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Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology

Victoria Vought, Hong-Sheng Wang
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate plastics and a near ubiquitous environmental endocrine disrupting chemical. Bisphenol S (BPS), a substitute of BPA, is also hormonally active. This study examines the effects of aqueous exposure to BPA and BPS on the freshwater annelids Lumbriculus variegatus, a keystone species in shallow water ecosystems. Both BPA and BPS, at both low dose (10-9 M) and high dose (10-6 M), retarded the initial phase of body regrowth after cutting/fragmentation, which is the main mode of reproduction of L...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jiangtao Liu, Lei Guo, Kai Zhang, Quanquan Song, Qiaozhen Wei, Qin Bian, Tingting Liang, Jingping Niu, Bin Luo
Angiotensin II (ANG II) might play an important role in the co-effects of cold stress and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the roles of valsartan in alleviating COPD following co-exposure to cold stress and PM2.5 . Both the two intervention factors are carried out upon COPD rats with the intervention of valsartan. Blockade of angiotensin receptor by valsartan decreases the levels of malondialdehyde in the normal temperature and tumor necrosis factor-α under cold stress significantly...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Elham Alimoradi, Sajjad Sisakhtnezhad, Hassan Akrami
Thymoquinone (TQ) is an active ingredient of some medicinal herbs. Despite extensive studies on the biological and pharmacological properties of TQ, its effect on the characteristics of stem cells remains to be clarified. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of TQ on viability, proliferation and immunomodulatory potential of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in vitro. The BM-MSCs were isolated from young NMRI mice. The cytotoxic effect of TQ on the BM-MSCs was evaluated using MTT assay...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Hao Guo, Haotian Yan, Dong Cheng, Xinglong Wei, Ruirui Kou, Jiliang Si
Gut microbiome dysbiosis plays a profound role in the pathogenesis of obesity and tributyltin (TBT) has been found as an environmental obesogen. However, whether TBT could disturb gut microbiome and the relationship between obesity induced by TBT exposure and alteration in gut microbiota are still unknown. In order to assess the association between them, mice were exposed to TBTCl (50 μg kg-1 ) once every three days from postnatal days (PNDs) 24 to 54. The results demonstrated that TBT exposure resulted in increased body weight gain, lager visceral fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in male mice on PND 84...
May 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Biao Yang, Chunling Xiao
Here we investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of PM2.5 on tumor development in a lung cancer mouse model. Tumor-bearing mice (n = 32) were established and randomized into two groups: the PM2.5 or NS exposure group. Compared with the NS exposure group, mice in the PM2.5 exposure group showed an increased number of tumor nodules, increased BAL fluid protein levels, and elevated expressions of MMP1, IL1β and VEGF. Measurement of angiogenesis from blood serum using an angiogenesis antibody array revealed increased levels of 12 angiogenesis factors in mice after PM2...
May 1, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Fei Qiao, Kun Lei, Xuemei Han, Zhanliang Wei, Xingru Zhao, Lihui An, Gerald A LeBlanc
The preliminary investigation at shoreline along Taihu lake with different degrees of eutrophication status found no significant relationship between the microcystin-LR concentrations and the freshwater snail Bellamya aeruginosa fecundity or the abundance of wild freshwater snails. To further confirm the impact of eutrophication on the reproductive ability of snails, ecological mesocosm experiments were employed at four sites in Taihu lake during the algal blooming period, and no significant relationship was also found between MC-LR concentrations and snail fecundity...
