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Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice

Rose Hatala, Jacqueline Gutman, Matthew Lineberry, Marc Triola, Martin Pusic
Learning curves can support a competency-based approach to assessment for learning. When interpreting repeated assessment data displayed as learning curves, a key assessment question is: "How well is each learner learning?" We outline the validity argument and investigation relevant to this question, for a computer-based repeated assessment of competence in electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation. We developed an on-line ECG learning program based on 292 anonymized ECGs collected from an electronic patient database...
August 31, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Shalote Chipamaunga, Detlef Prozesky
The merits of integrative learning in promoting better educational outcomes are not questionable. However, there are contentious views on how to implement it. In addition, there is scanty evidence on how students experience it and how they develop the ability to integrate learning. In this paper, students' experiences of integration are explored. Using a phenomenographic approach, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with students and teachers in an undergraduate medical programme...
August 18, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Mathieu Albert, Maria Mylopoulos, Suzanne Laberge
The objective of scientific, or more broadly, academic knowledge is to provide an understanding of the social and natural world that lies beyond common sense and everyday thinking. Academics use an array of techniques, methods and conceptual apparatuses to achieve this goal. The question we explore in this essay is the following: Does the grounded theory approach, in the constructivist version developed by Kathy Charmaz, provide the necessary methodological tools for the creation of knowledge and theories beyond everyday thinking? To conduct our analysis, we have drawn on the rationalist epistemology originally developed by Gaston Bachelard and taken up a few decades later by Pierre Bourdieu and colleagues to look at the epistemological foundation of the CGT methods as defined by Charmaz...
August 9, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
S S Lases, Irene A Slootweg, E G J M Pierik, Erik Heineman, M J M H Lombarts
The well-being of residents, our future medical specialists, is not only beneficial to the individual physician but also conditional for delivering high-quality patient care. Therefore, the authors further explored how residents experience their own well-being in relation to their professional and personal life. The authors conducted a qualitative study based on a phenomenological approach. From June to October 2013, 13 in-depth interviews were conducted with residents in various training programs using a semi-structured interview guide to explore participants' experience of their well-being in relation to their professional life...
August 7, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Barbara Griffin, Jaime Auton, Robbert Duvivier, Boaz Shulruf, Wendy Hu
This study compared the profile of those who, after initial failure to be selected, choose to reapply to study medicine with those who did not reapply. It also evaluates the chance of a successful outcome for re-applicants. In 2013, 4007 applicants to undergraduate medical schools in the largest state in Australia were unsuccessful. Those who chose to reapply (n = 665) were compared to those who did not reapply (n = 3342). Results showed that the odds of re-applying to medicine were 55% less for those from rural areas, and 39% more for those from academically-selective schools...
August 2, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Shannon Fong, Amy Tan, Joanna Czupryn, Anna Oswald
The use of patient educators is one of many teaching strategies meant to foster principles of patient-centred care. We previously found that early patient educator exposure helped to shape the understanding of patient-centredness in pre-clerkship learners. We now expand on this work to evaluate whether there is persistence of initial perceptions and to explore general reflections on longer-term impacts of early patient educator exposures once learners are immersed in the clinical phase of their training. In this follow-up study, we conducted group interviews with a sample of learners who wrote reflections as part of their pre-clerkship patient educator experience...
July 26, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Ulviye Isik, Janneke Wilschut, Gerda Croiset, Rashmi A Kusurkar
Underperformance among ethnic minority students has been reported in several studies. Autonomous motivation (acting out of true interest or personal endorsement) is associated with better learning and academic performance. This study examined whether study strategy (surface, achieving, and deep) was a mediator between the type of motivation (autonomous and controlled motivation) and academic performance (GPA and clerkship performance), and whether these relations are different for students from different ethnic groups to gain a better understanding about the needed intervention/support in the curriculum...
July 25, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Beth Levant, Wolfram Zückert, Anthony Paolo
This study compared the effects of two types of delayed feedback (correct response or correct response + rationale) provided to students by a computer-based testing system following an exam. The preclinical medical curriculum at the University of Kansas Medical Center uses a two-exam system for summative assessments in which students test, revisit material, and then re-test (same content, different questions), with the higher score used to determine the students' grades. Using a quasi-experimental design and data collected during the normal course of instruction, test and re-test scores from midterm multiple choice examinations were compared between academic year (AY) 2015-2016, which provided delayed feedback with the correct answer only, and AY 2016-2017, where delayed feedback consisted of the correct answer plus a rationale...
July 24, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Thomas Jaarsma, Henny P A Boshuizen, Halszka Jarodzka, Jeroen J G van Merriënboer
Visual problem solving is essential to highly visual and knowledge-intensive professional domains such as clinical pathology, which trainees learn by participating in relevant tasks at the workplace (apprenticeship). Proper guidance of the visual problem solving of apprentices by the master is necessary. Interaction and adaptation to the expertise level of the learner are identified as key ingredients of this guidance. This study focuses on the effect of increased participation of the learner in the task on the interaction and adaptation of the guidance by masters...
July 18, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Andrea Gingerich, Edward Schokking, Peter Yeates
Recent literature places more emphasis on assessment comments rather than relying solely on scores. Both are variable, however, emanating from assessment judgements. One established source of variability is "contrast effects": scores are shifted away from the depicted level of competence in a preceding encounter. The shift could arise from an effect on the range-frequency of assessors' internal scales or the salience of performance aspects within assessment judgments. As these suggest different potential interventions, we investigated assessors' cognition by using the insight provided by "clusters of consensus" to determine whether any change in the salience of performance aspects was induced by contrast effects...
