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Molecules and Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927008/microrna-296-5p-promotes-invasiveness-through-downregulation-of-nerve-growth-factor-receptor-and-caspase-8
#1
Hong Lee, Chang Hoon Shin, Hye Ree Kim, Kyung Hee Choi, Hyeon Ho Kim
Glioblastomas (GBM) are very difficult to treat and their aggressiveness is one of the main reasons for this as well as for the frequent recurrences. MicroRNAs posttranscriptionally regulate their target genes through interaction between their seed sequence and 3'UTR of the target mRNAs. We previously reported that miR-296-3p is regulated by neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) and enhances the invasiveness of GBM cells via SOCS2/STAT3. In this study, we investigated whether miR-296-5p, which originates from the same precursor miRNA as miR-296-3p, can increase the invasiveness of GBM cells...
December 8, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030897/imaging-single-mrna-localization-and-translation-in-live-neurons
#2
REVIEW
Byung Hun Lee, Seong-Woo Bae, Jaeyoun Jay Shim, Sung Young Park, Hye Yoon Park
Local protein synthesis mediates precise spatio-temporal regulation of gene expression for neuronal functions such as long-term plasticity, axon guidance and regeneration. To reveal the underlying mechanisms of local translation, it is crucial to understand mRNA transport, localization and translation in live neurons. Among various techniques for mRNA analysis, fluorescence microscopy has been widely used as the most direct method to study localization of mRNA. Live-cell imaging of single RNA molecules is particularly advantageous to dissect the highly heterogeneous and dynamic nature of messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes in neurons...
December 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030896/cancer-metabolism-fueling-more-than-just-growth
#3
REVIEW
Namgyu Lee, Dohoon Kim
The early landmark discoveries in cancer metabolism research have uncovered metabolic processes that support rapid proliferation, such as aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), glutaminolysis, and increased nucleotide biosynthesis. However, there are limitations to the effectiveness of specifically targeting the metabolic processes which support rapid proliferation. First, as other normal proliferative tissues also share similar metabolic features, they may also be affected by such treatments. Secondly, targeting proliferative metabolism may only target the highly proliferating "bulk tumor" cells and not the slower-growing, clinically relevant cancer stem cell subpopulations which may be required for an effective cure...
December 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008161/baicalein-inhibits-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-via-downregulation-of-cyr61-and-loxl-2-in-mda-mb231-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Linh Thi Thao Nguyen, Yeon Woo Song, Somi Kim Cho
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical step in the acquisition of the migratory and invasive capabilities associated with metastatic competence. Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1/Cyr61) has been implicated as an important mediator in the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer. Hence, Cyr61 and associated pathways are attractive targets for therapeutic interventions directed against the EMT. In the present study, we report that baicalein significantly inhibits the expression of Cyr61 and migration and invasion of MDA-MB231 human breast cancer cells...
December 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008160/highly-expressed-integrin-%C3%AE-8-induces-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-like-features-in-multiple-myeloma-with-early-relapse
#5
Jiyeon Ryu, Youngil Koh, Hyejoo Park, Dae Yoon Kim, Dong Chan Kim, Ja Min Byun, Hyun Jung Lee, Sung-Soo Yoon
Despite recent groundbreaking advances in multiple myeloma (MM) treatment, most MM patients ultimately experience relapse, and the relapse biology is not entirely understood. To define altered gene expression in MM relapse, gene expression profiles were examined and compared among 16 MM patients grouped by 12 months progression-free survival (PFS) after autologous stem cell transplantation. To maximize the difference between prognostic groups, patients at each end of the PFS spectrum (the four with the shortest PFS and four with the longest PFS) were chosen for additional analyses...
December 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989104/dna-demethylation-of-the-foxp3-enhancer-is-maintained-through-modulation-of-ten-eleven-translocation-and-dna-methyltransferases
#6
Varun Sasidharan Nair, Mi Hye Song, Myunggon Ko, Kwon Ik Oh
Stable expression of Foxp3 is ensured by demethylation of CpG motifs in the Foxp3 intronic element, the conserved non-coding sequence 2 (CNS2), which persists throughout the lifespan of regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, little is known about the mechanisms on how CNS2 demethylation is sustained. In this study, we found that Ten-Eleven-Translocation (Tet) DNA dioxygenase protects the CpG motifs of CNS2 from re-methylation by DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) and prevents Tregs from losing Foxp3 expression under inflammatory conditions...
December 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989103/detecting-positive-selection-of-korean-native-goat-populations-using-next-generation-sequencing
#7
Wonseok Lee, Sojin Ahn, Mengistie Taye, Samsun Sung, Hyun-Jeong Lee, Seoae Cho, Heebal Kim
Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations...
