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International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212862/serological-evidence-of-hantavirus-infection-in-girandurukotte-an-endemic-area-for-chronic-kidney-disease-of-unknown-aetiology-ckdu-in-sri-lanka
#1
LETTER
Chandika D Gamage, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Yomani D Sarathkumara, Thiviyaaluxmi Kulendiran, Nishantha Nanayakkara, Jiro Arikawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193504/strong-anti-epstein-barr-virus-ebv-or-cytomegalovirus-cmv-cellular-immune-responses-predict-survival-and-a-favourable-response-to-anti-tuberculosis-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Tumaini Nagu, Said Aboud, Martin Rao, Mecky Matee, Rebecca Axelsson, Davide Valentini, Ferdinand Mugusi, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
BACKGROUND: Intact immune responses to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) represent a biologically and clinically relevant correlate of 'immunological fitness' in humans. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning anti-EBV or anti-CMV responses in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), in whom aberrant immune responses may promote progression of clinical disease. METHODS: Venous blood samples were obtained from at the time of (sputum smear positive) pulmonary TB diagnosis...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192214/immune-recognition-surface-construction-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-epitope-specific-antibody-responses-in-tuberculosis-patients-identified-by-peptide-microarrays
#3
REVIEW
Davide Valentini, Martin Rao, Giovanni Ferrara, Marc Perkins, Ernest Dodoo, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
BACKGROUND: Understanding of humoral immune responses in tuberculosis (TB) is gaining interest, since B cells and antibodies may be important in diagnosis as well as protective immune responses. High-content peptide microarrays (HCPM) are highly precise and reliable for gauging specific antibody responses to pathogens, as well as autoantigens. METHODS: We used a HCPM comprising epitopes spanning 154 proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) to gauge specific IgG antibody responses in sera of TB patients from Africa and South America...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188934/new-evidence-for-endemic-circulation-of-ross-river-virus-in-the-pacific-islands-and-the-potential-for-emergence
#4
Colleen Lau, Maite Aubry, Didier Musso, Anita Teissier, Sylvie Paulous, Philippe Desprès, Xavier de-Lamballerie, Boris Pastorino, Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau, Philip Weinstein
OBJECTIVES: An epidemic of Ross River Virus (RRV) occurred in the South Pacific in 1979-1980, but it was not believed to occur endemically outside Australia and Papua New Guinea. We conducted a seroprevalence study to determine whether RRV has circulated in American Samoa after 1980. METHODS: RRV ELISA IgG were performed on 200 serum samples collected in American Samoa in 2010, and seroneutralisation tests on 60 representative samples. RESULTS: Of 196 results available for ELISA IgG, 145 (74%, 95% CI 67-80%) were seropositive...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188933/zika-virus-shedding-in-human-milk-during-lactation-an-unlikely-source-of-infecton
#5
Marta G Cavalcanti, Mauro J Cabral-Castro, Jorge L S Gonçalves, Larissa S Santana, Eduardo Scarlatelli Pimenta, José M Peralta
Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission through non-mosquito-dependent route has become increasingly important after reports of sexual transmission of ZIKV. Breastfeeding is a potential means of ZIKV transmission, but the data is still limited. Four mothers with laboratory-proven infection were reported. No disease evolved in three of the breastfed babies despite detectable maternal viremia and viruria, the presence of viral RNA shedding, and the isolation of infective particles in one milk sample. However, in one infant of a ZIKV-infected mother, fever and rash proved to be related to Chikungunya virus infection...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185943/hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-and-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-htlv-1-coinfection-impact-on-liver-disease-virological-markers-and-neurological-outcome
#6
Otávio M Espíndola, Alexandre G Vizzoni, Elisabeth Lampe, Maria José Andrada-Serpa, Abelardo Q C Araújo, Ana Claudia C Leite
OBJECTIVES: HTLV-1 infection is associated with neurological abnormalities, such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and peripheral neuropathy (PN). HCV infection is the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, and causes PN in approximately 9% of patients. Because the interplay between these potentially neuropathogenic viruses in a same individual is still poorly understood we evaluated clinical and laboratory outcomes in coinfected patients and compared them with controls...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179148/status-of-tuberculosis-services-in-indian-prisons
#7
REVIEW
Banuru Muralidhara Prasad, Bhadri Thapa, Sarabjit Singh Chadha, Anand Das, Entoor Ramachandra Babu, Subrat Mohanty, Sripriya Pandurangan, Jamhoih Tonsing
