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Molecules and Cells

Minyeop Nahm, Sunyoung Park, Jihye Lee, Seungbok Lee
Fasciclin II (FasII), the Drosophila ortholog of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), plays a critical role in synaptic stabilization and plasticity. Although this molecule undergoes constitutive cycling at the synaptic membrane, how its membrane trafficking is regulated to ensure proper synaptic development remains poorly understood. In a genetic screen, we recovered a mutation in Drosophila mical-like that displays an increase in bouton numbers and a decrease in FasII levels at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
October 21, 2016: Molecules and Cells
Soo Hwa Jang, Ah-Ram Kim, Neung-Hwa Park, Jeong Woo Park, In-Seob Han
Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) plays an important role in cell growth. Here we explored the linkage between DRG2 and G2/M phase checkpoint function in cell cycle progression. We observed that knockdown of DRG2 in HeLa cells affected growth in a wound-healing assay, and tumorigenicity in nude mice xenografts. Flow cytometry assays and [(3)H] incorporation assays indicated that G2/M phase arrest was responsible for the decreased proliferation of these cells. Knockdown of DRG2 elicited down-regulation of the major mitotic promoting factor, the cyclin B1/Cdk1 complex, but up-regulation of the cell cycle arresting proteins, Wee1, Myt1, and p21...
September 2016: Molecules and Cells
Hyun-Soo Kim, Gary Fernandes, Chang-Woo Lee
Almost all eukaryotic proteins are subject to post-translational modifications during mitosis and cell cycle, and in particular, reversible phosphorylation being a key event. The recent use of high-throughput experimental analyses has revealed that more than 70% of all eukaryotic proteins are regulated by phosphorylation; however, the mechanism of dephosphorylation, counteracting phosphorylation, is relatively unknown. Recent discoveries have shown that many of the protein phosphatases are involved in the temporal and spatial control of mitotic events, such as mitotic entry, mitotic spindle assembly, chromosome architecture changes and cohesion, and mitotic exit...
September 2016: Molecules and Cells
Dingyun You, Hongbo Zhao, Yan Wang, Yang Jiao, Minnan Lu, Shan Yan
The oncogene nuclear receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a transcriptional coactivator, which is overexpressed in various types of human cancers, including breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating AIB1 function remain largely unknown. In this study, we present evidence demonstrating that AIB1 is acetylated by MOF in human breast cancer cells. Moreover, we also found that the acetylation of AIB1 enhances its function in promoting breast cancer cell proliferation. We further showed that the acetylation of AIB1 is required for its recruitment to E2F1 target genes by E2F1...
September 2016: Molecules and Cells
Injeong Cho, Gyu Jin Hwang, Jeong Hoon Cho
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial inner membrane proteins that function to dissipate proton motive force and mitochondrial membrane potential. One UCP has been identified in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), namely UCP-4. In this study, we examined its expression and localization using a GFP marker in C. elegans. ucp-4 was expressed throughout the body from early embryo to aged adult and UCP-4 was localized in the mitochondria. It is known that increased mitochondrial membrane protential leads to a reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase, which is associated with age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases in humans...
September 2016: Molecules and Cells
Syeda Ridita Sharif, Ariful Islam, Il Soo Moon
N-acetyl-D-glucosamine kinase (GlcNAc kinase or NAGK) primarily catalyzes phosphoryl transfer to GlcNAc during amino sugar metabolism. Recently, it was shown NAGK interacts with dynein light chain roadblock type 1 (DYNLRB1) and upregulates axo-dendritic growth, which is an enzyme activity-independent, non-canonical structural role. The authors examined the distributions of NAGK and NAGK-dynein complexes during the cell cycle in HEK293T cells. NAGK was expressed throughout different stages of cell division and immunocytochemistry (ICC) showed NAGK was localized at nuclear envelope, spindle microtubules (MTs), and kinetochores (KTs)...
September 2016: Molecules and Cells
Tackmin Kwon
The efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in plants depends on the virulence of Agrobacterium strains, the plant tissue culture conditions, and the susceptibility of host plants. Understanding the molecular interactions between Agrobacterium and host plant cells is crucial when manipulating the susceptibility of recalcitrant crop plants and protecting orchard trees from crown gall disease. It was discovered that Arabidopsis voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (atvdac1) mutant has drastic effects on Agrobacterium-mediated tumorigenesis and growth developmental phenotypes, and that these effects are dependent on a Ws-0 genetic background...
