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Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291930/dually-modified-transmembrane-proteoglycans-in-development-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Laura M Jenkins, Ben Horst, Carly L Lancaster, Karthikeyan Mythreye
Aberrant cell signaling in response to secreted growth factors has been linked to the development of multiple diseases, including cancer. As such, understanding mechanisms that control growth factor availability and receptor-growth factor interaction is vital. Dually modified transmembrane proteoglycans (DMTPs), which are classified as cell surface macromolecules composed of a core protein decorated with covalently linked heparan sulfated (HS) and/or chondroitin sulfated (CS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, provide one type of regulatory mechanism...
December 22, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279185/mechanistic-insights-into-the-protective-impact-of-zinc-on-sepsis
#2
REVIEW
Jolien Souffriau, Claude Libert
Sepsis, a systemic inflammation as a response to a bacterial infection, is a huge unmet medical need. Data accumulated over the last decade suggest that the nutritional status of patients as well as composition of their gut microbiome, are strongly linked with the risk to develop sepsis, the severity of the disease and prognosis. In particular, the essential micronutrient zinc is essential in the resistance against sepsis and has shown to be protective in animal models as well as in human patients. The potential mechanisms by which zinc protects in sepsis are discussed in this review paper: we will focus on the inflammatory response, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, immune response, oxidative stress and modulation of the microbiome...
December 22, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290570/fractalkine-and-placental-growth-factor-a-duet-of-inflammation-and-angiogenesis-in-cardiovascular-disorders
#3
Marta Skoda, Aleksandra Stangret, Dariusz Szukiewicz
Inflammation and angiogenesis are two interdependent processes underlying pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. The initiation and progression of atherosclerosis strongly depends on specific patterns of cytokine expression. In this review, we analyze correlation between expression of two members of the cytokine family and the processes of inflammation and angiogenesis related to atherosclerosis. Placental growth factor and chemokine CX3XL1 (fractalkine) promote inflammatory cell infiltration, angiogenesis and plaque rupture...
December 20, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248329/vascular-endothelial-growth-factors-and-placenta-growth-factor-in-retinal-vasculopathies-current-research-and-future-perspectives
#4
Joana Mesquita, João Paulo Castro-de-Sousa, Sara Vaz-Pereira, Arminda Neves, Luís A Passarinha, Cândida T Tomaz
Vision loss due to disease or degeneration of the eye (retina, choroid, retinal veins, or macula) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. In most cases, vision-threatening ocular diseases are accompanied by abnormal changes in the vasculature of the eye, especially the retina, and these conditions are collectively referred to as retinal vasculopathies. Impaired blood supply or hypoxia stimulates angiogenesis in the vascular and non-vascular sections of the eye, which results in neovascularization, leading to conditions such as diabetic retinopathy or age-related macular degeneration...
December 7, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169815/orchestration-of-epithelial-derived-cytokines-and-innate-immune-cells-in-allergic-airway-inflammation
#5
REVIEW
Eliseo F Castillo, Handong Zheng, Xuexian O Yang
Allergic asthma, a chronic respiratory disease, is a leading worldwide health problem, which inflames and constricts the airways, leading to breathing difficulty. Many studies have focused on the pathogenesis contributed by the adaptive immune system, including CD4+ T lymphocytes in delayed type hypersensitivity and B cell-produced IgE in anaphylaxis. More recently, a focus on the airway mucosal barrier and the innate immune system has highlighted, in coordination with T and B cells, to initiate and establish disease...
November 20, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153709/cytokines-in-the-pathogenesis-of-hemophilic-arthropathy
#6
REVIEW
Piotr Wojdasiewicz, Łukasz A Poniatowski, Paweł Nauman, Tomasz Mandat, Agnieszka Paradowska-Gorycka, Katarzyna Romanowska-Próchnicka, Dariusz Szukiewicz, Andrzej Kotela, Łukasz Kubaszewski, Ireneusz Kotela, Iwona Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Robert Gasik
Hemophilic arthropathy (HA) is one of the most common and typical manifestation in the course of recurrent bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia. Clinical and subclinical joint bleeding episodes gradually lead to irreversible changes manifesting themselves as pain, progressing ankylosis, marked limitation of the range of motion, muscle atrophy and osteoporosis commonly concomitant with joint deformity resulting from chronic proliferative synovitis and both cartilage and bone degeneration leading to the final functional impairment of the joint...
