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Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology

Sidra Waheed, Crispin Halsall, Andrew J Sweetman, Kevin C Jones, Riffat Naseem Malik
There are few studies documenting the dust loaded with pesticides as a potential non-dietary exposure source for occupational worker and populations living near agricultural farms and pesticides formulation plants. In present study we have evaluated the pesticide concentration in dust from potential sites and relevant health risk from dust ingestion. Furthermore, the effect of currently used pesticides was investigated on blood and urine parameters of subjects: farmer, factory worker, urban resident and rural resident and controlled subjects with presumably different levels of exposure...
November 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Arpita Banerjee, Kaushik Banerjee, Abhinaba Sinha, Satyajit Das, Saikat Majumder, Subrata Majumdar, Soumitra Kumar Choudhuri
Cancer chemotherapy suffers from selectivity and undesired toxicity of the drugs. Since zinc is a biocompatible tracer element and cysteine derivatives are used in cancer chemoprevention, we intend to develop a complex of zinc and cysteine-derivatives as potent, non-toxic anticancer agents. Herein, we synthesized and characterized cysteine based ligand, 2-[(2-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzylidene)-amino]-3-mercapto-propionic acid and its Zn-complex, which are found to be non-toxic towards normal human PBMC. Data also revealed that only Zn-complex exhibited remarkable apoptosis in drug-sensitive CCRF-CEM and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 cancer cells as assessed by MTT, Cell cycle and AnnexinV binding assay...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Saurabh Sarkar, Salma Khatun, Moumita Dutta, Sumedha Roy
The eye and wing morphology of Drosophila melanogaster maintain unique, stable pattern of genesis from larval eye and wing imaginal discs. Increased apoptosis in cells of eye and wing discs was found to be associated with flubendiamide (fluoride containing insecticide) exposure (at the range 0.25-10μg/mL) in D. melanogaster larvae. The chemical fed larvae on attaining adulthood revealed alterations in morphology and symmetry of their compound eyes and wings through scanning electron microscopy. Nearly 40% and 30% of flies (P generation) demonstrated alterations in eyes and wings respectively...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Liu He, Peng Li, Li-Hui Yu, Lin Li, Yi Zhang, Yang Guo, Miao Long, Jian-Bin He, Shu-Hua Yang
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential chemoprotective effects of proanthocyanidins (PAs) against cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative damage of testes via Nrf2-Keap1 signal pathway in rats. Briefly, by using biochemical histological analysis, as well as the real time PCR and western blot approach, oxidative damage in rat testicular tissue was observed after exposure to Cd. In addition, significant down-regulations of mRNA and protein levels of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), as well as a significant up-regulation of Kelch sample related protein-1 (Keap1) levels in testicular tissue were observed after Cd exposure...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yuyan Xu, Hua Huang, Qibing Zeng, Chun Yu, Maolin Yao, Feng Hong, Peng Luo, Xueli Pan, Aihua Zhang
Endemic fluorosis is a geochemical disease that affects thousands of people. Growing evidence from domestic and foreign studies indicate that fluorosis is associated with an abnormal level of the elements (such as F, Ca, Fe, Mg, Cu, Zn, P) in the environment and a population exposed to fluoride. To study the effect of the elemental content on the risk of dental fluorosis, the content of 25 elements in the environment produced by coal-burning and a population exposed to fluoride was determined. The results show that an abnormal level of various elements (including F, Al, Se, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mo, Mn, B, V, Ca, Mg, and P) in the population exposed to fluoride, which is related to the increasing or decreasing of the corresponding elements in the environment...
November 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
April Feswick, Kelly R Munkittrick, Christopher J Martyniuk
An overarching goal of environmental genomics is to leverage sensitive suites of markers that are robust and reliable to assess biological responses in a range of species inhabiting variable environments. The objective of this study was to identify core groups of transcripts and molecular signaling pathways that respond to 17alpha-ethylinestadiol (EE2), a ubiquitous estrogenic contaminant, using transcriptome datasets generated from six independent laboratories. We sought to determine which biomarkers and gene networks were those most robust and reliably detected in multiple laboratories...
