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Molecules and Cells

Kyoung-Hee Lee, Jungsil Lee, Jisu Woo, Chang-Hoon Lee, Chul-Gyu Yoo
IκB, a cytoplasmic inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), is reportedly degraded via the proteasome. However, we recently found that long-term incubation with proteasome inhibitors (PIs) such as PS-341 or MG132 induces IκBα degradation via an alternative pathway, lysosome, which results in NF-κB activation and confers resistance to PI-induced lung cancer cell death. To enhance the anti-cancer efficacy of PIs, elucidation of the regulatory mechanism of PI-induced IκBα degradation is necessary. Here, we demonstrated that PI upregulates nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) via both de novo protein synthesis and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) degradation, which is responsible for IκBα degradation via macroautophagy activation...
November 6, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Qing Ge, David William Green, Dong-Joon Lee, Hyun-Yi Kim, Zhengguo Piao, Jong-Min Lee, Han-Sung Jung
Regenerative orthopedics needs significant devices to transplant human stem cells into damaged tissue and encourage automatic growth into replacements suitable for the human skeleton. Soft biomaterials have similarities in mechanical, structural and architectural properties to natural extracellular matrix (ECM), but often lack essential ECM molecules and signals. Here we engineer mineralized polysaccharide beads to transform MSCs into osteogenic cells and osteoid tissue for transplantation. Bone morphogenic proteins (BMP-2) and indispensable ECM proteins both directed differentiation inside alginate beads...
November 6, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Hong Thuan Tran, Eunjoo Cho, Seongsu Jeong, Eui Beom Jeong, Hae Sang Lee, Seon Yong Jeong, Jin Soon Hwang, Eun Young Kim
Drosophila ortholog of mammalian makorin genes, in the regulation of developmental timing. Loss of MKRN1 in mkrn1exS prolonged the 3rd instar stage and delayed the onset of pupariation, resulting in bigger size pupae. MKRN1 was expressed in the prothoracic gland, where the steroid hormone ecdysone is produced. Furthermore, mkrn1exS larvae exhibited reduced mRNA levels of phantom, which encodes ecdysone-synthesizing enzyme and E74, which is a downstream target of ecdysone. Collectively, these results indicate that MKRN1 fine-tunes developmental timing and sexual maturation by affecting ecdysone synthesis in Drosophila...
November 6, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Byoung-Ha Yoon, Mirang Kim, Min-Hyeok Kim, Hee-Jin Kim, Jeong-Hwan Kim, Jong Hwan Kim, Jina Kim, Yong Sung Kim, Daeyoup Lee, Suk-Jo Kang, Seon-Young Kim
The stem cell factor (SCF)/c-KIT axis plays an important role in the hematopoietic differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), but its regulatory mechanisms involving microRNAs (miRs) are not fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that supplementation with SCF increases the hematopoietic differentiation of hPSCs via the interaction with its receptor tyrosine kinase c-KIT, which is modulated by miR-221 and miR-222. c-KIT is comparably expressed in undifferentiated human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells...
November 1, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Suji Kim, Chang-Hoon Woo
Atherosclerosis preferentially involves in prone area of low and disturbed blood flow while steady and high levels of laminar blood flow are relatively protected from atherosclerosis. Disturbed flow induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress is caused under stress that disturbs the processing and folding of proteins resulting in the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of the UPR. Prolonged or severe UPR leads to activate apoptotic signaling...
November 1, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Ji Yoon Lee, MyungJoo Kim, Hye-Ryeon Heo, Kwon-Soo Ha, Eun-Taek Han, Won Sun Park, Se-Ran Yang, Seok-Ho Hong
The stem cell factor (SCF)/c-KIT axis plays an important role in the hematopoietic differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), but its regulatory mechanisms involving microRNAs (miRs) are not fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that supplementation with SCF increases the hematopoietic differentiation of hPSCs via the interaction with its receptor tyrosine kinase c-KIT, which is modulated by miR-221 and miR-222. c-KIT is comparably expressed in undifferentiated human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells...
