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Molecules and Cells

Seoung Youn Won, Ho Min Kim
Leukocyte common antigen-related protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs) are cellular receptors of heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans that regulate neurite outgrowth and neuronal regeneration. LAR-RPTPs have also received particular attention as the major presynaptic hubs for synapse organization through selective binding to numerous postsynaptic adhesion partners. Recent structural studies on LAR-RPTP-mediated trans-synaptic adhesion complexes have provided significant insight into the molecular basis of their specific interactions, the key codes for their selective binding, as well as the higher-order clustering of LARRPTPs necessary for synaptogenic activity...
July 11, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Jeong-Oh Shin, Jong-Joo Lee, Mikyoung Kim, Youn Wook Chung, Hyehyun Min, Jae-Yoon Kim, Hyoung-Pyo Kim, Jinwoong Bok
The inner ear is a complex sensory organ responsible for hearing and balance. Formation of the inner ear is dependent on tight regulation of spatial and temporal expression of genes that direct a series of developmental processes. Recently, epigenetic regulation has emerged as a crucial regulator of the development of various organs. However, what roles higher-order chromatin organization and its regulator molecules play in inner ear development are unclear. CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a highly conserved 11-zinc finger protein that regulates the three-dimensional architecture of chromatin, and is involved in various gene regulation processes...
July 11, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Seung-Won Lee, Guangming Wu, Na Young Choi, Hye Jeong Lee, Jin Seok Bang, Yukyeong Lee, Minseong Lee, Kisung Ko, Hans R Schöler, Kinarm Ko
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) derived from mouse testis are unipotent in regard of spermatogenesis. Our previous study demonstrated that SSCs can be fully reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells, so called germline-derived pluripotent stem cells (gPS cells), on feeder cells (mouse embryonic fibroblasts), which supports SSC proliferation and induction of pluripotency. Because of an uncontrollable microenvironment caused by interactions with feeder cells, feeder-based SSC reprogramming is not suitable for elucidation of the selfreprogramming mechanism by which SSCs are converted into pluripotent stem cells...
July 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Suyeon Kim, Charny Park, Yukyung Jun, Sanghyuk Lee, Yeonjoo Jung, Jaesang Kim
Mutations in spliceosome components have been implicated in carcinogenesis of various types of cancer. One of the most frequently found is U2AF1 S34F missense mutation. Functional analyses of this mutation have been largely limited to hematological malignancies although the mutation is also frequently seen in other cancer types including lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). We examined the impact of knockdown (KD) of wild type (wt) U2AF1 and ectopic expression of two splice variant S34F mutant proteins in terms of alternative splicing (AS) pattern and cell cycle progression in A549 lung cancer cells...
July 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Lae-Hyeon Cho, Jinmi Yoon, Antt Htet Wai, Gynheung An
Rice is a facultative short-day (SD) plant in which flowering is induced under SD conditions or by other environmental factors and internal genetic programs. Overexpression of Histone  Deacetylase 701 ( HDT701 ) accelerates flowering in hybrid rice. In this study, mutants defective in HDT701 flowered late under both SD and long-day conditions. Expression levels of florigens Heading date 3a ( Hd3a ) and Rice Flowering Locus  T1 ( RFT1 ), and their immediate upstream floral activator Early  heading date 1 ( Ehd1 ), were significantly decreased in the  hdt701 mutants, indicating that HDT701 functions upstream of Ehd1 in controlling flowering time...
July 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Geun Cheol Song, Choong-Min Ryu
Plant defence responses to various biotic stresses via systemic acquired resistance (SAR) are induced by avirulent pathogens and chemical compounds, including certain plant hormones in volatile form, such as methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate. SAR refers to the observation that, when a local part of a plant is exposed to elicitors, the entire plant exhibits a resistance response. In the natural environment, plants are continuously exposed to avirulent pathogens that induce SAR and volatile emissions affecting neighbouring plants as well as the plant itself...
