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Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine

Masahide Koda, Motoki Iwasaki, Yuko Yamano, Xi Lu, Takahiko Katoh
Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported a correction in the units in the methods section under "Subjects".
July 4, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Liu Huang, Xiao Cai, Fuzhi Lian, Long Zhang, Yuling Kong, Chengjian Cao, Haiyan Ma, Yuxian Shao, Yinyin Wu, Baodan Zhang, Liangwen Xu, Lei Yang
BACKGROUND: Both aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) rs671 polymorphism and lifestyle behaviors are involved in coronary artery disease (CAD), while the interaction between them is currently unknown. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted in 161 patients with CAD and 495 controls in dyslipidemia population in Yinzhou District, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China, in August 2013. Anthropometric data and blood samples were collected, demographic characteristics and lifestyle behaviors information were obtained by a face-to-face interview, dietary intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, and genomic DNA was genotyped...
June 30, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Kazutoshi Nakamura, Ribeka Takachi, Kaori Kitamura, Toshiko Saito, Ryosaku Kobayashi, Rieko Oshiki, Yumi Watanabe, Keiko Kabasawa, Akemi Takahashi, Shoichiro Tsugane, Masayuki Iki, Ayako Sasaki, Osamu Yamazaki
BACKGROUND: Age-related musculoskeletal diseases are becoming increasingly burdensome in terms of both individual quality of life and medical cost. We intended to establish a large population-based cohort study to determine environmental, lifestyle, and genetic risk factors of musculoskeletal and other age-related diseases, and to clarify the association between vitamin D status and such diseases. METHODS: We targeted 34,802 residents aged 40-74 years living in areas of northern Niigata Prefecture, including Sekikawa Village, Awashimaura Village, and Murakami City (Murakami region)...
June 26, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Devarajan Rathish, Suneth Agampodi, Channa Jayasumana
BACKGROUND: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor insecticides (AChEIIs) were used extensively in the agrarian region of Anuradhapura for the past few decades. As a result, the region faced a heightened risk of toxicity. Carbaryl, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, and fenthion were the five hazardous AChEIIs banned from Anuradhapura in 2014. Assessment of post-ban trends in acute poisoning will reveal the impact of the ban. Data on availability and sales of remaining AChEIIs will guide towards preventive measures against related toxicities...
June 26, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Zemichael Gizaw, Tsegaye Adane, Jember Azanaw, Ayenew Addisu, Daniel Haile
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasites are a common problem in the world. The greater proportion of infections is associated with poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). This study was conducted to assess intestinal parasites, WASH condition, and their association in rural Dembiya, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was employed. Two hundred twenty-five children aged 6-59 months were included. Mothers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and the living environment was observed using checklists...
June 22, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Devarajan Rathish, Indika Senavirathna, Channa Jayasumana, Suneth Agampodi
BACKGROUND: Assessment of acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor insecticide (AChEII) toxicity depends on the measurement of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase (RBC-AChE) activity. Its interpretation requires baseline values which is lacking in scientific literature. We aim to find the measures of central tendency and variation for RBC-AChE activity among dwellers of Anuradhapura, where the use and abuse of AChEIIs were rampant for the last few decades. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study with a community-based sampling for 100 healthy non-farmers (male:female = 1:1) was done using pre-determined selection criteria...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Mayumi Tsuji, Yasuhiro Ishihara, Toyohi Isse, Chihaya Koriyama, Megumi Yamamoto, Noriaki Kakiuchi, Hsu-Sheng Yu, Masayuki Tanaka, Takuto Tsuchiya, Masanori Ohta, Rie Tanaka, Toshihiro Kawamoto
BACKGROUND: Plastic resins are complex chemicals that contain toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and/or trimellitic anhydride (TMA), which cause occupational allergies (OA), including respiratory allergies. Serum IgGs against TDI and TMA have been suggested as potential markers of the exposure status and as exploring cause of OA. Although TDI-specific IgG has been examined for suspected OA, TMA-specific IgG is not commonly evaluated in a urethane foam factory. This study therefore investigated both TDI- and TMA-specific IgGs in suspected OA patients and to evaluate the usefulness of the measurement of multiple chemical-specific IgG measurement for practical monitoring...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Peng Guan, Wei Wu, Desheng Huang
BACKGROUND: The main objective of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of monthly reported human brucellosis cases in mainland China and develop an appropriate time series model for short-term extrapolation forecast. METHODS: Surveillance data of the monthly reported human brucellosis cases occurring from April 1, 2007, to March 31, 2017, in mainland China were obtained. The spectrum analysis was first adopted to find the cyclic and seasonal features, the existence of the seasonality and trend was determined by exponential smoothing method and the seasonal-trend decomposition...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Tri Baskoro Tunggul Satoto, Antok Listyantanto, Suzana Dewi Agustjahjani, Hari Kusnanto Josef, Barandi S Widartono
BACKGROUND: International Health Regulations controls international travel including human movement, disease vector, and imported items to prevent the spread of dengue, especially in seaports, airports, and border crossing posts. This study aimed to determine dengue Transovarial Transmission Index (TTI) and distribution of dengue virus in the areas around Adisucipto Airport of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. METHODS: The study was a descriptive analytic study with cross sectional design, conducted by mapping the spread of the dengue virus and identifying TTI in Adisucipto Airport...
