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Molecules and Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320202/identification-and-expression-of-equine-mer-derived-mirnas
#1
Jeong-An Gim, Heui-Soo Kim
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded, small RNAs (21-23 nucleotides) that function in gene silencing and translational inhibition via the RNA interference mechanism. Most miRNAs originate from host genomic regions, such as intergenic regions, introns, exons, and transposable elements (TEs). Here, we focused on the palindromic structure of medium reiteration frequencies (MERs), which are similar to precursor miRNAs. Five MER consensus sequences (MER5A1, MER53, MER81, MER91C, and MER117) were matched with paralogous transcripts predicted to be precursor miRNAs in the horse genome (equCab2) and located in either intergenic regions or introns...
March 21, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317368/mir-186-inhibited-migration-of-nsclc-via-targeting-cdc42-and-effecting-emt-process
#2
Ying Dong, Xintian Jin, Zhiqiang Sun, Yueming Zhao, Xianjing Song
In this study, qRT-PCR was employed to identify that miR-186 expression level in NSCLC tissues are highly associated with lymph node metastasis. In addition, through the application of western blotting, luciferase assay and qRT-PCR, it was found that miR-186 targeted 3'UTR of cdc42 mRNA and down-regulated cdc42 protein level in a post-transcriptional manner. Transwell assay indicated that cdc42 partially reversed the effect of miR-186 mimics. Besides, miR-186 was proved to regulate EMT by influencing biomarkers of this process and cell adhesion ability...
March 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301917/signaling-pathways-controlling-microglia-chemotaxis
#3
Yang Fan, Lirui Xie, Chang Y Chung
Microglia are the primary resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). They are the first line of defense of the brain's innate immune response against infection, injury, and diseases. Microglia respond to extracellular signals and engulf unwanted neuronal debris by phagocytosis, thereby maintaining normal cellular homeostasis in the CNS. Pathological stimuli such as neuronal injury induce transformation and activation of resting microglia with ramified morphology into a motile amoeboid form and activated microglia chemotax toward lesion site...
March 17, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301916/a-role-of-central-nell2-in-the-regulation-of-feeding-behavior-in-rats
#4
Jin Kwon Jeong, Jae Geun Kim, Han Rae Kim, Tae Hwan Lee, Jeong Woo Park, Byung Ju Lee
A brain-enriched secreting signal peptide, NELL2, has been suggested to play multiple roles in the development, survival, and activity of neurons in mammal. We investigated here a possible involvement of central NELL2 in regulating feeding behavior and metabolism. In situ hybridization and an immunohistochemical approach were used to determine expression of NELL2 as well as its colocalization with proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the rat hypothalamus. To investigate the effect of NELL2 on feeding behavior, 2 nmole of antisense NELL2 oligodeoxynucleotide was administered into the lateral ventricle of adult male rat brains for 6 consecutive days, and changes in daily body weight, food, and water intake were monitored...
March 15, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292003/arabidopsis-map3k16-and-other-salt-inducible-map3ks-regulate-aba-response-redundantly
#5
Seo-Wha Choi, Seul-Bee Lee, Yeon-Ju Na, Sun-Geum Jeung, Soo Young Kim
In the Arabidopsis genome, approximately 80 MAP3Ks (mitogen- activated protein kinase kinase kinases) have been identified. However, only a few of them have been characterized, and the functions of most MAP3Ks are largely unknown. In this paper, we report the function of MAP3K16 and several other MAP3Ks, MAP3K14/15/17/18, whose expression is salt-inducible. We prepared MAP3K16 overexpression (OX) lines and analyzed their phenotypes. The result showed that the transgenic plants were ABA-insensitive during seed germination and cotyledon greening stage but their root growth was ABA-hypersensitive...
March 14, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292004/transcription-factor-osdof18-controls-ammonium-uptake-by-inducing-ammonium-transporters-in-rice-roots
#6
Yunfei Wu, Wenzhu Yang, Jinhuan Wei, Hyeryung Yoon, Gynheung An
Nitrogen is one of the most important mineral elements for plant growth. We studied the functional roles of Oryza sativa DNA BINDING WITH ONE FINGER 18 (OsDOF18) in controlling ammonium uptake. The growth of null mutants of OsDOF18 was retarded in a medium containing ammonium as the sole nitrogen source. In contrast, those mutants grew normally in a medium with nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. The gene expression was induced by ammonium but not by nitrate. Uptake of ammonium was lower in osdof18 mutants than in the wild type, while that of nitrate was not affected by the mutation...
March 13, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241407/survival-assays-using-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
REVIEW
Hae-Eun H Park, Yoonji Jung, Seung-Jae V Lee
Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model organism with many useful features, including rapid development and aging, easy cultivation, and genetic tractability. Survival assays using C. elegans are powerful methods for studying physiological processes. In this review, we describe diverse types of C. elegans survival assays and discuss the aims, uses, and advantages of specific assays. C. elegans survival assays have played key roles in identifying novel genetic factors that regulate many aspects of animal physiology, such as aging and lifespan, stress response, and immunity against pathogens...
