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Cell Stress & Chaperones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214607/generation-and-propagation-of-yeast-prion-ure3-are-elevated-under-electromagnetic-field
#1
Hui-Yong Lian, Kang-Wei Lin, Chuanjun Yang, Peng Cai
In this study, we studied the effect of 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) and 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure on prion generation and propagation using two budding yeast strains, NT64C and SB34, as model organisms. Under exposure to RF-EMF or ELF-EMF, the de novo generation and propagation of yeast prions [URE3] were elevated in both strains. The elevation increased over time, and the effects of ELF-EMF occurred in a dose-dependent manner. The transcription and expression levels of the molecular chaperones Hsp104, Hsp70-Ssa1/2, and Hsp40-Ydj1 were not statistically significantly changed after exposure...
December 6, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190034/the-role-of-%C3%AE-b-crystallin-in-skeletal-and-cardiac-muscle-tissues
#2
REVIEW
Ivan Dimauro, Ambra Antonioni, Neri Mercatelli, Daniela Caporossi
All organisms and cells respond to various stress conditions such as environmental, metabolic, or pathophysiological stress by generally upregulating, among others, the expression and/or activation of a group of proteins called heat shock proteins (HSPs). Among the HSPs, special attention has been devoted to the mutations affecting the function of the αB-crystallin (HSPB5), a small heat shock protein (sHsp) playing a critical role in the modulation of several cellular processes related to survival and stress recovery, such as protein degradation, cytoskeletal stabilization, and apoptosis...
November 30, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178005/effect-of-single-and-repeated-heat-stress-on-chemical-signals-of-heat-shock-response-cascade-in-the-rat-s-heart
#3
Gordana Ilievska, Suzana Dinevska-Kjovkarovska, Biljana Miova
Exposure to sublethal heat stress activates a complex cascade of signaling events, such as activators (NO), signal molecules (PKCε), and mediators (HSP70 and COX-2), leading to implementation of heat preconditioning, an adaptive mechanism which makes the organism more tolerant to additional stress. We investigated the time frame in which these chemical signals are triggered after heat stress (41 ± 0.5°С/45 min), single or repeated (24 or 72 h after the first one) in heart tissue of male Wistar rats...
November 24, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170928/leishmania-mexicana-differentiation-involves-a-selective-plasma-membrane-autophagic-like-process
#4
Francehuli Dagger, Camila Bengio, Angel Martinez, Carlos Ayesta
Parasites of the Leishmania genus, which are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, display a complex life cycle, from a flagellated form (promastigotes) residing in the midgut of the phlebotomine vector to a non-flagellated form (amastigote) invading the mammalian host. The cellular process for the conversion between these forms is an interesting biological phenomenon involving modulation of the plasma membrane. In this study, we describe a selective autophagic-like process during the in vitro differentiation of Leishmania mexicana promastigote to amastigote-like cells...
November 23, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164525/heat-shock-factor-4-regulates-the-expression-of-hsp25-and-alpha-b-crystallin-by-associating-with-dexd-h-box-rna-helicase-uap56
#5
Xiukun Cui, Wenxiu Han, Jing Li, Riping Feng, Zheng Zhou, JiuLi Han, Mengyuan Li, Shuangfeng Wang, Wanting Zhang, Qin Lei, Jun Zhang, Yutiao Liu, Yanzhong Hu
Heat shock factor 4 controls the transcription of small heat shock proteins (e.g., HSP25, alpha B-cyrstallin, and r-crystallin), that play important roles in modulating lens proteostasis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying HSF4-mediated transcription is still unclear. Using yeast two hybrid, we found that HSF4 interacts with the ATP-dependent DEXD/H-box RNA helicase UAP56, and their interaction in lens epithelial cell line was further confirmed by GST-pull down assay. UAP56 is a vital regulator of pre-mRNA splicing and mature mRNA nuclear export...
November 21, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151236/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-alleviates-secondary-injury-in-the-spinal-cord-via-up-regulation-of-cibz-gene
#6
Zongmeng Zhang, Jie Chen, Fanghui Chen, Daolun Yu, Rui Li, Chenglong Lv, Haosen Wang, Honglin Li, Jun Li, Yafei Cai
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is generally divided into primary and secondary injuries, and apoptosis is an important event of the secondary injury. As an endogenous bile acid and recognized endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inhibitor, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) administration has been reported to have a potentially therapeutic effect on neurodegenerative diseases, but its real mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we evaluated whether TUDCA could alleviate traumatic damage of the spinal cord and improve locomotion function in a mouse model of SCI...