November 13, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158066/the-potential-role-of-leptin-in-tumor-invasion-and-metastasis
#7
REVIEW
Amitabha Ray, Margot P Cleary
The adipocyte-released hormone-like cytokine/adipokine leptin behaves differently in obesity compared to its functions in the normal healthy state. In obese individuals, elevated leptin levels act as a pro-inflammatory adipokine and are associated with certain types of cancers. Further, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher circulating leptin concentrations and/or elevated expression of leptin receptors (Ob-R) in tumors may be poor prognostic factors. Although the underlying pathological mechanisms of leptin's association with poor prognosis are not clear, leptin can impact the tumor microenvironment in several ways...
November 11, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132743/nuclear-sirtuins-and-inflammatory-signaling-pathways
#8
REVIEW
Keila Lopes Mendes, Deborah de Farias Lelis, Sérgio Henrique Sousa Santos
The regulation of chronic inflammation has received considerable research attention in recent years because of its contribution to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as arthritis, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Thus, strategies that inhibit the inflammatory state may be beneficial in improving the pathophysiology of several inflammation-related disorders. Sirtuins are a family of histone deacetylases that contain seven enzymatic activities in mammals (SIRT1-SIRT7) and function to suppress gene transcription by epigenetic mechanisms...
November 7, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153708/pathophysiology-of-il-33-and-il-17-in-allergic-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Rinkesh Kumar Gupta, Kriti Gupta, Premendra D Dwivedi
Allergic diseases are among common clinical conditions, affecting millions of children and adults throughout the world. Food allergies, skin allergies (atopic dermatitis), and respiratory allergies (allergic rhinitis and asthma) are the common types of allergies. Recently discovered cytokines IL-17 and IL-33 have been found to play an important role in the pathogenicity of various hypersensitive disorders. After exposure to allergens or infection with parasites or viruses, IL-17 and IL-33 producing cells, such as Th17 and specialized epithelial cells respectively, become activated and trigger the pathogenic immune responses in different susceptible conditions...
December 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029813/innovative-therapy-monoclonal-antibodies-and-beyond
#10
M Di Nicola, L Apetoh, M Bellone, M P Colombo, G Dotti, S Ferrone, M Muscolini, J Hiscott, A Anichini, S M Pupa, F de Braud, M Del Vecchio
The seventh Edition of "Innovative Therapy, Monoclonal Antibodies and Beyond" Meeting took place in Milan, Italy, on January 27, 2017. The two sessions of the meeting were focused on: 1) Preclinical assays and novel biotargets; and 2) monoclonal antibodies, cell therapies and targeted molecules. Between these two sessions, a lecture entitled "HLA-antigens modulation and response to immune checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy" was also presented. Despite the impressive successes in cancer immunotherapy in recent years, the response to immune based interventions occurs only in a minority of patients (∼20%)...
December 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032938/the-jak-stat-signaling-pathway-and-photobiomodulation-in-chronic-wound-healing
#11
Sandy W Jere, Heidi Abrahamse, Nicolette N Houreld
Wound healing is a physiological process that occurs in overlapping phases namely hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Chronic wounds fail to proceed through these reparative processes to achieve the functional integrity within the expected time. Wound healing relies upon growth factors and cytokines for the precise and accurate regulation of cellular responses. These are achieved through the use of complex growth factor/cytokine induced signaling pathways. The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway transmits extracellular signals to the nucleus for the transcription of genes involved in proliferation and differentiation, to name but a few...
October 6, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801024/understanding-the-role-of-socs-signaling-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-current-and-emerging-concepts
#12
REVIEW
Antonia Cianciulli, Rosa Calvello, Chiara Porro, Teresa Trotta, Maria Antonietta Panaro
Suppressor of cytokine signaling proteins (SOCS) are a family of intracellular cytokine inducible proteins, consisting of eight members. They are involved in the complex control of the inflammatory response through their actions on various signaling pathways, including the JAK/STAT and NF-κB pathways. A series of studies has shown that SOCS proteins are involved in the regulation and progression of immune responses in microglia cells. The accumulated data suggest that modulation of SOCS expression could be a target for drug development aimed at controlling inflammation in the brain...
October 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739029/il-9-and-th9-cells-in-health-and-diseases-from-tolerance-to-immunopathology
#13
REVIEW
Junhui Li, Shuqiu Chen, Xiang Xiao, Yong Zhao, Wenjun Ding, Xian C Li
CD4+ T cells have the capacity to differentiate into various T helper (Th) cell subsets after activation, and by acquiring distinct cytokine profiles and effector functions, they regulate the nature as well as the outcomes of immune responses. Th9 cells are a relatively new member in the Th cell family. The signature cytokine for Th9 cells is IL-9, a cytokine in the IL-2Rγc-chain family. Over the past few years, there has been an explosion of knowledge on the roles of Th9 cells in immunity and immunopathology, but the exact mechanisms in the control of Th9 cells remain poorly defined...