July 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Yun-Suk Lee, Kyung-Mee Park, Lina Yu, Ho-Hyun Kwak, Hee-Jun Na, Kyung-Sun Kang, Heung-Myong Woo
Liver transplantation is recommended for patients with liver failure, but liver donors are limited. This necessitates the development of artificial livers, and hepatocytes are necessary to develop such artificial livers. Although induced hepatocytelike cells are used in artificial livers, the characteristics of mouse induced hepatocyte-like cells (miHeps) reprogrammed with embryonic fibroblasts have not yet been clarified. Therefore, this study investigated the mechanisms underlying the survival, function, and death of miHeps...
July 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Nayoung Lee, Jina Park, Yong Chul Bae, Jung Ho Lee, Chul Hoon Kim, Seok Jun Moon
Cilia are highly specialized antennae-like organelles that extend from the cell surface and act as cell signaling hubs. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a specialized form of intracellular protein trafficking that is required for the assembly and maintenance of cilia. Because cilia are so important, mutations in several IFT components lead to human disease. Thus, clarifying the molecular functions of the IFT proteins is a high priority in cilia biology. Live imaging in various species and cellular preparations has proven to be an important technique in both the discovery of IFT and the mechanisms by which it functions...
July 9, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Young Jin, Long You, Hye Jeong Kim, Han-Woong Lee
Upregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression is an important factor in the cellular survival and cancer. Although growing evidence suggests that hTERT inhibits cellular apoptosis by telomere-independent functions, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Here, we show that hTERT contains a BH3-like motif, a short peptide sequence found in BCL-2 family proteins, and interacts with anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins MCL-1 and BCL-xL, suggesting a functional link between hTERT and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis...
June 25, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Seeta Poudel, Youngseok Lee
Neurodegeneration can result in memory loss in the central nervous system (CNS) and impairment of taste and smell in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The neurodegeneration seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by functional loss of dopaminergic neurons. Recent studies have also found a role for dopaminergic neurons in regulating taste memory rewards in insects. To investigate how taste memories and sugar sensitivity can be affected in PD, we utilized the DJ-1β mutant fruit fly, DJ-1βex54, as a PD model...
June 25, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Jian Guo, Huiheng Qu, Ting Shan, Yigang Chen, Ye Chen, Jiazeng Xia
The RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) binds to adenosine- uridine AU-rich elements in the 3'-untranslated region of messenger RNAs and facilitates rapid degradation of the target mRNAs. Therefore, it regulates the expression of multiple cancer and immunity-associated transcripts. Furthermore, a lack of TTP in cancer cells influences cancer progression and predicts poor survival. Although the functions of TTP on cancer cells have previously been researched, the mechanism of TTP on the interaction between cancer cells with their microenvironment remains undiscovered...
June 25, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Yanqing Jiang, Peter Park, Sang-Min Hong, Kiwon Ban
The capacity of differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which include both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, into cardiomyocytes (CMs) in vitro provides an unlimited resource for human CMs for a wide range of applications such as cell based cardiac repair, cardiac drug toxicology screening, and human cardiac disease modeling. However, their applicability is significantly limited by immature phenotypes. It has been well known that currently available CMs derived from hPSCs (hPSC-CMs) represent immature embryonic or fetal stage CMs and are functionally and structurally different from mature human CMs...
June 12, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Ha Youn Shin
The transcriptional regulation of genes determines the fate of animal cell differentiation and subsequent organ development. With the recent progress in genome-wide technologies, the genomic landscapes of enhancers have been broadly explored in mammalian genomes, which led to the discovery of novel specific subsets of enhancers, termed superenhancers. Super-enhancers are large clusters of enhancers covering the long region of regulatory DNA and are densely occupied by transcription factors, active histone marks, and co-activators...
May 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Anshuman Mishra, Gyu-Hwi Nam, Jeong-An Gim, Hee-Eun Lee, Ara Jo, Heui-Soo Kim
Several bacterial etiological agents of streptococcal disease have been associated with fish mortality and serious global economic loss. Bacterial identification based on biochemical, molecular, and phenotypic methods has been routinely used, along with assessment of morphological analyses. Among these, the molecular method of 16S rRNA sequencing is reliable, but presently, advanced genomics are preferred over other traditional identification methodologies. This review highlights the geographical variation in strains, their relatedness, as well as the complexity of diagnosis, pathogenesis, and various control methods of streptococcal infections...
