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Molecules and Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222496/the-integrins-involved-in-soybean-agglutinin-induced-cell-cycle-alterations-in-ipec-j2
#1
Li Pan, Yuan Zhao, Zhijie Yuan, Mohammed Hamdy Farouk, Shiyao Zhang, Nan Bao, Guixin Qin
Soybean agglutinin (SBA) is an anti-nutritional factor of soybean, affecting cell proliferation and inducing cytotoxicity. Integrins are transmembrane receptors, mediating a variety of  cell biological processes. This research aims to study the effects of SBA on cell proliferation and cell cycle progression of the intestinal epithelial cell line from piglets (IPEC-J2), to identify the integrin subunits especially expressed in IPEC-J2s, and to analyze the functions of these integrins on IPEC-J2 cell cycle progression and SBA-induced IPEC-J2 cell cycle alteration...
February 21, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196412/mapk3-at-the-autism-linked-human-16p11-2-locus-influences-precise-synaptic-target-selection-at-drosophila-larval-neuromuscular-junctions
#2
Sang Mee Park, Hae Ryoun Park, Ji Hye Lee
Proper synaptic function in neural circuits requires precise pairings between correct pre- and post-synaptic partners. Errors in this process may underlie development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Development of ASD can be influenced by genetic factors, including copy number variations (CNVs). In this study, we focused on a CNV occurring at the 16p11.2 locus in the human genome and investigated potential defects in synaptic connectivity caused by reduced activities of genes located in this region at Drosophila larval neuromuscular junctions, a well-established model synapse with stereotypic synaptic structures...
February 15, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196411/effects-of-culture-dimensions-on-maintenance-of-porcine-inner-cell-mass-derived-cell-self-renewal
#3
Song Baek, Na Rae Han, Jung Im Yun, Jae Yeon Hwang, Minseok Kim, Choon Keun Park, Eunsong Lee, Seung Tae Lee
Despite the fact that porcine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a practical study tool, in vitro long-term maintenance of these cells is difficult in a two-dimensional (2D) microenvironment using cellular niche or extracellular matrix proteins. However, a three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment, similar to that enclosing the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, may improve in vitro maintenance of self-renewal. Accordingly, as a first step toward constructing a 3D microenvironment optimized to maintain porcine ESC self-renewal, we investigated different culture dimensions for porcine ICM-derived cells to enhance the maintenance of self-renewal...
February 15, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196413/alu-derived-alternative-splicing-events-specific-to-macaca-lineages-in-ctsf-gene
#4
Ja-Rang Lee, Sang-Je Park, Young-Hyun Kim, Se-Hee Choe, Hyeon-Mu Cho, Sang-Rae Lee, Sun-Uk Kim, Ji-Su Kim, Bo-Woong Sim, Bong-Seok Song, Kang-Jin Jeong, Youngjeon Lee, Yeung Bae Jin, Philyong Kang, Jae-Won Huh, Kyu-Tae Chang
Cathepsin F, which is encoded by CTSF, is a cysteine proteinase ubiquitously expressed in several tissues. In a previous study, novel transcripts of the CTSF gene were identified in the crab-eating monkey deriving from the integration of an Alu element-AluYRa1. The occurrence of AluYRa1-derived alternative transcripts and the mechanism of exonization events in the CTSF gene of human, rhesus monkey, and crabeating monkey were investigated using PCR and reverse transcription PCR on the genomic DNA and cDNA isolated from several tissues...
February 14, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190325/irs-2-partially-compensates-for-the-insulin-signal-defects-in-irs-1-mice-mediated-by-mir-33
#5
Chen-Yi Tang, Xiao-Fei Man, Yue Guo, Hao-Neng Tang, Jun Tang, Ci-La Zhou, Shu-Wen Tan, Min Wang, Hou-De Zhou
Insulin signaling is coordinated by insulin receptor substrates (IRSs). Many insulin responses, especially for blood glucose metabolism, are mediated primarily through Irs-1 and Irs-2. Irs-1 knockout mice show growth retardation and insulin signaling defects, which can be compensated by other IRSs in vivo; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. Here, we presented an Irs-1 truncated mutated mouse (Irs-1-/-) with growth retardation and subcutaneous adipocyte atrophy. Irs-1-/- mice exhibited mild insulin resistance, as demonstrated by the insulin tolerance test...
February 13, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190324/cellular-dynamics-of-rad51-and-rad54-in-response-to-postreplicative-stress-and-dna-damage-in-hela-cells
#6
Eui-Hwan Choi, Seobin Yoon, Yoonsoo Hahn, Keun P Kim
Homologous recombination (HR) is necessary for maintenance of genomic integrity and prevention of various mutations in tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes. Rad51 and Rad54 are key HR factors that cope with replication stress and DNA breaks in eukaryotes. Rad51 binds to singlestranded DNA (ssDNA) to form the presynaptic filament that promotes a homology search and DNA strand exchange, and Rad54 stimulates the strand-pairing function of Rad51. Here, we studied the molecular dynamics of Rad51 and Rad54 during the cell cycle of HeLa cells...