July 6, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Mohammadreza Hojat, Jennifer DeSantis, Stephen C Shannon, Luke H Mortensen, Mark R Speicher, Lynn Bragan, Marianna LaNoue, Leonard H Calabrese
The Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) is a broadly used instrument developed to measure empathy in the context of health professions education and patient care. Evidence in support of psychometrics of the JSE has been reported in health professions students and practitioners with the exception of osteopathic medical students. This study was designed to examine measurement properties, underlying components, and latent variable structure of the JSE in a nationwide sample of first-year matriculants at U.S. colleges of osteopathic medicine, and to develop a national norm table for the assessment of JSE scores...
July 2, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Geoff Norman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Yanting Zhang, Siqin Dong, Wenjie Fang, Xiaohui Chai, Jiaojiao Mei, Xiuzhen Fan
Academic procrastination has been a widespread problem behavior among undergraduates. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of academic procrastination among undergraduates in health professions, and explore the mediation effects of self-efficacy for self-regulation and fear of failure in the relationship between self-esteem and academic procrastination. A cross-sectional design was used to study 1184 undergraduates in health professions from China. Participants completed measures of academic procrastination, self-esteem, self-efficacy for self-regulation and fear of failure...
October 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Kevin W Eva, Colleen Brady, Marion Pearson, Katherine Seto
Information is generally more memorable after it is studied and tested than when it is only studied. One must be cautious to use this phenomenon strategically, however, due to uncertainty about whether testing improves memorability for only tested material, facilitates learning of related non-tested content, or inhibits memory of non-tested material. 52 second-year Pharmacy students were asked to study therapeutic aspects of gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. One group was given 30 min to study...
October 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Tania M Jenkins, Jenny Kim, Chelsea Hu, John C Hickernell, Sarah Watanaskul, John D Yoon
While previous studies have considered medical student burnout and resilience at discrete points in students' training, few studies examine how stressors and resilience-building factors can emerge before, and during, medical school. Our study focuses on students' life stories to comprehensively identify factors contributing to student wellbeing. We performed a secondary analysis of life-story interviews with graduating fourth year medical students. These interviews were originally conducted in 2012 as part of the Project on the Good Physician, and then re-analyzed, focusing on student wellbeing...
October 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Jordan Richard Schoenherr, Jason Waechter, Scott J Millington
Medical decision-making requires years of experience in order to develop an adequate level of competence to successfully engage in safe practice. While diagnostic and technical skills are essential, an awareness of the extent and limits of our own knowledge and skills is critical. The present study examines clinicians' subjective awareness in a diagnostic cardiac ultrasound task. Clinicians answered diagnostic and treatment related questions for a range of pathologies. Following these questions, clinicians indicated their level of confidence in their response...
October 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Joselina Barbosa, Álvaro Silva, Maria Amélia Ferreira, Milton Severo
One of the most important factors that makes the transition from secondary school to medical school challenging is the inability to put in the study time that a medical school curriculum demands. The implementation of regulated learning is essential for students to cope with medical course environment and succeed. This study aimed to investigate the reciprocal relationships between self-regulated learning skills (SRLS) and academic workload (AW) across secondary school to medical school transition. Freshmen enrolled in medical school (N = 102) completed questionnaires at the beginning and at the end of their academic year, assessing AW (measured as study time hours and perceived workload), SRLS (planning and strategies for learning assessment, motivation and action to learning and self-directedness) and academic achievement...
October 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Jed D Gonzalo, Deanna Graaf, Amarpreet Ahluwalia, Dan R Wolpaw, Britta M Thompson
After emphasizing biomedical and clinical sciences for over a century, US medical schools are expanding experiential roles that allow students to learn about health care delivery while also adding value to patient care. After developing a program where all 1st-year medical students are integrated into interprofessional care teams to contribute to patient care, authors use a diffusion of innovations framework to explore and identify barriers, facilitators, and best practices for implementing value-added clinical systems learning roles...
October 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Timothy J Wood, Debra Pugh, Claire Touchie, James Chan, Susan Humphrey-Murto
There is an increasing focus on factors that influence the variability of rater-based judgments. First impressions are one such factor. First impressions are judgments about people that are made quickly and are based on little information. Under some circumstances, these judgments can be predictive of subsequent decisions. A concern for both examinees and test administrators is whether the relationship remains stable when the performance of the examinee changes. That is, once a first impression is formed, to what degree will an examiner be willing to modify it? The purpose of this study is to determine the degree that first impressions influence final ratings when the performance of examinees changes within the context of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE)...
October 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Yin Shuen Tan, Shao Wen Amanda Teo, Yiying Pei, Julia Huina Sng, Hong Wei Yap, Ying Pin Toh, Lalit K R Krishna
A consistent mentoring approach is key to unlocking the full benefits of mentoring, ensuring effective oversight of mentoring relationships and preventing abuse of mentoring. Yet consistency in mentoring between senior clinicians and medical students (novice mentoring) which dominate mentoring processes in medical schools is difficult to achieve particularly when mentors practice in both undergraduate and postgraduate medical schools. To facilitate a consistent approach to mentoring this review scrutinizes common aspects of mentoring in undergraduate and postgraduate medical schools to forward a framework for novice mentoring in medical schools...
October 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
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