May 1, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Josefina Del Brio, Cristina Mónica Montagna, Betsabé Ailén Lares, María Eugenia Parolo, Andrés Venturino
Chemical and toxicological crude oil analysis was performed on water-accommodated fraction of oil (WAF). This study characterized the chemical composition of WAF and its dissipation over a period of 192 h. Acute (96 h) and chronic (14 d) toxicity of WAF were evaluated on Hyalella curvispina from both reference (Los Barreales lake, LB) and hydrocarbon-contaminated (Durán stream, DS) sites. The total hydrocarbon (TPHs) concentration in WAF was 2.18 mg L-1 . The dissipation rates of hydrocarbons in WAF showed a first-order kinetics, with half-lives ranging between 65 h-200 h...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Ivaldo Jesus Almeida Belém-Filho, Paula Cardoso Ribera, Aline Lima Nascimento, Antônio Rafael Quadros Gomes, Rafael Rodrigues Lima, Maria Elena Crespo-Lopez, Marta Chagas Monteiro, Enéas Andrade Fontes-Júnior, Marcelo Oliveira Lima, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz Maia
Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental contaminant that provokes damage to developing brain. Simultaneously, the consumption of ethanol among adolescents has increased. Evidence concerning the effects of MeHg low doses per se or associated with ethanol during adolescence are scarce. Thus, we investigate behavioral disorders resulted from exposure to MeHg low doses and co-intoxicated with ethanol in adolescent rats. Wistar rats received chronic exposure to low doses of MeHg (40 μg/kg/day for 5 weeks) and/or ethanol binge drinking (3 g/kg/day at 3 days per week for 5 weeks)...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Mehrnaz Moghimi, Nasrollah Mahboobi-Soofiani, Pedram Malekpouri
Beyond the role of anthropogenic activities, natural sources of metal contaminations are still controversial, together counting, however, as a major threat to inland and coastal waters, becoming an even more prominent stressor for aquatic life. To address the effects of metals on the physiological response of fish, standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and factorial aerobic scope (FAS) as well as specific rate of ammonia excretion (Jamm ) of Turcinoemacheilus bahaii were determined following different water-borne Cu2+ and Pb2+ treatments...
April 30, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Zhimin Zhang, Peimao Li, Dafeng Lin, Dianpeng Wang, Yanfang Zhang
The aim of our study is to seek novel specific biomarkers which could provide clues to the mechanism of chronic benzene poisoning (CBP) and might also be used as specific markers for early detection and diagnosis. In this study, a comparative serological proteome analysis between normal controls and CBP patients at three different levels of poisoning were performed via a 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF-MS. As the result a total of 10 proteins were found significantly altered between the normal and the mild, moderate and severe poisoning...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Sandra Isabel Moreno Abril, Camila Dalmolin, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Adalto Bianchini
Copper (Cu) mining in Minas do Camaquã-Brazil, released significant amounts of metals into the João Dias creek, where Hyphessobrycon luetkenii inhabit. Because the involvement of Cu in biological processes its concentration and availability is regulated by molecules as the metal regulatory transcription factor (MTF-1), metallothionein (MT) and transporters (ATP7A and CTR1). These genes were whole sequenced and their expression (GE) evaluated in gills, liver and intestine. Were collected fish in non-contaminated and contaminated (Cu 3...
April 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Ramadan Salem, Nagwan El-Habashi, Sabreen E Fadl, Osama A Sakr, Zizy I Elbialy
The present study aimed to investigate the toxic effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and the effectiveness of a biological mycotoxin binder (Nutritox® ) in detoxifying aflatoxicosis. Ninety one-day-old chicks were chosen and divided into 3 groups. The first group received standard basal diet only, the second group received a basal diet with AFB1 (0.25 mg/kg diet), and the third group received a basal diet with AFB1 (0.25 mg/kg diet) and Nutritox® (1 kg/ton diet). AFB1 feed contamination significantly reduced growth performance and deteriorated FCR...
April 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Cristina S Pérez Coll, Carolina Pabón-Reyes, Jorge M Meichtry, Marta I Litter
Changes in toxicity of As(V) solutions from acute to chronic exposure have been evaluated by the AMPHITOX test. This test employs Rhinella arenarum, a widely distributed toad in Argentine areas. LOEC values were 6.37 and 1.88 mg L-1 for embryos and larvae, respectively, and serious sublethal effects have been observed. Toxicity of As(V) solutions has been also evaluated after treatment with zerovalent iron nanoparticles (nZVI). After 60 min of treatment with nZVI, As(V) removal was 77%, and neither lethal nor sublethal effects were observed...
April 24, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Xing Sun, Peng Wang, Li-Ping Yao, Wei Wang, Yi-Meng Gao, Jing Zhang, Yu-Jie Fu
In this study, the beneficial effect of paeonol on acute alcohol-induced liver injury and the basic mechanisms were investigated. in vitro, HepG2 cells were treated with paeonol for 24 h before it were exposed to alcohol for 24 h. in vivo, male C57BL/6 mice were used to establish alcohol-induced liver injury models by oral gavage of alcohol (5 g/kg BW). Paeonol pretreatment showed statistically significant reduction in alcohol-induced ROS, MDA, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and nitric oxide, while GSH content was retained (P < 0...