INTRODUCTION: Prisons are known to be a high risk environment for tuberculosis (TB) due to overcrowding, low levels of nutrition, poor infection control and lack of accessible healthcare services. India has nearly 1400 prisons housing 0.37 million inmates. However, information on, availability of diagnostic and treatment services for TB in the prison settings is limited. This study examined the availability of TB services in prisons of India. Simultaneously, prison inmates were screened for tuberculosis...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167256/turning-the-tide-against-tuberculosis
#8
Nesri Padayatchi, Naressa Naidu, Gerald Friedland, Kasavan Naidoo, Francesca Conradie, Kogieleum Naidoo, Max Roe O'Donnell
Despite affecting men, women and children for millennia, tuberculosis (TB) is the most neglected disease. In contrast, the global response to HIV has reached a defining moment. By uniting efforts, promptly integrating major scientific findings for both treatment and prevention, and scaling up services, the once inconceivable end to the HIV epidemic may no longer be an illusion. "The world has made defeating AIDS a top priority. This is a blessing. But TB remains ignored" - Nelson Mandela. While there is no doubt that revolutionary diagnostics, and new and repurposed drugs have provided some hope in the fight against TB, it is evident that scientific advances on their own are inadequate to achieve the World Health Organisation's ambitious goal to end TB by 2035...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167255/excess-mortality-associated-with-influenza-after-the-2009-h1n1-pandemic-in-a-subtropical-chinese-city-2010-2015
#9
Xu-Xiang Liu, Guoyou Qin, Xiaoru Li, Junqing Zhang, Kefu Zhao, Mingxia Hu, Xi-Ling Wang
OBJECTIVES: Our study aims to use quasi-Poisson regression model to estimate mortality burden associated with influenza type/subtypes in a subtropical Chinese city, 2010-2015. METHODS: Quasi-Poisson models were separately fitted to weekly numbers of deaths for various causes. The exploratory variables were products of weekly proportions of specimens positive for influenza type/subtype and weekly influenza-like illness consultation rates to represent influenza activity...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167254/seroprevalence-and-potential-risk-factors-of-t-gondii-infection-in-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-care-at-bonga-hospital-southwestern-ethiopia
#10
Jalel Negero, Moti Yohannes, Kifle Woldemichael, Dechassa Tegegne
OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of T.gondii infection in pregnant women attending antenatal care at Bonga Hospital, Southwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out from February to May 2016. Systematic sampling technique was used to collect sera from 210 pregnant women. Sample was tested for anti-T. gondii antibodies by Latex Agglutination Test (LAT). Risk factors associated with T.gondii infection in pregnant women was assessed through structured questionnaire...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167253/is-leishmania-viannia-braziliensis-parasite-load-associated-to-disease-pathogenesis
#11
Luiza de Oliveira Ramos Pereira, Regina Barbosa Moreira, Márcia Pereira de Oliveira, Soraya de Oliveira Reis, Manoel Paes de Oliveira Neto, Claude Pirmez
INTRODUCTION: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the main etiological agent of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Americas. Parasite molecular diversity and host immune status contribute to extensive variances in its clinical presentation within endemic areas of Brazil. Pentavalent antimonials have been used for more than sixty years as the first line drug for all cases despite the potential for severe side effects and refractoriness. In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, most L. (V.) braziliensis infections correspond to benign infections with scarcity of parasites, although metastasis and refractoriness can arise...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163168/experimental-animal-modelling-for-tb-vaccine-development
#12
REVIEW
Pere-Joan Cardona, Ann Williams
Research for a novel vaccine to prevent tuberculosis is an urgent medical need. The current vaccine, BCG has demonstrated a non-homogenous efficacy in humans, but still is the gold standard to be improved upon. In general, the main indicator for testing the potency of new candidates in animal models is the reduction of the bacillary load in the lungs at the acute phase of the infection. Usually, this reduction is similar to that induced by BCG, although in some cases a weak but significant improvement can be detected, But none of candidates are able to prevent establishment of infection...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163167/de-isolation-of-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-after-start-of-treatment-clear-unequivocal-guidelines-are-missing
#13
REVIEW
Eskild Petersen, Faryal Khamis, Giovanni Battista Migliori, Julie Glerup Bay, Ben Marais, Christian Wejse, Alimuddin Zumla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163166/respiratory-syncytial-virus-hospitalizations-in-infants-of-28-weeks-gestational-age-and-less-in-the-palivizumab-era
#14
Bernhard Resch, Beatrice Egger, Stefan Kurath-Koller, Berndt Urlesberger