February 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241406/interferon-stimulated-gene-15-in-the-control-of-cellular-responses-to-genotoxic-stress
#8
REVIEW
Young Joo Jeon, Jong Ho Park, Chin Ha Chung
Error-free replication and repair of DNA are pivotal to organisms for faithful transmission of their genetic information. Cells orchestrate complex signaling networks that sense and resolve DNA damage. Post-translational protein modifications by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins, including SUMO and NEDD8, are critically involved in DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA damage tolerance (DDT). The expression of interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), the first identified ubiquitin-like protein, has recently been shown to be induced under various DNA damage conditions, such as exposure to UV, camptothecin, and doxorubicin...
February 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222496/the-integrins-involved-in-soybean-agglutinin-induced-cell-cycle-alterations-in-ipec-j2
#9
Li Pan, Yuan Zhao, Zhijie Yuan, Mohammed Hamdy Farouk, Shiyao Zhang, Nan Bao, Guixin Qin
Soybean agglutinin (SBA) is an anti-nutritional factor of soybean, affecting cell proliferation and inducing cytotoxicity. Integrins are transmembrane receptors, mediating a variety of cell biological processes. This research aims to study the effects of SBA on cell proliferation and cell cycle progression of the intestinal epithelial cell line from piglets (IPEC-J2), to identify the integrin subunits especially expressed in IPEC-J2s, and to analyze the functions of these integrins on IPEC-J2 cell cycle progression and SBA-induced IPEC-J2 cell cycle alteration...
February 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196413/alu-derived-alternative-splicing-events-specific-to-macaca-lineages-in-ctsf-gene
#10
Ja-Rang Lee, Sang-Je Park, Young-Hyun Kim, Se-Hee Choe, Hyeon-Mu Cho, Sang-Rae Lee, Sun-Uk Kim, Ji-Su Kim, Bo-Woong Sim, Bong-Seok Song, Kang-Jin Jeong, Youngjeon Lee, Yeung Bae Jin, Philyong Kang, Jae-Won Huh, Kyu-Tae Chang
Cathepsin F, which is encoded by CTSF, is a cysteine proteinase ubiquitously expressed in several tissues. In a previous study, novel transcripts of the CTSF gene were identified in the crab-eating monkey deriving from the integration of an Alu element-AluYRa1. The occurrence of AluYRa1-derived alternative transcripts and the mechanism of exonization events in the CTSF gene of human, rhesus monkey, and crab-eating monkey were investigated using PCR and reverse transcription PCR on the genomic DNA and cDNA isolated from several tissues...
February 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196412/mapk3-at-the-autism-linked-human-16p11-2-locus-influences-precise-synaptic-target-selection-at-drosophila-larval-neuromuscular-junctions
#11
Sang Mee Park, Hae Ryoun Park, Ji Hye Lee
Proper synaptic function in neural circuits requires precise pairings between correct pre- and post-synaptic partners. Errors in this process may underlie development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Development of ASD can be influenced by genetic factors, including copy number variations (CNVs). In this study, we focused on a CNV occurring at the 16p11.2 locus in the human genome and investigated potential defects in synaptic connectivity caused by reduced activities of genes located in this region at Drosophila larval neuromuscular junctions, a well-established model synapse with stereotypic synaptic structures...
February 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196411/effects-of-culture-dimensions-on-maintenance-of-porcine-inner-cell-mass-derived-cell-self-renewal
#12
Song Baek, Na Rae Han, Jung Im Yun, Jae Yeon Hwang, Minseok Kim, Choon Keun Park, Eunsong Lee, Seung Tae Lee
Despite the fact that porcine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a practical study tool, in vitro long-term maintenance of these cells is difficult in a two-dimensional (2D) microenvironment using cellular niche or extracellular matrix proteins. However, a three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment, similar to that enclosing the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, may improve in vitro maintenance of self-renewal. Accordingly, as a first step toward constructing a 3D microenvironment optimized to maintain porcine ESC self-renewal, we investigated different culture dimensions for porcine ICM-derived cells to enhance the maintenance of self-renewal...
February 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190325/irs-2-partially-compensates-for-the-insulin-signal-defects-in-irs-1-mice-mediated-by-mir-33
#13
Chen-Yi Tang, Xiao-Fei Man, Yue Guo, Hao-Neng Tang, Jun Tang, Ci-La Zhou, Shu-Wen Tan, Min Wang, Hou-De Zhou
Insulin signaling is coordinated by insulin receptor substrates (IRSs). Many insulin responses, especially for blood glucose metabolism, are mediated primarily through Irs-1 and Irs-2. Irs-1 knockout mice show growth retardation and insulin signaling defects, which can be compensated by other IRSs in vivo; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. Here, we presented an Irs-1 truncated mutated mouse (Irs-1(-/-)) with growth retardation and subcutaneous adipocyte atrophy. Irs-1(-/-) mice exhibited mild insulin resistance, as demonstrated by the insulin tolerance test...
