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Molecules and Cells

Chan Young Jeong, Jun Hyeok Kim, Won Je Lee, Joo Yeon Jin, Jongyun Kim, Suk-Whan Hong, Hojoung Lee
Sucrose is a crucial compound for the growth and development of plants, and the regulation of multiple genes depends on the amount of soluble sugars present. Sucrose acts as a signaling molecule that regulates a proton-sucrose symporter, with its sensor being the sucrose transporter. Flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis are regulated by sucrose, and sucrose signaling can affect flavonoid and anthocyanin accumulation. In the present study, we found a Myb transcription factor affecting accumulation of anthocyanin...
February 28, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Hyun-Kyung Kim, Mi Ae Kang, Mi-Sook Kim, Young-Joo Shin, Sung-Gil Chi, Jae-Hoon Jeong
High mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) is an abundant, chromatin-associated, non-histone protein involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling, and recombination. Recently, the HMGB2 gene was found to be significantly downregulated during senescence and shown to regulate the expression of senescent-associated secretory proteins. Here, we demonstrate that HMGB2 transcription is repressed by p21 during radiation-induced senescence through the ATM-p53-p21 DNA damage signaling cascade. The loss of p21 abolished the downregulation of HMGB2 caused by ionizing radiation, and the conditional induction of p21 was sufficient to repress the transcription of HMGB2...
February 28, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Richa Pasriga, Lae-Hyeon Cho, Jinmi Yoon, Gynheung An
Flowering time is determined by florigens. These genes include, Heading date 3a ( Hd3a ) and Rice FT 1 ( RFT1 ) in rice, which are specifically expressed in the vascular tissues of leaves at the floral transition stage. To study the cis -regulatory elements present in the promoter region of Hd3a , we generated transgenic plants carrying the 1.75-kb promoter fragment of Hd3a that was fused to the β -glucuronidase ( GUS ) reporter gene. Plants expressing this construct conferred a vascular cell-specific expression pattern for the reporter gene...
February 28, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Dong Wook Lee, Inhwan Hwang
Chloroplasts are present in organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. These organelles are thought to have originated from photosynthetic cyanobacteria through endosymbiosis. During endosymbiosis, most cyanobacterial genes were transferred to the host nucleus. Therefore, most chloroplast proteins became encoded in the nuclear genome and must return to the chloroplast after translation. The N-terminal cleavable transit peptide (TP) is necessary and sufficient for the import of nucleus-encoded interior chloroplast proteins...
February 28, 2018: Molecules and Cells
You-Fei Qi, Chang Shu, Zhan-Xiang Xiao, Ming-Yao Luo, Kun Fang, Yuan-Yuan Guo, Wen-Bo Zhang, Jie Yue
Aortic dissection (AD) is a catastrophic disease with high mortality and morbidity, characterized with fragmentation of elastin and loss of smooth muscle cells. Although AD has been largely attributable to polymorphisms defect in the elastin-coding gene, tropoelastin (TE), other undermined factors also appear to play roles in AD onset. Here, we investigated the effects of post-transcriptional control of TE by microRNAs (miRNAs) on elastin levels in aortic smooth muscle cells (ASMC). We found that miR-144-3p is a miRNA that targets TE mRNA in both human and mouse...
February 27, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Yongdae Jang, Garam Choi, Seokho Hong, Inseong Jo, Jinsook Ahn, Sang Ho Choi, Nam-Chul Ha
LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) contain an Nterminal DNA binding domain (DBD) and a C-terminal regulatory domain (RD). Typically, LTTRs function as homotetramers. VV2_1132 was identified in Vibrio vulnificus as an LTTR that is a homologue of HypT (also known as YjiE or QseD) in Escherichia coli . In this study, we determined the crystal structure of full-length VV2_1132 at a resolution of 2.2 Å, thereby revealing a novel combination of the domains in the tetrameric assembly. Only one DBD dimer in the tetramer can bind to DNA, because the DNA binding motifs of the other DBD dimer are completely buried in the tetrameric assembly...