November 1, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Ki-Beom Moon, Dong-Joo Ahn, Ji-Sun Park, Won Yong Jung, Hye Sun Cho, Hye-Ran Kim, Jae-Heung Jeon, Youn-Il Park, Hyun-Soon Kim
Potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) is the third most important food crop, and breeding drought-tolerant varieties is vital research goal. However, detailed molecular mechanisms in response to drought stress in potatoes are not well known. In this study, we developed EMS-mutagenized potatoes that showed significant tolerance to drought stress compared to the wild-type (WT) 'Desiree' cultivar. In addition, changes to transcripts as a result of drought stress in WT and droughttolerant (DR) plants were investigated by de novo assembly using the Illumina platform...
November 1, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Chan Ho Park, Jeehee Roh, Ji-Hyun Youn, Seung-Hyun Son, Ji Hye Park, Soon Young Kim, Tae-Wuk Kim, Seong-Ki Kim
Ethylene regulates numerous aspects of plant growth and development. Multiple external and internal factors coordinate ethylene production in plant tissues. Transcriptional and post-translational regulations of ACC synthases (ACSs), which are key enzymes mediating a rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis have been well characterized. However, the regulation and physiological roles of ACC oxidases (ACOs) that catalyze the final step of ethylene biosynthesis are largely unknown in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that Arabidopsis ACO1 exhibits a tissue-specific expression pattern that is regulated by multiple signals, and plays roles in the lateral root development in Arabidopsis...
October 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Hyeon-Woo Lee
The CRISPR-Cas system is a well-established RNA-guided DNA editing technique widely used to modify genomic DNA sequences. I used the CRISPR-Cas9 system to change the second and third nucleotides of the triplet TCT of human TNSFSF9 in HepG2 cells to TAG to create an amber stop codon. The TCT triplet is the codon for Ser at the 172nd position of TNSFSF9. The two substituted nucleotides, AG, were confirmed by DNA sequencing of the PCR product followed by PCR amplification of the genomic TNFSF9 gene. Interestingly, sequencing of the cDNA of transcripts of the edited TNFSF9 gene revealed that the TAG had been re-edited to the wild type triplet TCT, and 1 or 2 bases just before the triplet had been deleted...
October 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Do-Hyoung Kim, Kyou-Hoon Han
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly unorthodox proteins that do not form three-dimensional structures under physiological conditions. The discovery of IDPs has destroyed the classical structure-function paradigm in protein science, 3-D structure = function, because IDPs even without well-folded 3-D structures are still capable of performing important biological functions and furthermore are associated with fatal diseases such as cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and viral pandemics. Pre-structured motifs (PreSMos) refer to transient local secondary structural elements present in the target-unbound state of IDPs...
October 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Hyun Yong Koh, Jeong Ho Lee
During the cortical development, cells in the brain acquire somatic mutations that can be implicated in various neurodevelopmental disorders. There is increasing evidence that brain somatic mutations lead to sporadic form of epileptic disorders with previously unknown etiology. In particular, malformation of cortical developments (MCD), ganglioglioma (GG) associated with intractable epilepsy and non-lesional focal epilepsy (NLFE) are known to be attributable to brain somatic mutations in mTOR pathway genes and others...
October 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Da Eun Jeong, Sungeun Heo, Ji Hye Han, Eun-Young Lee, Rohit N Kulkarni, Wook Kim
In pancreatic β cells, glucose stimulates the biosynthesis of insulin at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The RNA-binding protein, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1), also named hnRNP I, acts as a critical mediator of insulin biosynthesis through binding to the pyrimidine-rich region in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of insulin mRNA. However, the underlying mechanism that regulates its expression in β cells is unclear. Here, we report that glucose induces the expression of PTBP1 via the insulin receptor (IR) signaling pathway in β cells...
October 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Jee Hyung Sohn, Jong In Kim, Yong Geun Jeon, Jeu Park, Jae Bum Kim
Insulin resistance is closely associated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have been developed to ameliorate insulin resistance by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ. Although TZDs are synthetic ligands for PPARγ, metabolic outcomes of each TZD are different. Moreover, there are lack of head-to-head comparative studies among TZDs in the aspect of metabolic outcomes. In this study, we analyzed the effects of three TZDs, including lobeglitazone (Lobe), rosiglitazone (Rosi), and pioglitazone (Pio) on metabolic and thermogenic regulation...
