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Cell Stress & Chaperones

Gyanendra Singh Sengar, Rajib Deb, Umesh Singh, Vivek Junghare, Saugata Hazra, T V Raja, Rani Alex, Ashish Kumar, R R Alyethodi, Rajiv Kant, Subhash Jakshara, C G Joshi
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that play key roles in post transcriptional gene regulation that influence various fundamental cellular processes, including the cellular responses during environmental stresses. However, perusal of literatures revealed few reports on the differential expression of miRNA during thermal stress in Indian native (Bos indicus) cattle breeds. The present investigation aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs during thermal stress in Sahiwal (Bos indicus) dairy cattle breed of India, adapted with tropical climate over a long period of time...
May 18, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Frank Kaiser, Nikos Donos, Brian Henderson, Rajesh Alagarswamy, George Pelekos, David Boniface, Luigi Nibali
Heat-shock protein (Hsp) 27 is a major intracellular molecular chaperone and controller of intracellular responses to inflammatory signals. In the extracellular space, recombinant Hsp27 has been described to exert anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to assess the association between circulating levels of Hsp27 and different types of periodontitis. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the stress proteins Hsp27 and Hsp60 with proposed anti- and pro-inflammatory properties, respectively, were measured by two-site ELISA in the serum of patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP, n = 30), chronic periodontitis (CP, n = 29) and periodontally healthy controls (H, n = 28)...
May 15, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Pierre-Marie Girard, Nathalie Peynot, Jean-Marc Lelièvre
In primary bovine fibroblasts with an hspa1b/luciferase transgene, we examined the intensity of heat-shock response (HSR) following four types of oxidative stress or heat stress (HS), and its putative relationship with changes to different cell parameters, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), the redox status of the key molecules glutathione (GSH), NADP(H) NAD(H), and the post-translational protein modifications carbonylation, S-glutathionylation, and ubiquitination. We determined the sub-lethal condition generating the maximal luciferase activity and inducible HSPA protein level for treatments with hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), UVA-induced oxygen photo-activation, the superoxide-generating agent menadione (MN), and diamide (DA), an electrophilic and sulfhydryl reagent...
May 12, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Victoria A Sleight, Lloyd S Peck, Elisabeth A Dyrynda, Valerie J Smith, Melody S Clark
Acclimation, via phenotypic flexibility, is a potential means for a fast response to climate change. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning phenotypic flexibility can provide a fine-scale cellular understanding of how organisms acclimate. In the last 30 years, Mya truncata populations around the UK have faced an average increase in sea surface temperature of 0.7 °C and further warming of between 1.5 and 4 °C, in all marine regions adjacent to the UK, is predicted by the end of the century...
May 12, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Fadia F Mahmoud, David Haines, Ali A Dashti, Sherief El-Shazly, Fawzia Al-Najjar
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) features insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, overproduction of inflammatory cytokines, and systemic oxidative stress. Here, heat shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp 90, adiponectin, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, Hsp32) are profiled in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and serum from 25 T2DM patients and 25 healthy control subjects. Cells cultured with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin were evaluated by three-color flow cytometry for immunophenotypic biomarkers...
May 11, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Mingcheng Cai, Yongsong Hu, Tianhao Zheng, Hongbing He, Wudian Xiao, Buwei Liu, Yu Shi, Xianbo Jia, Shiyi Chen, Jie Wang, Songjia Lai
Heat stress affects milk yield and quality in lactating dairy cows in summer. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) play a key role in milk secretion, and microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate numerous functions of bMEC. Previous reports have verified that miR-216b regulated cell apoptosis through repressing target genes in several cancer cells. So, our purpose was to explore the potential involvement of miR-216b in heat stress-induced cell apoptosis in bMECs. Firstly, the heat stress model was constructed and we found that apoptotic rates of bMECs significantly increased under heat stress...