September 2016: Molecules and Cells
Daehwan Lee, Minah Cho, Woon-Young Hong, Dajeong Lim, Hyung-Chul Kim, Yong-Min Cho, Jin-Young Jeong, Bong-Hwan Choi, Younhee Ko, Jaebum Kim
Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled population-level studies for many animals to unravel the relationships between genotypic differences and traits of specific populations. The objective of this study was to perform evolutionary analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes of Korean native cattle Hanwoo in comparison to SNP data from four other cattle breeds (Jersey, Simmental, Angus, and Holstein) and four related species (pig, horse, human, and mouse) obtained from public databases through NGS-based resequencing...
September 2016: Molecules and Cells
Jinlong Zhao, Wenye Sun, Jing Liang, Jing Jiang, Zhao Wu
Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are powerful tools for targeted genome editing in diverse cell types and organisms. However, the highly identical TALE repeat sequences make it challenging to assemble TALEs using conventional cloning approaches, and multiple repeats in one plasmid are easily catalyzed for homologous recombination in bacteria. Although the methods for TALE assembly are constantly improving, these methods are not convenient because of laborious assembly steps or large module libraries, limiting their broad utility...
September 2016: Molecules and Cells
Juhwan Kim, Suji Ham, Heeok Hong, Changjong Moon, Heh-In Im
Morphine is the most potent analgesic for chronic pain, but its clinical use has been limited by the opiate's innate tendency to produce tolerance, severe withdrawal symptoms and rewarding properties with a high risk of relapse. To understand the addictive properties of morphine, past studies have focused on relevant molecular and cellular changes in the brain, highlighting the functional roles of reward-related brain regions. Given the accumulated findings, a recent, emerging trend in morphine research is that of examining the dynamics of neuronal interactions in brain reward circuits under the influence of morphine action...
September 2016: Molecules and Cells
Dong-Liang Shi, Gui-Rong Shi, Jing Xie, Xu-Zhao Du, Hao Yang
Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) with aberrant expression of microRNA (miRNA) are critical pathogenic regulators in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Previous studies have found that overexpression or silencing of miRNA can contribute to the development of miRNA-based therapeutics in arthritis models. In this study, we explored the effects of miR-27a on cell migration and invasion in cultured FLS from RA patients. We found that miR-27a was markedly downregulated in the serum, synovial tissue, and FLS of RA patients...
August 31, 2016: Molecules and Cells
Nayoung Kim, Young-In Yoon, Hyun Ju Yoo, Eunyoung Tak, Chul-Soo Ahn, Gi-Won Song, Sung-Gyu Lee, Shin Hwang
Discovery of non-invasive diagnostic and predictive biomarkers for acute rejection in liver transplant patients would help to ensure the preservation of liver function in the graft, eventually contributing to improved graft and patient survival. We evaluated selected cytokines and chemokines in the sera from liver transplant patients as potential biomarkers for acute rejection, and found that the combined detection of IL-10, IL-17, and CXCL10 at 1-2 weeks post-operation could predict acute rejection following adult liver transplantation with 97% specificity and 94% sensitivity...
August 31, 2016: Molecules and Cells
Byung Chull An, Nak-Kyun Jung, Chun Young Park, In-Jae Oh, Yoo-Duk Choi, Jae-Il Park, Seung-Won Lee
Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3), an antioxidant enzyme, acts as a modulator of redox signaling, has immunomodulatory function, and catalyzes the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). GPx3 has been identified as a tumor suppressor in many cancers. Although hyper-methylation of the GPx3 promoter has been shown to down-regulate its expression, other mechanisms by which GPx3 expression is regulated have not been reported. The aim of this study was to further elucidate the mechanisms of GPx3 regulation...
August 31, 2016: Molecules and Cells
Yifan Deng, Gang Zhu, Honghai Luo, Shiguang Zhao
Glioblastoma stem cells (GBM-SCs) are believed to be a subpopulation within all glioblastoma (GBM) cells that are in large part responsible for tumor growth and the high grade of therapeutic resistance that is so characteristic of GBM. MicroRNAs (miR) have been implicated in regulating the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in cancer stem cells, including GBM-SCs, and they are a potential target for cancer therapy. In the current study, miR-203 expression was reduced in CD133(+) GBM-SCs derived from six human GBM biopsies...
