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Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology

Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Antônio Francisco Igor M De Matos, Pedro Henrique Doleski, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Aleksandro S Da Silva, Silvia G Monteiro
Several evidences have related the biochemical and pharmacological properties of thymol, but the possible neurotoxic effects of this compound remain unknown and not evaluated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether intake of thymol in different doses (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) induce neurotoxicity and behavioral alterations using mice as experimental model, as well as the involvement of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain neurotransmitters in these alterations. Thymol (20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly decrease latency time to inhibitory avoidance task when compared to control group, indicating a memory loss after 30 days of oral treatment...
July 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Olayemi Joseph Olajide, John Oluwasegun Fatoye, Oluwakunmi Folashade Idowu, Damilola Ilekoya, Ismail Temitayo Gbadamosi, Monsurat Titi Gbadamosi, Nnaemeka Tobechukwu Asogwa
Metal ions are crucial for normal neurochemical signaling and perturbations in their homeostasis have been associated with neurodegenerative processes. Hypothesizing that in vivo modulation of key neurochemical processes including metal ion regulation (by transferrin receptor-1: TfR-1) in cells can improve disease outcome, we investigated the efficacy of a complex vitamin supplement (CVS) containing B-vitamins and ascorbic acid in preventing/reversing behavioral decline and neuropathology in rats. Wistar rats (eight weeks-old) were assigned into five groups (n = 8), including controls and those administered CVS (400 mg/kg/day) for two weeks before or after AlCl3 (100 mg/kg)-induced neurotoxicity...
July 7, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Liu Peng, Wang Mianzhi, Zhong Weixin, Zhou Qin, Xie Xiying, Wangxiao Junyi, Sun Yongxue
In this study, comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis), real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and proteomics approach were used to comprehensively assess toxicity elicited by roxarsone exposure in C. auratus at 50, 150 and 300 μg/L for 7, 14 and 21 days. Results of comet assay showed that DNA were seriously damaged under the pressure of roxarsone, especially the concentration of 50 μg/L that always maintained a sustained and increased damage effect to fish liver cell during the 21 days experiment. The expressions of biomarker genes showed that hsp70 gene expressions raised significantly and the group of 50 μg/L also showed a continued increased response effect, whereas mt gene was only slightly increased...
July 6, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Huan Xu, Xiaolei Wang, Scott W Burchiel
Arsenic is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that exists in many inorganic and organic forms. In particular, arsenite is known to induce immunotoxicity in humans and animals. There are still major gaps in our understanding of the mechanism(s) of the immunotoxicity induced by arsenic at environmentally-relevant concentrations. T cells are an essential part of the immune system required for host resistance to infections and protection from cancer. Developing T cells in the thymus have been shown to be particularly prone to arsenite-induced toxicity at low concentrations...
July 4, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yasmina M Abd-Elhakim, Mohamed M Hashem, Abeer Anwar, Abeer E El-Metwally, Khaled Abo-El-Sooud, Gihan G Moustafa, Samar M Mouneir, Haytham A Ali
The food additives sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP), sodium acetate (SA), and citric acid (CA) were evaluated for their hemato-immunotoxic effects. Forty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into four groups and were orally administered water, SAPP (12.6 mg/kg), CA (180 mg/kg), or SA (13.5 mg /kg) daily for 90 days. Erythrogram and leukogram profiles were evaluated. The levels of lysozyme, nitric oxide, immunoglobulin, and phagocytic activity were measured. Histologic and immunohistochemical evaluations of splenic tissues were performed...
July 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Xiaoming Xu, Zhaojie Cui, Shanshan Wang
Compared to single exposure, chemical mixtures might induce joint toxicity including additive, synergistic and antagonistic effects on both organisms and environment. Owing to the specific toxicity of oxidative stress and binding to proteins, lead (Pb) is generally recognized a non-essential and threatening heavy metal to animals and human. Paraquat (PQ) is a widely used herbicide in agriculture and can trigger oxidative stress as well as Pb. Little information was available about joint effects of the two chemicals on toxicological responses in organisms, especially in fish...