OBJECTIVE: To obtain data on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) associated hospitalization rates in preterm infants of 28 weeks gestational age and less in the era of palivizumab prophylaxis. METHODS: Retrospective single-center cohort study including all preterm infants up to 28 weeks+6days gestational age and born between 2004 and 2012 at a tertiary care university hospital. Data on RSV related hospitalizations over the first two years of life covering at least two RSV seasons (November-April) were analyzed...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163165/the-risk-of-global-epidemic-replacement-with-drug-resistant-m-tuberculosis-strains
#15
REVIEW
Emma S McBryde, Michael T Meehan, Tan N Doan, Romain Ragonnet, Ben J Marais, Vanina Guernier, James M Trauer
OBJECTIVES: Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a threat to TB control. To guide TB control, it is essential to understand the extent to which and the circumstances in which MDR-TB will replace drug-susceptible TB (DS-TB) as the dominant phenotype. We examined the issue by presenting evidence from genomics, pharmacokinetics and epidemiology studies. We then synthesised this evidence into a mathematical model. METHODS: Our model consider two TB strains, one with and one without MDR phenotype...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163164/anti-pd-1-pd-l1-therapy-for-infectious-diseases-learning-from-the-cancer-paradigm
#16
REVIEW
Martin Rao, Davide Valentini, Ernest Dodoo, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
OBJECTIVES: Immune checkpoint pathways regulate optimal host immune responses against transformed cells; induce immunological memory and limit tissue pathology. Conversely, aberrant immune checkpoint activity signifies poor prognosis in cancer and infectious diseases. Host-directed therapy (HDT) via immune checkpoint blockade has revolutionised cancer treatment with therapeutic implications for chronic infections, thus laying the foundation for this review. METHODS: We performed online literature searches via PubMed, PubMedCentral and Google using the keywords "immune checkpoint inhibition", "host-directed therapy", "T cell exhaustion", "cancer immunotherapy", "anti-PD-1 therapy", "anti-PD-L1 therapy", "chronic infections", "antigen-specific cells", "tuberculosis", "malaria", "viral infections", "human immunodeficiency virus", "hepatitis B virus", "hepatitis C virus", "cytomegalovirus" and "Epstein-Barr virus"...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161464/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteins-involved-in-cell-wall-lipid-biosynthesis-improve-bcg-vaccine-efficacy-in-a-murine-tb-model
#17
REVIEW
Martin Rao, Nathalie Cadieux, Megan Fitzpatrick, Steven Reed, Sergei Arsenian, Davide Valentini, Shreemanta Parida, Ernest Dodoo, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
OBJECTIVES: Advances in tuberculosis (TB) vaccine development are urgently required to enhance global disease management. We evaluated the potential of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb)-derived protein antigens Rv0447c, Rv2957 and Rv2958c to boost BCG vaccine efficacy in the presence or absence of glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant formulated in a stable emulsion (GLA-SE) adjuvant. METHODS: Mice received the BCG vaccine, followed by Rv0447c, Rv2957 and Rv2958c protein boosting with or without GLA-SE adjuvant 3 and 6 weeks later...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161463/socio-political-prescriptions-for-ltbi-are-required-to-prevent-re-activation-of-tb
#18
LETTER
Anna K Coussens, Paul H Mason, Tolu Oni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161462/immune-response-and-protective-profile-elicited-by-a-multi-epitope-chimeric-protein-derived-from-leptospira-interrogans
#19
Luis G V Fernandes, Aline F Teixeira, Antonio F S Filho, Gisele O Souza, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Marcos B Heinemann, Eliete C Romero, Ana L T O Nascimento
INTRODUCTION: Pathogenic Leptospira is the causative agent of leptospirosis, a wide disseminated disease of human and veterinary concern. The development of vaccines that elicit cross protective immunity through multiple leptospiral serovars is long being pursued. OBJECTIVES: This work aims the development of a novel chimeric multi-epitope fusion antigen, containing sequences of previously studied outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Leptospira. METHODS: The chimeric protein was designed based on amino acids sequences of LigA, mammalian cell entry (Mce), Lsa45, OmpL1 and LipL41 proteins, cloned into pAE vector, the protein expressed in Escherichia coli and its immune response evaluated in the hamster infection model...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161461/infectious-disease-exposures-and-outbreaks-at-a-south-african-neonatal-unit-with-review-of-neonatal-outbreak-epidemiology-in-africa
#20
A Dramowski, M Aucamp, A Bekker, S Mehtar
BACKGROUND: Hospitalized neonates are vulnerable to infection, with pathogen exposures occurring in utero, intrapartum and postnatally. African neonatal units are at high risk of outbreaks owing to overcrowding, understaffing and shared equipment. METHODS: We describe neonatal outbreaks attended by the Paediatric Infectious Diseases and Infection Prevention (IP) teams at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town (1 May 2008 - 30 April 2016) reporting pathogens, outbreak size, mortality, source and outbreak control measures...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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