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Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329021/genotoxicity-analysis-of-five-particle-matter-toxicants-from-cigarette-smoke-based-on-%C3%AE-h2ax-assay-combined-with-hill-two-component-model
#1
Sen Zhang, Huan Chen, An Wang, Yong Liu, Hongwei Hou, Qingyuan Hu
To investigate the genotoxic characteristics of typical toxicants in particle phase of cigarette smoke, including B[a]P, nicotine, tar, NNN and NNK. The in vitro γH2AX assay was used to detect the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in A549 cells using high content screening (HCS). The results showed all toxicants had a dose/time-dependent effects on induction of γH2AX except for NNN and NNK. Based on dose-response of γH2AX and Hill model, the ability to induce DSBs was evaluated: NNN-acetate > B[a]P > NNK-acetate > tar > nicotine...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329019/salidroside-influences-the-cellular-cross-talk-of-human-fetal-lung-diploid-fibroblasts-a-proteomic-approach
#2
Wenmin Xing, Wenyan Gao, Huili Su, Sanying Wang, Jing Zhang, Genxiang Mao, Jing Yan
Senescence is a complex multiple factor proces, which is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to find the proteome of cultured human fetal lung diploid fibroblasts (2BS) of different population doubling (PD), as well as the altered proteome induced by salidroside (SAL) in 2BS cells. Proteins were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combining matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time and flight mass spectrometry (MAL DI-TOF/MS). As a result, we found 16 proteins with two-fold variations in senescent cells or after SAL treatment, some being reduced such as reticulocalbin-1, heat shock protein beta-6, elongation factor 1-delta, F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-1, and chloride intracellular channel 1...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306822/celecoxib-a-cyclooxygenase-2-inhibitor-offers-chemoprevention-against-reproductive-and-neurobehavioural-abnormalities-induced-by-atrazine-in-male-wistar-rats
#3
O E Kale, T O Oyesola, F S Raji
The cyclooxygenase-2/prostanoid pathway (COX-2) serves as a potential therapeutic target in various pathological conditions. Thus, the modulatory effect of celecoxib (CXB), a COX-2 inhibitor, in atrazine-induced toxicity was investigated. Five groups (n = 6 rats per group) of adult male Wistar rats received corn oil (2 ml/kg), atrazine (ATZ, 300 mg/kg) and CXB (5.7 mg/kg) respectively and their combinations via the oral route. Results obtained showed reduced (p < 0.05) sperm motility (25.8%) and counts (27...
December 30, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329020/a-novel-mouse-model-of-atopic-dermatitis-that-is-t-helper-2-th2-polarized-by-an-epicutaneous-allergen
#4
Hyun Jung Park, Wahn Soo Choi, Won Young Lee, Youngsok Choi, Chankyu Park, Jin Hoi Kim, Kwon Ho Hong, Hyuk Song
The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) involves T helper 2 (Th2) cells, and effective therapies remain elusive due to the paucity of animal models. We aimed to develop a mouse model of an immune system aberration caused by allergen. Experiments were conducted in two phases. In experiment 1, BALB/c mice were sensitized with one of four chemical allergens - toluene diisocyanate (TDI), hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), trimellitic anhydride (TMA), or 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) - for 3 weeks. Based on results of experiment 1, immunological features were compared between TMA-sensitized BALB/c mice and NC/Nga mice, after exposure to mite extracts, harmful chemicals and detergents in experiment 2...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310006/inhibition-of-copper-zinc-superoxide-dismutase-activity-by-selected-environmental-xenobiotics
#5
REVIEW
Łukasz Lewandowski, Marta Kepinska, Halina Milnerowicz