December 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989102/tazarotene-induced-gene-1-enhanced-cervical-cell-autophagy-through-transmembrane-protein-192
#8
Rong-Yaun Shyu, Chun-Hua Wang, Chang-Chieh Wu, Mao-Liang Chen, Ming-Cheng Lee, Lu-Kai Wang, Shun-Yuan Jiang, Fu-Ming Tsai
Tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1) is a retinoic acid-inducible protein that is considered a putative tumor suppressor. The expression of TIG1 is decreased in malignant prostate carcinoma or poorly differentiated colorectal adenocarcinoma, but TIG1 is present in benign or well-differentiated tumors. Ectopic TIG1 expression led to suppression of growth in cancer cells. However, the function of TIG1 in cell differentiation is still unknown. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we found that transmembrane protein 192 (TMEM192) interacted with TIG1...
December 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989101/overcomes-imatinib-resistance-by-depleting-bcr-abl-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#9
Xiaoyan Sun, Xueting Cai, Jie Yang, Jiao Chen, Caixia Guo, Peng Cao
Cantharidin (CTD) is an active compound isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine blister beetle and displayed anticancer properties against various types of cancer cells. However, little is known about its effect on human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells, including imatinib-resistant CML cells. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CTD could overcome imatinib resistance in imatinib-resistant CML cells and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms associated with the effect. Our results showed that CTD strongly inhibited the growth of both imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant CML cells...
December 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927007/ginsenoside-re-inhibits-osteoclast-differentiation-in-mouse-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages-and-zebrafish-scale-model
#10
Chan-Mi Park, Hye-Min Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Ho-Jin Han, Haneul Noh, Jae-Hyuk Jang, Soo-Hyun Park, Han-Jung Chae, Soo-Wan Chae, Eun Kyoung Ryu, Sangku Lee, Kangdong Liu, Haidan Liu, Jong-Seog Ahn, Young Ock Kim, Bo-Yeon Kim, Nak-Kyun Soung
Ginsenosides, which are the active materials of ginseng, have biological functions that include anti-osteoporotic effects. Aqueous ginseng extract inhibits osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Aqueous ginseng extract produces chromatography peaks characteristic of ginsenosides. Among these peaks, ginsenoside Re is a major component. However, the preventive effects of ginsenoside Re against osteoclast differentiation are not known. We studied the effect of ginsenoside Re on osteoclast differentiation, RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, and formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vitro...
December 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871177/glucose-and-insulin-stimulate-lipogenesis-in-porcine-adipocytes-dissimilar-and-identical-regulation-pathway-for-key-transcription-factors
#11
Zhang Guo Hua, Lu Jian Xiong, Chen Yan, Dai Hong Wei, ZhaXi YingPai, Zhao Yong Qing, Qiao Zi Lin, Feng Ruo Fei, Wang Ya Ling, Ma Zhong Ren
Lipogenesis is under the concerted action of ChREBP, SREBP-1c and other transcription factors in response to glucose and insulin. The isolated porcine preadipocytes were differentiated into mature adipocytes to investigate the roles and interrelation of these transcription factors in the context of glucose- and insulin-induced lipogenesis in pigs. In ChREBP-silenced adipocytes, glucose-induced lipogenesis decreased by ~70%, however insulin-induced lipogenesis was unaffected. Moreover, insulin had no effect on ChREBP expression of unperturbed adipocytes irrespective of glucose concentration, suggesting ChREBP mediate glucose-induced lipogenesis...
November 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871176/in-vivo-angiogenic-capacity-of-stem-cells-from-human-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth-with-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#12
Ji-Hye Kim, Gee-Hye Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Hee Jang Pyeon, Jae Cheoun Lee, Gene Lee, Hyun Nam
Dental pulp is a highly vascularized tissue requiring adequate blood supply for successful regeneration. In this study, we investigated the functional role of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) as a perivascular source for in vivo formation of vessel-like structures. Primarily isolated SHEDs showed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics including the expression of surface antigens and in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials. Moreover, SHEDs were positive for NG2, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), and CD146 as pericyte markers...
November 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871175/epigenetic-changes-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Min Jee Kwon, Sunhong Kim, Myeong Hoon Han, Sung Bae Lee
Afflicted neurons in various neurodegenerative diseases generally display diverse and complex pathological features before catastrophic occurrence of massive neuronal loss at the late stages of the diseases. This complex nature of neuronal pathophysiology inevitably implicates systemwide changes in basic cellular activities such as transcriptional controls and signal cascades, and so on, as a cause. Recently, as one of these systemwide cellular changes associated with neurodegenerative diseases, epigenetic changes caused by protein toxicity have begun to be highlighted...
November 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871174/viral-inhibition-of-prr-mediated-innate-immune-response-learning-from-kshv-evasion-strategies
#14
REVIEW
Hye-Ra Lee, Un Yung Choi, Sung-Woo Hwang, Stephanie Kim, Jae U Jung
The innate immune system has evolved to detect and destroy invading pathogens before they can establish systemic infection. To successfully eradicate pathogens, including viruses, host innate immunity is activated through diverse pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which detect conserved viral signatures and trigger the production of type I interferon (IFN) and pro-inflammatory cytokines to mediate viral clearance. Viral persistence requires that viruses co-opt cellular pathways and activities for their benefit...