October 31, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jian Yin, Ai-Ping Wang, Wan-Fang Li, Rui Shi, Hong-Tao Jin, Jin-Feng Wei
Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are naturally existing heavy metals that pose significant health risks. The present study aims to identify sensitive biomarkers for differentiating the toxicities induced by Cd and Pb and for providing clues for the early prediction of toxicity and environmental risk assessment. Indicators related to oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in zebrafish treated with Cd and Pb over time (from 24hpf to 96hpf) were compared. Furthermore, endpoints such as embryo lethality and teratogenicity were detected...
October 31, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Lai Jun Zhang, Yao Li, Pan Chen, Xiao Mei Li, Yong Gan Chen, Yu Yu Hang, Wei Jie Gong
The marine polychaete worm Perinereis aibuhitensis was used to study the genotoxic effects of mercuric chloride by means of the comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test. P. aibuhitensis was subjected in vivo to two different concentrations of mercuric chloride (0.05mgL(-1) and 0.5mgL(-1)) for 96h. The comet assay of coelomocytes demonstrated that TailDNA% values increased with extended exposure to or increased concentrations of HgCl2 (p<0.01). The frequency of MNs was the highest in the treatment with 96h of exposure at all concentrations (p<0...
October 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Divya Sharma, Aarti Singh, Kanika Verma, Sarvesh Paliwal, Swapnil Sharma, Jaya Dwivedi
Fluoride is ubiquitous in environment and profound in bones, teeth and calcified tissues of human body. Fluoride has been the topic of regular discussion and investigations. Besides its toxicity, fluoride has also been examined for its beneficial effects like prevention and treatment of tooth decay, microbial infection, inflammation, cancer, occurrence of renal stone and many more. Since last many decades, several efforts have been made at pre-clinical and clinical level to understand role of fluoride in biological system...
October 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Cheng Zhang, Pei Li, Shun Zhang, Rongrong Lei, Bei Li, Xue Wu, Chunyang Jiang, Xiaofei Zhang, Rulin Ma, Lu Yang, Chao Wang, Xiao Zhang, Tao Xia, Aiguo Wang
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, a ubiquitous persistent organic pollutant used as brominated flame retardants, is known to damage nervous system, however the underlying mechanism is still elusive. In this study, we used human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to explore the effects of PBDE-47 on autophagy and investigate the role of autophagy in PBDE-47-induced cell death. Results showed PBDE-47 could increase autophagic level (performation of cell ultrastructure with double membrane formation, MDC-positive cells raised, autophagy-related proteins LC3-II, Beclin1 and P62 increased) after cells exposed to PBDE-47...
October 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yoan Martínez-López, Stephen J Barigye, Oscar Martínez-Santiago, Yovani Marrero-Ponce, James Green, Juan A Castillo-Garit
Several descriptors from atom weighted vectors are used in the prediction of aquatic toxicity of set of organic compounds of 392 benzene derivatives to the protozoo ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis (log(IGC50)(-1)). These descriptors are calculated using the MD-LOVIs software and various Aggregation Operators are examined with the aim comparing their performances in predicting aquatic toxicity. Variability analysis is used to quantify the information content of these molecular descriptors by means of an information theory-based algorithm...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Elif Karacaoğlu, Güldeniz Selmanoğlu
T-2 toxin, which is produced in grain and grain products as a secondary metabolite by Fusarium species, is also potentially dangerous for human health. Up to date, no study was reported the cytotoxicity of T-2 toxin on SerW3 cells in the perspective of junctional barriers. This study focused on revealing the cytotoxic effects of T-2 on Sertoli cells associated with cell junctional barriers. In the present study, SerW3 cells were exposed to T-2 toxin at 12, 120 and 1200ng/ml doses for 24 and 48h. Cytotoxicity tests including cell viability (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity test and trypan blue exclusion assay were performed...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Karina Sommerfeld-Klatta, Jędrzej Przystanowicz, Joanna Kowalówka-Zawieja, Barbara Zielińska-Psuja
Toxic effects of ethylene glycol (EG) and its metabolites are mainly related to metabolic acidosis and kidney damage. EG biotransformation involving CYP2E1 affects the oxidant-antioxidant balance. The study assessed the effect of repeated administration of 4-methylpyrazole (4MP, 15mg/kg b.w. after 2h, followed by 10mg/kg b.w. every 12h) on renal function (creatinine, urea and urinary protein levels) as well as products of kidney's lipid peroxidation (MDA and TBARS levels) in rats poisoned with EG (5745mg/kg b...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Reka Varnai, Csilla Sipeky, Lajos Nagy, Sandor Balogh, Bela Melegh
The purpose of this work was to investigate the contribution of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 to acenocoumarol (AC) dose variability, bleeding events in Hungary. The study recruited 117 patients on long-term AC therapy (INR 2-3), and 510 healthy individuals to model the findings. Patients were genotyped for alleles proved to affect lower AC overdose CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, VKORC1*2. Additionally, we tested VKORC1*3, VKORC1*4 to examine their effect in patients with higher AC requirements. Most impact on dose reduction is accountable for CYP2C9*2/*3 (59%) and for VKORC1*2/*2 (45...