May 5, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Alaa Shaheen
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive cellular response that aims to relieve endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress via several mechanisms, including inhibition of protein synthesis and enhancement of protein folding and degradation. There is a controversy over the effect of the UPR on ER protein export. While some investigators suggested that ER export is inhibited during ER stress, others suggested the opposite. In this article, their conflicting studies are analyzed and compared in attempt to solve this controversy...
May 5, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Yajie Zhang, Yu Li, Xuechang Han, Xu Dong, Xiangbiao Yan, Qunzhi Xing
Sevoflurane, an inhaled ether general anesthetic agent, exerts a variety of neurotoxic effects, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuronal apoptosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. DJ-1 is a protein that exerts neuroprotective effects against different kinds of stress through multiple pathways. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of DJ-1 against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. Here, we found that sevoflurane treatment significantly increased DJ-1 expression in human neuroblastoma M17 cells in a dose-dependent manner at both the mRNA and protein levels...
May 4, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Mahmoud Abdel-Latif, Thabet Sakran, Yasser K Badawi, Doaa S Abdel-Hady
The current study aimed to test the effect of Moringa oleifera extract (MOE), vitamin (Vit) C, and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) on heat stress (HS)-induced alterations in rabbits. Five groups of rabbits were designed as control, HS, HS + MOE, HS + Vit C, and HS + NaHCO3 . HS groups were exposed to high temperatures, while treatments were given in drinking water for 6 weeks. Levels of blood cortisol, leptin, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 were assayed using ELISA, while adrenaline was assayed calorimetrically...
May 4, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
L Montibeller, J de Belleroche
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in maintenance of proteostasis through the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is strongly activated in most neurodegenerative disorders. UPR signalling pathways mediated by IRE1α and ATF6 play a crucial role in the maintenance of ER homeostasis through the transactivation of an array of transcription factors. When activated, these transcription factors induce the expression of genes involved in protein folding and degradation with pro-survival effects...
May 4, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Erik G Marklund, Yichen Zhang, Eman Basha, Justin L P Benesch, Elizabeth Vierling
Table 1 in the original publication has been corrected.
May 3, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Shawn J Waller, Laura E Knighton, Lenora M Crabtree, Abigail L Perkins, Adam M Reitzel, Andrew W Truman
Marine organisms experience abiotic stressors such as fluctuations in temperature, UV radiation, salinity, and oxygen concentration. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) assist in the response of cells to these stressors by refolding and maintaining the activity of damaged proteins. The well-conserved Hsp70 chaperone family is essential for cell viability as well as the response to stress. Organisms possess a variety of Hsp70 isoforms that differ slightly in amino acid sequence, yet very little is known about their functional relevance...
April 25, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Asmaa M S Gomaa, Alaa T Abdelhafez, Hazem A Aamer
Gentamicin (GNT)-induced nephrotoxicity culminates into renal failure with a possible cardiovascular impact. Garlic extract (GE) is a cardiovascular protectant with limited mechanistic data. Therefore, we assessed the disturbance in specific cardiac parameters and the potential protective effect of GE supplementation against them in a rat model of GNT-induced chronic renal failure (CRF). Adult male rats (n = 24) were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 6 each): normal controls (CON), garlic extract controls (GE; 250 mg kg-1 , orally), GNT-induced CRF (GNT; 100 mg kg-1 , i...
April 21, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Meghan G Patton, Trevor L Gillum, Mandy C Szymanski, Lacey M Gould, Claire J Lauterbach, Roger A Vaughan, Matthew R Kuennen
This work investigated the effect of a 6-day heat acclimation (HA) protocol on myotube metabolic responses at baseline and in response to a subsequent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. C2C12 myotubes were incubated for 2 h/day at 40 °C for 6 days (HA) or maintained at 37 °C (C). Following 24-h recovery, myotubes were challenged with 500 ng/ml LPS for 2 h, then collected for analysis of protein markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and macronutrient storage. Functional significance of these changes was confirmed with mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic measurements on a Seahorse XF-96 analyzer...