February 13, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190323/therapeutic-benefits-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-a-rat-model-of-hemoglobin-induced-hypertensive-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#7
Rui Ding, Chunnan Lin, ShanShan Wei, Naichong Zhang, Liangang Tang, Yumao Lin, Zhijun Chen, Teng Xie, XiaoWei Chen, Yu Feng, LiHua Wu
Previous studies have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation significantly improves the recovery of neurological function in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage. Potential repair mechanisms involve antiinflammation, anti-apoptosis and angiogenesis. However, few studies have focused on the effects of MSCs on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and subsequent peroxynitrite formation after hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH). In this study, MSCs were transplanted intracerebrally into rats 6 hours after HICH...
February 13, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927008/microrna-296-5p-promotes-invasiveness-through-downregulation-of-nerve-growth-factor-receptor-and-caspase-8
#8
Hong Lee, Chang Hoon Shin, Hye Ree Kim, Kyung Hee Choi, Hyeon Ho Kim
Glioblastomas (GBM) are very difficult to treat and their aggressiveness is one of the main reasons for this as well as for the frequent recurrences. MicroRNAs posttranscriptionally regulate their target genes through interaction between their seed sequence and 3'UTR of the target mRNAs. We previously reported that miR-296-3p is regulated by neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) and enhances the invasiveness of GBM cells via SOCS2/STAT3. In this study, we investigated whether miR-296-5p, which originates from the same precursor miRNA as miR-296-3p, can increase the invasiveness of GBM cells...
December 8, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152305/concurrent-hypermethylation-of-sfrp2-and-dkk2-activates-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-and-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#9
Hao Wang, Xiang-Long Duan, Xiao-Li Qi, Lei Meng, Yi-Song Xu, Tong Wu, Peng-Gao Dai
Aberrant hypermethylation of Wnt antagonists has been observed in gastric cancer. A number of studies have focused on the hypermethylation of a single Wnt antagonist and its role in regulating the activation of signaling. However, how the Wnt antagonists interacted to regulate the signaling pathway has not been reported. In the present study, we systematically investigated the methylation of some Wnt antagonist genes (SFRP2, SFRP4, SFRP5, DKK1, DKK2, and APC) and their regulatory role in carcinogenesis. We found that aberrant promoter methylation of SFRP2, SFRP4, DKK1, and DKK2 was significantly increased in gastric cancer...
January 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152304/pkc%C3%AE-mediated-pdk1-phosphorylation-enhances-t-cell-activation-by-increasing-pdk1-stability
#10
Jung-Ah Kang, Hyunwoo Choi, Taewoo Yang, Steve K Cho, Zee-Yong Park, Sung-Gyoo Park
PDK1 is essential for T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of NF-κB, and PDK1-induced phosphorylation of PKCθ is important for TCR-induced NF-κB activation. However, inverse regulation of PDK1 by PKCθ during T cell activation has not been investigated. In this study, we found that PKCθ is involved in human PDK1 phosphorylation and that its kinase activity is crucial for human PDK1 phosphorylation. Mass spectrometry analysis of wild-type PKCθ or of kinase-inactive form of PKCθ revealed that PKCθ induced phosphorylation of human PDK1 at Ser-64...
January 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152303/epigenetic-regulation-of-axon-regeneration-after-neural-injury
#11
REVIEW
Jung Eun Shin, Yongcheol Cho
When peripheral axons are damaged, neuronal injury signaling pathways induce transcriptional changes that support axon regeneration and consequent functional recovery. The recent development of bioinformatics techniques has allowed for the identification of many of the regeneration-associated genes that are regulated by neural injury, yet it remains unclear how global changes in transcriptome are coordinated. In this article, we review recent studies on the epigenetic mechanisms orchestrating changes in gene expression in response to nerve injury...
January 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152302/sr-proteins-binders-regulators-and-connectors-of-rna
#12
REVIEW
Sunjoo Jeong
Serine and arginine-rich (SR) proteins are RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) known as constitutive and alternative splicing regulators. As splicing is linked to transcriptional and post-transcriptional steps, SR proteins are implicated in the regulation of multiple aspects of the gene expression program. Recent global analyses of SR-RNA interaction maps have advanced our understanding of SR-regulated gene expression. Diverse SR proteins play partially overlapping but distinct roles in transcription-coupled splicing and mRNA processing in the nucleus...
January 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152301/potentiation-of-t-cell-stimulatory-activity-by-chemical-fixation-of-a-weak-peptide-mhc-complex
#13
Inkyu Hwang, Kwangmi Kim, Sojin Choi, Maria Lomunova
The stability of peptide-MHC complex (pMHC) is an important factor to shape the fate of peptide-specific T cell immune response, but how it influences on T cell activation process is poorly understood. To better understand that, we investigated various T cell activation events driven by L(d) MHCI loaded with graded concentrations of P2Ca and QL9 peptides, respectively, with 2C TCR Tg T cells; the binding strength of P2Ca for L(d) is measurably weaker than that of QL9, but either peptides in the context of L(d) interact with 2C TCR with a similar strength...
