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Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology

E O Adegoke, Chen Wang, N S Machebe, Xue Wang, Hao Wang, S O Adeniran, Han Zhang, Peng Zheng, Guixue Zhang
Sertoli cells were treated with 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 μg/L of MC-LR to investigate its toxic effects, mechanism of action and immune response of the cells. Our results revealed that treatment containing 20 μg/L of MC-LR was non-toxic to the cells. Treatments containing 40, 60 and 80 μg/L of MC-LR reduced the cell viability, induced nuclear morphological changes and downregulated the blood-testis barrier constituent proteins within 48 h after treatment. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB) were activated and significantly (P < 0...
September 6, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Akash Sabarwal, Kunal Kumar, Rana P Singh
Poisoning from pesticides is a global public health problem and accounts for nearly 300,000 deaths worldwide every year. Exposure to pesticides is inevitable; there are different modes through which humans get exposed to pesticides. The mode of exposure is an important factor as it also signifies the concentration of pesticides exposure. Pesticides are used extensively in agricultural and domestic settings. These chemicals are believed to cause many disorders in humans and wildlife. Research from past few decades has tried to answer the associated mechanism of action of pesticides in conjunction with their harmful effects...
September 1, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Maria Foti, Antonino Siclari, Antonietta Mascetti, Vittorio Fisichella
Antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria are a threat to global health. Epidemiological studies are necessary to gain a more detailed understanding of the transmission modality of resistant bacteria to wild animals and their diffusion into the environment to ensure a broader evaluation of the epidemiological role of wildlife. The study aimed to identify little-known epidemiological aspects by focusing on the isolation of Enterobacteriaceae in order to bring knowledge on the bacterial flora of wild mammals living in the National Park of Aspromonte (Calabria, Italy)...
August 28, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Tomomi Inoue, Maika Kinoshita, Keisuke Oyama, Norio Kamemura, Yasuo Oyama
Captan, a phthalimide fungicide, is considered to be relatively nontoxic to mammals. There is a possibility that captan affects membrane and cellular parameters of mammalian cells, resulting in adverse effects, because of high residue levels. To test the possibility, we examined the effects of captan on rat thymic lymphocytes using flow-cytometry with appropriate fluorescent probes. Treatment with 10 and 30 μM captan induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Before cell death occurred, captan elevated the intracellular concentrations of Ca2+ and Zn2+ and decreased the concentration of cellular thiol compounds...
August 27, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Gunnar Carlsson, Maria Blomberg, Johannes Pohl, Stefan Örn
Veterinary antiparasitic pharmaceuticals have been detected in surface waters and several of these pharmaceuticals act on the nervous system on the target organisms implying that neurological effects also might be of concern in non-target animals such as fish. We tested if exposure to antiparasitic pharmaceuticals affect swimming activity in 6 days old zebrafish larvae. The results revealed that most pharmaceuticals did not cause any effects in swimming activity. However, larvae exposed to 0.58 mg/L doramectin displayed reduced swimming activity even though they were classified as normal, having no morphological abnormalities...
August 25, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Faiza Ali, Tasneem Gul Kazi, Hassan Imran Afridi, Jameel Ahmed Baig
In present study, the interaction of a toxic (cadmium) and essential element (zinc) was determined in scalp hair of pregnant and non-pregnant women resident in a rural area of Thraparkar, Pakistan, where malnutrition is prevalent. In the malnourished group (pregnant and nonpregnant women), deficiency of the essential element (zinc) due to malnutrition and exposure of toxic metal (cadmium) via non-branded cigarette smoking and drinking groundwater were carried out. For comparative purposes, scalp hair samples were also collected from pregnant and non-pregnant women, residing in Hyderabad city, consuming municipal treated drinking water and smoking branded cigarette, termed as the reference group...
August 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Qun Zeng, Huilan Yi, Liqun Huang, Quan An, Hong Wang
Arsenic (As) has been recognized as a cause of male reproductive toxicity. However, effects of long-term arsenic exposure (puberty-adult) on spermatogenesis, testosterone synthesis, and the expression of androgen binding protein (ABP) and Ddx3y remain unclear. The objective of this investigation was to explore these effects and the underlying mechanisms. Male mice were treated with 5 and 50 ppm arsenic for 6 months via drinking water. The results showed that arsenic reduced sperm count and sperm motility and enhanced the abnormal sperm percentage...
