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Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology

Giuseppa Visalli, Monica Currò, Daniela Iannazzo, Alessandro Pistone, Marianna Pruiti Ciarello, Giuseppe Acri, Barbara Testagrossa, Maria Paola Bertuccio, Raffaele Squeri, Angela Di Pietro
Multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) activate pathways involved in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and inflammation. Inhaled MWCNTs are translocated to extra pulmonary organs and their hydrophobicity allows them to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Further exposure of central nervous system (CNS) occurs via olfactory neurons. Using differentiated SH-SY5Y, we studied the neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation of pristine and functionalised MWCNTs. ROS overproduction was dose- and time-dependent (P<0.01) and was related to mitochondrial impairment, DNA damage and decreased viability (P<0...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Brenda Gamboa-Loira, Mariano E Cebrián, Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez, Lizbeth López-Carrillo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the association between breast cancer (BC) and inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure is modulated by selected polymorphisms in iAs metabolism. METHODS: A population based case-control (1016/1028) study was conducted in Northern Mexico. Urinary arsenic metabolites were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Metabolites percentages and methylation ratios, were estimated. Genotypes of selected polymorphisms were determined by allelic discrimination...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Marta Marcinek-Jacel, Jadwiga Albińska, Aleksandra Pawlaczyk, Małgorzata Iwona Szynkowska
The aim of this work was to access the influence of different factors such as sex, age, fish consumption, hair dyeing or smoking habit on the content of mercury in human hair samples. The research was carried on 444 samples (102 males and 342 females) collected from the population of people living in the region of Lodz (central Poland). The content of mercury in human hair samples was determined using the Mercury Analyzer MA 3000 (Nippon Instruments, Japan). The obtained results were elaborated using Statistica ver...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Sylwia Stypuła-Trębas, Maria Minta, Lidia Radko, Piotr Jedziniak, Andrzej Posyniak
Alternariol (AOH) is a toxic metabolite of phytopathogenic fungi of the Alternaria spp. and important contaminant of agricultural commodities. According to the recent studies, AOH has a potential to modulate the endocrine system of humans and animals. In the view of these reports, our study addressed the effects of AOH on human estrogen receptor (hERα) and androgen receptor (hAR) signaling with the use of the yeast estrogen and androgen reporter bioassays. Our results show that, apart from a weak estrogenic response, AOH induces full androgenic response of the bioassay with the EC50 of 269...
September 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Amos Olalekan Abolaji, Oluwatoyin Victoria Babalola, Abimbola Kehinde Adegoke, Ebenezer Olatunde Farombi
Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a chlorinated organic pollutant of groundwater with diverse toxic effects in animals and humans. Here, we investigated the ameliorative role of hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid on TCE-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. Four groups of D. melanogaster (50 flies/vial, with 5 vials/group) were exposed to ethanol (2.5%, control), HSP (400mg/10g diet), TCE (10μM/10g diet) and TCE (10μM/10g diet)+HSP (400mg/10g diet) respectively in the diet for 5days. Then, selected oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were evaluated...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Paweł Gać, Przemysław Jaźwiec, Małgorzata Poręba, Grzegorz Mazur, Krystyna Pawlas, Małgorzata Sobieszczańska, Rafał Poręba
BACKGROUND: The relationship between environmental exposure of non-smokers to cigarette smoke and the coronary artery calcium scores has not been sufficiently documented. The aim of the study was to identify the relationship between environmental exposure to cigarette smoke and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) estimated non-invasively through measurement of coronary artery calcium score by computed tomography in patients with essential hypertension. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 67 patients with essential hypertension, non-smokers environmentally exposed to cigarette smoke (group A) and on 67 patients with essential hypertension, non-smokers not exposed to cigarette smoke (group B), selected using the case to case...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Xiuyuan He, Jing Wu, Liyun Yuan, Feng Lin, Jine Yi, Jing Li, Hui Yuan, Jinling Shi, Tingting Yuan, Shufang Zhang, Yongheng Fan, Zhihang Zhao