November 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871173/stat3-potentiates-siah-1-mediated-proteasomal-degradation-of-%C3%AE-catenin-in-human-embryonic-kidney-cells
#15
Minkyung Shin, Eun Hee Yi, Byung-Hak Kim, Jae-Cheon Shin, Jung Youl Park, Chung-Hyun Cho, Jong-Wan Park, Kang-Yell Choi, Sang-Kyu Ye
The β-catenin functions as an adhesion molecule and a component of the Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of the Wnt ligand, β-catenin is constantly phosphorylated, which designates it for degradation by the APC complex. This process is one of the key regulatory mechanisms of β-catenin. The level of β-catenin is also controlled by the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase SIAH-1 via a phosphorylation-independent degradation pathway. Similar to β-catenin, STAT3 is responsible for various cellular processes, such as survival, proliferation, and differentiation...
November 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871172/lin-23-an-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-component-is-required-for-the-repression-of-cdc-25-2-activity-during-intestinal-development-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Miseol Son, Ichiro Kawasaki, Bong-Kyeong Oh, Yhong-Hee Shim
Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) utilizes two different cell-cycle modes, binucleations during the L1 larval stage and endoreduplications at four larval moltings, for its postembryonic intestinal development. Previous genetic studies indicated that CDC-25.2 is specifically required for binucleations at the L1 larval stage and is repressed before endoreduplications. Furthermore, LIN-23, the C. elegans β-TrCP ortholog, appears to function as a repressor of CDC-25.2 to prevent excess intestinal divisions. We previously reported that intestinal hyperplasia in lin-23(e1883) mutants was effectively suppressed by the RNAi depletion of cdc-25...
November 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871171/cell-selex-based-identification-of-an-rna-aptamer-for-escherichia-coli-and-its-use-in-various-detection-formats
#17
Pooja Dua, Shuo Ren, Sang Wook Lee, Joon-Ki Kim, Hye-Su Shin, Ok-Chan Jeong, Soyoun Kim, Dong-Ki Lee
Escherichia coli are important indicator organisms, used routinely for the monitoring of water and food safety. For quick, sensitive and real-time detection of E. coli we developed a 2'F modified RNA aptamer Ec3, by Cell-SELEX. The 31 nucleotide truncated Ec3 demonstrated improved binding and low nano-molar affinity to E. coli. The aptamer developed by us out-performs the commercial antibody and aptamer used for E. coli detection. Ec3(31) aptamer based E. coli detection was done using three different detection formats and the assay sensitivities were determined...
November 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871170/allele-specific-phenotype-suggests-a-possible-stimulatory-activity-of-rcan-1-on-calcineurin-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Weixun Li, Tae-Woo Choi, Joohong Ahnn, Sun-Kyung Lee
Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) binds to calcineurin through the PxIxIT motif, which is evolutionarily conserved. SP repeat phosphorylation in RCAN1 is required for its complete function. The specific interaction between RCAN1 and calcineurin is critical for calcium/calmodulin-dependent regulation of calcineurin serine/threonine phosphatase activity. In this study, we investigated two available deletion rcan-1 mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans, which proceed differently for transcription and translation...
November 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871169/structural-and-biochemical-studies-reveal-a-putative-ftsz-recognition-site-on-the-z-ring-stabilizer-zapd
#19
Hwajung Choi, Kyungjin Min, Bunzo Mikami, Hye-Jin Yoon, Hyung Ho Lee
FtsZ, a tubulin homologue, is an essential protein of the Z-ring assembly in bacterial cell division. It consists of two domains, the N-terminal and C-terminal core domains, and has a conserved C-terminal tail region. Lateral interactions between FtsZ protofilaments and several Z-ring associated proteins (Zaps) are necessary for modulating Z-ring formation. ZapD, one of the positive regulators of Z-ring assembly, directly binds to the C-terminal tail of FtsZ and promotes stable Z-ring formation during cytokinesis...
November 30, 2016: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802588/gene-profiles-in-a-smoke-induced-copd-mouse-lung-model-following-treatment-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#20
You-Sun Kim, Nurdan Kokturk, Ji-Young Kim, Sei Won Lee, Jaeyun Lim, Soo Jin Choi, Wonil Oh, Yeon-Mok Oh
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) effectively reduce airway inflammation and regenerate the alveolus in cigarette- and elastase-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) animal models. The effects of stem cells are thought to be paracrine and immune-modulatory because very few stem cells remain in the lung one day after their systemic injection, which has been demonstrated previously. In this report, we analyzed the gene expression profiles to compare mouse lungs with chronic exposure to cigarette smoke with non-exposed lungs...
October 2016: Molecules and Cells
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