February 27, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Junguee Lee, Dong Hyun Oh, Ki Cheol Park, Ji Eun Choi, Jong Beom Kwon, Jongho Lee, Kuhn Park, Hae Joung Sul
Primary cilia are solitary, non-motile, axonemal microtubule-based antenna-like organelles that project from the plasma membrane of most mammalian cells and are implicated in transducing hedgehog signals during development. It was recently proposed that aberrant SHH signaling may be implicated in the progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the distribution and role of primary cilia in IPF remains unclear. Here, we clearly observed the primary cilia in alveolar epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells of human normal lung tissue...
February 23, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Jin Woo Park, Hana Cho, Hyein Oh, Ji-Young Kim, Sang-Beom Seo
Aberrations in histone modifications are being studied in mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-AF9-driven acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we focused on the regulation of the differentiation of the MLL-AF9 type AML cell line THP-1. We observed that, upon phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment, THP-1 cells differentiated into monocytes by down-regulating Aurora kinase A (AURKA), resulting in a reduction in H3S10 phosphorylation. We revealed that the AURKA inhibitor alisertib accelerates the expression of the H3K27 demethylase KDM6B, thereby dissociating AURKA and YY1 from the KDM6B promoter region...
February 23, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Janet Lee, Hyun-Soo Kim, Su-Min Kim, Dong-Ik Kim, Chang-Woo Lee
Hypoxic culture is widely recognized as a method to efficiently expand human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) without loss of stem cell properties. However, the molecular basis of how hypoxia priming benefits MSC expansion remains unclear. In this report, our systemic quantitative proteomic and RT-PCR analyses revealed the involvement of hypoxic conditioning activated genes in the signaling process of the mitotic cell cycle. Introduction of screened two mitotic cyclins, CCNA2 and CCNB1, significantly extended the proliferation lifespan of MSCs in normoxic condition...
February 21, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Kyoung-Hee Lee, Chang-Hoon Lee, Jisu Woo, Jiyeong Jeong, An-Hee Jang, Chul-Gyu Yoo
Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine mainly derived from T helper 17 cells and is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoke (CS) has been considered as a primary risk factor of COPD. However, the interaction between CS and IL-17A and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been clarified. In the current study, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on IL-17Ainduced IL-8 production in human bronchial epithelial cells, and sought to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 21, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Han Yong Lee, Gyeong Mee Yoon
The gaseous hormone ethylene influences many aspects of plant growth, development, and responses to a variety of stresses. The biosynthesis of ethylene is tightly regulated by various internal and external stimuli, and the primary target of the regulation is the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of ethylene biosynthesis. We have previously demonstrated that the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis is a common feature of most of the phytohormones in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings via the modulation of the protein stability of ACS...
February 21, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Xin Sun, Tao Zhang, Qifei Deng, Qirui Zhou, Xianchao Sun, Enlai Li, Dexin Yu, Caiyun Zhong
Benzidine, a known carcinogen, is closely associated with the development of bladder cancer (BC). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical pathophysiological process in BC progression. The underlying molecular mechanisms of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, especially extracellular regulated protein kinases 5 (ERK5), in regulating benzidine-induced EMT remains unclarified. Hence, two human bladder cell lines, T24 and EJ, were utilized in our study. Briefly, cell migration was assessed by wound healing assay, and cell invasion was determined by Transwell assay...
February 21, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Xuelun Wu, Shilun Li, Peng Xue, Yukun Li
In recent years, the interest towards the relationship between incretins and bone has been increasing. Previous studies have suggested that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its receptor agonists exert beneficial anabolic influence on skeletal metabolism, such as promoting proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts via entero-osseous-axis. However, little is known regarding the effects of GLP-1 on osteoblast apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms involved. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, on apoptosis of murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells...