August 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Qi-Di Ge, Ying Tan, Yu Luo, Wen-Juan Wang, Hua Zhang, Chun Xie
Fluorine and aluminium are nervous system poisons, but it remains unclear whether combined fluorine and aluminium exposure damages spatial learning and memory and, if so, by what mechanism. This study showed that exposure to fluorine and aluminium, either alone or combined, during the embryonic stage and into adulthood caused spatial learning and memory impairment in offspring rats; its mechanism may be associated with increases in miR-132 and miR-204 expression and downregulation of the BDNF-TrkB pathway in the hippocampus...
August 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Rong Fu, Qian Li, Rong Fan, Qinye Zhou, Xiaohan Jin, Jin Cao, Jiabao Wang, Yongqiang Ma, Tailong Yi, Maobin Zhou, Sanqiao Yao, Hongsheng Gao, Zhongwei Xu, Zhen Yang
Silicosis is characterized by inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis due to long-term inhalation of crystalline silica (SiO2 ). To clarify the role of macrophage polarization in the inflammatory response of silicosis, we used iTRAQ-coupled 2D LC-MS/MS to study the change in the secretome in RAW264.7 macrophages. We successfully screened 330 differentially expressed proteins, including 120 proteins with upregulated expression and 210 proteins with down-regulated expression (p < 0.05). Bioinformatics analysis showed that the differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in biological processes, such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, apoptosis and acute inflammatory response...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Haoran Guo, Enmin Ding, Rongjian Sheng, Jian Cheng, Wenyan Cai, Jiadi Guo, Ning Wang, Hengdong Zhang, Baoli Zhu
Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), one of the most widespread occupational health risks worldwide, is a kind of complex disorder resulting from both genetic and environmental factors. KCNQ4 channels are crucial to the internal ear potassium recycling. To explore whether KCNQ4 polymorphism is associated with individual susceptibility to NIHL, we performed this genetic association study on 571 NIHL cases and 639 normal hearing controls selected from about 2700 Chinese noise-exposed workers. General information and audiometric data were obtained through questionnaires and pure-tone audiometry (PTA)...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Ivângela Raphaela Gouveia Prudente, Candice Lima Cruz, Laranda de Carvalho Nascimento, Claúdia Cristina Kaiser, Adriana Gibara Guimarães
Agriculture accountsfor an important economic activity worldwide and the search for the increased productivity incorporated the use of pesticides in this practice. Such compounds have significant environmental and human health effects, especially for workers exposed to them. Among the main health problems caused by pesticides are the renal alterations, which in more advanced stages comprise an important public health problem. For this reason, this systematic review aimed at gathering evidence of the risk of renal changes induced by occupational exposure to pesticides...
August 15, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Mingming Zhu, Cong Huang, Xiao Ma, Rui Wu, Weiwei Zhu, Xiaoting Li, Zhaofeng Liang, Feifei Deng, Jieshu Wu, Shanshan Geng, Chunfeng Xie, Caiyun Zhong
Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in man. Studies have shown that phthalates may act as promoters in various types of cancer; however, the role of phthalates in prostate cancer has been rarely reported. The MAPK/AP-1 pathway is a vital regulator of cell proliferation in cancer. In this report we found that three typical phthalates, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and Dibutyl phthalate (DBP), up-regulated cyclinD1 and PCNA, down-regulated P21, inducing proliferation of prostate cancer cells...
August 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
L M Vidal, E Pimentel, M P Cruces, J C Sánchez-Meza
Ionizing radiation plays a key role in the adaptation of an individual organism to environmental pollution, at the same time, it has biological effects that depend on radiation intensity or dose rate (DR). Although the effect of DR has been studied in vitro, the phenomenon known as the inverse effect of DR, which indicates as it decreases that the induction of damage is greater, has not been widely studied in vivo. The present study is aimed to test 0.5 and 1 Gy in somatic cells of the wing of D. melanogaster, administered at 5...
