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Molecules and Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764006/tectorigenin-promotes-osteoblast-differentiation-and-in-vivo-bone-healing-but-suppresses-osteoclast-differentiation-and-in-vivo-bone-resorption
#1
So-Youn Lee, Gyu-Tae Kim, Hyung-Mun Yun, Youn-Chul Kim, Il-Keun Kwon, Eun-Cheol Kim
Although Tectorigenin (TG), a major compound in the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis, is conventionally used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, its effects on osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis have not been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and possible underlying mechanism of TG on in vitro osteoblastic differentiation and in vivo bone formation, as well as in vitro osteoclast differentiation and in vivo bone resorption. TG promoted the osteogenic differentiation of primary osteoblasts and periodontal ligament cells...
May 15, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764005/identification-of-novel-functional-variants-of-sin3a-and-srsf1-among-somatic-variants-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients
#2
Jae-Woong Min, Youngil Koh, Dae-Yoon Kim, Hyung-Lae Kim, Jeong A Han, Yu-Jin Jung, Sung-Soo Yoon, Sun Shim Choi
The advent of massively parallel sequencing, also called nextgeneration sequencing (NGS), has dramatically influenced cancer genomics by accelerating the identification of novel molecular alterations. Using a whole genome sequencing (WGS) approach, we identified somatic coding and noncoding variants that may contribute to leukemogenesis in 11 adult Korean acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, with serial tumor samples (primary and relapse) available for 5 of them; somatic variants were identified in 187 AML-related genes, including both novel (SIN3A, C10orf53, PTPRR, and RERGL) and well-known (NPM1, RUNX1, and CEPBA) AMLrelated genes...
May 15, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754476/targeting-super-enhancers-for-disease-treatment-and-diagnosis
#3
Ha Youn Shin
The transcriptional regulation of genes determines the fate of animal cell differentiation and subsequent organ development. With the recent progress in genome-wide technologies, the genomic landscapes of enhancers have been broadly explored in mammalian genomes, which led to the discovery of novel specific subsets of enhancers, termed superenhancers. Super-enhancers are large clusters of enhancers covering the long region of regulatory DNA and are densely occupied by transcription factors, active histone marks, and co-activators...
May 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754475/regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-4-rgs4-controls-morphine-reward-by-glutamate-receptor-activation-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-the-mouse-brain
#4
Juhwan Kim, Sueun Lee, Sohi Kang, Tae-Il Jeon, Man-Jong Kang, Tae-Hoon Lee, Yong Sik Kim, Key-Sun Kim, Heh-In Im, Changjong Moon
Crosstalk between G-protein signaling and glutamatergic transmission within the brain reward circuits is critical for long-term emotional effects (depression and anxiety), cravings, and negative withdrawal symptoms associated with opioid addiction. A previous study showed that Regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) may be implicated in opiate action in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, the mechanism of the NAc-specific RGS4 actions that induce the behavioral responses to opiates remains largely unknown...
May 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754474/oxymatrine-causes-hepatotoxicity-by-promoting-the-phosphorylation-of-jnk-and-induction-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-by-ros-in-lo2-cells
#5
Li-Li Gu, Zhe-Lun Shen, Yang-Lei Li, Yi-Qi Bao, Hong Lu
Oxymatrine (OMT) often used in treatment for chronic hepatitis B virus infection in clinic. However, OMT-induced liver injury has been reported. In this study, we aim to investigate the possible mechanism of OMT-induced hepatotoxicity in human normal liver cells (L02). Exposed cells to OMT, the cell viability were decreased and apoptosis rate increased, the intracellular markers of oxidative stress were changed. Simultaneously, OMT altered apoptotic related proteins levels, including Bcl-2, Bax and pro-caspase-8/-9/-3...
May 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754472/confirmation-of-drought-tolerance-of-ectopically-expressed-atabf3-gene-in-soybean
#6
Hye Jeong Kim, Hyun Suk Cho, Jung Hun Pak, Tackmin Kwon, Jai-Heon Lee, Doh-Hoon Kim, Dong Hee Lee, Chang-Gi Kim, Young-Soo Chung
Soybean transgenic plants with ectopically expressed AtABF3 were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and investigated the effects of AtABF3 expression on drought and salt tolerance. Stable Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation was carried based on the half-seed method (Paz et al. 2006). The integration of the transgene was confirmed from the genomic DNA of transformed soybean plants using PCR and the copy number of transgene was determined by Southern blotting using leaf samples from T2 seedlings...
May 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754471/lncrna-h19-mir-29b-3p-pgrn-axis-promoted-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-by-acting-on-wnt-signaling
#7
Dayong Ding, Changfeng Li, Tiancheng Zhao, Dandan Li, Lei Yang, Bin Zhang
This investigation was aimed at working out the combined role of lncRNA H19, miR-29b and Wnt signaling in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the aggregate, 185 CRC tissues and corresponding para-carcinoma tissues were gathered. The human CRC cell lines (i.e. HT29, HCT116, SW480 and SW620) and normal colorectal mucosa cell line (NCM460) were also purchased. Si-H19, si-NC, miR-29b-3p mimics, miR-29b-3p inhibitor, si-PGRN and negative control (NC) were, respectively, transfected into the CRC cells...
