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Molecules and Cells

Liang-Liang Chen, Ge-Xin Gao, Fei-Xia Shen, Xiong Chen, Xiao-Hua Gong, Wen-Jun Wu
As the most common type of endocrine malignancy, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) accounts for 85-90% of all thyroid cancers. In this study, we presented the hypothesis that SDC4 gene silencing could effectively attenuate epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), and promote cell apoptosis via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in human PTC cells. Bioinformatics methods were employed to screen the determined differential expression levels of SDC4 in PTC and adjacent normal samples. PTC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were prepared and their respective levels of SDC4 protein positive expression, in addition to the mRNA and protein levels of SDC4, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, EMT and apoptosis related genes were all detected accordingly...
August 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Da Eun Jeong, Sungeun Heo, Ji Hye Han, Eun-Young Lee, Rohit N Kulkarni, Wook Kim
In pancreatic β cells, glucose stimulates the biosynthesis of insulin at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The RNA-binding protein, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1), also named hnRNP I, acts as a critical mediator of insulin biosynthesis through binding to the pyrimidine-rich region in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of insulin mRNA. However, the underlying mechanism that regulates its expression in β cells is unclear. Here, we report that glucose induces the expression of PTBP1 via the insulin receptor (IR) signaling pathway in β cells...
August 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Gwang Sik Kim, Hee-Sae Park, Young Chul Lee
Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway and involves in the regulation of various cellular and developmental processes. Ligand binding releases the intracellular domain of Notch receptor (NICD), which interacts with DNA-bound CSL [CBF1/Su(H)/Lag-1] to activate transcription of target genes. In the absence of NICD binding, CSL down-regulates target gene expression through the recruitment of various corepressor proteins including SMRT/NCoR (silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptors/nuclear receptor corepressor), SHARP (SMRT/HDAC1-associated repressor protein), and KyoT2...
August 30, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Melody Zhao, Jihye Rachel Kim, Rebekah van Bruggen, Jeehye Park
Significant research efforts are ongoing to elucidate the complex molecular mechanisms underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which may in turn pinpoint potential therapeutic targets for treatment. The ALS research field has evolved with recent discoveries of numerous genetic mutations in ALS patients, many of which are in genes encoding RNA binding proteins (RBPs), including TDP-43, FUS, ATXN2, TAF15, EWSR1, hnRNPA1, hnRNPA2/B1, MATR3 and TIA1. Accumulating evidence from studies on these ALS-linked RBPs suggests that dysregulation of RNA metabolism, cytoplasmic mislocalization of RBPs, dysfunction in stress granule dynamics of RBPs and increased propensity of mutant RBPs to aggregate may lead to ALS pathogenesis...
August 29, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Jihoon Kim, Won Do Heo
Discovery of the naturally evolved fluorescent proteins and their genetically engineered biosensors have enormously contributed to current bio-imaging techniques. These reporters to trace dynamic changes of intracellular protein activities have continuously transformed according to the various demands in biological studies. Along with that, light-inducible optogenetic technologies have offered scientists to perturb, control and analyze the function of intracellular machineries in spatiotemporal manner. In this review, we present an overview of the molecular strategies that have been exploited for producing genetically encoded protein reporters and various optogenetic modules...
August 29, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Yu You, Keting Que, Yun Zhou, Zhen Zhang, Xiaoping Zhao, Jianpin Gong, Zuojin Liu
Recent studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. In this study, we showed that miR-766-3p was decreased in approximately 72% of HCC tissues and cell lines, and its low expression level was significantly correlated with tumour size, TNM stage, metastasis, and poor prognosis in HCC. Ectopic miR-766-3p expression inhibited HCC cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion. In addition, we showed that miR-766-3p repressed Wnt3a expression...
