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Early Science and Medicine

Luana Giurgevich
Knowledge of libraries and book collecting is a preliminary task for the characterisation of scientific culture and practice. In the case of Iberia, and especially Portugal, this is still a desideratum. This paper provides a first global look at this issue. In early modem Portugal religious institutions organised impressive collections of books, by far the largest in the country These libraries not only served the religious institutions themselves, but also supplied books to lesser libraries, such as the University Library of Coimbra and the Royal Library...
August 2016: Early Science and Medicine
Teresa Nobre de Carvaiho
Considered by many to be the most learned Portuguese physician who lived in Goa during the sixteenth century, Garcia de Orta (c. 1500-1568) was the author of CoIoquios dos Simples, e Dro gas he cousas medicinais da India [Colloquies on the Simples and Drugs of India] (Goa, 1563). Devoted entirely to the description of Asian natural resour ces, very little is known about how this treatise came into existence. Publish ed at the edges of the Portuguese empire, and a hostage to technical, structural and human constraints, the princeps edition had a limited circulation...
August 2016: Early Science and Medicine
Jana Cerna
This article analyses the reception of knowledge about new world nature, and, more specifically, the reception of Iberian scientific knowledge of nature in the Americas, in the early modem Czech lands. It shows how the process of the reception of information about nature in the new world differed among the urban classes, intellectuals and the nobility; particular attention is paid to herbals, cosmographical works and travel reports. On the one hand, the study reveals that the efforts of Central European intellectuals to interpret new world nature were limited by the lack of necessary data and experience, which led to some misinterpretations and simplifications...
August 2016: Early Science and Medicine
Emma Salient Del Colombo
The manuscript Atlas de Historia Natural, known as the Pomar Codex, in the University Library of Valencia contains more than a hundred images that are practically identical to those found in the Tavole acquerellate in the collection of Ulisse Aldrovandi in the University Library of Bologna. I will argue that the overwhelming presence of images belonging to Ulisse Aldrovandi's collection in the Pomar Codex indicates that future research on this text should be based on trying to understand possible methods of exchange between Italy and the Iberian Peninsula...
August 2016: Early Science and Medicine
Tayra M C Lanuza Navarro
This paper aims to demonstrate that astrology was one of the disciplines that most strongly experienced the process that led European natural philosophers, once they were confronted with the nature of the New World, to recognise that previous knowledge was not as complete or absolute as previously assumed, and that the content of several disciplines had to be renewed, both epistemologically and methodologically. This paper focuses on the work by the cosmographer Henrico Martinez, Repertorio de los tiempos (1606), in which he established the astrological influences specific to Mexico, and the work Sitio, naturatezay propiedades de la Ciudad de Mexico (1618) by the physician Diego Cisneros, who refuted Martinez's astrology for Mexico and created his own instructions for the use of astrology in the practice of medicine in New Spain...
August 2016: Early Science and Medicine
Tomas Nejeschleba
The physician and philosopher Johannes Jessenius (1565-1621), an enthusiastic anatomist in Wittenberg, often had to defend his anatomical practices against Lutheran orthodoxy as is apparent from the invitations he wrote concerning his dissections. His most systematic defence can be found in the introduction to his description of the dissection performed in Prague in 16oo, where he provides three different strategies for the justification of anatomical research. The first method traditionally builds on the use of the ancient dictum 'know thyself;' the second strategy is based on teleology, which Jessenius adopted from Vesalius' work; and the final method is derived from the philosophical tradition of the Renaissance...
February 2016: Early Science and Medicine
Martin Zemla
This paper outlines the life, work, and views of Adam Huber of Riesenpach (1545-1613). Huber was one of the personal physicians to Rudolf ii in Prague, a pharmacist, translator, pedagogue, progressive academic and chancellor at Prague University, aiming to re-establish its medical faculty. Here, I will first appraise Huber as a distinguished translator of medical books published by the prominent Prague printer Daniel Adam of Veleslavin (1546-1599) and as a scholar who helped establish Czech medical terminology, most notably through his new translation of the great Herbal of Pietro Andrea Mattioli (1501-1577), which he reworked and expanded...
February 2016: Early Science and Medicine
Lucie Storchova
The current study deals with the representation of gout in Bohemian humanist literature and its impact on the cultural definitions of being a humanist scholar from the 1550s to the 1620s. Bohemian humanists produced a number of brief autobiographical remarks and lengthy Latin poems dealing with gout or its personified form, podagra. After analysing Bohemian medical treatises, the author focuses on the gout-related imagery from a gender perspective. The main section of the study deals with how the disease was gendered on the level of argument and figurative speech, how its/her body and the relationships to humanist poets were described, which features were related to its/her victims and what this imagery could mean for the ways in which humanists fashioned themselves in their correspondence or casual poetry...
February 2016: Early Science and Medicine
Mordechai Feingold
This essay offers a more dynamic, and historically grounded, context to explain how and why various individuals and groups in England adopted the term "experimental philosophy." Before the foundation of the Royal Society, I contend, the term had been utilized promiscuously, its modern signification conspicuously absent. Building on this insight, I examine the seemingly deliberate decision by future members of the Royal Society to avoid using the term--and the subsequent shift in their attitude c. 1660. My aim is to demonstrate that while only in England did the fixed conceptual and polemical term "experimental philosophy" become popularized and its (supposed) practice institutionalized, English natural philosophers did not view themselves as engaged in a practice that was fundamentally different than that pursued by their counterparts on the Continent...
