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Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology

Mizuki Ikeda, Junji Deguchi, Shota Fukushima, Ai Qingyu, Norihiro Katayama, Hajime Miura, Yasuo Oyama
Chlorothalonil, a polychlorinated aromatic fungicide, is considered non-toxic to small mammals. However, chlorothalonil inactivates sulfhydryl enzymes and depletes cellular glutathione. Chlorothalonil increases intracellular Zn2+ concentration ([Zn2+ ]i) in mammalian cells possibly because intracellular Zn2+ is released via zinc-thiol/disulfide interchange. The effects of chlorothalonil at sublethal concentrations on the cellular content of nonprotein thiols ([NPT]i) and [Zn2+ ]i were examined using flow cytometry in rat thymocytes...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
M Murali, P Athif, P Suganthi, A Sadiq Bukhari, H E Syed Mohamed, H Basu, R K Singhal
In the present study, freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus were exposed to sub lethal concentrations (120, 150 and 180 ppm) of Aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al2 O3 NPs) for 96 h. Histological abnormalities were not observed in the organs of control fishes whereas severe damages and extensive architectural loss was found in the brain, gill, intestine, kidney and muscle tissues of treated fishes with more pronounced effects in 180 ppm. The results showed that the acute exposure to Al2 O3 NPs altered the histoarchitecture in various fish tissues...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Alzbeta Bujnakova Mlynarcikova, Sona Scsukova
In the present study, we aimed to examine effects of different concentrations of the endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA; 1 nM, 1 μM, 100 μM) and the flavonoid fisetin (1, 10, 25, 50 μM), individually and in combinations, on steroidogenic function of porcine ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) represented by progesterone production. We confirmed that BPA inhibited progesterone production by GCs at the highest concentration. Fisetin reduced gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone synthesis dose-dependently, and in this manner, fisetin impaired progesterone production when added to BPA-treated GCs...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Soraya Aroonvilairat, Chanthana Tangjarukij, Thiwaree Sornprachum, Papada Chaisuriya, Taweeratana Siwadune, Kavi Ratanabanangkoon
Most Thai orchid farmers heavily used pesticide mixtures, and were shown to have various hematologic/immunologic alterations. The present study investigated the effect of exposure of male Wistar rats to a mixture of three pesticides (chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and captan) that are most often used by the farmers. Three groups of 10 rats were dermally exposed to three different doses (high, middle and low) for 28 consecutive days. The rats showed significant changes in body, liver, kidneys and adrenals weights...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Kavisa Ghosh, Indra N
Cadmium (Cd), a potent carcinogen present in almost all foods, poses a major health risk to humans. Major routes of exposure to Cd for humans are occupation, diet, and tobacco use. Cd elicits various deleterious effects on cellular molecules mainly by causing oxidant-antioxidant imbalance. Cd has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many cancers, Itai-itai disease, diabetic nephropathy, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and myocardial infarction. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Cd intake on erythrocytes and cardiac tissue in male albino Wistar rats...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Xin Ke, Qinghua Bao, Yifang Qi, Xiaoyan Huang, Haijun Zhang
The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of ammonia nitrogen, metals and organic contaminants in sediment collected from the Liaohe River Protected Areas. The TIE was applied to 16 samples. The zeolite, resin, and coconut charcoal were used to mask toxicity of the three kinds of pollutants, respectively. Then quantitative analyses together with a battery of bioassays were performed to evaluate toxic effects. At last, the spiking tests were used to confirm the major contributors to toxicity. The results of toxicity identification showed the ammonia nitrogen, γ-HCHs, As and Cd may cause toxic hazards to benthic organisms...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Wafaa R Mohamed, Ahmed B M Mehany, Rasha M Hussein
The chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) pesticide induces several human disorders including hepatotoxicity. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a natural antioxidant compound found in plants and animals. The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of ALA against CPF-induced hepatotoxicity and the possible underlying molecular mechanism. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into: Normal rats received only vehicle; ALA group received ALA (10 mg/kg, i.p.); CPF group received CPF (18 mg/kg, s...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Tânia Patrícia Almeida, Joana Ferreira, Ariane Vettorazzi, Amaia Azqueta, Eduardo Rocha, Alice Abreu Ramos
In the present study, we evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of fucoxanthin (Fx) on two human leukemia cell lines, K562 and TK6, alone and in combination with the conventional anticancer drugs imatinib (Imat) and doxorubicin (Dox). For the purpose, we assessed the cytotoxic and proliferation effects by cell count, induction of DNA damage by comet assay, and cell death by nuclear condensation, annexin V staining, coupled with propidium iodide uptake, and protein expression of Bax, caspase-3, and Bcl-2 (western blot)...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Lilian R Ferreira Faro, Miguel Alfonso, Vania Moraes Ferreira, Rafael Durán
The possible role of voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) activation on the HgCl2 -induced dopamine release was investigated using selective VSCC blockers and the dopamine levels were measured by HPLC from samples obtained by in vivo brain microdialysis. Infusion of HgCl2 in nicardipine (10 or 100 μM) or flunaricine (10 μM) pretreated animals had no significant effect on dopamine release induced by HgCl2 . Pretreatment with 100 μM flunaricine, 20 μM ω-conotoxin MVIIC, or ω-conotoxin GVIA significantly decreased the HgCl2 -induced dopamine release over 61%, 88%, and 99%, respectively...
February 12, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Rachid Jellali, Perrine Zeller, Françoise Gilard, Audrey Legendre, Marie José Fleury, Sébastien Jacques, Guillaume Tcherkez, Eric Leclerc
Dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and permethrin (PMT) are amongst most prevalent pesticides in the environment. Although their toxicity has been extensively studied, molecular mechanisms and metabolic effects remain unclear, including in liver where their detoxification occurs. Here, we used metabolomics, coupled to RT-qPCR analysis, to examine effects of DDT and PMT on hepatocytes cultivated in biochips. At 150 μM, DDT caused cell death, cytochrome P450 induction and modulation of estrogen metabolism...
February 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Thais G Santos-Silva, Cassiana C Montagner, Claudia B R Martinez
Caffeine is often found in aquatic environments, leading to concerns regarding its adverse consequences for aquatic biota. Biochemical and genotoxic biomarkers were analysed in juveniles of Prochilodus lineatus to evaluate the effects of caffeine. Fish were exposed to caffeine (0.3, 3 and 30 μg L -1 ) for either 24 h or 168 h. Longer exposure to caffeine resulted in a significant reduction in the activity of the phase I biotransformation enzyme ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in the brain but a significant increase in the liver...
February 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Ernst M Bomhard
Indium oxide (In 2 O 3 ) is a technologically important semiconductor essentially used, doped with tin oxide, to form indium tin oxide (ITO). It is poorly soluble in all so far tested physiologic media. After repeated inhalation, In 2 O 3 particles accumulate in the lungs. Their mobilization can cause significant systemic exposure over long periods of time. An increasing number of cases of severe lung effects (characterized by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, emphysema and/or interstitial fibrosis) in workers of the ITO industry warrants a review of the toxicological hazards also of In 2 O 3 ...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Liana Bosco, Tiziana Notari, Giovanni Ruvolo, Maria C Roccheri, Chiara Martino, Rosanna Chiappetta, Domenico Carone, Giosuè Lo Bosco, Laura Carrillo, Salvatore Raimondo, Antonino Guglielmino, Luigi Montano
Environmental factors could have a key role in the continuous and remarkable decline of sperm quality observed in the last decades. This study compared the seminal parameters and sperm DFI in men living in areas with different levels of air pollution. Results demonstrate that both steel plants workers and patients living in a high polluted area show a mean percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation above 30%, highlighting a clear sperm damage. In this work, two different techniques were used to measure sperm DNA damage in patients' groups, finding in both cases a high sperm DFI in patients living in polluted areas...
