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Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews

Laura Forcina, Carmen Miano, Antonio Musarò
Skeletal muscle is a complex, dynamic tissue characterized by an elevated plasticity. Although the adult muscle is mainly composed of multinucleated fibers with post mitotic nuclei, it retains a remarkable ability to regenerate in response to traumatic events. The regenerative potential of the adult skeletal muscle relies in the activity of satellite cells, mononucleated cells residing within the muscle in intimate association with myofibers. Satellite cells normally remain quiescent in their sublaminar position, sporadically entering the cell cycle to guarantee an efficient cellular turnover, by fusing with pre-existing myofibers, and to maintain the stem cell pool...
May 16, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Heleen H Van Acker, Diana Campillo-Davo, Gils Roex, Maarten Versteven, Evelien L Smits, Viggo F Van Tendeloo
Cytokines of the common gamma-chain receptor family, comprising interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21, are vital with respect to organizing and sustaining healthy immune cell functions. Supporting the anti-cancer immune response, these cytokines inspire great interest for their use as vaccine adjuvants and cancer immunotherapies. It is against this background that gamma delta (γδ) T cells, as special-force soldiers and natural contributors of the tumor immunosurveillance, also received a lot of attention the last decade...
May 14, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Nese Unver, Florencia McAllister
IL-6 is a critical cytokine in acute phase response and involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory diseases including cancer. Studies have highlighted that levels of IL-6 and its family members can be useful for diagnosis, prognosis of relapse-free survival and recurrence. IL-6 family cytokines have been identified as cancer biomarkers through screening of inflammatory mediators in different fluids including saliva, serum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). IL-6 can be modulated by chemopreventive drugs, small molecules, monoclonal antibodies and immune checkpoint inhibitors...
April 18, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Yuehong Chen, Neetu Sud, Aubryanna Hettinghouse, Chuan-Ju Liu
Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of beta-glucocerebrosidase (GCase) resulting in lysosomal accumulation of its glycolipid substrate glucosylceramide. The activity of GCase depends on many factors such as proper folding and lysosomal localization, which are influenced by mutations in GCase encoding gene, and regulated by various GCase-binding partners including Saposin C, progranulin and heat shock proteins. In addition, proinflammatory molecules also contribute to pathogenicity of GD...
April 11, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Kriti Ray, Beata Ujvari, Venkata Ramana, John Donald
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a known target in cancer therapy and targeting the receptor has proven to be extremely successful in treating cancers that are dependent on EGFR signaling. To that effect, targeted therapies to EGFR such as Cetuximab, Panitumumab-monoclonal antibodies and Gefitinib, Erlotinib-tyrosine kinase inhibitors have had success in therapeutic scenarios. However, the development of resistance to these drugs makes it necessary to combine anti- EGFR therapies with other inhibitors, so that resistance can be overcome by the targeting of alternate signaling pathways...
April 7, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Primož Rožman, Urban Švajger
Due to its extremely pleiotropic nature, the complex effects of IFN-γ exerted both on immune and non-immune cell types still remain only partially understood. The longstanding view of IFN-γ as being a predominantly inflammatory cytokine is constantly challenged by increasing demonstrations of its direct or indirect regulatory roles. Interferon-γ can exert tolerogenic effects on both innate and adaptive immune cell types, promoting tolerance of various antigen-presenting cells, and augmenting function and differentiation of regulatory T cells, respectively...
April 7, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Helena Stabile, Cinzia Fionda, Angela Santoni, Angela Gismondi
Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic members of type I innate lymphocytes (ILC1) with a prominent role in anti-tumor and anti-viral immune responses. Despite the increasing insight into NK cell biology, the steps and stages leading to mature circulating NK cells require further investigation. Natural killer cell development and functional maturation are complex and multi-stage processes that occur predominantly in the bone marrow (BM) and originate from haematopoietic stem cells CD34+ (HSC). Within the BM, NK cell precursor (NKP) and NK cell development intermediates reside in specialized niches that are characterized by particular cellular components that provide signals required for their maturation...
March 27, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Roman Radetskyy, Aïcha Daher, Anne Gatignol
The induction of hundreds of Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs) subsequent to virus infection generates an antiviral state that functions to restrict virus growth at multiple steps of their replication cycles. In the context of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1), ISGs also possess antiviral functions, but some ISGs show proapoptotic or proviral activity. One of the most studied ISGs, the RNA activated Protein Kinase (PKR), shuts down the viral protein synthesis upon activation. HIV-1 has evolved to evade its inhibition by PKR through viral and cellular mechanisms...
March 26, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Alessandra Aiello, Flavia Giannessi, Zulema A Percario, Elisabetta Affabris
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a unique dendritic cell subset that are specialized in type I interferon (IFN) production. pDCs are key players in the antiviral immune response and serve as bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Although pDCs do not represent the main reservoir of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), they are a crucial subset in HIV infection as they influence viral transmission, target cell infection and antigen presentation. pDCs act as inflammatory and immunosuppressive cells, thus contributing to HIV disease progression...
March 21, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
J F de Graaf, L de Vor, R A M Fouchier, B G van den Hoogen
Oncolytic viruses (OVs), viruses that specifically result in killing tumor cells, represent a promising class of cancer therapy. Recently, the focus in the OV therapy field has shifted from their direct oncolytic effect to their immune stimulatory effect. OV therapy can function as a "kick start" for the antitumor immune response by releasing tumor associated antigens and release of inflammatory signals. Combining OVs with immune modulators could enhance the efficacy of both immune and OV therapies...