October 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709747/interaction-of-the-innate-immune-system-with-positive-strand-rna-virus-replication-organelles
#14
Enzo Maxim Scutigliani, Marjolein Kikkert
The potential health risks associated with (re-)emerging positive-strand RNA (+RNA) viruses emphasizes the need for understanding host-pathogen interactions for these viruses. The innate immune system forms the first line of defense against pathogenic organisms like these and is responsible for detecting pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Viral RNA is a potent inducer of antiviral innate immune signaling, provoking an antiviral state by directing expression of interferons (IFNs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
October 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606734/the-interplay-between-histone-deacetylases-and-rho-kinases-is-important-for-cancer-and-neurodegeneration
#15
REVIEW
Sonja Mertsch, Oliver H Krämer
Rho associated coiled-coil containing kinases (ROCKs) respond to defined extra- and intracellular stimuli to control cell migration, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic modifiers that regulate nuclear and cytoplasmic signaling through the deacetylation of histones and non-histone proteins. ROCK and HDAC functions are important compounds of basic and applied research interests. Recent evidence suggests a physiologically important interplay between HDACs and ROCKs in various cells and organisms...
October 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599834/effects-of-interleukin-1beta-polymorphisms-on-brain-function-and-behavior-in-healthy-and-psychiatric-disease-conditions
#16
REVIEW
Shih-Jen Tsai
A high level of Interleukin-1beta (IL1B), a key mediator of inflammation, is expressed in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus, which plays a pivotal role in memory and mood regulation. In the brain, IL1B exerts a myriad of effects such as neuronal proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and long-term potentiation. Considering its pleiotropic effects in the brain, IL1B has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various psychiatric disorders as well as cognitive function in normal individuals. Thus, IL1B has been considered a candidate gene for the study of psychiatric diseases as well as brain function in normal individuals...
October 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532674/cytokine-expression-levels-in-als-a-potential-link-between-inflammation-and-bmaa-triggered-protein-misfolding
#17
Nara Michaelson, Dominic Facciponte, Walter Bradley, Elijah Stommel
Recently, it has been shown that proinflammatory cytokines play a complex and important role in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To help facilitate future discoveries and more effective treatment strategies, we highlight the role that both innate and adaptive immune systems play in ALS and summarize the main observations that relate to cytokine expression levels in this disease. Furthermore, we propose a mechanism by which a known neurotoxin, β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), may trigger this cytokine expression profile through motor neuron protein misfolding and subsequent NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3) inflammasome activation...
October 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455216/impairment-of-the-type-i-interferon-response-by-hiv-1-potential-targets-for-hiv-eradication
#18
REVIEW
Teslin S Sandstrom, Nischal Ranganath, Jonathan B Angel
By interfering with the type I interferon (IFN1) response, human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) can circumvent host antiviral signalling and establish persistent viral reservoirs. HIV-1-mediated defects in the IFN pathway are numerous, and include the impairment of protein receptors involved in pathogen detection, downstream signalling cascades required for IFN1 upregulation, and expression or function of key IFN1-inducible, antiviral proteins. Despite this, the activation of IFN1-inducible, antiviral proteins has been shown to facilitate the killing of latently HIV-infected cells in vitro...
October 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363692/il-6-signaling-in-diabetic-nephropathy-from-pathophysiology-to-therapeutic-perspectives
#19
Eva Feigerlová, Shyue-Fang Battaglia-Hsu
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling participates in inflammation responses central to the progression of DN. Current evidence suggests that these IL-6 responses are mediated via gp130-STAT3 dependent mechanisms which, on one hand, trigger globally the transition from innate to adaptive immune response, and on the other hand act locally for tissue remodeling and immune cell infiltration. In diabetic conditions the role of IL-6 is not well elucidated...
October 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988781/interleukin-4-13-receptors-an-overview-of-genes-expression-and-functional-role-in-teleost-fish
#20
REVIEW
A Sequeida, K Maisey, M Imarai
In superior vertebrates, Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and Interleukin 13 (IL-13) play key and diverse roles to support immune responses acting on cell surface receptors. When stimulated, receptors activate intracellular signalling cascades switching cell phenotypes according to stimuli. In teleost fish, Interleukin 4/13 (IL-4/13) is the ancestral family cytokine related to both IL-4 and IL-13. Every private and common receptor subunit for IL-4/13 have in fish at least two paralogues and, as in mammals, soluble forms are also part of the receptor system...
September 28, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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