October 8, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yang Hu, Liu-Sheng Wang, Yan Li, Qiu-Hong Li, Chun-Lin Li, Jian-Min Chen, Dong Weng, Hui-Ping Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impacts of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) from straw burning on the acute exacerbation of lung fibrosis in mice and the preventive effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC). METHODS: The composition, particle size, and 30-min concentration change in an exposure system of the PM2.5 from straw-burning were determined. Forty C57BL male mice were equally randomized to two groups: bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis with an exposure to air (BLM+air) and BLM+PM2...
October 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Tong He, Jimin Long, Juan Li, Liangliang Liu, Yi Cao
Once inhaled, nanoparticles (NPs) will first interact with lung surfactant system, which may influence the colloidal aspects of NPs and consequently the toxic potential of NPs to pulmonary cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the major component in lung surfactant, on stability and toxicity of ZnO NPs. The presence of DPPC increased the UV-vis spectra, hydrodynamic size, Zeta potential and dissolution rate of ZnO NPs, which indicates that DPPC might interact with NPs and affect the colloidal stability of NPs...
October 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
L Robson, I E J Barnhoorn, G M Wagenaar
Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are hazardous therapeutic pharmaceuticals present in South African surface water. Efavirenz is an ARV commonly used in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment in South Africa. Although little is known about the toxic effects of efavirenz on fish health, threats of toxicity to the aquatic environment have been reported. Oreochromis mossambicus were exposed under controlled conditions to environmentally-relevant efavirenz concentrations (10.3ng/l) as measured in rivers that flow into the Nandoni Dam in the Vhembe District, South Africa...
October 2, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Fernando Rafael de Moura, Ritane Rose da Silva Lima, Ana Paula Simões da Cunha, Patrícia da Costa Marisco, Danilo Henrique Aguiar, Marina Mariko Sugui, Adilson Paulo Sinhorin, Valéria Dornelles Gindri Sinhorin
Roundup Original(®) is an herbicide widely used in Mato Grosso's agriculture and it may contamine water bodies, being an unforeseen xenobiotic to aquatic organisms, particularly fish. This study investigated the effects on the hybrid fish jundiara (Leiarius marmoratus×Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) of an environmentally relevant exposure to this herbicide. Glucose levels in liver, muscle and plasma decreased after exposure to 1.357mgL(-1) of Roundup Original(®) (glyphosate nominal concentration), while glycogen levels reduced in liver and muscle for different times...
September 29, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yang Liu, Qinghua Zhang, Li Wang, Hui Wang, Tao Sun, Hechun Xia, Yi Yang, Li Zhang
This study is to clarify the protective role of α-lipoic acid in high-fat diet-induced cerebral damage mice. The mice were divided into 5 groups: normal control group, high-fat diet (HFD) group, low-dose α-lipoic acid group for prevention, high-dose α-lipoic acid group for prevention, and high-dose α-lipoic acid group for treatment. The groups' weights and blood glucose changes were monitored. We used HE staining to observe morphological changes in the cerebral cortex. The expression levels of the oxidative stress proteins SOD2, catalase, and the inflammatory pathway proteins p-JNK, p-ERK were measured by western blot and immunochemistry...
September 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Chen Xi, Shaojun Peng, Zhengping Wu, Qingping Zhou, Jie Zhou
This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at
September 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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