June 5, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Toshiharu Gochi, Kunichika Matsumoto, Rebeka Amin, Takefumi Kitazawa, Kanako Seto, Tomonori Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart disease (IHD/ICD10: I20-I25) is the second leading cause of deaths in Japan and accounts for 40% of deaths due to heart diseases. This study aimed to calculate the economic burden of IHD using the cost of illness (COI) method and to identify key factors that drive the change of the economic burden of IHD. METHODS: We calculated the cost of illness (COI) every 3 years from 1996 to 2014 using governmental statistics. We then predicted the COI for every 3 years starting from 2017 up to 2029 using the fixed and variable model estimations...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Takuo Nomura, Toshihiro Kawae, Hiroaki Kataoka, Yukio Ikeda
The increase in the proportion of elderly people in the population is one of the most remarkable sociodemographic phenomena of the twenty-first century. The number of patients with diabetes is also increasing worldwide with this demographic change. Given these facts, consideration of the problems the general elderly population is facing in the management of diabetes is essential. In this review article, we focus on sarcopenia, which is the decrease in lower extremity muscle mass and muscle strength accompanying aging, describe the relationship between sarcopenia and diabetes, and highlight the specific factors through which diabetes contributes to loss of muscle strength...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Nicole Bijlsma, Marc Maurice Cohen
BACKGROUND: Most clinicians feel ill-equipped to assess or educate patients about toxicant exposures, and it is unclear how expert environmental medicine clinicians assess these exposures or treat exposure-related conditions. We aimed to explore expert clinicians' perspectives on their practice of environmental medicine to determine the populations and toxicants that receive the most attention, identify how they deal with toxicant exposures and identify the challenges they face and where they obtain their knowledge...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Yong-Chao Yue, Ming-Hua Li, Hai-Bo Wang, Bang-Le Zhang, Wei He
Depleted uranium (DU) has been widely applied in industrial and military activities, and is often obtained from producing fuel for nuclear reactors. DU may be released into the environment, polluting air, soil, and water, and is considered to exert both radiological and chemical toxicity. In humans and animals, DU can induce multiple health effects, such as renal tubular necrosis and bone malignancies. This review summarizes the known information on DU's routes of entry, mechanisms of toxicity, and health effects...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Thanusha Perera, Shirani Ranasinghe, Neil Alles, Roshitha Waduge
BACKGROUND: High fluoride levels in drinking water in relation to the prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka were investigated using rats as an experimental model. METHOD: The effects of fluoride after oral administration of Sodium fluoride (NaF) at levels of 0, 0.5, 5 and 20 ppm F- were evaluated in adult male Wistar rats. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 9), namely, control, test I, II, and III...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Yuji Shimizu, Shimpei Sato, Jun Koyamatsu, Hirotomo Yamanashi, Mako Nagayoshi, Shin-Ya Kawashiri, Keita Inoue, Shoichi Fukui, Hideaki Kondo, Seiko Nakamichi, Yasuhiro Nagata, Takahiro Maeda
BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) may act as a possible biochemical index for vascular damage, although evidence for the association between HGF and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is limited. Since both HGF and circulating CD34-positive cells play an important role in endothelial repair, circulating CD34-positive cell levels may influence the association between HGF and CIMT. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 269 elderly Japanese men aged 60-69 years who had undertaken an annual medical checkup from 2014 to 2015...
May 3, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Yohei Inaba, Shigehisa Uchiyama, Naoki Kunugita
BACKGROUND: The ammonia contained in tobacco fillers and mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke accelerates nicotine dependence in cigarette smokers. Ammonia has been included in the non-exhaustive priority list of 39 tobacco components and emissions of cigarette published by the World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation. The development of a simple ammonia detection method will contribute to the establishment of tobacco product regulation under tobacco control policies and allow surveys to be conducted, even by laboratories with small research budgets...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Hirotsuna Ohashi, Ichiro Wada, Yui Yamaoka, Ryoko Nakajima-Yamaguchi, Yasukazu Ogai, Nobuaki Morita
BACKGROUND: Building an effective casework system for child maltreatment is a global issue. We estimated the effect of household dysfunction (i.e., interparental violence, caregiver mental health problems, and caregiver substance abuse) on child maltreatment to understand how to advance the current framework of child welfare. METHODS: The sample comprised 759 children (1- to 17-year-old; mean age was 10.6; 404 boys and 355 girls) placed in temporary custody units (one of the strongest intervention of the Japanese child protection system)...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Kathiresan Jeyashree, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Soundappan Kathirvel
BACKGROUND: Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) is a 50-item tool to assess the educational environment of medical institutions as perceived by the students. This cross-sectional study developed and validated an abridged version of the DREEM-50 with an aim to have a less resource-intensive (time, manpower), yet valid and reliable, version of DREEM-50 while also avoiding respondent fatigue. METHODS: A methodology similar to that used in the development of WHO-BREF was adopted to develop the abridged version of DREEM...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Tharmegan Tharmaratnam, Tyler Tabobondung, Taylor Tabobondung, Sally Doherty
This commentary highlights the recently published study by Jeon and Ha (Environ Health Prev Med 22:27, 2017) examining the effects of exercise intensity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on memory in adolescents. This 12-week training study elicited increases in BDNF and improvements in working memory during moderate- and high-intensity exercise, which may have been achieved through improved brain tissue oxygenation, nutrient delivery, and BDNF mRNA expression. These improvements highlight the positive neuroendocrinological effects of BDNF and its role as a potential candidate molecule, as a mediator of synaptic plasticity...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Lingli Liu, Xianglong Xu, Huan Zeng, Yong Zhang, Zumin Shi, Fan Zhang, Xianqing Cao, Yao Jie Xie, Cesar Reis, Yong Zhao
The 'Conclusion' section in the Abstract was published incorrectly in the original publication of the article [1] and is corrected with this erratum as below: "Fetal exposure to the Chinese famine may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension in adulthood in women."
March 15, 2018: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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