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Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology

Eleonora Guzzetti, Antoni Sureda, Silvia Tejada, Caterina Faggio
Microplastics are tiny ubiquitous plastic particles present in marine environments. They are not an individual entity, but constitute a cocktail of polymers and additives that can absorb substances from the surrounding environment, including living substances, nutrients and marine pollutants. Given their small size (< 5 μm), microplastics can be ingested by a wide range of marine organisms with the potential to cause harms. Microplastics are a growing threat for marine biota and ecosystem. For organisms, the risks associated with microplastic ingestion are not only due to the material itself, but also to its ability to absorb and concentrate environmental contaminants in seawater and subsequently transfer them through food chains...
November 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Nataliya Salyha, Yuriy Salyha
Exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) can lead to oxidative stress. The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the protective effects of amino acids (l-glutamic acid (l-Glu) and l-cysteine (L-Cys) alone or in combination) for the purpose of suppression and mitigation of CPF-induced oxidative stress in rats. Rats were divided into five groups: CPF, CPF/L-Glu, CPF/L-Glu and l-Cys, CPF/L-Cys, control. The level of GSH and the activities of glutathione-related enzymes were determined...
November 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Teodora Król, Wojciech Trybus, Ewa Trybus, Anna Kopacz-Bednarska, Marek Kowalczyk, Marek Brytan, Małgorzata Paluch, Bożena Antkowiak, Marek Saracyn, Grzegorz Król, Magdalena Ciechanowska
Melatonin is a hormone with many different biological activities and therefore seems to be an important factor reducing the harmful effects caused by toxic organophosphorus compounds. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the protective effect of melatonin on liver cells of mice challenged with chemical warfare agent-soman. The study was conducted at the level of ultrastructural and biochemical changes (analysis of the activity of model lysosomal enzymes and assessment of the level of lipid peroxidation)...
October 29, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yasmin Morales-Ovalles, Leticia Miranda-Contreras, Zulma Peña-Contreras, Delsy Dávila-Vera, Alirio Balza-Quintero, Beluardi Sánchez-Gil, Rosa Virginia Mendoza-Briceño
Mancozeb, a dithiocarbamate widely used in agriculture, is considered a developmental hazard in humans; however, more evidences are still needed concerning the consequences of chronic exposure to this pesticide. Mancozeb neurotoxicity in developing mouse hypothalamus was evaluated by subchronic exposure of male Mus musculus mice to low and high doses of mancozeb (30 and 90 mg/kg body weight, respectively) from late neonatal until adolescence. Variations in hypothalamic amino acid neurotransmitter levels and changes in histological as well as cytological characteristics were analyzed in young adult experimental mice and compared with control...
October 17, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Kerstin Bluhm, Sebastian Heger, Regine Redelstein, Julia Brendt, Nico Anders, Philipp Mayer, Andreas Schaeffer, Henner Hollert
Global demand for alternative energy sources increases due to concerns regarding energy security and greenhouse gas emissions. However, little is known regarding the impacts of biofuels to the environment and human health even though the identification of such impacts is important to avoid biofuels leading to undesired effects. In this study mutagenicity and genotoxicity of the three biofuel candidates ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated in comparison to two petroleum-derived fuels and a biodiesel...
October 17, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Lei Zheng, Luqing Pan, Jingjing Miao, Yufei Lin, Jiangyue Wu
The antioxidant enzymes and detoxification parameters responses of the scallop Chlamys farreri to different degree of acrylonitrile (AN) were investigated. Accordingly, the median lethal concentration (LC50 ) at 96 h was 98.5 mg/L AN. Results from chronic toxicity test demonstrated that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were stimulated in the highest two doses of AN (2.0 and 5.0 mg/L), but significantly inhibited in the highest concentration (5.0 mg/L) at the end of the exposure...
October 12, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Karolina Kowalska, Dominika Ewa Habrowska-Górczyńska, Kamila Domińska, Kinga Anna Urbanek, Agnieszka Wanda Piastowska-Ciesielska
A major challenge in the management of prostate cancer (PC) is to limit tumor growth and metastases. Targeted therapies applying natural compounds might be potentially useful in PC treatment. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), also known as organic sulfur, is a dietary supplement used for various clinical purposes, mostly known for its anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the effect of MSM on PC cells LNCaP, PC3 and DU-145 which represent different in vitro models of PC. We observed that MSM decreases the viability and invasiveness of PC cells through the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 cell cycle phase...