June 28, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Eric A Rodriguez, Brigitte C Vanle, Jonathan A Doorn, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Larry W Robertson, Michael W Duffel
Although neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity have long been associated with exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), less is known about the selective toxicity of those hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and PCB sulfates that are metabolites derived from exposure to PCBs found in indoor air. We have examined the toxicity of OH-PCBs and PCB sulfates derived from PCBs 3, 8, 11, and 52 in two neural cell lines (N27 and SH-SY5Y) and an hepatic cell line (HepG2). With the exception of a similar toxicity seen for N27 cells exposed to either OH-PCB 52 or PCB 52 sulfate, these OH-PCBs were more toxic to all three cell-types than their corresponding PCB or PCB sulfate congeners...
June 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Huike Dong, Guanghua Lu, Zhenhua Yan, Jianchao Liu, Matthew Nkoom, Haohan Yang
The ubiquitous existence of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in environmental matrices has made it attractive to both field investigators as well as laboratory researchers. However, literature on the biological effects caused by HBCD on aquatic vertebrates seldom exist. This has inevitably increased the difficulty of toxicological assessment in the aquatic environment. Juvenile crucian carp (Carassius carassius) were exposed (flow-through) to different concentrations of technical HBCD (nominal 2, 20, 200 μg L-1 ) for 7 days to determine the responses of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes...
June 25, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Kuan-Jen Bai, Kai-Jen Chuang, Sheng-Ming Wu, Li-Te Chang, Ta-Yuan Chang, Kin-Fai Ho, Hsiao-Chi Chuang
Particulate air pollution is recognized as a potential risk factor for neurological disorders; however, the underlying mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases that occur due to particulate air pollution remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the neurotoxic effects caused by diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). We determined the ability of DEPs and carbon black (CB) to induce neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation, and to disrupt the expression of tau and autophagy proteins in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells...
June 22, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Muhammad Riaz-Ul-Haq, Rabia Javeed, Saman Iram, Muhammad Arslan Rasheed, Muhammad Amjad, Furhan Iqbal
Diafenthiuron is a thiourea compound that has a novel mode of action as it inhibits mitochondrial functioning in insect pests. It has been reported in local newspapers that this pesticide is entering in our fresh water bodies on regular basis and it is a potential threat for aquatic life. The present study was designed to determine effect of Diafenthiuron, a commonly used pesticide in Pakistan, on the hematology, serum biochemical profile and elemental composition of a non-target organism, Labeo rohita (L. rohita)...
June 22, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jheneffer Sonara Aguiar Ramos, Leandro Prado Felício, Alessandro Arruda Alves, Mariana Paiva Lopes, Thannya Nascimento Soares, Daniela de Melo E Silva
We evaluated genetic variability of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) situated in the CYP2E1 gene promoter in alcoholics. We also compared 1000 Genomes Project of CYP2E1 polymorphisms with frequencies of genotypes and haplotypes. Eight variation points were exclusively found in Brazilians. The allelic distributions of the rs3813867, rs2031920 and rs2031921 polymorphisms in the CYP2E1 showed that the wild alleles (G, C, T, respectively) had higher frequencies in both groups, alcoholic (96%, 96%, 96%) and a control group (95...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Muhammad Imtiaz, Muhammad Adnan Mushtaq, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Shahid Rizwan, Sajid Mehmood, Omar Aziz, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Safiullah Virk, Qaiser Shakeel, Raina Ijaz, Vasilis P Androutsopoulos, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Michael D Coleman
The present study aimed to elucidate the photosynthetic performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, anthocyanin contents, anthocyanin biosynthetic gene expression, and vanadium uptake in mustard genotypes (purple and green) that differ in photosynthetic capacity under vanadium stress. The results indicated that vanadium significantly reduced photosynthetic activity in both genotypes. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes were increased significantly in response to vanadium in both genotypes, although the purple exhibited higher...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Mustafa Erkan Özgür, Sevgi Balcıoğlu, Ahmet Ulu, İmren Özcan, Fatih Okumuş, Süleyman Köytepe, Burhan Ateş
In recent years, titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) as metal oxide nanoparticles are widely used in industry, agriculture, personal care products, cosmetics, sun protection and toothpaste, electronics, foodstuffs and food packaging. This use of nano-TiO2 has been associated with environmental toxicity concerns. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of different doses of TiO2 NPs (∼30-40 nm) (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 10 and 50 mg/L) at 4oC for 3 h on the sperm cell kinematics as velocities of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1792) sperm cells...