The study was aimed to investigate the effect of Pb toxicity on mouse Leydig cells and its molecular mechanism. The TM3 cells were cultured in vitro and exposed to Pb at different concentrations for 24h. The effects of Pb on cell proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed with MTT and Annexin V-FITC/PI via flow cytometry, respectively. Expression levels of Fas, Fas-L and caspase-8 in TM3 cells were determined by western blot. As well as the inhibitory effect of the caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK on cell apoptosis...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Subramanian P Subala, Eduardo E Zubero, Moises A Alatorre-Jimenez, Muthugounder S Shivakumar
AIM: Oxidative stress is an important component of the mechanism of pesticide toxicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the time-dependent melatonin effects against abamectin-induced oxidative stress in a S.litura model. Larvae were divided into 5 different groups; (1) control group,(2) Melatonin group (4.3×10(-5)M/100ml diet), (3) Abamectin group 1.5ml/L, (4) Pre-melatonin treated group (PM) (4.3×10(-5)M/100ml diet) before abamectin exposure 1.5ml/L, (5) Post-melatonin treated group (TM) after abamectin exposure...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Fang Li, Ying Dong, Haijun Shen, Rongzhu Lu, Siqi Yin, Weihong Tian, Suhua Wang, Guangwei Xing
Diabetes mellitus has potential to alter the toxicity of hazardous chemicals. Dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) is one of high-risk nitrogenous disinfection by-products. This study evaluated the neurotoxicity of DCAN (11, 44 and 88mg/kg) in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats via orally for 28days. STZ diabetes prolonged the median survival time and total lethal time after DCAN (88mg/kg) exposure when compared with that observed in normoglycaemic rats. DCAN altered motor activity and induced anxiety behaviour in normoglycaemic rats; but it did not exaggerate behavioural changes in STZ diabetic rats...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Yangqing He, Xing Li, Ju Wang, Qian Yang, Binghua Yao, Yingjuan Zhao, Aiming Zhao, Wenxing Sun, Qian Zhang
Cornus officinalis has been widely used as a precious herb and as the tonic food to improve kidney function in China. Its fruits have been used in many traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions to treat kidney diseases, diabetes, cancer and shock. In this study, a new eco-friendly approach for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using the fruits of Cornus officinalis aqueous extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The so-synthesized AgNPs showed quasi-spherical in shape with uniform dispersal and an average mean size of 11...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Shpetim Karandrea, Huquan Yin, Xiaomei Liang, Emma A Heart
PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) are environmental pollutants that have been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes, however, the precise mechanisms are not clear. Particularly, their direct effect on insulin secretion is unknown. In this study, we show that two PBDE congeners, BDE-47 and BDE-85, potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in INS-1 832/13 cells. This effect of BDE-47 and BDE-85 on GSIS was dependent on thyroid receptor (TR). Both BDE-47 and BDE-85 (10μM) activated Akt during an acute exposure...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Ram B Jain
Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed to evaluate detection rates, trend in and factors affecting the observed levels of 1,4-dichlorobenzene, benzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, styrene, toluene, and m/p-xylene among US adolescents and adults over 2005-2012. Over 2005-20102, among adolescents, detection rates declined by more than 50% for benzene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene, and among adults, detection rates declined by more than 50% for ethylbenzene and o-xylene and by a little less than 50% for benzene...