August 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Qiong He, Xuejiao Zhou, Yang Liu, Wenfeng Gou, Jiahui Cui, Zengqiang Li, Yingliang Wu, Daiying Zuo
The purpose of this study was to explore the potential neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NPs) to mouse hippocampal neuron HT22 cells. We found that TiO2 -NPs had concentration-dependent and time-dependent cytotoxicities to HT22 cells by the MTT assay. Propidium iodide (PI) staining with FACScan flow cytometry proved that TiO2 -NPs dose-dependently increased the apoptosis rate in HT22 cells, and the apoptotic features were observed by Hochest 33258 and AO/EB staining...
August 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Maria Fernanda de Moura Leão, Jonathaline Apollo Duarte, Patrícia Dutra Sauzen, Jacqueline da Costa Escobar Piccoli, Luís Flávio Souza de Oliveira, Michel Mansur Machado
Hypertension, a chronic non-transmissible multifactorial condition, it is highly frequent in Brazil, affecting about 32.5% of the population over 25 years of age. It is characterized by the sustained increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels above 140 mmHg and 90 mmHg, respectively. It is the major aggravating factor in cardiovascular complications and the appearance of other comorbidities. Aiming to promote greater adherence to treatment and improve the population's access to basic medicament, in 2004 the Federal Government created the Programa Farmácia Popular do Brasil (PFPB); partnership with private institutions that provides the population with medicament to control hypertension, free of charge or subsidized at up to 90% of the value...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Min Xu, Huaqiao Tang, XueRong Zhou, Helin Chen, Qi Dong, Yuanli Zhang, Gang Ye, Fei Shi, Cheng Lv, Bo Jing, Changliang He, Ling Zhao, Yinglun Li
Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) have widespread application because of their special physicochemical characteristics, however we need to more clearly study the toxicity mechanism of Cu NPs to ensure its safe use in pharmaceutical and animal feed. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of sub-chronic exposure to Cu NPs on renal CYP450 s of rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of Cu NPs on renal oxidative stress, cytokines and histopathology of rats. We found that Cu NPs (200 mg/kg) significantly disordered the function and structure of the kidney and caused a dose-dependent increase in oxidative stress and cytokines, which significantly decreased the levels of mRNA, protein, and activity of CYP450 s...
August 7, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
K Dziendzikowska, M Gajewska, J Wilczak, R Mruk, M Oczkowski, E Żyła, T Królikowski, M Stachoń, J Øvrevik, O Myhre, M Kruszewski, M Wojewódzka, A Lankoff, J Gromadzka-Ostrowska
Diesel exhaust emissions (DEE), being one of the main causes of ambient air pollution, exert a detrimental effect on human health and increase morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate potential adverse effects of exhausts emissions from B7 fuel, the first-generation biofuel containing 7% of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and SHB20 fuel, the second-generation biofuel containing 20% FAME/hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), after a whole-body exposure with and without diesel particle filter (DPF)...
August 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Ramadan Salem, Nagwan El-Habashi, Sabreen E Fadl, Osama A Sakr, Zizy I Elbialy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Shaoping Huang, Senyang Cao, Tao Zhou, Lu Kong, Geyu Liang
4-tert-octylphenol (4t-OP) is a well-known xenoestrogen. Our objective was to explore the effects and molecular mechanisms of 4t-OP on human sperm. Sperm samples were exposed to 0, 0.1, or 0.3 mM 4t-OP for two hours. Results showed that both sperm viability and motility were significantly injured by 0.3 mM 4t-OP. We applied comparative proteomics to explore the molecular targets affected by 4t-OP. 81 differentially expressed (DE) proteins were identified. Bioinformatic analysis showed that these proteins were highly associated with motility and apoptosis, and were mostly enriched in cAMP-PKA/PKC-phosphorylation-associated pathway...
September 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jinling Wang, Xiuju Sun
Kidney cancer is one of the deadly cancers and is the cause of significant number of deaths worldwide. The treatments used for the treatment of kidney cancer are limited and associated with number of side effects. Therefore, there is need for the development of new drug options or to identify novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of kidney cancer. In this study we investigated the potential of miR-375 as the therapeutic target for the treatment of Kidney cancer. The results revealed that miR-375 is significantly downregulated in the Kidney cancer cells...
September 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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