May 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754470/current-challenges-of-streptococcus-infection-and-effective-molecular-cellular-and-environmental-control-methods-in-aquaculture
#8
Anshuman Mishra, Gyu-Hwi Nam, Jeong-An Gim, Hee-Eun Lee, Ara Jo, Heui-Soo Kim
Several bacterial etiological agents of streptococcal disease have been associated with fish mortality and serious global economic loss. Bacterial identification based on biochemical, molecular, and phenotypic methods has been routinely used, along with assessment of morphological analyses. Among these, the molecular method of 16S rRNA sequencing is reliable, but presently, advanced genomics are preferred over other traditional identification methodologies. This review highlights the geographical variation in strains, their relatedness, as well as the complexity of diagnosis, pathogenesis, and various control methods of streptococcal infections...
May 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754469/mirna-103a-3p-promotes-human-gastric-cancer-cell-proliferation-by-targeting-and-suppressing-atf7-in-vitro
#9
Xiaoyi Hu, Jiyu Miao, Min Zhang, Xiaofei Wang, Zhenzhen Wang, Jia Han, Dongdong Tong, Chen Huang
Studies have revealed that miR-103a-3p contributes to tumor growth in several human cancers, and high miR-103a-3p expression is associated with poor prognosis in advanced gastric cancer (GC) patients. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis has shown that miR-103a-3p is upregulated in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) stomach cancer cohort. These results suggest that miR-103a-3p may function as an oncogene in GC. The present study aimed to investigate the role of miR- 103a-3p in human GC. miR-103a-3p expression levels were increased in 33 clinical GC specimens compared with adjacent nontumor stomach tissues...
May 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754473/actin-dysfunction-induces-cell-cycle-delay-at-g2-m-with-sustained-erk-and-rsk-activation-in-imr-90-normal-human-fibroblasts
#10
Deepmala Shrestha, Daeun Choi, Kiwon Song
The actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in the entry of mitosis as well as in cytokinesis. In a previous study, we showed that actin disruption delays mitotic entry at G2/M by sustained activation of extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in primary cells but not in transformed cancer cell lines. Here, we examined the mechanism of cell cycle delay at G2/M by actin dysfunction in IMR-90 normal human fibroblasts. We observed that de-polymerization of actin with cytochalasin D (CD) constitutively activated ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) and induced inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2 (Tyr 15) in IMR-90 cells...
May 4, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696935/impaired-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-and-enhanced-excitatory-transmission-in-a-novel-animal-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-with-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-overexpression
#11
Jeehae Rhee, Kwanghoon Park, Ki Chan Kim, Chan Young Shin, ChiHye Chung
Recently, we have reported that animals with telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) overexpression exhibit reduced social interaction, decreased preference for novel social interaction and poor nest-building behaviors-symptoms that mirror those observed in human autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Overexpression of TERT also alters the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) ratio in the medial prefrontal cortex. However, the effects of TERT overexpression on hippocampal-dependent learning and synaptic efficacy have not been investigated...
April 26, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665672/regulatory-network-of-arf-in-cancer-development
#12
Aram Ko, Su Yeon Han, Jaewhan Song
ARF is a tumor suppressor protein that has a pivotal role in the prevention of cancer development through regulating cell proliferation, senescence, and apoptosis. As a factor that induces senescence, the role of ARF as a tumor suppressor is closely linked to the p53-MDM2 axis, which is a key process that restrains tumor formation. Thus, many cancer cells either lack a functional ARF or p53, which enables them to evade cell oncogenic stress-mediated cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis. In particular, the ARF gene is a frequent target of genetic and epigenetic alterations including promoter hypermethylation or gene deletion...
April 18, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665671/molecular-mechanisms-of-synaptic-specificity-spotlight-on-hippocampal-and-cerebellar-synapse-organizers
#13
Dongseok Park, Sungwon Bae, Taek Han Yoon, Jaewon Ko
Synapses and neural circuits form with exquisite specificity during brain development to allow the precise and appropriate flow of neural information. Although this property of synapses and neural circuits has been extensively investigated for more than a century, molecular mechanisms underlying this property are only recently being unveiled. Recent studies highlight several classes of cell-surface proteins as organizing hubs in building structural and functional architectures of specific synapses and neural circuits...
April 18, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665674/hippo-signaling-circuit-and-divergent-tissue-growth-in-mammalian-eye
#14
Kyeong Hwan Moon, Jin Woo Kim
Vertebrate organ development is accompanied by demarcation of tissue compartments, which grow coordinately with their neighbors. Hence, perturbing the coordinative growth of neighboring tissue compartments frequently results in organ malformation. The growth of tissue compartments is regulated by multiple intercellular and intracellular signaling pathways, including the Hippo signaling pathway that limits the growth of various organs. In the optic neuroepithelial continuum, which is partitioned into the retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and ciliary margin (CM) during eye development, the Hippo signaling activity operates differentially, as it does in many tissues...