October 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Hamed Haghi-Aminjan, Maryam Baeeri, Mahban Rahimifard, Ahad Alizadeh, Mahshid Hodjat, Shokoufeh Hassani, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Alireza Abdollahi, Tina Didari, Rohollah Hosseini, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Abdollahi
Poisoning with aluminum phosphide (AlP) has been attributed to the high rate of mortality among many Asian countries. It affects several organs, mainly heart and kidney. Numerous literature demonstrated the valuable effect of minocycline in mitigating pathological symptoms of heart and kidney disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the probable protective effect of minocycline on cardiac hemodynamic parameters abnormalities and renal toxicity induced by AlP-poisoning in the rat model. AlP was administered by gavage at 12 mg/kg body weight followed by injection of minocycline for two interval times of 12 and 24 h, at 40, 80, 120 mg/kg body weight...
October 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Kuang-Jen Chien, Ming-Ling Yang, Ping-Kun Tsai, Chun-Hung Su, Chia-Hui Chen, Chi-Ting Horng, Chung-Hsin Yeh, Wen-Ying Chen, Meng-Liang Lin, Chun-Jung Chen, Chen-Yu Chian, Yu-Hsiang Kuan
Safrole is a natural compound categorized as a group 2B carcinogen extracted from betel quid chewing, which is a common practice of psychoactive habits integrated into social and cultural ceremonies among serveral million people, especially in Southern or Southeastern Asia. Safrole is one of the major risk compunds for development of oral squamous cell carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma via DNA adduction. In innate immunity, macrophages are the predominant cells for non-specific first line defense against pathogens in oral tissue...
September 29, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yutian Tian, Shuhan Guo, Cengceng Chen, Li Zhao, Zhen Li, Yongjian Yan
Manganese poisoning is a common occupational disease, studies have found that the susceptibility to manganese poisoning differs in individuals. We adopted genome-wide sequencing methods to screen for susceptibility genes involved in gene-mediated metabolic pathways from the perspective of manganese poisoning. We identified 18,439 genes in this study, including 14,272 known genes and 4398 new genes. We then selected 17 differential genes using p values, of which 7 genes were down-regulated and 10 genes were up-regulated...
September 29, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Xin-Yi Li, Fang Wei, Jin-Shu Gao, Hong-Yuan Wang, Yu-Hui Zhang
This study investigated the effects of low doses of octylphenol (OP) on the oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in amphibian liver. The frog, Rana chensinensis, were exposed to 10-8 , 10-7 , 10-6 mol/L OP for 10, 20 and 30 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver were reduced at first, then recovered slightly, and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) were increased significantly. Histopathology showed that in some liver tissues of OP treated frogs, the hematococoel expansion, the fat accumulation, the cytoplasmic vacuolization and even hepatocyte necrosis were present...
September 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Wenchao Tang, Xi Zheng, Dan Li, Yuanyuan Xiao, Chengfei Yang, Shan Shang, Min Shi, Yong Zhu
Bombyx mori was used as a model to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of NaF in insects. Significant reduction in cocoon quality, survival rate, fecundity, and hatchability were observed upon NaF treatment groups. Fluoride determination indicated that F- has a cumulative effect on the gonad of silkworm. High-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the testosterone content of males was decreased in NaF-treated groups, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the estradiol content was decreased in NaF-treated females...
September 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yue Meng, Se Wang, Zhuang Wang, Nan Ye, Hao Fang
The present study investigated the impacts of dissolved organic matters (DOM) on joint toxicity involved in zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) at relevant low-exposure concentrations (<1 mg/L). It was found that ZnO NPs in single and combined systems exhibited severe inhibition effects on a freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus. However, the presence of DOM slightly alleviated the growth inhibition toxicity induced by the binary mixtures of ZnO NPs and TBBPA. Ultrastructure analysis revealed that ZnO NPs caused structural damage to cells, including plasmolysis, membrane destruction, and the disruption of thylakoid in the chloroplast, regardless of the presence of coexisting substances...