November 18, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134442/endothelial-tnf-%C3%AE-induction-by-hsp60-secreted-from-thp-1-monocytes-exposed-to-hyperglycaemic-conditions
#7
Ryan Dennis Martinus, Julie Goldsbury
A non-resolving inflammation of the endothelium is recognised to be an important process leading to atherosclerosis. In diabetes, this process is thought to account for a significant number of cardiovascular disease-associated death and disability. However, the molecular mechanisms by which diabetes contributes to endothelial inflammation remain to be established. Whilst there is some evidence linking hyperglycaemia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by the mitochondrial electron-transport chain to oxidative stress, cellular injury and apoptosis in the endothelium, a clear link to endothelium inflammation has not yet been established...
November 13, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124664/downhill-exercise-alters-immunoproteasome-content-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#8
Cory W Baumann, Dongmin Kwak, Deborah A Ferrington, LaDora V Thompson
Content of the immunoproteasome, the inducible form of the standard proteasome, increases in atrophic muscle suggesting it may be associated with skeletal muscle remodeling. However, it remains unknown if the immunoproteasome responds to stressful situations that do not promote large perturbations in skeletal muscle proteolysis. The purpose of this study was to determine how an acute bout of muscular stress influences immunoproteasome content. To accomplish this, wild-type (WT) and immunoproteasome knockout lmp7 (-/-) /mecl1 (-/-) (L7M1) mice were run downhill on a motorized treadmill...
November 9, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116579/gene-encoding-vesicle-associated-membrane-protein-associated-protein-from-triticum-aestivum-tavap-confers-tolerance-to-drought-stress
#9
Brinderjit Singh, Paramjit Khurana, Jitendra P Khurana, Prabhjeet Singh
Abiotic stresses like drought, salinity, high and low temperature, and submergence are major factors that limit the crop productivity. Hence, identification of genes associated with stress response in crops is a prerequisite for improving their tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. In an earlier study, we had identified a drought-inducible gene, vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein (TaVAP), in developing grains of wheat. In this study, we demonstrate that TaVAP is able to complement yeast and Arabidopsis mutants, which are impaired in their respective orthologs, signifying functional conservation...
November 7, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116578/yeast-polyubiquitin-gene-ubi4-deficiency-leads-to-early-induction-of-apoptosis-and-shortened-replicative-lifespan
#10
Wei Zhao, Tao Zhou, Hua-Zhen Zheng, Kun-Pei Qiu, Hong-Jing Cui, Hui Yu, Xin-Guang Liu
Ubiquitin is a 76-amino acid protein that is highly conserved among higher and lower eukaryotes. The polyubiquitin gene UBI4 encodes a unique precursor protein that contains five ubiquitin repeats organized in a head-to-tail arrangement. Although the involvement of the yeast polyubiquitin gene UBI4 in the stress response was reported long ago, there are no reports regarding the underlying mechanism of this involvement. In this study, we used UBI4-deletion and UBI4-overexpressing yeast strains as models to explore the potential mechanism by which UBI4 protects yeast cells against paraquat-induced oxidative stress...
November 7, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101529/an-overview-of-cytokines-and-heat-shock-response-in-polytraumatized-patients
#11
REVIEW
Maria Concepción Guisasola, Berta Alonso, Beatriz Bravo, Javier Vaquero, Francisco Chana
Early after injury, local tissue damage induces a local and systemic inflammatory response that activates the immune system and leads to the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). This post-traumatic response often results in uncontrolled release of inflammatory mediators and over-activation of the immune system, which occasionally results in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). In parallel, a state of immunosuppression develops. This counter-regulating suppression of different cellular and humoral immune functions has been termed "compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS)...
November 3, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086205/testicular-torsion-and-reperfusion-evidences-for-biochemical-and-molecular-alterations
#12
Naeimeh Shamsi-Gamchi, Mazdak Razi, Mehdi Behfar
This study was done in order to determine the molecular and biochemical alterations following testicular torsion (TT) and torsion-reperfusion (TR). For this purpose, 54 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups as control group (n = 6) and experimental group subjected to 1, 2, 4, and 8 h unilateral left torsion induction (n = 12 in each group). After induction of TT, testicular samples were collected from each group (n = 6), and the other six rats of each group underwent the same period of reperfusion after TT and then were sampled...
October 31, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29086335/extracellular-small-heat-shock-proteins-exosomal-biogenesis-and-function
#13
REVIEW
V Sudhakar Reddy, Satish K Madala, Jamma Trinath, G Bhanuprakash Reddy
Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) belong to the family of heat shock proteins (Hsps): some are induced in response to multiple stressful events to protect the cells while others are constitutively expressed. Until now, it was believed that Hsps, including sHsps, are present inside the cells and perform intracellular functions. Interestingly, several groups recently reported the extracellular presence of Hsps, and sHsps have also been detected in sera/cerebrospinal fluids in various pathological conditions. Secretion into the extracellular milieu during many pathological conditions suggests additional or novel functions of sHsps in addition to their intracellular properties...