June 12, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Sun Young Park, Mei Ling Jin, Eun Hye Yi, Yoon Kim, Geuntae Park
Acute and chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with excessive inflammation due to the accumulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines produced by macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of neochlorogenic acid (nCGA) from Lonicera japonica on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated inflammation in macrophages and participation of the AMPK/Nrf2 pathway. nCGA pretreatment significantly reduced the production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 , TNF-α, reactive oxygen species, IL-1β, and IL-6 by LPS-activated macrophages...
June 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Huifeng Wu, Mingyu Zhong, Zhen Lu, Xiujuan Shan, Fei Li, Chenglong Ji, Ming Cong
Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are increasingly produced and used as alternatives of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) and have become emerging marine environmental contaminants. So far, however, little is known regarding the biological effects of OPFRs in marine organisms. In this study, the biological effects of one of the most abundant OPFRs, tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), on the immunity in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis were characterized by testing the reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, antioxidant system and immunity related gene expressions...
May 31, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Mansour I Almansour, Yazun B Jarrar, Bashir M Jarrar
Although sertraline is widely prescribed as relatively safe antidepressant drug, hepatic toxicity was reported in some patients with sertraline treatment. The present study was conducted to investigate the morphometric, hepatotoxicity, and change in gene expression of drug metabolizing enzymes. Male healthy adult rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) ranging from 1050 to 1100 g were exposed to oral daily doses of sertraline (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 mg/kg) for 9 weeks. The animals were subjected to morphometric, hepatohistological, histochemical and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses...
May 30, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Ming Sun, Guangbin Liu, Hong Lin, Tianwen Zhang, Wen Guo
As a euryhaline species, the oyster Crassostrea gigas can adapt rapid and dramatic salinity fluctuations, and show physiological mechanisms of adaption to tolerant salinity changes. They are continuously exposed to Cd because they are filter feeders and their mobility is poor. In order to understand the influence of salinity on the molecular responses of C. gigas exposed to Cd, oysters were acclimatized to different salinities (13, 20, 27, and 34) for 14 days and then exposed to 10 μg/L Cd for 28 d, followed by a depuration period of 35 d...
May 28, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yong Hu, Chun Yu, Maolin Yao, Lei Wang, Bing Liang, Bixia Zhang, Xiaoxin Huang, Aihua Zhang
Arsenic poisoning is a worldwide endemic disease that affects thousands of people. Growing evidence from animal, cell, and human studies indicates that arsenic has deleterious effects on the liver. Oxidative stress is considered the primary mechanism for arsenic toxicity in liver damage. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. In light of this fact, the main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the protein kinase C delta-nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element (PKCδ-Nrf2-ARE) signalling pathway on oxidative stress in liver damage...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
S Sylvester Darvin, S Esakkimuthu, Erenius Toppo, K Balakrishna, M Gabriel Paulraj, P Pandikumar, S Ignacimuthu, N A Al-Dhabi
The Drug-induced liver injury is one of the common unfavourable impacts, which seriously affects any drug therapy. This study documented the hepatoprotective efficacy of lawsone, the major bioactive naphthoquinone present in Lawsonia inermis L. (Lythraceae) using in vitro and in vivo models. Lawsone was isolated from the leaves of L. inermis and its structure was confirmed using spectroscopic data. In-vitro antioxidant effect of lawsone was evaluated using ABTS assay. Hepatoprotective effect of lawsone was determined with RIF-INH treated HepG2 cells and Wistar rats...
July 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jaromir Michałowicz, Anna Włuka, Monika Cyrkler, Aneta Maćczak, Paulina Sicińska, Katarzyna Mokra
Phenol and chlorinated phenols are widely spread in the environment and human surrounding, which leads to a common environmental and occupational exposure of humans to these substances. The aim of this study was to assess eryptotic changes in human red blood cells treated with phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). The erythrocytes were incubated with phenols studied in the concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL for 24 h or 48 h. The results of the study revealed that all compounds studied caused phosphatidylserine translocation and increased cytosolic calcium ions level in human erythrocytes...
July 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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