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Molecules and Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843272/inhibition-of-the-devsr-two-component-system-by-overexpression-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-pknb-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#1
Hyun-Jung Bae, Ha-Na Lee, Mi-Na Baek, Eun-Jin Park, Chi-Yong Eom, In-Jeong Ko, Ho-Young Kang, Jeong-Il Oh
The DevSR (DosSR) two-component system, which is a major regulatory system involved in oxygen sensing in mycobacteria, plays an important role in hypoxic induction of many genes in mycobacteria. We demonstrated that overexpression of the kinase domain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) PknB inhibited transcriptional activity of the DevR response regulator in Mycobacterium smegmatis and that this inhibitory effect was exerted through phosphorylation of DevR on Thr180 within its DNA-binding domain. Moreover, the purified kinase domain of Mtb PknB significantly phosphorylated RegX3, NarL, KdpE, TrcR, DosR, and MtrA response regulators of Mtb that contain the Thr residues corresponding to Thr180 of DevR in their DNA-binding domains, implying that transcriptional activities of these response regulators might also be inhibited when the kinase domain of PknB is overexpressed...
September 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927263/molecular-and-cellular-basis-of-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Sangyun Jeong
The most common form of senile dementia is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) plaques and the intracellular formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the cerebral cortex. Tau abnormalities are commonly observed in many neurodegenerative diseases including AD, Parkinson's disease, and Pick's disease. Interestingly, tau-mediated formation of NFTs in AD brains shows better correlation with cognitive impairment than Abeta plaque accumulation; pathological tau alone is sufficient to elicit frontotemporal dementia, but it does not cause AD...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927262/autophagy-is-pro-senescence-when-seen-in-close-up-but-anti-senescence-in-long-shot
#3
Yoojin Kwon, Ji Wook Kim, Jo Ae Jeoung, Mi-Sung Kim, Chanhee Kang
When mammalian cells and animals face a variety of internal or external stresses, they need to make homeostatic changes so as to cope with various stresses. To this end, mammalian cells are equipped with two critical stress responses, autophagy and cellular senescence. Autophagy and cellular senescence share a number of stimuli including telomere shortening, DNA damage, oncogenic stress and oxidative stress, suggesting their intimate relationship. Autophagy is originally thought to suppress cellular senescence by removing damaged macromolecules or organelles, yet recent studies also indicated that autophagy promotes cellular senescence by facilitating the synthesis of senescence-associated secretory proteins...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927261/hdac11-inhibits-myoblast-differentiation-through-repression-of-myod-dependent-transcription
#4
Sang Kyung Byun, Tae Hyeon An, Min Jeong Son, Da Som Lee, Hyun Sup Kang, Eun-Woo Lee, Baek Soo Han, Won Kon Kim, Kwang-Hee Bae, Kyoung-Jin Oh, Sang Chul Lee
Abnormal differentiation of muscle is closely associated with aging (sarcopenia) and diseases such as cancer and type II diabetes. Thus, understanding the mechanisms that regulate muscle differentiation will be useful in the treatment and prevention of these conditions. Protein lysine acetylation and methylation are major post-translational modification mechanisms that regulate key cellular processes. In this study, to elucidate the relationship between myogenic differentiation and protein lysine acetylation/methylation, we performed a PCR array of enzymes related to protein lysine acetylation/ methylation during C2C12 myoblast differentiation...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927260/the-roles-of-the-snare-protein-sed5-in-autophagy-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#5
Shenshen Zou, Dan Sun, Yongheng Liang
Autophagy is a degradation pathway in eukaryotic cells in which aging proteins and organelles are sequestered into double-membrane vesicles, termed autophagosomes, which fuse with vacuoles to hydrolyze cargo. The key step in autophagy is the formation of autophagosomes, which requires different kinds of vesicles, including COPII vesicles and Atg9- containing vesicles, to transport lipid double-membranes to the phagophore assembly site (PAS). In yeast, the cis-Golgi localized t-SNARE protein Sed5 plays a role in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi and intra-Golgi vesicular transport...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927259/generation-diversity-determination-and-application-to-antibody-selection-of-a-human-na%C3%A3-ve-fab-library
#6
Sangkyu Kim, Insoo Park, Seung Gu Park, Seulki Cho, Jin Hong Kim, Nagesh S Ipper, Sun Shim Choi, Eung Suk Lee, Hyo Jeong Hong
We constructed a large naïve human Fab library (3 x 1010 colonies) from the lymphocytes of 809 human donors, assessed available diversities of the heavy-chain variable (VH) and κ light-chain variable (VK) domain repertoires, and validated the library by selecting Fabs against 10 therapeutically relevant antigens by phage display. We obtained a database of unique 7,373 VH and 41,804 VK sequences by 454 pyrosequencing, and analyzed the repertoires. The distribution of VH and VK subfamilies and germline genes in our antibody repertoires slightly differed from those in earlier published natural antibody libraries...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927258/a-proteomics-based-approach-reveals-differential-regulation-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-proteins-between-metabolically-healthy-and-unhealthy-obese-patients
#7
Assim A Alfadda, Afshan Masood, Mohammed Y Al-Naami, Pierre Chaurand, Hicham Benabdelkamel
Obesity and the metabolic disorders that constitute metabolic syndrome are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Nonetheless, the changes in the proteins and the underlying molecular pathways involved in the relevant pathogenesis are poorly understood.In this study a proteomic analysis of the visceral adipose tissue isolated from metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese patients was used to identify presence of altered pathway(s) leading to metabolic dysfunction. Samples were obtained from 18 obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and were subdivided into two groups based on the presence or absence of comorbidities as defined by the International Diabetes Federation...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927264/comparative-interactomes-of-vrk1-and-vrk3-with-their-distinct-roles-in-the-cell-cycle-of-liver-cancer
#8
Namgyu Lee, Dae-Kyum Kim, Seung Hyun Han, Hye Guk Ryu, Sung Jin Park, Kyong-Tai Kim, Kwan Yong Choi
Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) and VRK3 are members of the VRK family of serine/threonine kinases and are principally localized in the nucleus. Despite the crucial roles of VRK1/ VRK3 in physiology and disease, the molecular and functional interactions of VRK1/VRK3 are poorly understood. Here, we identified over 200 unreported VRK1/VRK3-interacting candidate proteins by affinity purification and LC-MS/MS. The networks of VRK1 and VRK3 interactomes were found to be associated with important biological processes such as the cell cycle, DNA repair, chromatin assembly, and RNA processing...