April 22, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jing Wang, Tiejun Li, Jingjing Feng, Li Li, Rong Wang, Hao Cheng, Yongfang Yuan
To investigate the potential protective effect of kaempferol, a representative flavonoid, against radiation induced mortality and injury in vivo and vitro.C57BL/6 male mice and human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated with kaempferol before radiation. We found that kaempferol can effectively increase 30-day survival rate after 8.5 Gy lethal total body irradiation (TBI). Mice were sacrificed at 7th day after 7 Gy TBI, we found kaempferol against radiation-induced tissues damage, by inhibiting the oxidative stress, and attenuating morphological changes and cell apoptosis...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Ghazala Iqbal, Wahid Zada, Abdul Mannan, Touqeer Ahmed
The deficit in the visuospatial skills, thinking, learning and memory is termed as cognitive impairment. Human exposure to heavy metals is a potential risk factor for developing cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the possible association between the concentration of heavy metals and the extent of cognitive impairment. Blood samples were subjected to microwave assisted acid digestion and evaluated for metals levels using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. We measured the levels of Cu, Pb, Al, Zn, Cd and Mn in 183 patients diagnosed with cognitive impairment; mild (n = 72), moderate (n = 86) and severe (n = 25) and compared them to age-matched healthy controls (n = 90)...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Ran Xu, Xiaodong Zheng
High concentration of ammonia is a common issue in the aquaculture industry and often causes detrimental effects to aquatic products. Exploring expression regulation of genes involved in acute ammonia stress can help to understand the molecular mechanisms of ammonia response. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) with proper reference genes is an effective way to normalize the expression of target genes. To identify the most suitable reference genes for Octopus minor (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Octopoda) under acute ammonia stress and the normal culturing, nine candidate genes were selected for the validation: OD, RPS18b, RPL29, RPS5, EF-1α, RPL6, AA4, ACT, TUB...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Li Su, Zeng Wang, Fei Huang, Ruilong Lan, Xiuying Chen, Deping Han, Lurong Zhang, Weijian Zhang, Jinsheng Hong
Radiation-induced inflammation plays an important role in radiation-induced tissue injury. 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (18β-GA) has shown an anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to assess the activity of 18β-GA against radiation-induced skin damage, and explore the underlying mechanisms. In vitro assay revealed 18β-GA treatment decreased the production of IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2 and decreased p38MAPK phosphorylation, DNA-binding activity of AP-1, and NF-κB activation in irradiated RAW264.7 macrophages. Additionally, 18β-GA suppressed NF-κB activation by inhibiting NF-κB/p65 and IκB-α phosphorylation and alleviated ROS overproduction in irradiated RAW264...
April 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Olufunto O Badmus, Olugbenga S Michael, Saheed Rabiu, Lawrence A Olatunji
Gestational glucocorticoid (GC) treatment has been associated with cardiometabolic disorder (CMD) in offspring's in later life. Elevated dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity, endoglin and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has also been implicated in the development of insulin resistance (IR) and/or vascular inflammation. We aimed to investigate the impact of GC exposure on glucose metabolism and the circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers, DPP-4 activity and GSK-3 in pregnant rats. Pregnant Wistar rats received either vehicle or dexamethasone (DEX; 0...
April 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Md Fahim Ahmad, Mohd Owais Ansari, Sana Jameel, Ab Latif Wani, Nuzhat Parveen, Hifzur R Siddique, G G H A Shadab
Nimbolide is known to be an antioxidant found in neem plant. Hydroxyurea is a medication frequently used in sickle-cell disease, different cancers and HIV infection. The present study aimed to evaluate the adverse effect of HU and possible amelioration by nimbolide in Wistar rats. To test our hypothesis, we performed genotoxicity tests, biochemical assays, and histopathological studies. We observed that HU caused higher levels of genotoxicity in the treated animals. The observed genetic and oxidative damage might be due to the presence of reactive species as HU increased the level of the malondialdehyde-a biomarker of oxidative damage...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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