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Molecules and Cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681595/assessment-of-the-therapeutic-potential-of-persimmon-leaf-extract-on-prediabetic-subjects
#1
Mohd M Khan, Bao Quoc Tran, Yoon-Jin Jang, Soo-Hyun Park, William E Fondrie, Khadiza Chowdhury, Sung Hwan Yoon, David R Goodlett, Soo-Wan Chae, Han-Jung Chae, Seung-Young Seo, Young Ah Goo
Dietary supplements have exhibited myriads of positive health effects on human health conditions and with the advent of new technological advances, including in the fields of proteomics, genomics, and metabolomics, biological and pharmacological activities of dietary supplements are being evaluated for their ameliorative effects in human ailments. Recent interests in understanding and discovering the molecular targets of phytochemical-gene-protein-metabolite dynamics resulted in discovery of a few protein signature candidates that could potentially be used to assess the effects of dietary supplements on human health...
July 6, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681594/chop-deficiency-ameliorates-erk5-inhibition-mediated-exacerbation-of-streptozotocin-induced-hyperglycemia-and-pancreatic-beta-cell-apoptosis
#2
Dae-Hwan Nam, Jung-Hwa Han, Jae Hyang Lim, Kwon Moo Park, Chang-Hoon Woo
Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced murine models of type 1 diabetes have been used to examine ER stress during pancreatic beta- cell apoptosis, as this ER stress plays important roles in the pathogenesis and development of the disease. However, the mechanisms linking type 1 diabetes and the ER stressmodulating anti-diabetic signaling pathway remain to be addressed, though it was recently established that ERK5 (Extracellular- signal-regulated kinase 5) contributes to the pathogeneses of diabetic complications. This study was undertaken to explore the mechanism whereby ERK5 inhibition instigates pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis via an ER stress-dependent signaling pathway...
July 6, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681591/o-glcnacylation-of-nf-kappab-promotes-lung-metastasis-of-cervical-cancer-cells-via-upregulation-of-cxcr4-expression
#3
Akhtar Ali, Sung Hwan Kim, Min Jun Kim, Mee Young Choi, Sang Soo Kang, Gyeong Jae Cho, Yoon Sook Kim, Jun-Young Choi, Wan Sung Choi
C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) stimulates cancer metastasis. NF-kappaB regulates CXCR4 expression in cancer cells, and O-GlcNAc modification of NF-kappaB promotes its transcriptional activity. Here, we determined whether CXCR4 expression is affected by O-GlcNAcylation of NF-kappaB in lung metastasis of cervical cancer. We found elevated levels of O-linked-Nactylglucosamine transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcylation in cervical cancer cells compared to those in non-malignant epithelial cells and detected increased expression of NF-kappaB p65 (p65) and CXCR4 in cervical cancer cells...
July 6, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681593/5-hydroxytryptamine-6-receptor-5-ht6r-mediated-morphological-changes-via-rhoa-dependent-pathways
#4
Md Ataur Rahman, Hanna Kim, Kang Ho Lee, Hyung-Mun Yun, Jung-Hwa Hong, Youngjae Kim, Hyunah Choo, Mikyoung Park, Hyewhon Rhim
The 5-HT6R has been considered as an attractive therapeutic target in the brain due to its exclusive expression in the brain. However, the mechanistic linkage between 5-HT6Rs and brain functions remains poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of 5-HT6R-mediated cell morphological changes using immunocytochemistry, Western blot, and live-cell imaging assays. Our results showed that the activation of 5-HT6Rs caused morphological changes and increased cell surface area in HEK293 cells expressing 5-HT6Rs...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681592/oleanolic-acid-promotes-neuronal-differentiation-and-histone-deacetylase-5-phosphorylation-in-rat-hippocampal-neurons
#5
Hye-Ryeong Jo, Sung Eun Wang, Yong-Seok Kim, Chang Ho Lee, Hyeon Son
Oleanolic acid (OA) has neurotrophic effects on neurons, although its use as a neurological drug requires further research. In the present study, we investigated the effects of OA and OA derivatives on the neuronal differentiation of rat hippocampal neural progenitor cells. In addition, we investigated whether the class II histone deacetylase (HDAC) 5 mediates the gene expression induced by OA. We found that OA and OA derivatives induced the formation of neurite spines and the expression of synapse-related molecules...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724279/alterations-in-striatal-circuits-underlying-addiction-like-behaviors
#6
REVIEW
Hyun Jin Kim, Joo Han Lee, Kyunghwa Yun, Joung-Hun Kim
Drug addiction is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by the compulsive pursuit of drugs of abuse despite potential adverse consequences. Although several decades of studies have revealed that psychostimulant use can result in extensive alterations of neural circuits and physiology, no effective therapeutic strategies or medicines for drug addiction currently exist. Changes in neuronal connectivity and regulation occurring after repeated drug exposure contribute to addiction-like behaviors in animal models...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614918/the-significance-of-sdf-1%C3%AE-cxcr4-axis-in-in-vivo-angiogenic-ability-of-human-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells
#7
Yoon-Kyung Bae, Gee-Hye Kim, Jae Cheoun Lee, Byoung-Moo Seo, Kyeung-Min Joo, Gene Lee, Hyun Nam
Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are multipotent stem cells derived from periodontium and have mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics. Recently, the perivascular region was recognized as the developmental origin of MSCs, which suggests the in vivo angiogenic potential of PDLSCs. In this study, we investigated whether PDLSCs could be a potential source of perivascular cells, which could contribute to in vivo angiogenesis. PDLSCs exhibited typical MSC-like characteristics such as the expression pattern of surface markers (CD29, CD44, CD73, and CD105) and differentiation potentials (osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation)...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614917/cell-death-associated-ribosomal-rna-cleavage-in-postmortem-tissues-and-its-forensic-applications
#8
Ji Yeon Kim, Yunmi Kim, Hyo Kyeong Cha, Hye Young Lim, Hyungsub Kim, Sooyoung Chung, Juck-Joon Hwang, Seong Hwan Park, Gi Hoon Son
Estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is a key issue in the field of forensic pathology. With the availability of quantitative analysis of RNA levels in postmortem tissues, several studies have assessed the postmortem degradation of constitutively expressed RNA species to estimate PMI. However, conventional RNA quantification as well as biochemical and physiological changes employed thus far have limitations related to standardization or normalization. The present study focuses on an interesting feature of the subdomains of certain RNA species, in which they are site-specifically cleaved during apoptotic cell death...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614916/gestational-diabetes-affects-the-growth-and-functions-of-perivascular-stem-cells
#9
Borim An, Eunbi Kim, Haengseok Song, Kwon-Soo Ha, Eun-Taek Han, Won Sun Park, Tae Gyu Ahn, Se-Ran Yang, Sunghun Na, Seok-Ho Hong
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), one of the common metabolic disorders of pregnancy, leads to functional alterations in various cells including stem cells as well as some abnormalities in fetal development. Perivascular stem cells (PVCs) have gained more attention in recent years, for the treatment of various diseases. However, the effect of GDM on PVC function has not been investigated. In our study, we isolated PVCs from umbilical cord of normal pregnant women and GDM patients and compared their phenotypes and function...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614915/identification-of-an-enhancer-critical-for-the-ephirn-a5-gene-expression-in-the-posterior-region-of-the-mesencephalon
#10
Eunjeong Park, Hyuna Noh, Soochul Park
Ephrin-A5 has been implicated in the regulation of brain morphogenesis and axon pathfinding. In this study, we used bacterial homologous recombination to express a LacZ reporter in various ephrin-A5 BAC clones to identify elements that regulate ephrin-A5 gene expression during mesencephalon development. We found that there is mesencephalon-specific enhancer activity localized to a specific +25.0 kb to +30.5 kb genomic region in the first intron of ephrin-A5. Further comparative genomic analysis indicated that two evolutionary conserved regions, ECR1 and ECR2, were present within this 5...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614914/ip-10-expression-in-patients-with-chronic-hbv-infection-and-its-ability-to-predict-the-decrease-in-hbsag-levels-after-treatment-with-entecavir
#11
Kai Zhao, Tao Yang, Mimi Sun, Wei Zhang, Yong An, Gang Chen, Lei Jin, Qinghua Shang, Wengang Song
Interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), also known as chemokine C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) 10, is closely associated with antiviral immunity and the progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, the value of baseline serological and histological IP-10 expression levels in predicting the efficacy of the antiviral response to nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) is still unknown. In our research, intrahepatic and peripheral IP-10 expression levels were systemically examined before and after treatment with entecavir (ETV)...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614913/the-fungal-metabolite-brefeldin-a-inhibits-dvl2-plk1-dependent-primary-cilium-disassembly
#12
Uijeong Lee, Sun-Ok Kim, Jeong-Ah Hwang, Jae-Hyuk Jang, Sangkeun Son, In-Ja Ryoo, Jong Seog Ahn, Bo Yeon Kim, Kyung Ho Lee
The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based organelle that protrudes from the surface of most human cells and works as a cellular antenna to accept extracellular signals. Primary cilia assemble from the basal body during the resting stage (G0 phase) and simultaneously disassemble with cell cycle re-entry. Defective control of assembly or disassembly causes diverse human diseases including ciliopathy and cancer. To identify the effective compounds for studying primary cilium disassembly, we have screened 297 natural compounds and identified 18 and 17 primary cilium assembly and disassembly inhibitors, respectively...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614912/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-facilitates-osteogenic-differentiation-in-mc3t3-e1-cells-via-the-sirtuin-1-dependent-signaling-pathway
#13
Kai Gong, Bo Qu, Cairu Wang, Jingsong Zhou, Dongfa Liao, Wei Zheng, Xianming Pan
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by lack of insulin and high glucose levels. T2DM can cause bone loss and fracture, thus leading to diabetic osteoporosis. Promoting osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts may effectively treat diabetic osteoporosis. We previously reported that Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, promotes osteogenic differentiation through downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ. We also found that miR-132 regulates osteogenic differentiation by downregulating Sirt1 in a PPARβ/δ-dependent manner...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592774/erratum-to-transforming-growth-factor-b1-smad4-signaling-affects-osteoclast-differentiation-via-regulation-of-mir-155-expression
#14
Hongying Zhao, Jun Zhang, Haiyu Shao, Jianwen Liu, Mengran Jin, Jinping Chen, Yazeng Huang
[This corrects the article on p. 211 in vol. 40.].
