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Molecules and Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614917/cell-death-associated-ribosomal-rna-cleavage-in-postmortem-tissues-and-its-forensic-applications
#1
Ji Yeon Kim, Yunmi Kim, Hyo Kyeong Cha, Hye Young Lim, Hyungsub Kim, Sooyoung Chung, Juck-Joon Hwang, Seong Hwan Park, Gi Hoon Son
Estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is a key issue in the field of forensic pathology. With the availability of quantitative analysis of RNA levels in postmortem tissues, several studies have assessed the postmortem degradation of constitutively expressed RNA species to estimate PMI. However, conventional RNA quantification as well as biochemical and physiological changes employed thus far have limitations related to standardization or normalization. The present study focuses on an interesting feature of the subdomains of certain RNA species, in which they are site-specifically cleaved during apoptotic cell death...
June 15, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614918/the-significance-of-sdf-1alpha-cxcr4-axis-in-in-vivo-angiogenic-ability-of-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells
#2
Yoon-Kyung Bae, Gee-Hye Kim, Jae Cheoun Lee, Byoung-Moo Seo, Kyeung-Min Joo, Gene Lee, Hyun Nam
Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are multipotent stem cells derived from periodontium and have mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics. Recently, the perivascular region was recognized as the developmental origin of MSCs, which suggests the in vivo angiogenic potential of PDLSCs. In this study, we investigated whether PDLSCs could be a potential source of perivascular cells, which could contribute to in vivo angiogenesis. PDLSCs exhibited typical MSC-like characteristics such as the expression pattern of surface markers (CD29, CD44, CD73, and CD105) and differentiation potentials (osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation)...
June 14, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614914/ip-10-expression-in-patients-with-chronic-hbv-infection-and-its-ability-to-predict-the-decrease-in-hbsag-levels-after-treatment-with-entecavir
#3
Kai Zhao, Tao Yang, Mimi Sun, Wei Zhang, Yong An, Gang Chen, Lei Jin, Qinghua Shang, Wengang Song
Interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), also known as chemokine C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) 10, is closely associated with antiviral immunity and the progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, the value of baseline serological and histological IP-10 expression levels in predicting the efficacy of the antiviral response to nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) is still unknown. In our research, intrahepatic and peripheral IP-10 expression levels were systemically examined before and after treatment with entecavir (ETV)...
June 14, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614913/the-fungal-metabolite-brefeldin-a-inhibits-dvl2-plk1-dependent-primary-cilium-disassembly
#4
Uijeong Lee, Sun-Ok Kim, Jeong-Ah Hwang, Jae-Hyuk Jang, Sangkeun Son, In-Ja Ryoo, Jong Seog Ahn, Bo Yeon Kim, Kyung Ho Lee
The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based organelle that protrudes from the surface of most human cells and works as a cellular antenna to accept extracellular signals. Primary cilia assemble from the basal body during the resting stage (G0 phase) and simultaneously disassemble with cell cycle re-entry. Defective control of assembly or disassembly causes diverse human diseases including ciliopathy and cancer. To identify the effective compounds for studying primary cilium disassembly, we have screened 297 natural compounds and identified 18 and 17 primary cilium assembly and disassembly inhibitors, respectively...
June 14, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614912/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-facilitates-osteogenic-differentiation-in-mc3t3-e1-cells-via-the-sirtuin-1-dependent-signaling-pathway
#5
Kai Gong, Bo Qu, Cairu Wang, Jingsong Zhou, Dongfa Liao, Wei Zheng, Xianming Pan
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by a lack of insulin and high glucose levels. T2DM can cause bone loss and fracture, thus leading to diabetic osteoporosis. Promoting osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts may effectively treat diabetic osteoporosis. We previously reported that Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, promotes osteogenic differentiation through downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma. We also found that miR-132 regulates osteogenic differentiation by downregulating Sirt1 in a PPARbeta/δ- dependent manner...
June 14, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614916/gestational-diabetes-affects-the-growth-and-functions-of-perivascular-stem-cells
#6
Borim An, Eunbi Kim, Haengseok Song, Kwon-Soo Ha, Eun-Taek Han, Won Sun Park, Tae Gyu Ahn, Se-Ran Yang, Sunghun Na, Seok-Ho Hong
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), one of the common metabolic disorders of pregnancy, leads to functional alterations in various cells including stem cells as well as some abnormalities in fetal development. Perivascular stem cells (PVCs) have gained more attention in recent years, for the treatment of various diseases. However, the effect of GDM on PVC function has not been investigated. In our study, we isolated PVCs from umbilical cord of normal pregnant women and GDM patients and compared their phenotypes and function...