April 11, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Aslıhan Şengelen, Evren Önay-Uçar
High expression of Hsp27 in glioma cells has been closely associated with tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis inhibition. The aim of the present study was to asses the effects of rosmarinic acid (RA) on Hsp27 expression and apoptosis in non-transfected and transfected human U-87 MG cells. The effect of rosmarinic acid was compared to quercetin, which is known to be a good Hsp27 inhibitor. In order to block the expression of Hsp27 gene (HSPB1), transfection with specific siRNAs was performed. Western blotting technique was used to assess the Hsp27 expression, and caspase-3 colorimetric activity assay was performed to determine apoptosis induction...
April 7, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Federico G Seifarth, Julia E-M Lax, Jennifer Harvey, Paul E DiCorleto, M Elaine Husni, Unnikrishnan M Chandrasekharan, Michael Tytell
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with systemic manifestations and potential genetic etiology. The newest treatments utilize antibodies against one of several cytokines known to underlie the inflammatory signaling molecules that produce the skin and systemic symptoms. However, these agents must be regularly injected, and they may compromise the normal responses of the immune system. Furthermore, they do not address the causes of the abnormal immunoregulatory responses of the disease because the etiology is not yet completely understood...
April 3, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Ana Rita Lopes, Eduardo Sampaio, Catarina Santos, Ana Couto, Maria Rita Pegado, Mário Diniz, Philip L Munday, Jodie L Rummer, Rui Rosa
Sharks have maintained a key role in marine food webs for 400 million years and across varying physicochemical contexts, suggesting plasticity to environmental change. In this study, we investigated the biochemical effects of ocean acidification (OA) levels predicted for 2100 (pCO2 ~ 900 μatm) on newly hatched tropical whitespotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum). Specifically, we measured lipid, protein, and DNA damage levels, as well as changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and non-enzymatic ROS scavengers in juvenile sharks exposed to elevated CO2 for 50 days following hatching...
March 27, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Kalaivanan Kalpana, Emayavaramban Priyadarshini, S Sreeja, Kalivarathan Jagan, Carani Venkatraman Anuradha
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a dynamic organelle, plays an essential role in organizing the signaling pathways involved in cellular adaptation, resilience, and survival. Impairment in the functions of ER occurs in a variety of nutritive disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here, we hypothesize that (scopoletin) SPL, a coumarin, has the potential to alleviate ER stress induced in vitro and in vivo models by lipotoxicity. To test this hypothesis, the ability of SPL to restore the levels of proteins of ER stress was analyzed...
March 25, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Md Moniruzzaman, Young-Won Chin, Jungsook Cho
Physalis alkekengi var. francheti is an indigenous herb well known for its anti-inflammatory, sedative, antipyretic, and expectorant properties. However, the information regarding the impacts of P. alkekengi fruits (PAF) in modulation of oxidative stress and learning memory are still unknown. This study therefore evaluated the antioxidant properties of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of PAF and its impacts on learning and memory. The antioxidant activities of PAF were evaluated in LPS-induced BV2 microglial cells...
March 15, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Rainer Benndorf, Robert R Gilmont, Sahoko Hirano, Richard F Ransom, Peter R Jungblut, Martin Bommer, James E Goldman, Michael J Welsh
When analyzing small stress proteins of rat and human tissues by electrophoretic methods followed by western blotting, and using the anti-HspB1/anti-HspB5 antibody clone 8A7, we unexpectedly found a protein with a molecular mass of ~44 kDa. On two-dimensional gels, this protein resolved into four distinct species. Electrophoretic and immunological evidence suggests that this 44 kDa protein is a derivative of HspB5, most likely a covalently linked HspB5 dimer. This HspB5-like 44 kDa protein (HspB5L-P44) is particularly abundant in rat heart, brain, and renal cortex and glomeruli...
March 14, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
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