February 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190324/cellular-dynamics-of-rad51-and-rad54-in-response-to-postreplicative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-hela-cells
#14
REVIEW
Eui-Hwan Choi, Seobin Yoon, Yoonsoo Hahn, Keun P Kim
Homologous recombination (HR) is necessary for maintenance of genomic integrity and prevention of various mutations in tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes. Rad51 and Rad54 are key HR factors that cope with replication stress and DNA breaks in eukaryotes. Rad51 binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to form the presynaptic filament that promotes a homology search and DNA strand exchange, and Rad54 stimulates the strand-pairing function of Rad51. Here, we studied the molecular dynamics of Rad51 and Rad54 during the cell cycle of HeLa cells...
February 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190323/therapeutic-benefits-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-hemoglobin-induced-hypertensive-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#15
Rui Ding, Chunnan Lin, ShanShan Wei, Naichong Zhang, Liangang Tang, Yumao Lin, Zhijun Chen, Teng Xie, XiaoWei Chen, Yu Feng, LiHua Wu
Previous studies have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation significantly improves the recovery of neurological function in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage. Potential repair mechanisms involve anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis and angiogenesis. However, few studies have focused on the effects of MSCs on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and subsequent peroxynitrite formation after hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH). In this study, MSCs were transplanted intracerebrally into rats 6 hours after HICH...
February 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152305/concurrent-hypermethylation-of-sfrp2-and-dkk2-activates-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-and-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#16
Hao Wang, Xiang-Long Duan, Xiao-Li Qi, Lei Meng, Yi-Song Xu, Tong Wu, Peng-Gao Dai
Aberrant hypermethylation of Wnt antagonists has been observed in gastric cancer. A number of studies have focused on the hypermethylation of a single Wnt antagonist and its role in regulating the activation of signaling. However, how the Wnt antagonists interacted to regulate the signaling pathway has not been reported. In the present study, we systematically investigated the methylation of some Wnt antagonist genes (SFRP2, SFRP4, SFRP5, DKK1, DKK2, and APC) and their regulatory role in carcinogenesis. We found that aberrant promoter methylation of SFRP2, SFRP4, DKK1, and DKK2 was significantly increased in gastric cancer...
January 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152304/pkc%C3%AE-mediated-pdk1-phosphorylation-enhances-t-cell-activation-by-increasing-pdk1-stability
#17
Jung-Ah Kang, Hyunwoo Choi, Taewoo Yang, Steve K Cho, Zee-Yong Park, Sung-Gyoo Park
PDK1 is essential for T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of NF-κB, and PDK1-induced phosphorylation of PKCθ is important for TCR-induced NF-κB activation. However, inverse regulation of PDK1 by PKCθ during T cell activation has not been investigated. In this study, we found that PKCθ is involved in human PDK1 phosphorylation and that its kinase activity is crucial for human PDK1 phosphorylation. Mass spectrometry analysis of wild-type PKCθ or of kinase-inactive form of PKCθ revealed that PKCθ induced phosphorylation of human PDK1 at Ser-64...
January 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152303/epigenetic-regulation-of-axon-regeneration-after-neural-injury
#18
REVIEW
Jung Eun Shin, Yongcheol Cho
When peripheral axons are damaged, neuronal injury signaling pathways induce transcriptional changes that support axon regeneration and consequent functional recovery. The recent development of bioinformatics techniques has allowed for the identification of many of the regeneration-associated genes that are regulated by neural injury, yet it remains unclear how global changes in transcriptome are coordinated. In this article, we review recent studies on the epigenetic mechanisms orchestrating changes in gene expression in response to nerve injury...
January 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152302/sr-proteins-binders-regulators-and-connectors-of-rna
#19
REVIEW
Sunjoo Jeong
Serine and arginine-rich (SR) proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) known as constitutive and alternative splicing regulators. As splicing is linked to transcriptional and post-transcriptional steps, SR proteins are implicated in the regulation of multiple aspects of the gene expression program. Recent global analyses of SR-RNA interaction maps have advanced our understanding of SR-regulated gene expression. Diverse SR proteins play partially overlapping but distinct roles in transcription-coupled splicing and mRNA processing in the nucleus...
January 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152301/potentiation-of-t-cell-stimulatory-activity-by-chemical-fixation-of-a-weak-peptide-mhc-complex
#20
Inkyu Hwang, Kwangmi Kim, Sojin Choi, Maria Lomunova
The stability of peptide-MHC complex (pMHC) is an important factor to shape the fate of peptide-specific T cell immune response, but how it influences on T cell activation process is poorly understood. To better understand that, we investigated various T cell activation events driven by L(d) MHCI loaded with graded concentrations of P2Ca and QL9 peptides, respectively, with 2C TCR Tg T cells; the binding strength of P2Ca for L(d) is measurably weaker than that of QL9, but either peptides in the context of L(d) interact with 2C TCR with a similar strength...
January 2017: Molecules and Cells
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