March 19, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Carolina Scagnolari, Guido Antonelli
Type I interferon (IFN) response initially limits HIV-1 spread and may delay disease progression by stimulating several immune system components. Nonetheless, persistent exposure to type I IFN in the chronic phase of HIV-1 infection is associated with desensitization and/or detrimental immune activation, thereby hindering immune recovery and fostering viral persistence. This review provides a basis for understanding the complexity and function of IFN pleiotropic activity in HIV-1 infection. In particular, the dichotomous role of the IFN response in HIV-1 immunopathogenesis will be discussed, highlighting recent advances in the dynamic modulation of IFN production in acute versus chronic infection, expression signatures of IFN subtypes, and viral and host factors affecting the magnitude of IFN response during HIV-1 infection...
March 16, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Nadia A Al-Banna, Farhan Cyprian, M John Albert
Campylobacter jejuni is an important enteric pathogen that causes diarrheas of different degrees of severity and several extra-intestinal manifestations, including Guillain-Barre syndrome. The variability of disease outcomes is thought to be linked to the immune response induced by C. jejuni. The virulence factors of C. jejuni induce a pro-inflammatory response, that is initiated by the intestinal epithelial cells, propagated by innate immune cells and modulated by the cells of the adaptive immune response...
March 10, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Nicolas Noël, Béatrice Jacquelin, Nicolas Huot, Cécile Goujard, Olivier Lambotte, Michaela Müller-Trutwin
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces a persistent and incurable infection. However, the combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) has markedly changed the evolution of the infection and transformed a deadly disease into a manageable chronic infection. Withdrawal of cART generally leads though to resumption of the viral replication. The eradication of the virus from its cellular and anatomical reservoirs remains a goal-to-achieve for a cure. In this context, developing novel therapies contributing to this aim are an important field of research...
March 9, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Melissa Stunnenberg, Teunis B H Geijtenbeek, Sonja I Gringhuis
HIV-1 sensors and their signaling features have been an ongoing topic of intense research over the last decade, as these mechanisms fail to establish protective immunity against HIV-1. Here, we discuss how HIV-1 infects dendritic cells (DCs) and which sensors play a role in recognizing viral DNA and RNA in these specialized immune cells. We will elaborate on the RNA helicase DDX3, which is crucial in translation initiation of HIV-1 mRNA, but also fulfills an important role as RNA sensor and inducer of antiviral immunity in DCs...
March 8, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Hamza Loucif, Steven Gouard, Xavier Dagenais-Lussier, Armstrong Murira, Simona Stäger, Cécile Tremblay, Julien Van Grevenynghe
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced HIV-1-associated morbidity and mortality, and has transformed HIV-1 infection into a manageable chronic condition by suppressing viral replication. However, despite recent patient care improvements, ART still fails to cure HIV-1 infection due to the inability to counteract immune defects and metabolic disturbances that are associated with residual inflammation alongside viral persistence. Life-long drug administration also results in multiple side-effects in patients including lipodystrophy and insulin resistance...
April 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Teslin S Sandstrom, Jonathan B Angel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Christian Krapp, Kasper Jønsson, Martin R Jakobsen
Sensing of DNA is essential for the innate immune system to detect threats, like viruses, intracellular bacteria or cellular DNA damage. At the centre of this conserved mammalian mechanism stands the adaptor protein STING. STING is highly regulated and is part of a complex signalling network. This network depends on the sensors cGAS and IFI16 to detect misplaced DNA in the cytoplasm as well as on the kinase TBK1 and the transcription factor IRF3. The DNA sensing machinery has been implicated in many diseases, among others HIV...
April 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Anvita Bhargava, Xavier Lahaye, Nicolas Manel
The nuclear envelope is a physical barrier that isolates the cellular DNA from the rest of the cell, thereby limiting pathogen invasion. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has a remarkable ability to enter the nucleus of non-dividing target cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. While this step is critical for replication of the virus, it remains one of the less understood aspects of HIV infection. Here, we review the viral and host factors that favor or inhibit HIV entry into the nucleus, including the viral capsid, integrase, the central viral DNA flap, and the host proteins CPSF6, TNPO3, Nucleoporins, SUN1, SUN2, Cyclophilin A and MX2...
April 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Daniel Sauter, Frank Kirchhoff
HIV-1, the main causative agent of AIDS, and related primate lentiviruses show a striking ability to efficiently replicate throughout the lifetime of an infected host. In addition to their high variability, the acquisition of several accessory genes has enabled these viruses to efficiently evade or counteract seemingly strong antiviral immune responses. The respective viral proteins, i.e. Vif, Vpr, Vpu, Vpx and Nef, show a stunning functional diversity, acting by various mechanisms and targeting a large variety of cellular factors involved in innate and adaptive immunity...
April 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Alessandra Soriani, Helena Stabile, Angela Gismondi, Angela Santoni, Giovanni Bernardini
Three groups of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) can be defined based on transcription factor requirements, cytokine production profiles, and roles in immunity. Given their strategic anatomical location into barrier tissues and the ability to rapidly produce cytokines and to cross-talk with other immune and non-immune cells, ILCs play fundamental functions in tissue homeostasis and regulation of immune responses. Several members of the chemokine family influence ILC tissue localization in the correct microenvironment by regulating their release from the bone marrow as well as their homing and retention in the tissues...
February 14, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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