June 13, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614915/identification-of-an-enhancer-critical-for-the-ephirn-a5-gene-expression-in-the-posterior-region-of-the-mesencephalon
#7
Eunjeong Park, Hyuna Noh, Soochul Park
Ephrin-A5 has been implicated in the regulation of brain morphogenesis and axon pathfinding. In this study, we used bacterial homologous recombination to express a LacZ reporter in various ephrin-A5 BAC clones to identify elements that regulate ephrin-A5 gene expression during mesencephalon development. We found that there is mesencephalonspecific enhancer activity localized to a specific +25.0 kb to +30.5 kb genomic region in the first intron of ephrin-A5. Further comparative genomic analysis indicated that two evolutionary conserved regions, ECR1 and ECR2, were present within this 5...
June 13, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592774/erratum-to-transforming-growth-factor-b1-smad4-signaling-affects-osteoclast-differentiation-via-regulation-of-mir-155-expression
#8
Hongying Zhao, Jun Zhang, Haiyu Shao, Jianwen Liu, Mengran Jin, Jinping Chen, Yazeng Huang
[This corrects the article on p. 211 in vol. 40.].
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554203/the-expanding-significance-of-inositol-polyphosphate-multikinase-as-a-signaling-hub
#9
REVIEW
Eunha Kim, Hyoungjoon Ahn, Min Gyu Kim, Haein Lee, Seyun Kim
The inositol polyphosphates are a group of multifunctional signaling metabolites whose synthesis is catalyzed by a family of inositol kinases that are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans. Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) was first identified as a subunit of the arginine-responsive transcription complex in budding yeast. In addition to its role in the production of inositol tetrakis- and pentakisphosphates (IP4 and IP5), IPMK also exhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535668/stability-of-retroviral-vectors-against-ultracentrifugation-is-determined-by-the-viral-internal-core-and-envelope-proteins-used-for-pseudotyping
#10
REVIEW
Soo-Hyun Kim, Kwang-Il Lim
Retroviral and lentiviral vectors are mostly pseudotyped and often purified and concentrated via ultracentrifugation. In this study, we quantified and compared the stabilities of retroviral [murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based] and lentiviral [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-based] vectors pseudotyped with relatively mechanically stable envelope proteins, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoproteins (VSVGs), and the influenza virus WSN strain envelope proteins against ultracentrifugation. Lentiviral genomic and functional particles were more stable than the corresponding retroviral particles against ultracentrifugation when pseudotyped with VSVGs...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535667/involvement-of-a-gr2a-expressing-drosophila-pharyngeal-gustatory-receptor-neuron-in-regulation-of-aversion-to-high-salt-foods
#11
Haein Kim, Yong Taek Jeong, Min Sung Choi, Jaekyun Choi, Seok Jun Moon, Jae Young Kwon
Regulation of feeding is essential for animal survival. The pharyngeal sense organs can act as a second checkpoint of food quality, due to their position between external taste organs such as the labellum which initially assess food quality, and the digestive tract. Growing evidence provides support that the pharyngeal sensory neurons regulate feeding, but much is still unknown. We found that a pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the LSO, a Drosophila adult pharyngeal organ which expresses four gustatory receptors, is involved in feeding inhibition in response to high concentrations of sodium ions...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535666/ddx53-regulates-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties-by-binding-to-sox-2
#12
Youngmi Kim, Minjeong Yeon, Dooil Jeoung
This study investigated the role of cancer/testis antigen DDX53 in regulating cancer stem cell-like properties. DDX53 shows co-expression with CD133, a marker for cancer stem cells. DDX53 directly regulates the SOX-2 expression in anticancer drug-resistant Malme3M(R) cells. DDX53 and miR-200b were found to be involved in the regulation of tumor spheroid forming potential of Malme3M and Malme3M(R) cells. Furthermore, the self-renewal activity and the tumorigenic potential of Malme3M(R)-CD133 (+) cells were also regulated by DDX53...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535665/l1-cell-adhesion-molecule-promotes-migration-and-invasion-via-jnk-activation-in-extrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-cells-with-activating-kras-mutation
#13
Haejung Kim, Haein Hwang, Hansoo Lee, Hyo Jeong Hong
Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC), a malignant tumor of biliary origin, has a poor prognosis with limited treatment options. The KRAS oncogene is the most commonly mutated gene in ECC and one of the factors that predicts a poor prognosis and low survival rate. L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is expressed in ECC cells and acts as an independent poor prognostic factor in predicting patient survival. In this study we investigate the functional significance of L1CAM in ECC cells with activating KRAS mutation...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535664/characterization-of-%C3%AE-x-i-domain-binding-to-receptors-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-rage
