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Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews

Gustav van Niekerk, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht
Inflammatory mediators have a well-established role in mediating metabolic disturbances. Chronic low-grade inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and the development of metabolic syndrome. This phenomenon is even more pronounced in severe inflammatory states such as in critically ill patients where hyperglycaemia invariably manifests. Similarly, though inflammatory mediators have a well-established role in promoting bone resorption, the adaptive function of this process remains unknown. Here we review emerging evidence from the field of immunometabolism suggesting that these two processes serve a common goal, namely, to sustain the rapid proliferation of immune cells during an infection...
June 28, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Virgínea de Araújo Farias, Ana Belén Carrillo-Gálvez, Francisco Martín, Per Anderson
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent a promising cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine and for the treatment of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. Importantly, MSCs have emerged as an important contributor to the tumor stroma with both pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects. However, the successful translation of MSCs to the clinic and the prevention of their tumorigenic and metastatic effect require a greater understanding of factors controlling their proliferation, differentiation, migration and immunomodulation in vitro and in vivo...
June 13, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Mohammed Alasseiri, Afsar U Ahmed, Bryan R G Williams
Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) has emerged as a critical adaptor and mediator protein in cell signaling pathways that is commonly deregulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This has led to the expectation that therapeutic targeting of ILK may be a useful option in treating leukemia. Although ILK can regulate many cellular processes, including cell differentiation, survival, migration, apoptosis and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, its role in promoting AML is still unclear. However, its ability to mediate phosphorylation and regulate the important hematopoietic stem cell regulators protein kinase B (AKT) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β supports ILK as an attractive target for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics...
June 7, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Krisztina Vincze, Abigel Kolonics-Farkas, Aniko Bohacs, Veronika Müller
Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are all characterized by changes in the adaptive immune system. In the last few decades several CD4 + T lymphocytes and their products have been associated with the development, progression, organ involvement, or therapeutic response of different CTDs. The T helper (Th) T-cell subsets are easy to measure in the peripheral blood, however changes are difficult to interpret. This review summarizes data about Th1/Th2/Th17 and regulatory T-cell (Treg) changes in the most common CTDs...
May 23, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Laura Forcina, Carmen Miano, Antonio Musarò
Skeletal muscle is a complex, dynamic tissue characterized by an elevated plasticity. Although the adult muscle is mainly composed of multinucleated fibers with post mitotic nuclei, it retains a remarkable ability to regenerate in response to traumatic events. The regenerative potential of the adult skeletal muscle relies in the activity of satellite cells, mononucleated cells residing within the muscle in intimate association with myofibers. Satellite cells normally remain quiescent in their sublaminar position, sporadically entering the cell cycle to guarantee an efficient cellular turnover, by fusing with pre-existing myofibers, and to maintain the stem cell pool...
June 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Heleen H Van Acker, Diana Campillo-Davo, Gils Roex, Maarten Versteven, Evelien L Smits, Viggo F Van Tendeloo
Cytokines of the common gamma-chain receptor family, comprising interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21, are vital with respect to organizing and sustaining healthy immune cell functions. Supporting the anti-cancer immune response, these cytokines inspire great interest for their use as vaccine adjuvants and cancer immunotherapies. It is against this background that gamma delta (γδ) T cells, as special-force soldiers and natural contributors of the tumor immunosurveillance, also received a lot of attention the last decade...
June 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Yuehong Chen, Neetu Sud, Aubryanna Hettinghouse, Chuan-Ju Liu
Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of beta-glucocerebrosidase (GCase) resulting in lysosomal accumulation of its glycolipid substrate glucosylceramide. The activity of GCase depends on many factors such as proper folding and lysosomal localization, which are influenced by mutations in GCase encoding gene, and regulated by various GCase-binding partners including Saposin C, progranulin and heat shock proteins. In addition, proinflammatory molecules also contribute to pathogenicity of GD...
June 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Nese Unver, Florencia McAllister
IL-6 is a critical cytokine in acute phase response and involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory diseases including cancer. Studies have highlighted that levels of IL-6 and its family members can be useful for diagnosis, prognosis of relapse-free survival and recurrence. IL-6 family cytokines have been identified as cancer biomarkers through screening of inflammatory mediators in different fluids including saliva, serum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). IL-6 can be modulated by chemopreventive drugs, small molecules, monoclonal antibodies and immune checkpoint inhibitors...
June 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Kriti Ray, Beata Ujvari, Venkata Ramana, John Donald
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a known target in cancer therapy and targeting the receptor has proven to be extremely successful in treating cancers that are dependent on EGFR signaling. To that effect, targeted therapies to EGFR such as Cetuximab, Panitumumab-monoclonal antibodies and Gefitinib, Erlotinib-tyrosine kinase inhibitors have had success in therapeutic scenarios. However, the development of resistance to these drugs makes it necessary to combine anti- EGFR therapies with other inhibitors, so that resistance can be overcome by the targeting of alternate signaling pathways...
June 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Primož Rožman, Urban Švajger
Due to its extremely pleiotropic nature, the complex effects of IFN-γ exerted both on immune and non-immune cell types still remain only partially understood. The longstanding view of IFN-γ as being a predominantly inflammatory cytokine is constantly challenged by increasing demonstrations of its direct or indirect regulatory roles. Interferon-γ can exert tolerogenic effects on both innate and adaptive immune cell types, promoting tolerance of various antigen-presenting cells, and augmenting function and differentiation of regulatory T cells, respectively...