October 30, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067554/extracellular-hsp70-induces-inflammation-and-modulates-lps-lta-stimulated-inflammatory-response-in-thp-1-cells
#14
Andrea Hulina, Marija Grdić Rajković, Daniela Jakšić Despot, Dubravko Jelić, Ana Dojder, Ivana Čepelak, Lada Rumora
Extracellular Hsp70 (eHsp70) can act as damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) via Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4, and stimulate immune and inflammatory responses leading to sterile inflammation and propagation of already existing inflammation. It was found elevated in the blood of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), who might suffer occasional bacterial colonizations and infections. We used a monocytic THP-1 cell line as a cellular model of systemic compartment of COPD to assess inflammatory effects of eHsp70 when present alone or together with bacterial products lypopolysaccharide (LPS) and lypoteichoic acid (LTA)...
October 24, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063376/recurrent-heat-shock-impairs-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-c2c12-myoblasts
#15
Daniel J Bolus, Gobinath Shanmugam, Madhusudhanan Narasimhan, Namakkal S Rajasekaran
Heat-related illness and injury are becoming a growing safety concern for the farmers, construction workers, miners, firefighters, manufacturing workers, and other outdoor workforces who are exposed to heat stress in their routine lives. A primary response by a cell to an acute heat shock (HS) exposure is the induction of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), which chaperone and facilitate cellular protein folding and remodeling processes. While acute HS is well studied, the effect of repeated bouts of hyperthermia and the sustained production of HSPs in the myoblast-myotube model system of C2C12 cells are poorly characterized...
October 24, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063375/lactic-acid-alleviates-stress-good-for-female-genital-tract-homeostasis-bad-for-protection-against-malignancy
#16
Steven S Witkin
Women are unique from all other mammals in that lactic acid is present at high levels in the vagina during their reproductive years. This dominance may have evolved in response to the unique human lifestyle and a need to optimally protect pregnant women and their fetuses from endogenous and exogenous insults. Lactic acid in the female genital tract inactivates potentially pathogenic bacteria and viruses, maximizes survival of vaginal epithelial cells, and inhibits inflammation that may be damaging to the developing fetus and maintenance of the pregnancy...
October 23, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986745/nutritional-and-metabolic-stressors-on-ovine-oocyte-development-and-granulosa-cell-functions-in-vitro
#17
S Nandi, S K Tripathi, P S P Gupta, S Mondal
The present study was undertaken to study the effect of ammonia, urea, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyric acid (β-OHB) on oocyte development and granulosa cell (GC) growth parameter of ovine (Ovis aries). Ovine oocytes were matured in vitro in the presence of different concentration of ammonia, urea, NEFA, and β-OHB for 24 h, in vitro inseminated and evaluated for cleavage and blastocyst yield. Same concentrations of ammonia, urea, NEFA, and β-OHB were examined on growth parameters and hormone secretion activity of granulosa cells in vitro...
October 6, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956268/modulation-of-alzheimer-s-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-oligomerization-and-toxicity-by-extracellular-hsp70
#18
Isabel Rivera, Ricardo Capone, David M Cauvi, Nelson Arispe, Antonio De Maio
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to dementia caused by advanced neuronal dysfunction and death. The most significant symptoms of AD are observed at late stages of the disease when interventions are most likely too late to ameliorate the condition. Currently, the predominant theory for AD is the "amyloid hypothesis," which states that abnormally increased levels of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides result in the production of a variety of aggregates that are neurotoxic. The specific mechanisms for Aβ peptide-induced cytotoxicity have not yet been completely elucidated...
September 27, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952072/role-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-determining-the-fate-of-tumor-cells-and-the-promise-of-multi-targeted-therapies
#19
REVIEW
Kunyu Shen, David W Johnson, David A Vesey, Michael A McGuckin, Glenda C Gobe
Although there have been advances in our understanding of carcinogenesis and development of new treatments, cancer remains a common cause of death. Many regulatory pathways are incompletely understood in cancer development and progression, with a prime example being those related to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The pathological sequelae that arise from disruption of ER homeostasis are not well defined. The ER is an organelle that is responsible for secretory protein biosynthesis and the quality control of protein folding...
September 27, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952019/heat-shock-proteins-and-dna-repair-mechanisms-an-updated-overview
#20
REVIEW
Mayra L Sottile, Silvina B Nadin
Heat shock proteins (HSPs), also known as molecular chaperones, participate in important cellular processes, such as protein aggregation, disaggregation, folding, and unfolding. HSPs have cytoprotective functions that are commonly explained by their antiapoptotic role. Their involvement in anticancer drug resistance has been the focus of intense research efforts, and the relationship between HSP induction and DNA repair mechanisms has been in the spotlight during the past decades. Because DNA is permanently subject to damage, many DNA repair pathways are involved in the recognition and removal of a diverse array of DNA lesions...
September 26, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
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