#14
Dolgorsuren Buyannemekh, Sang-Uk Nham
The β2 integrins are cell surface transmembrane proteins regulating leukocyte functions, such as adhesion and migration. Two members of β2 integrin, αMβ2 and αXβ2, share the leukocyte distribution profile and integrin αXβ2 is involved in antigen presentation in dendritic cells and transendothelial migration of monocytes and macrophages to atherosclerotic lesions. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a member of cell adhesion molecules, plays an important role in chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535663/up-regulation-of-rank-expression-via-erk1-2-by-insulin-contributes-to-the-enhancement-of-osteoclast-differentiation
#15
Ju Hee Oh, Na Kyung Lee
Despite the importance of the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-RANK signaling mechanisms on osteoclast differentiation, little has been studied on how RANK expression is regulated or what regulates its expression during osteoclastogenesis. We show here that insulin signaling increases RANK expression, thus enhancing osteoclast differentiation by RANKL. Insulin stimulation induced RANK gene expression in time- and dose-dependent manners and insulin receptor shRNA completely abolished RANK expression induced by insulin in bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage cells (BMMs)...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535662/methylation-levels-of-line-1-as-a-useful-marker-for-venous-invasion-in-both-ffpe-and-frozen-tumor-tissues-of-gastric-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Jimin Min, Boram Choi, Tae-Su Han, Hyuk-Joon Lee, Seong-Ho Kong, Yun-Suhk Suh, Tae-Han Kim, Hwi-Nyeong Choe, Woo Ho Kim, Keun Hur, Han-Kwang Yang
Long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) is a retrotransposon that contains a CpG island in its 5'-untranslated region. The CpG island of LINE-1 is often heavily methylated in normal somatic cells, which is associated with poor prognosis in various cancers. DNA methylation can differ between formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and frozen tissues. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the LINE-1 methylation status between the two tissue-storage conditions in gastric cancer (GC) clinical samples and to evaluate whether LINE-1 can be used as an independent prognostic marker for each tissue-storage type...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486794/erratum-to-genes-frequently-coexpressed-with-hoxc8-provide-insight-into-the-discovery-of-target-genes
#17
Kalyani Ruthala, Ji-Yeon Lee, Hyehyun Min, Heejei Yoon, Myoung Hee Kim
[This corrects the article on p. 395 in vol. 39.].
April 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427249/crystal-structure-of-the-regulatory-domain-of-aphb-from-vibrio-vulnificus-a-virulence-gene-regulator
#18
Nohra Park, Saemee Song, Garam Choi, Kyung Ku Jang, Inseong Jo, Sang Ho Choi, Nam-Chul Ha
The transcriptional activator AphB has been implicated in acid resistance and pathogenesis in the food borne pathogens Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae. To date, the full-length AphB crystal structure of V. cholerae has been determined and characterized by a tetrameric assembly of AphB consisting of a DNA binding domain and a regulatory domain (RD). Although acidic pH and low oxygen tension might be involved in the activation of AphB, it remains unknown which ligand or stimulus activates AphB at the molecular level...
April 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427248/caloric-restriction-induced-extension-of-chronological-lifespan-requires-intact-respiration-in-budding-yeast
#19
Young-Yon Kwon, Sung-Keun Lee, Cheol-Koo Lee
Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to extend lifespan and prevent cellular senescence in various species ranging from yeast to humans. Many effects of CR may contribute to extend lifespan. Specifically, CR prevents oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS) by enhancing mitochondrial function. In this study, we characterized 33 single electron transport chain (ETC) gene-deletion strains to identify CR-induced chronological lifespan (CLS) extension mechanisms. Interestingly, defects in 17 of these 33 ETC gene-deleted strains showed loss of both respiratory function and CR-induced CLS extension...
April 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401751/down-regulation-of-microrna-210-confers-sensitivity-towards-1-s-1-acetoxychavicol-acetate-aca-in-cervical-cancer-cells-by-targeting-smad4
#20
Neoh Hun Phuah, Mohamad Nurul Azmi, Khalijah Awang, Noor Hasima Nagoor
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that regulate genes posttranscriptionally. Past studies have reported that miR-210 is up-regulated in many cancers including cervical cancer, and plays a pleiotropic role in carcinogenesis. However, its role in regulating response towards anti-cancer agents has not been fully elucidated. We have previously reported that the natural compound 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) is able to induce cytotoxicity in various cancer cells including cervical cancer cells...
April 2017: Molecules and Cells
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