February 7, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yunes Panahi, Amir Fattahi, Hamid Reza Nejabati, Sina Abroon, Zeinab Latifi, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Tohid Ghasemnejad
Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating agent that causes severe damages to the skin, eyes, and the respiratory system. DNA alkylation is one of the most critical lesions that could lead to monoadducts and cross-links, as well as DNA strand breaks. In response to these adducts, cells initiate a series of reactions to recruit specific DNA repair pathways. The main DNA repair pathways in human cells, which could be involved in the DNA SM-induced DNA damages, are base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER), homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Marwa M M Refaie, Maram El-Hussieny, Nagwa M Zenhom
Cadmium (Cd) intoxication in human occurs through inhalation of cigarette smoke and ingestion of contaminated water and food. We investigated the role of nebivolol (NEB) in Cd induced hepatotoxicity. In our study; NEB was given as (10 mg/kg/d) orally to rats for 6 weeks, in the presence or absence of hepatotoxicity induced by oral administration of Cd (7 mg/kg/d) for 6 weeks. Levels of serum liver enzyme biomarkers; alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan, Nirupam Mohapatra, Pamala John, Nalini K, Raju Suresh Kumar, Satheesha B Nayak, P Gopalakrishna Bhat
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the changes in amygdala morphology and emotional behaviors, upon exposure to chronic RF-EMR in adolescent rats. Four weeks old male albino Wistar rats were exposed to 900 MHz (power density:146.60 μW/cm2) from a mobile phone in silent-mode for 28 days. Amygdala morphology was studied using cresyl violet, TUNEL and Golgi-Cox staining. Place preference behavior was studied using light/dark chamber test and following this brain caspase-3 activity was determined. Number of healthy neurons was decreased in the basolateral amygdala and cortical amygdala but not in the central amygdala after RF-EMR exposure...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Sunil K Ravi, Balenahalli Narasingappa Ramesh, Ravi Mundugaru, Bruno Vincent
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and mainly affects cognitive function of the aged populations. Aluminium, a neurotoxic metal, has been suggested as a contributing factor of AD. Caesalpinia crista is a medicinal plant known for its anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of methanolic extracts of C. crista (MECC) on aluminium-induced neurodegeneration in rats. Co-administration with MECC significantly and dose dependently ameliorated the aluminium-dependent cognitive impairment, AChE hyperactivity and oxidative stress in the hippocampus and in the frontal cortex of rat brain...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Victoria S Parker, Edwin J Squirewell, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Larry W Robertson, Michael W Duffel
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that are associated with varied adverse health effects. Lower chlorinated PCBs are prevalent in indoor and outdoor air and can be metabolized to their hydroxylated derivatives (OH-PCBs) followed by sulfation to form PCB sulfates. Sulfation is also a means of signal termination for steroid hormones. The human estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) and alcohol/hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (SULT2A1) catalyze the formation of steroid sulfates that are inactive at steroid hormone receptors...
January 31, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Sedat Per, Mehmet Kose, Ahmet Ozdemir, Dilek Pandir
Tissues and organs get exposed to high oxygen (O2) supply in hyperoxia conditions. The goal of this research was to investigate the protective effect of actin binding protein gelsolin on hyperoxia-induced hepatotoxicity through histopathology and measurement of oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage in a neonatal Wistar albino rats. The pups were randomly separated to four equal groups such as: normoxia control group (NC), normoxia plus gelsolin group (NG, 10 ng/kg bw/day gelsolin), hyperoxia (≥85% O2) group (HC), hyperoxia plus gelsolin group (HG, ≥85% O2; 10 ng/kg bw/day gelsolin)...
January 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Mohammad Reza Khazdair, Omid Rajabi, Mahdi Balali-Mood, Farimah Beheshti, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
BACKGROUND: Sulfur mustard is an alkylating agent which cause to short and long term incapacitations on various organs including lung. There is no definite treatment for lung disorders induced by SM exposure. In the present study, the preventive effect of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) on hematological parameters, oxidant/antioxidant markers and pulmonary function tests (PFT) in veterans, 27-30 years after exposed to SM were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty seven veterans allocated to three groups included: placebo group (P) and two groups treated with 5 and 10 mg/kg/day of Z...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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