January 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152300/map-kinase-mediated-negative-regulation-of-symbiotic-nodule-formation-in-medicago-truncatula
#14
Hojin Ryu, Carole Laffont, Florian Frugier, Ildoo Hwang
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades play critical roles in various cellular events in plants, including stress responses, innate immunity, hormone signaling, and cell specificity. MAPK-mediated stress signaling is also known to negatively regulate nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interactions, but the molecular mechanism of the MAPK signaling cascades underlying the symbiotic nodule development remains largely unknown. We show that the MtMKK5-MtMPK3/6 signaling module negatively regulates the early symbiotic nodule formation, probably upstream of ERN1 (ERF Required for Nodulation 1) and NSP1 (Nod factor Signaling Pathway 1) in Medicago truncatula...
January 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152299/development-of-a-reporter-system-for-in-vivo-monitoring-of-%C3%AE-secretase-activity-in-drosophila
#15
Young Gi Hong, Seyun Roh, Donggi Paik, Sangyun Jeong
The γ-secretase complex represents an evolutionarily conserved family of transmembrane aspartyl proteases that cleave numerous type-I membrane proteins, including the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the receptor Notch. All known rare mutations in APP and the γ-secretase catalytic component, presenilin, which lead to increased amyloid βpeptide production, are responsible for early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. β-amyloid protein precursor-like (APPL) is the Drosophila ortholog of human APP. Here, we created Notch- and APPL-based Drosophila reporter systems for in vivo monitoring of γ-secretase activity...
January 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152298/salubrinal-alleviates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-by-inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-pathway
#16
Shilpa Rani, Pradeep Kumar Sreenivasaiah, Chunghee Cho, Do Han Kim
Pathological hypertrophy of the heart is closely associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), leading to maladaptations such as myocardial fibrosis, induction of apoptosis, and cardiac dysfunctions. Salubrinal is a known selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) complex involving dephosphorylation of phospho-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit (p-eIF2)-α, the key signaling process in the ERS pathway. In this study, the effects of salubrinal were examined on cardiac hypertrophy using the mouse model of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and cell model of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs)...
January 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152297/ddx53-promotes-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties-and-autophagy
#17
Hyuna Kim, Youngmi Kim, Dooil Jeoung
Although cancer/testis antigen DDX53 confers anti-cancer drug-resistance, the effect of DDX53 on cancer stem cell-like properties and autophagy remains unknown. MDA-MB-231 (CD133(+)) cells showed higher expression of DDX53, SOX-2, NANOG and MDR1 than MDA-MB-231 (CD133(-)). DDX53 increased in vitro self-renewal activity of MCF-7 while decreasing expression of DDX53 by siRNA lowered in vitro self-renewal activity of MDA-MB-231. DDX53 showed an interaction with EGFR and binding to the promoter sequences of EGFR...
January 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030897/imaging-single-mrna-localization-and-translation-in-live-neurons
#18
REVIEW
Byung Hun Lee, Seong-Woo Bae, Jaeyoun Jay Shim, Sung Young Park, Hye Yoon Park
Local protein synthesis mediates precise spatio-temporal regulation of gene expression for neuronal functions such as long-term plasticity, axon guidance and regeneration. To reveal the underlying mechanisms of local translation, it is crucial to understand mRNA transport, localization and translation in live neurons. Among various techniques for mRNA analysis, fluorescence microscopy has been widely used as the most direct method to study localization of mRNA. Live-cell imaging of single RNA molecules is particularly advantageous to dissect the highly heterogeneous and dynamic nature of messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes in neurons...
December 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030896/cancer-metabolism-fueling-more-than-just-growth
#19
REVIEW
Namgyu Lee, Dohoon Kim
The early landmark discoveries in cancer metabolism research have uncovered metabolic processes that support rapid proliferation, such as aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), glutaminolysis, and increased nucleotide biosynthesis. However, there are limitations to the effectiveness of specifically targeting the metabolic processes which support rapid proliferation. First, as other normal proliferative tissues also share similar metabolic features, they may also be affected by such treatments. Secondly, targeting proliferative metabolism may only target the highly proliferating "bulk tumor" cells and not the slower-growing, clinically relevant cancer stem cell subpopulations which may be required for an effective cure...
December 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008161/baicalein-inhibits-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-via-downregulation-of-cyr61-and-loxl-2-in-mda-mb231-breast-cancer-cells
#20
Linh Thi Thao Nguyen, Yeon Woo Song, Somi Kim Cho
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical step in the acquisition of the migratory and invasive capabilities associated with metastatic competence. Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1/Cyr61) has been implicated as an important mediator in the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer. Hence, Cyr61 and associated pathways are attractive targets for therapeutic interventions directed against the EMT. In the present study, we report that baicalein significantly inhibits the expression of Cyr61 and migration and invasion of MDA-MB231 human breast cancer cells...
December 2016: Molecules and Cells
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