/crosstalk-between-insulin-like-growth-factor-igf-receptor-and-integrins-through-direct-integrin-binding-to-igf1
#13
REVIEW
Yoshikazu Takada, Yoko K Takada, Masaaki Fujita
It has been generally accepted that integrin cell adhesion receptors are involved in growth factor signaling (integrin-growth factor crosstalk), since antagonists to integrins often suppress growth factor signaling. Partly because integrins have been originally identified as cell adhesion receptors to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, current models of the crosstalk between IGF1 and integrins propose that ECM ligands (e.g., vitronectin) bind to integrins and IGF1 binds to IGF receptor type 1 (IGF1R), and two separate signals merge inside the cells...
April 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233643/role-of-nod-like-receptors-in-glioma-angiogenesis-insights-into-future-therapeutic-interventions
#14
REVIEW
Shivanjali Saxena, Sushmita Jha
Gliomas are the most common solid tumors among central nervous system tumors. Most glioma patients succumb to their disease within two years of the initial diagnosis. The median survival of gliomas is only 14.6 months, even after aggressive therapy with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Gliomas are heavily infiltrated with myeloid- derived cells and endothelial cells. Increasing evidence suggests that these myeloid- derived cells interact with tumor cells promoting their growth and migration. NLRs (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-containing protein like receptors) are a class of pattern recognition receptors that are critical to sensing pathogen and danger associated molecular patterns...
February 9, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956133/post-transcriptional-regulation-of-cytokine-and-growth-factor-signaling-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Irina Vlasova-St Louis, Paul R Bohjanen
Cytokines and growth factors regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis, and play important roles in coordinating growth signal responses during development. The expression of cytokine genes and the signals transmitted through cytokine receptors are tightly regulated at several levels, including transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. A majority of cytokine mRNAs, including growth factor transcripts, contain AU-rich elements (AREs) in their 3' untranslated regions that control gene expression by regulating mRNA degradation and changing translational rates...
February 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659873/grim-19-a-master-regulator-of-cytokine-induced-tumor-suppression-metastasis-and-energy-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
Shreeram C Nallar, Dhan V Kalvakolanu
Cytokines induce cell proliferation or growth suppression depending on the context. It is increasingly becoming clear that success of standard radiotherapy and/or chemotherapeutics to eradicate solid tumors is dependent on IFN signaling. In this review we discuss the molecular mechanisms of tumor growth suppression by a gene product isolated in our laboratory using a genome-wide expression knock-down strategy. Gene associated with retinoid-IFN-induced mortality -19 (GRIM-19) functions as non-canonical tumor suppressor by antagonizing oncoproteins...
February 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389056/effects-of-adipokines-and-obesity-on-uterine-contractility
#17
REVIEW
Henri Azaïs, Audrey Leroy, Louise Ghesquiere, Philippe Deruelle, Sandy Hanssens
Obesity is a major public health problem. The prevalence of obesity has significantly increased in developed countries, particularly in France with an overall increase of 76% over the last 15 years. In pregnant women, obesity is associated with alterations in the quality of labor, such as delayed onset of labor, a higher rate of prolonged pregnancies, prolonged labor, and higher oxytocin requirements. There is also an increased prevalence of Cesarean sections, particularly during the active phase of labor, and perinatal complications (postpartum hemorrhage)...
January 13, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109670/bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-and-tumor-growth-diverse-effects-and-possibilities-for-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Haijun Tian, Jie Zhao, Elsa J Brochmann, Jeffrey C Wang, Samuel S Murray
Concern regarding safety with respect to the clinical use of human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) has become an increasingly controversial topic. The role of BMP-2 in carcinogenesis is of particular concern. Although there have been many studies of this topic, the results have been contradictory and confusing. We conducted a systematic review of articles that are relevant to the relationship or effect of BMP-2 on all types of tumors and a total of 97 articles were included. Studies reported in these articles were classified into three major types: "expression studies", "in vitro studies", and "in vivo studies"...
January 12, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964967/expression-and-signaling-of-ngf-in-the-healthy-and-injured-retina
#19
REVIEW
Tarcyane Barata Garcia, Margrit Hollborn, Andreas Bringmann
This review summarizes the present knowledge concerning the retinal localization of the nerve growth factor (NGF), its precursor proNGF, and the receptors TrkA and p75(NTR) in the developing and mature rodent retina. We further discuss the changes in the expression of NGF and the receptors in experimental models of retinal disorders and diseases like inherited retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Since proNGF is now recognized as a bioactive signaling molecule which induces cell death through p75(NTR) activation, the role of proNGF in the induction of retinal cell loss under neurodegenerative conditions is also highlighted...
December 2, 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818150/-unknown-title
#20
LETTER
Hans A R Bluyssen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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