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554203/the-expanding-significance-of-inositol-polyphosphate-multikinase-as-a-signaling-hub
#15
REVIEW
Eunha Kim, Hyoungjoon Ahn, Min Gyu Kim, Haein Lee, Seyun Kim
The inositol polyphosphates are a group of multifunctional signaling metabolites whose synthesis is catalyzed by a family of inositol kinases that are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans. Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) was first identified as a subunit of the arginine-responsive transcription complex in budding yeast. In addition to its role in the production of inositol tetrakis- and pentakisphosphates (IP4 and IP5), IPMK also exhibits phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535668/stability-of-retroviral-vectors-against-ultracentrifugation-is-determined-by-the-viral-internal-core-and-envelope-proteins-used-for-pseudotyping
#16
REVIEW
Soo-Hyun Kim, Kwang-Il Lim
Retroviral and lentiviral vectors are mostly pseudotyped and often purified and concentrated via ultracentrifugation. In this study, we quantified and compared the stabilities of retroviral [murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based] and lentiviral [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-based] vectors pseudotyped with relatively mechanically stable envelope proteins, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoproteins (VSVGs), and the influenza virus WSN strain envelope proteins against ultracentrifugation. Lentiviral genomic and functional particles were more stable than the corresponding retroviral particles against ultracentrifugation when pseudotyped with VSVGs...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535667/involvement-of-a-gr2a-expressing-drosophila-pharyngeal-gustatory-receptor-neuron-in-regulation-of-aversion-to-high-salt-foods
#17
Haein Kim, Yong Taek Jeong, Min Sung Choi, Jaekyun Choi, Seok Jun Moon, Jae Young Kwon
Regulation of feeding is essential for animal survival. The pharyngeal sense organs can act as a second checkpoint of food quality, due to their position between external taste organs such as the labellum which initially assess food quality, and the digestive tract. Growing evidence provides support that the pharyngeal sensory neurons regulate feeding, but much is still unknown. We found that a pair of gustatory receptor neurons in the LSO, a Drosophila adult pharyngeal organ which expresses four gustatory receptors, is involved in feeding inhibition in response to high concentrations of sodium ions...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535666/ddx53-regulates-cancer-stem-cell-like-properties-by-binding-to-sox-2
#18
Youngmi Kim, Minjeong Yeon, Dooil Jeoung
This study investigated the role of cancer/testis antigen DDX53 in regulating cancer stem cell-like properties. DDX53 shows co-expression with CD133, a marker for cancer stem cells. DDX53 directly regulates the SOX-2 expression in anticancer drug-resistant Malme3M(R) cells. DDX53 and miR-200b were found to be involved in the regulation of tumor spheroid forming potential of Malme3M and Malme3M(R) cells. Furthermore, the self-renewal activity and the tumorigenic potential of Malme3M(R)-CD133 (+) cells were also regulated by DDX53...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535665/l1-cell-adhesion-molecule-promotes-migration-and-invasion-via-jnk-activation-in-extrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-cells-with-activating-kras-mutation
#19
Haejung Kim, Haein Hwang, Hansoo Lee, Hyo Jeong Hong
Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC), a malignant tumor of biliary origin, has a poor prognosis with limited treatment options. The KRAS oncogene is the most commonly mutated gene in ECC and one of the factors that predicts a poor prognosis and low survival rate. L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is expressed in ECC cells and acts as an independent poor prognostic factor in predicting patient survival. In this study we investigate the functional significance of L1CAM in ECC cells with activating KRAS mutation...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535664/characterization-of-%C3%AE-x-i-domain-binding-to-receptors-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-rage
#20
Dolgorsuren Buyannemekh, Sang-Uk Nham
The β2 integrins are cell surface transmembrane proteins regulating leukocyte functions, such as adhesion and migration. Two members of β2 integrin, αMβ2 and αXβ2, share the leukocyte distribution profile and integrin αXβ2 is involved in antigen presentation in dendritic cells and transendothelial migration of monocytes and macrophages to atherosclerotic lesions. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a member of cell adhesion molecules, plays an important role in chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis...
May 31, 2017: Molecules and Cells
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