The function of Cu,Zn-SOD is to dismutate superoxide into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. This task is fulfilled due to structural nuances of the enzyme. Many environmental xenobiotics have been proved to inhibit Cu,Zn-SOD. Those compounds could be found not only in industrial sewage, cigarettes and various chemical agents - some of them are used as drugs, drug production substrates or are the product of drug biotransformation. Cu,Zn-SOD exposition to these compounds leads to inhibition due to: copper ion chelation, unfolding the structure of the enzyme, affecting residues vital for activity maintenance...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304400/in-situ-assessment-of-karaj-river-genotoxic-impact-with-the-alkaline-comet-assay-and-micronucleus-test-on-feral-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-fario
#6
Mehran Hariri, Alireza Mirvaghefi, Hamid Farahmand, Lobat Taghavi, Amir-Reza Shahabinia
The in situ evaluation of the genotoxic impact of the Karaj River was performed using the comet and micronucleus (MN) assays in erythrocytes, liver, gill and kidney of indigenous brown trout, Salmo trutta fario from three different stations, including Varangerud, Asara and Purkan. The results showed that DNA damage significantly increased in sampled fish erythrocytes, liver and gill from low levels in the upstream river (Varangerud) via intermediate levels in downstream (Purkan) to high levels in the middle of the river (Asara), correlating with the river increasing pollution gradient...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331773/impact-of-co-exposure-of-aldrin-and-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-at-biochemical-and-molecular-levels-in-zebrafish
#7
Reena C Jhamtani, Saurabh Shukla, P Sivaperumal, M S Dahiya, Rakhi Agarwal
Aldrin (ALD), a persistent-organic-pollutant (POP), an organochlorine-cyclodiene-pesticide is highly toxic in nature. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNP) are widely used for various industrial applications. Despite the remarkable research on pesticide toxicity, the work with impact of nanoparticles on POP has been dealt with marginally. Chemicals co-exist in the environment and exhibit interactive effects. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the individual and combined effects of ALD (6 ppm) and TNP (60 ppm) exposure at sub-lethal concentration for 24 h in zebrafish...
December 27, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306821/the-effect-of-divalent-metal-chelators-and-cadmium-on-serum-phosphotriesterase-lactonase-and-arylesterase-activities-of-paraoxonase-1
#8
Anna Bizoń, Halina Milnerowicz
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is calcium dependent enzyme involved in many functions in human body. PON1 is synthesized in the liver and secreted to the bloodstream where bounds high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Association of PON1 with HDL increases the enzyme stability and biological activities. PON1 have three different activities: phosphotriesterase, lactonase and arylesterase. Until now there is now commercial available kits to determine these three PON1 activities. Also there is no date about stability of PON1 in serum after storage condition...
December 27, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306104/role-of-venlafaxine-in-prevention-of-cyclophosphamide-induced-lung-toxicity-and-airway-hyperactivity-in-rats
#9
Dalia H El-Kashef
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a drug used in chemotherapy and management of neoplastic diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prophylactic impacts of venlafaxine against CP-induced lung toxicity in rats. Rats were assigned randomly into 3 groups; control, CP (150 mg/kg) and CP/venlafaxine (50 mg/kg). On the end day, rats were sacrificed then bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) and lungs were harvested. CP produced significant decrease in animal body weights and significant increase in lung/body weight ratio; levels of LDH, total protein, total and differential cell counts in BALF in comparison with control group...