February 21, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Ji-Seon Kang, Yune-Sahng Hwang, Lark Kyun Kim, Sujung Lee, Wook-Bin Lee, Jeongsil Kim-Ha, Young-Joon Kim
Oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) protein family is the major interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes responsible for the activation of RNase L pathway upon viral infection. OAS-like (OASL) is also required for inhibition of viral growth in human cells, but the loss of one of its mouse homolog, OASL1, causes a severe defect in termination of type I interferon production. To further investigate the antiviral activity of OASL1, we examined its subcellular localization and regulatory roles in IFN production in the early and late stages of viral infection...
February 21, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Kate E Yu, Do-Hyoung Kim, Yong-In Kim, Walton D Jones, J Eugene Lee
Animals use their odorant receptors to receive chemical information from the environment. Insect odorant receptors differ from the G protein-coupled odorant receptors in vertebrates and nematodes, and very little is known about their protein-protein interactions. Here, we introduce a mass spectrometric platform designed for the large-scale analysis of insect odorant receptor protein-protein interactions. Using this platform, we obtained the first Orco interactome from Drosophila melanogaster. From a total of 1,186 identified proteins, we narrowed the interaction candidates to 226, of which only two-thirds have been named...
February 12, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Hirota Fujiki, Tatsuro Watanabe, Eisaburo Sueoka, Anchalee Rawangkan, Masami Suganuma
Cancer preventive activities of green tea and its main constituent, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have been extensively studied by scientists all over the world. Since 1983, we have studied the cancer chemopreventive effects of EGCG as well as green tea extract and underlying molecular mechanisms. The first part of this review summarizes groundbreaking topics with EGCG and green tea extract: 1) Delayed cancer onset as revealed by a 10-year prospective cohort study, 2) Prevention of colorectal adenoma recurrence by a double-blind randomized clinical phase II trial, 3) Inhibition of metastasis of B16 melanoma cells to the lungs of mice, 4) Increase in the average value of Young's moduli, i...
January 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Junwon Lee, Sang-Hwi Choi, Dongjin R Lee, Dae-Sung Kim, Dong-Wook Kim
The objective of this study was to induce the production of isthmic organizer (IsO)-like cells capable of secreting fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 8 and WNT1 from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The precise modulation of canonical Wnt signaling was achieved in the presence of the small molecule CHIR99021 (0.6 μM) during the neural induction of human ESCs, resulting in the differentiation of these cells into IsO-like cells having a midbrain-hindbrain border (MHB) fate in a manner that recapitulated their developmental course in vivo...
January 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Sunwoo Min, Yong Won Choi, Hansol Yun, Sujin Jo, Jae-Hoon Ji, Hyeseong Cho
Chromatin remodeling factors are involved in many cellular processes such as transcription, replication, and DNA damage response by regulating chromatin structure. As one of chromatin remodeling factors, remodeling and spacing factor 1 (RSF1) is recruited at double strand break (DSB) sites and regulates ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) -dependent checkpoint pathway upon DNA damage for the efficient repair. RSF1 is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, but regulation of RSF1 levels remains largely unknown...
January 31, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Byeonggyu Park, Dong-Yeop Shin, Taeck Joong Jeon
Calcium ions are involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes. Fourteen genes encoding calcium binding proteins have been identified in Dictyostelium. CBP7, one of the 14 CBPs, is composed of 169 amino acids and contains four EF-hand motifs. Here, we investigated the roles of CBP7 in the development and cell migration of Dictyostelium cells and found that high levels of CBP7 exerted a negative effect on cells aggregation during development, possibly by inhibiting chemoattractant-directed cell migration...
January 29, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Ying Zhu, Hao-Liang Zhang, Qi-Ying Wang, Min-Jing Chen, Lin-Bo Liu
microRNA (miR)-612 shows anticancer activity in several types of cancers, yet its function in melanoma is still unclear. This study was undertaken to investigate the expression of miR-612 and its biological relevance in melanoma cell growth, invasion, and tumorigenesis. The expression and prognostic significance of miR-612 in melanoma were examined. The effects of miR-612 overexpression on cell proliferation, colony formation, tumorigenesis, and invasion were determined. Rescue experiments were conducted to identify the functional target gene(s) of miR-612...
January 29, 2018: Molecules and Cells
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