August 27, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Jee Hyung Sohn, Jong In Kim, Yong Geun Jeon, Jeu Park, Jae Bum Kim
Insulin resistance is closely associated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have been developed to ameliorate insulin resistance by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ. Although TZDs are synthetic ligands for PPARγ, metabolic outcomes of each TZD are different. Moreover, there are lack of head-to-head comparative studies among TZDs in the aspect of metabolic outcomes. In this study, we analyzed the effects of three TZDs, including lobeglitazone (Lobe), rosiglitazone (Rosi), and pioglitazone (Pio) on metabolic and thermogenic regulation...
August 27, 2018: Molecules and Cells
In-Young Jung, Jungmin Lee
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, an emerging immunotherapy, has demonstrated promising clinical results in hematological malignancies including B-cell malignancies. However, accessibility to this transformative medicine is highly limited due to the complex process of manufacturing, limited options for target antigens, and insufficient anti-tumor responses against solid tumors. Advances in gene-editing technologies, such as the development of Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs), Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs), and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR/Cas9), have provided novel engineering strategies to address these limitations...
August 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Pham-Thi Minh-Thu, Joung Sug Kim, Songhwa Chae, Kyong Mi Jun, Gang-Seob Lee, Dong-Eun Kim, Jong-Joo Cheong, Sang Ik Song, Baek Hie Nahm, Yeon-Ki Kim
Plants have evolved strategies to cope with drought stress by maximizing physiological capacity and adjusting developmental processes such as flowering time. The WOX13 orthologous group is the most conserved among the clade of WOX homeodomain-containing proteins and is found to function in both drought stress and flower development. In this study, we isolated and characterized OsWOX13 from rice. OsWOX13 was regulated spatially in vegetative organs but temporally in flowers and seeds. Overexpression of OsWOX13 (OsWOX13-ov) in rice under the rab21 promoter resulted in drought resistance and early flowering by 7-10 days...
August 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Jeongah Kim, Sangwon Jang, Mijung Choi, Sooyoung Chung, Youngshik Choe, Han Kyoung Choe, Gi Hoon Son, Kunsoo Rhee, Kyungjin Kim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons, particularly in the substantia nigra (SN). Although circadian dysfunction has been suggested as one of the pathophysiological risk factors for PD, the exact molecular link between the circadian clock and PD remains largely unclear. We have recently demonstrated that REV-ERBα, a circadian nuclear receptor, serves as a key molecular link between the circadian and DAergic systems...
August 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Jae-Seon So
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a critical organelle for protein synthesis, folding and modification, and lipid synthesis and calcium storage. Dysregulation of ER functions leads to the accumulation of misfolded- or unfolded-protein in the ER lumen, and this triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), which restores ER homeostasis. The UPR is characterized by three distinct downstream signaling pathways that promote cell survival or apoptosis depending on the stressor, the intensity and duration of ER stress, and the cell type...
August 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Kyoung-Hee Lee, Jiyeong Jeong, Jisu Woo, Chang-Hoon Lee, Chul-Gyu Yoo
Adiponectin, a hormone produced by adipose tissue, is very abundant in plasma, and its anti- and pro-inflammatory effects are reported. However, the mechanisms of these pro- and anti-inflammatory effects are not fully defined. Herein, we evaluated the dual inflammatory response mechanism of adiponectin in macrophages. Short-term globular adiponectin (gAd) treatment induced IκBα degradation, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 cells. Polymyxin B pretreatment did not block gAd-induced IκBα degradation, and heated gAd was unable to degrade IκBα, suggesting that the effects of gAd were not due to endotoxin contamination...
August 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Hyekang Kim, Seungwon Lee, Seung-Woo Lee
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is identified as a signaling adaptor protein that regulates bone metabolism, immunity, and the development of several tissues. Therefore, its functions are closely associated with multiple diseases. TRAF6 is also involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis under steady-state conditions, but the role of TRAF6 in modulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) during the developmental stages remains unknown. Here, we report that the deletion of TRAF6 in hematopoietic lineage cells resulted in the upregulation of HSPCs in the fetal liver at the prenatal period...