December 27, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306823/sensitivity-of-medaka-oryzias-latipes-to-4-nonylphenol-subacute-exposure-erythrocyte-alterations-and-apoptosis
#10
Alaa El-Din H Sayed, Chisato Kataoka, Shoji Oda, Shosaku Kashiwada, Hiroshi Mitani
The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of the endocrine-disrupting compound; 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) in medaka (Oryzias latipes). The frequencies of erythrocyte alterations, apoptosis, and micronuclei were used as biological indicators of damage. Medaka were exposed 15 days to 4-NP at three sublethal concentrations (50, 80, and 100 μg/l 4-NP) and results compared with those of a previous study using catfish as an animal model. Exposure of medaka resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of erythrocyte alterations, apoptosis and micronucleus (MN)...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287252/paraquat-treatment-modulates-integrin-associated-protein-cd47-and-basigin-cd147-expression-and-mitochondrial-potential-on-erythroid-cells-in-mice
#11
Nitin Bhardwaj, Ashutosh Singh
The present study is focused on the interaction of paraquat with the erythroid system in bone marrow and spleen of mice. Administration of paraquat (10 mg/kg of body weight i.p. on alternate days in C57Bl/6 mice) induced the level of reactive oxygen species in bone marrow (BM) on 7, 14, and 21 day time points but it was unchanged in spleen erythroid cell. A marked induction of CD147 expression in BM and spleen erythroid cells was observed in the paraquat treated mice. Paraquat treatment also modulated the CD47 expression in erythroid cells and its expression level was significantly higher on day 14, 21 and 28 in bone marrow and on day 14 and 21 in spleen...
December 23, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278808/acute-toxicity-uptake-and-elimination-of-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-zno-nps-using-saltwater-microcrustacean-artemia-franciscana
#12
Mehrdad Sarkheil, Seyed Ali Johari, Hyo Jin An, Saba Asghari, Hye Seon Park, Eun Kyung Sohn, Il Je Yu
This study aims to evaluate the potential toxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles on Artemia franciscana nauplii. The ZnO NPs suspension was characterized by TEM, EDS and DLS techniques. Acute toxicity was investigated by exposure of nauplii to concentrations of 1, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg/L of ZnO NPs for 48 h and 96 h. The 96-h EC10 and EC50 values of ZnO NPs were found to be 1.39 mg/L and 4.86 mg/L respectively. The ZnO NPs suspensions did not cause any significant acute toxicity after 48 h of exposure, but the immobilization rate increase significantly compare to control group after 96 h (P < 0...
December 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278807/myricetin-enhances-on-apoptosis-induced-by-serum-deprivation-in-pc12-cells-mediated-by-mitochondrial-signaling-pathway
#13
Gongxun Tan, Rachael A Uson-Lopez, Md Mostafizur Rahman, Toshiyuki Hosokawa, Takeshi Saito, Masaaki Kurasaki
Polyphenols have many beneficial effects and an effective disease therapeutic auxiliary drug. Previously, myricetin, a polyphenol, had been reported to possess various biological effects on human physiology. However, mechanism of myricetin on apoptosis induced in PC12 cells is still unclear. PC12 cells were treated with myricetin in two concentration levels comprising 0.1 and 1 μM under serum-free condition. As a result, morphological changes were observed using trypan blue assay. DNA fragmentation was determined by DNA ladder assay to evaluate DNA damage levels...
December 18, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289818/in-vitro-activity-of-nigella-sativa-against-antibiotic-resistant-salmonella-enterica
#14
Sadia Ashraf, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Ali Ahmad, Sehrish Firyal, Saba Sana, Asma Abdul Latif
Salmonellosis is a major food-borne disease worldwide and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella is a public health problem. Phytochemicals are alternative therapeutics to treat antibiotic resistant Salmonella. Biochemically identified Salmonella enterica of human and poultry origin (n = 10) were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. In-vitro anti-salmonella activity of N. sativa essential oil and extracts (aqueous and methanol) was determined against antibiotic resistant isolates by well diffusion and micro broth dilution method...
December 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289817/hepatoprotective-effect-of-thymol-against-subchronic-toxicity-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-biochemical-and-histological-evidences
#15
Abbas Jafari, Yousef Rasmi, Mohammad Hajaghazadeh, Mojtaba Karimipour
The study was aimed to investigate the protective action of thymol against nano titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. To achieve this purpose, the rats were divided into four groups (n = 6) including control, nano-TiO2 (100 mg/kg), nano-TiO2 + thymol (10 mg/kg) and nano-TiO2 + thymol (30 mg/kg). Intragastric (IG) administration of nano-TiO2 for 60 consecutive days caused widespread histological changes and significantly induced oxidative stress in the liver tissues as manifested by the rise in serum transaminase activities accompanied by marked decline of enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic (ferric reducing antioxidant power and glutathione) antioxidant levels, and rise of malondialdehyde levels in liver tissue...