June 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
J F de Graaf, L de Vor, R A M Fouchier, B G van den Hoogen
Oncolytic viruses (OVs), viruses that specifically result in killing tumor cells, represent a promising class of cancer therapy. Recently, the focus in the OV therapy field has shifted from their direct oncolytic effect to their immune stimulatory effect. OV therapy can function as a "kick start" for the antitumor immune response by releasing tumor associated antigens and release of inflammatory signals. Combining OVs with immune modulators could enhance the efficacy of both immune and OV therapies...
June 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Nadia A Al-Banna, Farhan Cyprian, M John Albert
Campylobacter jejuni is an important enteric pathogen that causes diarrheas of different degrees of severity and several extra-intestinal manifestations, including Guillain-Barre syndrome. The variability of disease outcomes is thought to be linked to the immune response induced by C. jejuni. The virulence factors of C. jejuni induce a pro-inflammatory response, that is initiated by the intestinal epithelial cells, propagated by innate immune cells and modulated by the cells of the adaptive immune response...
June 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Hamza Loucif, Steven Gouard, Xavier Dagenais-Lussier, Armstrong Murira, Simona Stäger, Cécile Tremblay, Julien Van Grevenynghe
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced HIV-1-associated morbidity and mortality, and has transformed HIV-1 infection into a manageable chronic condition by suppressing viral replication. However, despite recent patient care improvements, ART still fails to cure HIV-1 infection due to the inability to counteract immune defects and metabolic disturbances that are associated with residual inflammation alongside viral persistence. Life-long drug administration also results in multiple side-effects in patients including lipodystrophy and insulin resistance...
April 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Teslin S Sandstrom, Jonathan B Angel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Elisa Vicenzi, Guido Poli
Infection of target cells by the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is hampered by constitutively expressed host cell proteins preventing or curtailing virus replication and therefore defined as "restriction factors". Among them, members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family have emerged as important players endowed with both antiviral effects and modulatory capacity of the innate immune response. TRIM5α and TRIM19 (i.e. promyelocytic leukemia, PML) are among the best-characterized family members; however, in this review we will focus on the potential role of another family member, i...
April 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Roman Radetskyy, Aïcha Daher, Anne Gatignol
The induction of hundreds of Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs) subsequent to virus infection generates an antiviral state that functions to restrict virus growth at multiple steps of their replication cycles. In the context of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1), ISGs also possess antiviral functions, but some ISGs show proapoptotic or proviral activity. One of the most studied ISGs, the RNA activated Protein Kinase (PKR), shuts down the viral protein synthesis upon activation. HIV-1 has evolved to evade its inhibition by PKR through viral and cellular mechanisms...
April 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Alessandra Aiello, Flavia Giannessi, Zulema A Percario, Elisabetta Affabris
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a unique dendritic cell subset that are specialized in type I interferon (IFN) production. pDCs are key players in the antiviral immune response and serve as bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Although pDCs do not represent the main reservoir of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), they are a crucial subset in HIV infection as they influence viral transmission, target cell infection and antigen presentation. pDCs act as inflammatory and immunosuppressive cells, thus contributing to HIV disease progression...
April 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Melissa Stunnenberg, Teunis B H Geijtenbeek, Sonja I Gringhuis
HIV-1 sensors and their signaling features have been an ongoing topic of intense research over the last decade, as these mechanisms fail to establish protective immunity against HIV-1. Here, we discuss how HIV-1 infects dendritic cells (DCs) and which sensors play a role in recognizing viral DNA and RNA in these specialized immune cells. We will elaborate on the RNA helicase DDX3, which is crucial in translation initiation of HIV-1 mRNA, but also fulfills an important role as RNA sensor and inducer of antiviral immunity in DCs...
April 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Carolina Scagnolari, Guido Antonelli
Type I interferon (IFN) response initially limits HIV-1 spread and may delay disease progression by stimulating several immune system components. Nonetheless, persistent exposure to type I IFN in the chronic phase of HIV-1 infection is associated with desensitization and/or detrimental immune activation, thereby hindering immune recovery and fostering viral persistence. This review provides a basis for understanding the complexity and function of IFN pleiotropic activity in HIV-1 infection. In particular, the dichotomous role of the IFN response in HIV-1 immunopathogenesis will be discussed, highlighting recent advances in the dynamic modulation of IFN production in acute versus chronic infection, expression signatures of IFN subtypes, and viral and host factors affecting the magnitude of IFN response during HIV-1 infection...
April 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Nicolas Noël, Béatrice Jacquelin, Nicolas Huot, Cécile Goujard, Olivier Lambotte, Michaela Müller-Trutwin
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces a persistent and incurable infection. However, the combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) has markedly changed the evolution of the infection and transformed a deadly disease into a manageable chronic infection. Withdrawal of cART generally leads though to resumption of the viral replication. The eradication of the virus from its cellular and anatomical reservoirs remains a goal-to-achieve for a cure. In this context, developing novel therapies contributing to this aim are an important field of research...
April 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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