August 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Da-Hye Lee, Jungsul Lee, Jongwook Jeon, Kyung-Jin Kim, Jang-Hyuk Yun, Han-Seok Jeong, Eun Hui Lee, Young Jun Koh, Chung-Hyun Cho
Angiogenesis must be precisely controlled because uncontrolled angiogenesis is involved in aggravation of disease symptoms. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) signaling is a key pathway leading to angiogenic responses in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Therefore, targeting VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling may be effective at modulating angiogenesis to alleviate various disease symptoms. Oleanolic acid was verified as a VEGFR-2 binding chemical from anticancer herbs with similar binding affinity as a reference drug in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) entry 3CJG of model A coordination...
August 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Jae Jin Kim, Seo Yun Lee, Soyeon Kim, Jee Min Chung, Mira Kwon, Jung Hyun Yoon, Sangwook Park, Yiseul Hwang, Dongsun Park, Jong-Soo Lee, Ho Chul Kang
Emerging evidence has suggested that cellular crosstalk between RNF168 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) contributes to the precise control of the DNA damage response (DDR). However, the direct and reciprocal functional link between them remains unclear. In this report, we identified that RNF168 ubiquitinates PARP1 via direct interaction and accelerates PARP1 degradation in the presence of poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) chains, metabolites of activated PARP1. Through mass spectrometric analysis, we revealed that RNF168 ubiquitinated multiple lysine residues on PARP1 via K48-linked ubiquitin chain formation...
August 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Suyeon Kim, Charny Park, Yukyung Jun, Sanghyuk Lee, Yeonjoo Jung, Jaesang Kim
Mutations in spliceosome components have been implicated in carcinogenesis of various types of cancer. One of the most frequently found is U2AF1 S34F missense mutation. Functional analyses of this mutation have been largely limited to hematological malignancies although the mutation is also frequently seen in other cancer types including lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). We examined the impact of knockdown (KD) of wild type (wt) U2AF1 and ectopic expression of two splice variant S34F mutant proteins in terms of alternative splicing (AS) pattern and cell cycle progression in A549 lung cancer cells...
August 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Geun Cheol Song, Choong-Min Ryu
Plant defence responses to various biotic stresses via systemic acquired resistance (SAR) are induced by avirulent pathogens and chemical compounds, including certain plant hormones in volatile form, such as methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate. SAR refers to the observation that, when a local part of a plant is exposed to elicitors, the entire plant exhibits a resistance response. In the natural environment, plants are continuously exposed to avirulent pathogens that induce SAR and volatile emissions affecting neighbouring plants as well as the plant itself...
August 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Hye Jeong Kim, Hyun Suk Cho, Jung Hun Pak, Tackmin Kwon, Jai-Heon Lee, Doh-Hoon Kim, Dong Hee Lee, Chang-Gi Kim, Young-Soo Chung
[This corrects the article on p. 413 in vol. 41.].
July 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Seoung Youn Won, Ho Min Kim
Leukocyte common antigen-related protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) are cellular receptors of heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans that regulate neurite outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. LAR-RPTPs have also received particular attention as the major presynaptic hubs for synapse organization through selective binding to numerous postsynaptic adhesion partners. Recent structural studies on LAR-RPTP-mediated trans -synaptic adhesion complexes have provided significant insight into the molecular basis of their specific interactions, the key codes for their selective binding, as well as the higher-order clustering of LAR-RPTPs necessary for synaptogenic activity...
July 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Jeong-Oh Shin, Jong-Joo Lee, Mikyoung Kim, Youn Wook Chung, Hyehyun Min, Jae-Yoon Kim, Hyoung-Pyo Kim, Jinwoong Bok
The inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for hearing and balance. Formation of the inner ear is dependent on tight regulation of spatial and temporal expression of genes that direct a series of developmental processes. Recently, epigenetic regulation has emerged as a crucial regulator of the development of various organs. However, what roles higher-order chromatin organization and its regulator molecules play in inner ear development are unclear. CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a highly conserved 11-zinc finger protein that regulates the three-dimensional architecture of chromatin, and is involved in various gene regulation processes...
July 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
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