April 11, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665673/cooperative-instruction-of-signaling-and-metabolic-pathways-on-the-epigenetic-landscape
#15
Jung-Ae Kim
Cells cope with diverse intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli in order to make adaptations for survival. The epigenetic landscape plays a crucial role in cellular adaptation, as it integrates the information generated from stimuli. Signaling pathways induced by stimuli communicate with chromatin to change the epigenetic landscape through regulation of epigenetic modifiers. Metabolic dynamics altered by these stimuli also affect the activity of epigenetic modifiers. Here, I review the current understanding of epigenetic regulation via signaling and metabolic pathways...
April 11, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629559/ifit1-expression-patterns-induced-by-h9n2-virus-and-inactivated-viral-particle-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-and-bronchus-epithelial-cells
#16
Bo Feng, Qian Zhang, Jianfang Wang, Hong Dong, Xiang Mu, Ge Hu, Tao Zhang
IFIT1 (also known as ISG56) is a member of the interferoninducible protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) family. IFITs are strongly induced by type I interferon (IFN), doublestranded RNA and virus infection. Here, we investigated IFIT1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in human bronchus epithelial cells (BEAS-2Bs) induced by the H9N2 virus and inactivated viral particle at different time points. We also investigated the effect of H9N2 virus and viral particle infection on IFN-α/β production, and assessed whether hemagglutinin or neuraminidase protein induced IFIT1 expression...
April 5, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629558/%C3%AE-catenin-increases-the-stability-of-egfr-by-decreasing-c-cbl-interaction-and-enhances-egfr-erk1-2-signaling-in-prostate-cancer
#17
Nensi Shrestha, Hridaya Shrestha, Taeyong Ryu, Hangun Kim, Shishli Simkhada, Young-Chang Cho, So-Yeon Park, Sayeon Cho, Kwang-Youl Lee, Jae-Hyuk Lee, Kwonseop Kim
δ-Catenin, a member of the p120-catenin subfamily of armadillo proteins, reportedly increases during the late stage of prostate cancer. Our previous study demonstrates that δ- catenin increases the stability of EGFR in prostate cancer cell lines. However, the molecular mechanism behind δ-cateninmediated enhanced stability of EGFR was not explored. In this study, we hypothesized that δ-catenin enhances the protein stability of EGFR by inhibiting its lysosomal degradation that is mediated by c-casitas b-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl), a RING domain E3 ligase...
April 5, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629557/structural-basis-for-recognition-of-l-lysine-l-ornithine-and-l-2-4-diamino-butyric-acid-by-lysine-cyclodeaminase
#18
Kyungjin Min, Hye-Jin Yoon, Atsushi Matsuura, Yong Hwan Kim, Hyung Ho Lee
L-pipecolic acid is a non-protein amino acid commonly found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. It is a well-known precursor to numerous microbial secondary metabolites and pharmaceuticals, including anticancer agents, immunosuppressants, and several antibiotics. Lysine cyclodeaminase (LCD) catalyzes β-deamination of L-lysine into L-pipecolic acid using β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. Expression of a human homolog of LCD, μ-crystallin, is elevated in prostate cancer patients. To understand the structural features and catalytic mechanisms of LCD, we determined the crystal structures of Streptomyces pristinaespiralis LCD (SpLCD) in (i) a binary complex with NAD+, (ii) a ternary complex with NAD+ and L-pipecolic acid, (iii) a ternary complex with NAD+ and L-proline, and (iv) a ternary complex with NAD+ and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid...
April 5, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562732/indole-3-carbinol-promotes-goblet-cell-differentiation-regulating-wnt-and-notch-signaling-pathways-ahr-dependently
#19
Joo-Hung Park, Jeong-Min Lee, Eun-Jin Lee, Won-Bhin Hwang, Da-Jeong Kim
Using an in vitro model of intestinal organoids derived from intestinal crypts, we examined effects of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a phytochemical that has anticancer and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-activating abilities and thus is sold as a dietary supplement, on the development of intestinal organoids and investigated the underlying mechanisms. I3C inhibited the in vitro development of mouse intestinal organoids. Addition of α-naphthoflavone, an AhR antagonist or AhR siRNA transfection, suppressed I3C function, suggesting that I3C-mediated interference with organoid development is AhR-dependent...
March 21, 2018: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562734/new-insights-into-the-role-of-e2s-in-the-pathogenesis-of-diseases-lessons-learned-from-ube2o
#20
Daniel Hormaechea-Agulla, Youngjo Kim, Min Sup Song, Su Jung Song
Intracellular communication via ubiquitin (Ub) signaling impacts all aspects of cell biology and regulates pathways critical to human development and viability; therefore aberrations or defects in Ub signaling can contribute to the pathogenesis of human diseases. Ubiquitination consists of the addition of Ub to a substrate protein via coordinated action of E1-activating, E2-conjugating and E3-ligating enzymes. Approximately 40 E2s have been identified in humans, and most are thought to be involved in Ub transfer; although little information is available regarding the majority of them, emerging evidence has highlighted their importance to human health and disease...
March 20, 2018: Molecules and Cells
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