2016: Early Science and Medicine
Anna Marie Roos
Before Newton's seminal work on the spectrum, seventeenth-century English natural philosophers such as Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke, Nehemliah Grew and Robert Plot attributed the phenomenon of color in the natural world to salts and saline chymistry. They rejected Aristotelian ideas that color was related to the object's hot and cold qualities, positing instead that saline principles governed color and color changes in flora, fauna and minerals. In our study, we also characterize to what extent chymistry was a basic analytical tool for seventeenth-century English natural historians...
2015: Early Science and Medicine
Tawrin Baker
This essay investigates the relationship between color and contingency in Robert Boyle's Experiments and Considerations Touching Colours (1664) and his essays on the unsuccessfulness of experiments in Certain Physiological Essays (1661). In these two works Boyle wrestles with a difficult practical and philosophical problem with experiments, which he calls the problem of contingency. In Touching Colours, the problem of contingency is magnified by the much-debated issue of whether color had any deep epistemic importance...
2015: Early Science and Medicine
Romana Sammern
Alongside Richard Haydocke's translation of Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo's treatise on painting (1598), the article examines concepts of color concerning cosmetics, painting and complexion as they relate to aesthetics, artistic and medical practice in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Beginning with white and red as ideal colors of beauty in Agnolo Firenzuola's Discourse on the beauty of women (1541), the essay places color in relation to major issues in art, medicine and empiricism by discussing beauty as a quality of humoral theory and its colors as visual results of physiological processes...
2015: Early Science and Medicine
Valentina Pugliano
Famed for his collection of drawings of naturalia and his thoughts on the relationship between painting and natural knowledge, it now appears that the Bolognese naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605) also pondered specifically color and pigments, compiling not only lists and diagrams of color terms but also a full-length unpublished manuscript entitled De coloribus or Trattato dei colori. Introducing these writings for the first time, this article portrays a scholar not so much interested in the materiality of pigment production, as in the cultural history of hues...
2015: Early Science and Medicine
Doris Oltrogge
Renaissance painters used a number of inorganic color materials. The development of mineralogy as a discipline opened a new discourse on mineral pigments. Agricola and other naturalists were familiar with the contemporary writings on art technology, but their focus was different. Therefore, the exchange of knowledge between these two color worlds remained selective. One possible meeting point was the Kunstkammer where the study of natural objects and materials was combined with an interest in the manual execution of a painting...
2015: Early Science and Medicine
Tawrin Baker, Sven Dupré, Sachiko Kusukawa, Karin Leonhard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Early Science and Medicine
Henry Zepeda
The Almagestum parvum, a summary of Ptolemy's Almagest written around the year 1200, provided a new stylistic framework for the content of theAlmagest's first six books. The author of the Almagestum parvum used a narrower range of types of mathematical writing and supplied his work with principles, which were listed at the beginning of each book and which were followed by propositions and demonstrations. Specific values were to a large extent replaced by general quantities, which would stand for a class of particulars...
2015: Early Science and Medicine
Brad Berman
This paper offers an interpretation of Aristotle's treatment of the homoeomerous, or like-parted, bodies. I argue that they are liable to be far more complexly structured than is commonly supposed. While Aristotelian homoeomers have no intrinsic macrostructural properties, they are, in an important class of cases, essentially marked by the presence and absence of microstructural ones. As I show, these microstructural properties allow Aristotle to neatly demarcate the non-elemental homoeomers from the elements...
2015: Early Science and Medicine
Olivier Dubouclez
This article argues that an original debate over the relationship between time and the intellect took place in Northern Italy in the second half of the sixteenth century, which was part of a broader reflection on the temporality of human mental acts. While human intellectual activity was said to be 'above time' during the Middle Ages, Renaissance scholars such as Marcantonio Genua (1491-1563), Giulio Castellani (1528-1586), Antonio Montecatini (1537-1599) and Francesco Piccolomini (1520-1604), greatly influenced by the Simplician and Alexandrist interpretations of Aristotle's works, proposed alterna- tive conceptions based on the interpretation of De anima 3...
2015: Early Science and Medicine
C Philipp E Nothaft
A frequently overlooked aspect of the knowledge transfer from Arabic into Latin in the twelfth century is the introduction of the Islamo-Arabic calendar, which confronted Western computists with a radically different scheme of lunar reckoning that was in some ways superior to the 19-year lunar cycle of the Roman Church. One of the earliest sources to properly discuss this new system and compare it to the old one is the anonymous Collatio Compoti Romani et Arabici, found in a manuscript from Tewkesbury Abbey, Gloucestershire...
2015: Early Science and Medicine
Anthony Turner
The Sun, in the early seventeenth century was, as it always had been, the ultimate arbiter of time-measurement In the last quarter of the century however this role was called into question as the new precision of post-Huygenian clocks revealed that natural time and the artificial mean time of the clock were not the same. Initially the question was little understood by the general public. The paper examines some early attempts to explain why "Sun-time" in 1700 was no longer "true-time."
2015: Early Science and Medicine
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