September 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Wenjuan Zhang, Youjian Zhang, Jian Hou, Tian Xu, Wenjun Yin, Wei Xiong, Wenhong Lu, Hongyan Zheng, Jun Chen, Jing Yuan
Tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) has been widely used as a plasticizer and flame retardant. TCEP as a potential carcinogen is often detected in the occupational and nature environments. To investigate effects of TCEP on human hepatocytes, we assessed cell growth rate, cellular membrane integrity, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) activity and analyzed expression of regulators involved in the p53-p21(Waf1/Cip1)-Rb pathway in TCEP-treated L02 cells. The results showed TCEP increased the percentage of SA-β-Gal positive cells, decreased IL-6 levels, down-regulated the regulators of p38MAPK-NF-κB pathways, but up-regulated the regulators of p21(Waf1/Cip1)-Rb pathway in L02 cells...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Youchao Zhu, Jiahui Xu, Tao Lu, Meng Zhang, Mingjing Ke, Zhengwei Fu, Xiangliang Pan, Haifeng Qian
Copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have been used in a broad range of applications. However, they are inevitably released into the marine environment, making it necessary to evaluate their potential effects on marine phytoplankton. In this study, the short-term (96h) effects of CuNPs and CuSO4 on Phacodactylum tricornutum growth, photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species production and transcription were assessed. It was found that high concentrations (40μM) of CuNPs and CuSO4 significantly inhibited the growth, photosynthesis and induced oxidative stress of P...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Carolyn Black, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Jed A Bassein, Lisa A Miller
Understanding the effect of wildfire smoke exposure on human health represents a unique interdisciplinary challenge to the scientific community. Population health studies indicate that wildfire smoke is a risk to human health and increases the healthcare burden of smoke-impacted areas. However, wildfire smoke composition is complex and dynamic, making characterization and modeling difficult. Furthermore, current efforts to study the effect of wildfire smoke are limited by availability of air quality measures and inconsistent air quality reporting among researchers...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jianying Bai, Pan Wang, Yanfei Liu, Yan Zhang, Yaofu Li, Zhen He, Lifang Hou, Ruifeng Liang
Formaldehyde is a common indoor air pollutant that is toxic to the liver. This study aimed to investigate the effects of formaldehyde on triglyceride metabolism in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). Cell viability was detected using a MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Following treatment with different concentrations of formaldehyde for 24 and 48h, the intra and extra-hepatocellular triglyceride (TG) content was determined using a chemical-enzymatic method; Western blotting was used to detect the levels of fatty acid synthesis and VLDL-related proteins...
August 30, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Amr A Fouad, Hatem O Qutub, Abdullatif S Al Rashed, Walid N Al-Melhim
The possible anticancer effect of carnosine versus doxorubicin was investigated against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (500mg/kg/day, p.o., for 5days) in rats. Following induction of HCC, rats treated with either carnosine (10mg/kg/day, i.p.), or doxorubicin (2.5mg/kg, i.p., once weekly), for 2 weeks. Carnosine significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase, and hepatic lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nuclear factor-κB p65 unit, and significantly increased liver total antioxidant status in TCA-challenged rats...
August 26, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jeanne Batista Josino, Daniel Silveira Serra, Maria Diana Moreira Gomes, Rinaldo Santos Araújo, Mona Lisa Moura de Oliveira, Francisco Sales Ávila Cavalcante
Air pollution is a topic discussed all over the world and the search for alternatives to reduce it is of great interest to many researchers. The use of alternative energy sources and biofuels seems to be the environmentally safer solution. In this work, the deleterious effects on the respiratory system of mice exposed to PM4.0 or TSP, present in exhaust gases from the combustion of CNS were investigated, through data from respiratory system mechanics, oxidative stress, histopathology and morphometry of the parenchyma pulmonary...
August 25, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Wen Qu, Liang-Peng Ma, Hui-Yi Yan, Sha Liu, Han-Xiao Liu, Ting Chen, Li-Fang Hou, Jie Ping
This study was designed to observe the effects of maternal food restriction (MFR) on the development of fetal thymus in different gestation periods. Timed pregnant rats were randomized into 3 groups: CN (free access to standard chow throughout gestation), MFR0-21 (50% MFR throughout gestation), MFR0-14 (50% MFR from gestational day (GD) 0 to GD14, early-mid gestation). Results showed that MFR during early-mid period had few impact on the fetal thymus and T cell subpopulations. However, MFR throughout gestation resulted in thymic atrophy, deceased frequency of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) single positive (SP) T cells and enhanced thymocyte apoptosis in fetus...
August 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Chongnv Wang, Xuming Pan, Yawen Fan, Ying Chen, Weijie Mu
Oxytetracycline (OTC) is commonly employed in fish farms to prevent bacterial infections in China, and because of their widely and intensive use, the potential harmful effects on organisms in aquatic environment are of great concern. Ciliates play an important role in aquatic food webs as secondary producers, and Pseudocohnilembus persalinus, is one kind of them which are easily found in fish farms, surviving in polluted water. Therefore, using P. persalinus as experimental models, this study investigated the effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the growth, antioxidant system and morphological damage in pollution-resistant ciliates species...
August 24, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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