August 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843271/vitamin-d-proliferates-vaginal-epithelium-through-rhoa-expression-in-postmenopausal-atrophic-vagina-tissue
#9
Arum Lee, Man Ryul Lee, Hae-Hyeog Lee, Yeon-Suk Kim, Jun-Mo Kim, Temuulee Enkhbold, Tae-Hee Kim
Postmenopausal atrophic vagina (PAV) is the thinning of the walls of the vagina and decreased lugae of the vagina. PAV is caused by decreased estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. However, the harmful effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have resulted in considerable caution in its use. Various estrogen agonist treatment options are available. Vitamin D is influences the regulation of differentiation and proliferation of various cells, especially tissues lining stratified squamous epithelium, such as the vaginal epithelium...
August 25, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835022/application-of-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-to-the-study-of-brain-function-in-humans-and-animal-models
#10
REVIEW
Hak Yeong Kim, Kain Seo, Hong Jin Jeon, Unjoo Lee, Hyosang Lee
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique that indirectly assesses neuronal activity by measuring changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in tissues using near-infrared light. fNIRS has been used not only to investigate cortical activity in healthy human subjects and animals but also to reveal abnormalities in brain function in patients suffering from neurological and psychiatric disorders and in animals that exhibit disease conditions. Because of its safety, quietness, resistance to motion artifacts, and portability, fNIRS has become a tool to complement conventional imaging techniques in measuring hemodynamic responses while a subject performs diverse cognitive and behavioral tasks in test settings that are more ecologically relevant and involve social interaction...
August 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835021/engineering-and-application-of-zinc-finger-proteins-and-tales-for-biomedical-research
#11
REVIEW
Moon-Soo Kim, Anu Ganesh Kini
Engineered DNA-binding domains provide a powerful technology for numerous biomedical studies due to their ability to recognize specific DNA sequences. Zinc fingers (ZF) are one of the most common DNA-binding domains and have been extensively studied for a variety of applications, such as gene regulation, genome engineering and diagnostics. Another novel DNA-binding domain known as a transcriptional activator-like effector (TALE) has been more recently discovered, which has a previously undescribed DNA-binding mode...
August 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835020/effects-of-adenoviral-gene-transduction-on-the-stemness-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Subash Marasini, Da-Young Chang, Jin-Hwa Jung, Su-Jung Lee, Hye Lim Cha, Haeyoung Suh-Kim, Sung-Soo Kim
Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are currently being evaluated as a cell-based therapy for tissue injury and degenerative diseases. Recently, several methods have been suggested to further enhance the therapeutic functions of MSCs, including genetic modifications with tissue- and/or disease-specific genes. The objective of this study was to examine the efficiency and stability of transduction using an adenoviral vector in human MSCs. Additionally, we aimed to assess the effects of transduction on the proliferation and multipotency of MSCs...
August 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835019/small-rna-transcriptome-of-hibiscus-syriacus-provides-insights-into-the-potential-influence-of-micrornas-in-flower-development-and-terpene-synthesis
#13
Taewook Kim, June Hyun Park, Sang-Gil Lee, Soyoung Kim, Jihyun Kim, Jungho Lee, Chanseok Shin
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential small RNA molecules that regulate the expression of target mRNAs in plants and animals. Here, we aimed to identify miRNAs and their putative targets in Hibiscus syriacus, the national flower of South Korea. We employed high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs obtained from four different tissues (i.e., leaf, root, flower, and ovary) and identified 33 conserved and 30 novel miRNA families, many of which showed differential tissue-specific expressions. In addition, we computationally predicted novel targets of miRNAs and validated some of them using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis...