August 31, 2016: Molecules and Cells
Jae Taek Lee, Seung Sik Lee, Suvendu Mondal, Bhumi Nath Tripathi, Siu Kim, Keun Woo Lee, Sung Hyun Hong, Hyoung-Woo Bai, Jae-Young Cho, Byung Yeoup Chung
Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (PaAhpC) is a member of the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin family. Here, we examined the peroxidase and molecular chaperone functions of PaAhpC using a site-directed mutagenesis approach by substitution of Ser and Thr residues with Cys at positions 78 and 105 located between two catalytic cysteines. Substitution of Ser with Cys at position 78 enhanced the chaperone activity of the mutant (S78C-PaAhpC) by approximately 9-fold compared with that of the wild-type protein (WT-PaAhpC)...
August 31, 2016: Molecules and Cells
Seok Keun Cho, Moon Young Ryu, Pratik Shah, Christian Peter Poulsen, Seong Wook Yang
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins are essential to increase the functional diversity of the proteome. By adding chemical groups to proteins, or degrading entire proteins by phosphorylation, glycosylation, ubiquitination, neddylation, acetylation, lipidation, and proteolysis, the complexity of the proteome increases, and this then influences most biological processes. Although small RNAs are crucial regulatory elements for gene expression in most eukaryotes, PTMs of small RNA microprocessor and RNA silencing components have not been extensively investigated in plants...
August 31, 2016: Molecules and Cells
Yong-Eun Kim, Jong Ok Kim, Ki-Sun Park, Minho Won, Kyoon Eon Kim, Kee K Kim
The RNA-binding protein Rbfox3 is a well-known splicing regulator that is used as a marker for post-mitotic neurons in various vertebrate species. Although recent studies indicate a variable expression of Rbfox3 in non-neuronal tissues, including lung tissue, its cellular function in lung cancer remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the number of RBFOX3-positive cells in tumorous lung tissue is lower than that in normal lung tissue. As the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway is important in cancer progression, we investigated its role in RBFOX3 expression in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells...
August 31, 2016: Molecules and Cells
Seong Gak Jeon, Kyoung Ah Kim, Hyunju Chung, Junghyun Choi, Eun Ji Song, Seung-Yun Han, Myung Sook Oh, Jong Hwan Park, Jin-Il Kim, Minho Moon
Recently, an increasing number of studies have focused on the effects of CD4+ T cell on cognitive function. However, the changes of Th2 cytokines in restricted CD4+ T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire model and their effects on the adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory are not fully understood. Here, we investigated whether and how the mice with restricted CD4+ repertoire TCR exhibit learning and memory impairment by using OT-II mice. OT-II mice showed decreased adult neurogenesis in hippocampus and short- and long- term memory impairment...
August 31, 2016: Molecules and Cells
Hyunmo Choi, Eunkyoo Oh
As sessile organisms, plants must be able to adapt to the environment. Plants respond to the environment by adjusting their growth and development, which is mediated by sophisticated signaling networks that integrate multiple environmental and endogenous signals. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that a bHLH transcription factor PIF4 plays a major role in the multiple signal integration for plant growth regulation. PIF4 is a positive regulator in cell elongation and its activity is regulated by various environmental signals, including light and temperature, and hormonal signals, including auxin, gibberellic acid and brassinosteroid, both transcriptionally and post-translationally...
August 31, 2016: Molecules and Cells
Hyunjin Lee, Hyun Woo Choi, Chen Zhang, Zee-Yong Park, Young-Joon Kim
During copulation, male Drosophila transfers Sex Peptide (SP) to females where it acts on internal sensory neurons expressing pickpocket (ppk). These neurons induce a post-mating response (PMR) that includes elevated egg-laying and refractoriness to re-mating. Exactly how ppk neurons regulate the different aspects of the PMR, however, remains unclear. Here, we identify a small subset of the ppk neurons which requires expression of a pre-mRNA splicing factor CG3542 for egg-laying, but not refractoriness to mating...
July 2016: Molecules and Cells
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