October 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Jin Ma, Jun Zhang, Yuan-Chi Weng, Jian-Cheng Wang
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive cancers presenting with high rates of invasion and metastasis, and unfavorable prognoses. The current study aims to investigate whether EZH2/miR-139-5p axis affects epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and lymph node metastasis (LNM) in PC, and the mechanism how EZH2 regulates miR-139-5p. Human PC and adjacent normal tissues were collected to determine expression of EZH2 and miR-139-5p, and their relationship with clinicopathological features of PC. Human PC cell line was selected, and treated with miR-139-5p mimics/inhibitors, EZH2 vector or shEZH2 in order to validate the regulation of EZH2-mediated miR-139-5p in PC cells ...
September 30, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Liang-Liang Chen, Ge-Xin Gao, Fei-Xia Shen, Xiong Chen, Xiao-Hua Gong, Wen-Jun Wu
As the most common type of endocrine malignancy, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) accounts for 85-90% of all thyroid cancers. In this study, we presented the hypothesis that SDC4 gene silencing could effectively attenuate epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), and promote cell apoptosis via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in human PTC cells. Bioinformatics methods were employed to screen the determined differential expression levels of SDC4 in PTC and adjacent normal samples. PTC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were prepared and their respective levels of SDC4 protein positive expression, in addition to the mRNA and protein levels of SDC4, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, EMT and apoptosis related genes were all detected accordingly...
September 30, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Gwang Sik Kim, Hee-Sae Park, Young Chul Lee
Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway and involves in the regulation of various cellular and developmental processes. Ligand binding releases the intracellular domain of Notch receptor (NICD), which interacts with DNA-bound CSL [CBF1/Su(H)/Lag-1] to activate transcription of target genes. In the absence of NICD binding, CSL down-regulates target gene expression through the recruitment of various corepressor proteins including SMRT/NCoR (silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptors/nuclear receptor corepressor), SHARP (SMRT/HDAC1-associated repressor protein), and KyoT2...
September 30, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Melody Zhao, Jihye Rachel Kim, Rebekah van Bruggen, Jeehye Park
Significant research efforts are ongoing to elucidate the complex molecular mechanisms underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which may in turn pinpoint potential therapeutic targets for treatment. The ALS research field has evolved with recent discoveries of numerous genetic mutations in ALS patients, many of which are in genes encoding RNA binding proteins (RBPs), including TDP-43, FUS, ATXN2, TAF15, EWSR1, hnRNPA1, hnRNPA2/B1, MATR3 and TIA1. Accumulating evidence from studies on these ALS-linked RBPs suggests that dysregulation of RNA metabolism, cytoplasmic mislocalization of RBPs, dysfunction in stress granule dynamics of RBPs and increased propensity of mutant RBPs to aggregate may lead to ALS pathogenesis...
September 30, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Jihoon Kim, Won Do Heo
Discovery of the naturally evolved fluorescent proteins and their genetically engineered biosensors have enormously contributed to current bioimaging techniques. These reporters to trace dynamic changes of intracellular protein activities have continuously transformed according to the various demands in biological studies. Along with that, light-inducible optogenetic technologies have offered scientists to perturb, control and analyze the function of intracellular machineries in spatiotemporal manner. In this review, we present an overview of the molecular strategies that have been exploited for producing genetically encoded protein reporters and various optogenetic modules...
September 30, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Yu You, Keting Que, Yun Zhou, Zhen Zhang, Xiaoping Zhao, Jianpin Gong, Zuojin Liu
Recent studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. In this study, we showed that miR-766-3p was decreased in approximately 72% of HCC tissues and cell lines, and its low expression level was significantly correlated with tumour size, TNM stage, metastasis, and poor prognosis in HCC. Ectopic miR-766-3p expression inhibited HCC cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion. In addition, we showed that miR-766-3p repressed Wnt3a expression...
September 30, 2018: Molecules and Cells
In-Young Jung, Jungmin Lee
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, an emerging immunotherapy, has demonstrated promising clinical results in hematological malignancies including B-cell malignancies. However, accessibility to this transformative medicine is highly limited due to the complex process of manufacturing, limited options for target antigens, and insufficient anti-tumor responses against solid tumors. Advances in gene-editing technologies, such as the development of Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs), Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs), and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR/Cas9), have provided novel engineering strategies to address these limitations...
August 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
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