August 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835018/effect-of-fgf-2-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-bmps-on-teno-ligamentogenesis-and-osteo-cementogenesis-of-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells
#14
Sun-Yi Hyun, Ji-Hye Lee, Kyung-Jung Kang, Young-Joo Jang
The periodontal ligament (PDL) is the connective tissue between tooth root and alveolar bone containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). It has been suggested that human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) differentiate into osteo/cementoblast and ligament progenitor cells. The periodontitis is a representative oral disease where the PDL tissue is collapsed, and regeneration of this tissue is important in periodontitis therapy. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) stimulates proliferation and differentiation of fibroblastic MSCs into various cell lineages...
August 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835017/cariporide-enhances-the-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-in-acid-tolerable-malignant-mesothelioma-h-2452-cells
#15
Yoon-Jin Lee, Jin-Ho Bae, Soo-A Kim, Sung-Ho Kim, Kee-Min Woo, Hae-Seon Nam, Moon-Kyun Cho, Sang-Han Lee
The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger is responsible for maintaining the acidic tumor microenvironment through its promotion of the reabsorption of extracellular Na(+) and the extrusion of intracellular H(+). The resultant increase in the extracellular acidity contributes to the chemoresistance of malignant tumors. In this study, the chemosensitizing effects of cariporide, a potent Na(+)/H(+)-exchange inhibitor, were evaluated in human malignant mesothelioma H-2452 cells preadapted with lactic acid. A higher basal level of phosphorylated (p)-AKT protein was found in the acid-tolerable H-2452AcT cells compared with their parental acid-sensitive H-2452 cells...
August 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756655/the-arabidopsis-phytocystatin-atcys5-enhances-seed-germination-and-seedling-growth-under-heat-stress-conditions
#16
Chieun Song, Taeyoon Kim, Woo Sik Chung, Chae Oh Lim
Phytocystatins (PhyCYSs) are plant-specific proteinaceous inhibitors that are implicated in protein turnover and stress responses. Here, we characterized a PhyCYS from Arabidopsis thaliana, which was designated AtCYS5. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression of AtCYS5 in germinating seeds was induced by heat stress (HS) and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Analysis of the expression of the β-glucuronidase reporter gene under the control of the AtCYS5 promoter showed that AtCYS5 expression during seed germination was induced by HS and ABA...
August 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756654/adverse-effect-of-superovulation-treatment-on-maturation-function-and-ultrastructural-integrity-of-murine-oocytes
#17
Myungook Lee, Jong Il Ahn, Ah Ran Lee, Dong Woo Ko, Woo Sub Yang, Gene Lee, Ji Yeon Ahn, Jeong Mook Lim
Regular monitoring on experimental animal management found the fluctuation of ART outcome, which showed a necessity to explore whether superovulation treatment is responsible for such unexpected outcome. This study was subsequently conducted to examine whether superovulation treatment can preserve ultrastructural integrity and developmental competence of oocytes following oocyte activation and embryo culture. A randomized study using mouse model was designed and in vitro development (experiment 1), ultrastructural morphology (experiment 2) and functional integrity of the oocytes (experiment 3) retrieved after PMSG/hCG injection (superovulation group) or not (natural ovulation; control group) were evaluated...
August 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756653/mir-23a-regulates-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-by-targeting-manganese-superoxide-dismutase
#18
Bo Long, Tian-Yi Gan, Rong-Cheng Zhang, Yu-Hui Zhang
Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is initiated by various cellular insults and accumulated cardiomyocyte apoptosis leads to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) provoke apoptotic cascades. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is an important antioxidant enzyme that converts cellular ROS into harmless products. In this study, we demonstrate that MnSOD is down-regulated upon hydrogen peroxide treatment or ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Enhanced expression of MnSOD attenuates cardiomyocyte apoptosis and myocardial infarction induced by I/R injury...
August 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780783/implications-of-circadian-rhythm-in-dopamine-and-mood-regulation
#19
REVIEW
Jeongah Kim, Sangwon Jang, Han Kyoung Choe, Sooyoung Chung, Gi Hoon Son, Kyungjin Kim
Mammalian physiology and behavior are regulated by an internal time-keeping system, referred to as circadian rhythm. The circadian timing system has a hierarchical organization composed of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and local clocks in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral organs. The circadian clock molecular mechanism involves a network of transcription-translation feedback loops. In addition to the clinical association between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders, recent studies have suggested a molecular link between mood regulation and circadian rhythm...
July 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743182/crosstalk-and-interplay-between-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-and-autophagy
#20
REVIEW
Chang Hoon Ji, Yong Tae Kwon
Proteolysis in eukaryotic cells is mainly mediated by the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system (UPS) and the autophagylysosome system (hereafter autophagy). The UPS is a selective proteolytic system in which substrates are recognized and tagged with ubiquitin for processive degradation by the proteasome. Autophagy is a bulk degradative system that uses lysosomal hydrolases to degrade proteins as well as various other cellular constituents. Since the inception of their discoveries, the UPS and autophagy were thought to be independent of each other in components, action mechanisms, and substrate selectivity...
July 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
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