May 10, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Zi-Wen Long, Jiang-Hong Wu, Cai-Hong, Ya-Nong Wang, Ye Zhou
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In order to investigate a new treatment fot GIST, we hypothesized the effect of miR-374b targeting PTEN gene-mediated PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathway on proliferation and apoptosis of human gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) cells. We obtained GIST tissues and adjacent normal tissues from 143 patients with GIST to measure the levels of miR-374b, PTEN, PI3K, Akt, caspase9, Bax, MMP2, MMP9, ki67, PCNA, P53 and cyclinD1...
June 2018: Molecules and Cells
Tao Zheng, Tian-Biao Zhang, Chao-Liang Wang, Wei-Xing Zhang, Dong-Hui Jia, Fan Yang, Yang-Yang Sun, Xiao-Ju Ding, Rui Wang
Icariside II (ICA II) is used in erectile dysfunction treatment. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are efficient at improving erectile function. This study aimed to explore the action mechanism of ADSCs in improving erectile function. ADSCs were isolated from the adipose tissues of rats. Cell proliferation was determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The expressions of mRNA and protein were determined separately through qRT-PCR and western blot. The endogenous expressions of related genes were regulated using recombinant plasmids and cell transfection...
June 2018: Molecules and Cells
Chun-Hua Wang, Rong-Yaun Shyu, Chang-Chieh Wu, Mao-Liang Chen, Ming-Cheng Lee, Yi-Yin Lin, Lu-Kai Wang, Shun-Yuan Jiang, Fu-Ming Tsai
The tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1) protein is a retinoid-inducible growth regulator and is considered a tumor suppressor. Here, we show that DnaJ heat shock protein family member C8 (DNAJC8) is a TIG1 target that regulates glycolysis. Ectopic DNAJC8 expression induced the translocation of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) into the nucleus, subsequently inducing glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression to promote glucose uptake. Silencing either DNAJC8 or PKM2 alleviated the upregulation of GLUT1 expression and glucose uptake induced by ectopic DNAJC8 expression...
June 2018: Molecules and Cells
Hyun Nam, Ji-Hye Kim, Ji-Yoon Hwang, Gee-Hye Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Mi Jang, Jong-Ho Lee, Kyungpyo Park, Gene Lee
Patients with head and neck cancer are treated with therapeutic irradiation, which can result in irreversible salivary gland dysfunction. Because there is no complete cure for such patients, stem cell therapy is an emerging alternative for functional restoration of salivary glands. In this study, we investigated in vitro characteristics of primarily isolated epithelial cells from human salivary gland (Epi-SGs) and in vivo formation of acini-like structures by Epi-SGs. Primarily isolated Epi-SGs showed typical epithelial cell-like morphology and expressed E-cadherin but not N-cadherin...
June 2018: Molecules and Cells
Gen Li, Li Li, Qi Sun, Jiezhou Wu, Wei Ge, Guanghua Lu, Ming Cai
Tumour metastasis is one of the most serious challenges of cancer as it is the major cause of mortality in patients with solid tumours, including osteosarcoma (OS). In this regard, anti-metastatic genes have potential for metastasis inhibition strategies. Recent evidence showed the importance of breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) in control of OS invasiveness, but the regulation of BRMS1 in OS remains largely unknown. Here, we used bioinformatics analyses to predict BRMS1-targeting microRNAs (miRNAs), and the functional binding of miRNAs to BRMS1 mRNA was evaluated using a dual luciferase reporter assay...
June 2018: Molecules and Cells
Sang Jae Lee, Jang-Sik Choi, Seoung Min Bong, Hae-Jun Hwang, Jaesang Lee, Ho-Juhn Song, Jaekyoo Lee, Jung-Ho Kim, Jong Sung Koh, Byung Il Lee
Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a cytosolic non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase. Because SYK mediates key receptor signaling pathways involving the B cell receptor and Fc receptors, SYK is an attractive target for autoimmune disease and cancer treatments. To date, representative oral SYK inhibitors, including fostamatinib (R406 or R788), entospletinib (GS-9973), cerdulatinib (PRT062070), and TAK-659, have been assessed in clinical trials. Here, we report the crystal structures of SYK in complex with two newly developed inhibitors possessing 4-aminopyrido[4,3-D]pyrimidine moieties (SKI-G-618 and SKI-O-85)...
June 2018: Molecules and Cells
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