December 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287253/enhanced-visible-light-photodegradation-of-pharmaceutical-pollutant-warfarin-by-nano-sized-snte-effect-of-supporting-catalyst-dose-and-scavengers
#16
S Vadaei, H Faghihian
Improvement of new nanophotocatalysts enable to decompose the pharmaceutical pollutants with the aid of solar energy is of particular importance. In this research, the ability of SnTe photocatalyst for degradation of warfarin was enhanced and the separation difficulties of the used photocatalyst, from solutions was removed by immobilization of the photocatalyst on a suitable porous support. A novel nano-sized photocatalyst was prepared by coupling of SnTe on the surface of SBA-15 support. Characterization of the synthesized photocatalyst (SnTe@SBA-15) was performed by different methods including XRD, TEM, TGA, FT-IR, EDS and BET techniques...
December 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277003/eugenol-enhances-proliferation-and-migration-of-mouse-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro
#17
Sajjad Sisakhtnezhad, Mojdeh Heidari, Ali Bidmeshkipour
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received considerable attention in regenerative medicine during the past decade. Eugenol is a natural and versatile vegetable molecule, which has a wide variety of therapeutic effects. Although different biological and pharmaceutical functions of Eugenol are well known, its effect on MSCs has not been studied yet. Therefore, this study was focused on investigating the effect of Eugenol on the proliferation and migration of bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs in vitro. To do so, BM-MSCs were isolated from 4 to 8 weeks old NMRI mice...
December 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275289/role-of-fluoride-induced-histone-trimethylation-in-development-of-skeletal-fluorosis
#18
Atul P Daiwile, Saravanadevi Sivanesan, Prashant Tarale, Pravin K Naoghare, Amit Bafana, Devendra Parmar, Krishnamurthi Kannan
Chronic exposure to fluoride has been associated with the development of skeletal fluorosis. Limited reports are available on fluoride induced histone modification. However, the role of histone modification in the pathogenesis of skeletal fluorosis is not investigated. In the present study, we have investigated the role of fluoride induced histone modification on fluorosis development using human osteosarcoma (HOS) cell line. The expression of histone methyltransferases (EHMT1 and EHZ2) and level of global histone trimethylation (H3K9 and H3K27) have been assessed and observed to be increased significantly after fluoride exposure (8 mg/L)...
December 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274627/regulation-of-abcg2-by-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-affects-the-sensitivity-of-human-lung-adenocarcinoma-a549-cells-to-arsenic-trioxide
#19
Xuejun Jiang, Chengzhi Chen, Shiyan Gu, Zunzhen Zhang
Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is successfully used as an anticancer agent against acute promyelocytic leukemia and some solid tumors. However, the application of As2O3 is largely limited by its drug resistance in the treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Therefore, it is an urgent task to enhance the sensitivity of lung cancer cells to As2O3. In this study, using human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells as a cell culture model, we demonstrated that an adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter, ABCG2, was significantly increased by As2O3 treatment, while other ABC transporters, ABCB1 and ABCC1 showed no remarkable change in the response to As2O3...
December 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272792/in-silico-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-human-acetylcholinesterase-inhibition-by-organophosphates
#20
Anuj Ranjan, Abhishek Chauhan, Tanu Jindal
Organophosphates (OP) inhibit the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and devastate the nervous system of pest however its mode of action is ubiquitous and acts similarly on human AChE (hAChE). Screening of OP was carried out by molecular docking with hAChE using Glide docking module of Schrodinger suite as the structural information of hAChE and OP together as co-crystal structure is rarely available. The docking was done at three different precision levels, high throughput virtual screening (HTVS), standard precision and extra precision...
December 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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