September 25, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Timo Hamers, Jessica Legradi, Nick Zwart, Foppe Smedes, Jasperien de Weert, Evert-Jan van den Brandhof, Dik van de Meent, Dick de Zwart
This study aimed at demonstrating that effect-based monitoring with passive sampling followed by toxicity profiling is more protective and cost-effective than the current chemical water quality assessment strategy consisting of compound-by-compound chemical analysis of selected substances in grab samples. Passive samplers were deployed in the Dutch river delta and in WWTP effluents. Their extracts were tested in a battery of bioassays and chemically analyzed to obtain toxicity and chemical profiles, respectively...
September 20, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Haidy Yosri, Eman Said, Wagdi F Elkashef, Nariman M Gameil
Allergic asthma is a type of chronic immune-mediated inflammatory lung disorders with constantly increased worldwide prevalence. Gabapentin is an L-type calcium channel blocker used essentially as antiepileptic and recently has been indicated for management of post-operative and neuropathic pains as an anti-inflammatory. The current study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties of gabapentin in a mouse-model of Ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma. Mice received OVA (10 mg) adsorbed on Al(OH)3 on days 0 and 7 and were challenged by exposure to nebulized OVA solution (1%) form days 14-16...
September 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Shijie Cao, Shengyang Yu, Lina Cheng, Jiankun Yan, Yan Zhu, Yanru Deng, Feng Qiu, Ning Kang
Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Rhizoma coptidis and shows anti-hyperlipidemia effect in vivo and in vitro. We previously found that berberine could decrease the intracellular triglyceride content in human hepatoma HepG2 cells through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a major regulator of lipid metabolism. Herein, to find a more effective agent, several berberine analogues (A1-A13) were isolated and synthesized, and the triglyceride-lowering effects and potential mechanisms were investigated in HepG2 cells...
September 17, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Pan Meng, Xu Tang, Xuejun Jiang, Qianghu Tang, LuLu Bai, Yinyin Xia, Zhen Zou, Xia Qin, Xianqing Cao, Chengzhi Chen, Shuqun Cheng
Male spermatogenesis dysfunctions are associated with environmental pollutants, but the detailed mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, healthy C57BL/6 J mice were used to establish an animal model of maternal exposure to traffic pollutant during pregnancy, and the toxic effects on the reproductive system of F2 male mice were analysed using mRNA and miRNA microarray. Our results showed that 54 miRNAs and 1927 mRNAs were significantly altered in the exposed group. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the most significant GO terms for biological process, molecular function and cellular component were myeloid cell differentiation, growth factor binding and main axon...
September 17, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Blessing A Afolabi, Isaac A Adedara, Diogo O Souza, João B T Rocha
The present study aims to investigate the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) both separately and combined with a low dose of methylmercury (MeHg) on behavioral and biochemical parameters in Nauphoeta cinerea (lobster cockroach). Cockroaches were fed with the basal diet alone, basal diet + 2% NaCl, basal diet + 2% MSG; basal diet + 0.125 mg/g MeHg, basal diet + 0.125 mg/g MeHg + 2% NaCl; and basal diet + 0.125 mg/g MeHg + 2% MSG for 21 days. Behavioral parameters such as distance traveled, immobility and turn angle were automatically measured using ANY-maze video tracking software (Stoelting, CO, USA)...
September 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yimeng Hu, Jie Liu, Yin Yuan, Jing Chen, Siyuan Cheng, Huawei Wang, Yancheng Xu
Sodium butyrate (NaB), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, has been reported to attenuate hyperglycemia in rats. Our objective was to explore the effect and underlying mechanism of NaB on islet β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) rats. T2DM models were induced by the combination of streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg) and high-fat-diet, while NaB (500 mg/kg/d) was intraperitoneally injected for 6 weeks in experimental groups. Our results suggested NaB mitigated hyperglycemia, lowered the levels of serum cholestenone (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), prevented body weight loss, and enhanced insulin resistance and glucose tolerance...
September 6, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Maria Foti, Antonino Siclari, Antonietta Mascetti, Vittorio Fisichella
Antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria are a threat to global health. Epidemiological studies are necessary to gain a more detailed understanding of the transmission modality of resistant bacteria to wild animals and their diffusion into the environment to ensure a broader evaluation of the epidemiological role of wildlife. The study aimed to identify little-known epidemiological aspects by focusing on the isolation of Enterobacteriaceae in order to bring knowledge on the bacterial flora of wild mammals living in the National Park of Aspromonte (Calabria, Italy)...
August 28, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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