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Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090731/addition-of-ezetimibe-to-statins-for-patients-at-high-cardiovascular-risk-systematic-review-of-patient-important-outcomes
#1
REVIEW
Yutong Fei, Gordon Henry Guyatt, Paul Elias Alexander, Regina El Dib, Reed A C Siemieniuk, Per Olav Vandvik, Mark E Nunnally, Huda Gomaa, Rebecca L Morgan, Arnav Agarwal, Ying Zhang, Neera Bhatnagar, Frederick A Spencer
Ezetimibe is widely used in combination with statins to reduce low-density lipoprotein. We sought to examine the impact of ezetimibe when added to statins on patient-important outcomes. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CENTRAL were searched through July, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ezetimibe combined with statins versus statins alone that followed patients for at least 6 months and reported on at least one of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular deaths, non-fatal myocardial infarctions (MI), and non-fatal strokes were included...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090730/opinions-and-potential-solutions-regarding-dissemination-bias-from-funding-agencies-of-biomedical-research-in-europe
#2
Hector Pardo-Hernandez, Gerard Urrútia, Joerg J Meerpohl, Ana Marušić, Elizabeth Wager, Xavier Bonfill
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Several studies have found that about half of research results from clinical trials are never published. Until now, there has been little information on the views that funding agencies of biomedical research in Europe have regarding this issue and its possible solutions. METHODS: An electronic survey was conducted among funding agencies from 34 European countries. Participants were asked about their opinions, policies, and potential solutions regarding dissemination bias...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090729/notes-on-the-use-of-randomised-controlled-trials-to-evaluate-complex-interventions-community-treatment-orders-as-an-illustrative-case
#3
Feras Ali Mustafa
Over the past seven decades, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have revolutionised clinical research and achieved a gold standard status. However, extending their use to evaluate complex interventions is problematic. In this paper we will demonstrate that complex intervention RCTs violate the necessary premises that govern the RCTs logic and underpin their rigour. The lack of blinding, heterogeneity of participants, as well as poor treatment standardisation and difficulty of controlling for confounders, which characterise complex intervention RCTs, can potentially be profoundly detrimental to their integrity...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090715/health-care-professionals-knowledge-and-perception-of-pharmacovigilance-in-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-in-amman-jordan
#4
Khawla Abu Hammour, Faris El-Dahiyat, Rana Abu Farha
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Underreporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by health care professionals is a common inherent health problem encountered in many countries. This could be explained by the lack of awareness and knowledge about the guidelines to follow to identify and report ADRs. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the awareness, knowledge, and perceptions among medical doctors and nurses regarding their role as ADRs reporters in Jordan. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2015 to January 2016 at the Jordan University Hospital in Amman...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078809/three-year-analysis-of-repeated-laboratory-tests-for-the-markers-total-cholesterol-ferritin-vitamin-d-vitamin-b12-and-folate-in-a-large-research-and-teaching-hospital-in-italy
#5
Monica Lanzoni, Marco Fornili, Irene Felicetta, Rita Maiavacca, Elia Biganzoli, Silvana Castaldi
RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The increasing number of diagnostic tests requests all over the world is a problem that can partially be explained by inappropriate testing. Impact on the total costs of health systems becomes relevant when tests are performed in a large amount. In this paper, retesting of total cholesterol, ferritin, vitamin B12 , vitamin D, and folate is assessed. METHODS: The Quality Unit of Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico di Milano (Fondazione) decided to perform a first assessment of the appropriate use of the laboratory tests cholesterol, ferritin, vitamin B12 , vitamin D, and folate focusing on the retesting interval for the same patient in the time period January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2014, in every care setting...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074629/a-comparison-of-approaches-for-stratifying-on-the-propensity-score-to-reduce-bias
#6
Ariel Linden
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Stratification is a popular propensity score (PS) adjustment technique. It has been shown that stratifying the PS into 5 quantiles can remove over 90% of the bias due to the covariates used to generate the PS. Because of this finding, many investigators partition their data into 5 quantiles of the PS without examining whether a more robust solution (one that increases covariate balance while potentially reducing bias in the outcome analysis) can be found for their data...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054447/comparison-of-hospital-outcomes-and-resource-use-in-acute-copd-exacerbation-patients-managed-by-teaching-versus-nonteaching-services-in-a-community-hospital
#7
Khalid Abusaada, Leen Alsaleh, Victor Herrera, Yuan Du, Hassan Baig, George Everett
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: The impact of teaching versus nonteaching services on outcomes and resource use in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is unknown. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of an internal medicine teaching service compared to a nonteaching service on outcomes and resource use in patients admitted with AECOPD in a community teaching hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients admitted for a primary diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation to Florida Hospital Orlando, a large community teaching hospital, between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2014...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052469/moving-beyond-multimorbidity-as-a-simple-count-of-diseases
#8
René J F Melis, Sanne M W Gijzel, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052468/young-people-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-attitudes-perceptions-and-experiences-of-diabetes-management-and-continuous-subcutaneous-insulin-infusion-therapy
#9
Lin Perry, Steven James, Katharine Steinbeck, Janet Dunbabin, Julia Lowe
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII; insulin pump) use is increasing. However, there is little information about how this technology is used compared with other insulin delivery methods (ie, injections) by young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Australia. This study explored young people's attitudes, perceptions, and experiences with diabetes management comparing those using with those not using CSII, and proportions likely to transition to adult services requiring initiation and/or support for CSII use...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032412/grip-on-health-a-complex-systems-approach-to-transform-health-care
#10
Herman A van Wietmarschen, Heleen M Wortelboer, Jan van der Greef
This article addresses the urgent need for a transition in health care to deal with the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases and associated rapid rise of health care costs. Chronic diseases evolve and are predominantly related to lifestyle and environment. A shift is needed from a reductionist repair mode of thinking, toward a more integrated biopsychosocial way of thinking about health. The aim of this article is to discuss the opportunities that complexity science offer for transforming health care toward optimal treatment and prevention of chronic lifestyle diseases...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032415/what-to-expect-from-reliability-and-validity-claims-a-pragmatic-conception-of-psychiatric-nosology
#11
Sander Lefere, Ruben De Rouck, Leen De Vreese
The reliability and validity of psychiatric diagnoses have always been a major concern. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) reliability field trials yielded ambiguous results, with some diagnostic categories scoring well below par. We argue that the emphasis on the reliability of psychiatric diagnoses, which has dominated psychiatric nosology and guided the endeavor of improving the DSM in its consecutive editions, is misguided and lacks in structural validity. In this article, we defend a pragmatic view on psychiatric disease as the most fruitful approach to an understanding of what the categorical distinctions in the DSM (can) represent...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028918/mailed-outreach-and-facilitated-test-ordering-to-promote-cholesterol-screening-in-community-health-centers-a-randomized-trial
#12
Stephen D Persell, Tiffany Brown, Ji Young Lee, Eric Henley, Timothy Long, Thomas Sanchez, Regina Knight
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Lipid screening is central to cardiovascular risk assessment. We sought to determine whether a simple mailed outreach message and facilitated test ordering increase cholesterol screening among federally qualified community health center patients with no recent cholesterol screening test performed. METHODS: Using a patient-randomized controlled trial, we examined the effects of delivering a simple mailed outreach intervention promoting cholesterol testing and facilitated test ordering (without requiring an office visit)...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026088/the-checking-methods-before-medication-administration-a-perspective-from-a-joint-commission-international-accredited-academic-medical-center-hospital-in-china
#13
LETTER
Xiu-Qin Feng, Ling-Ling Zhu, Quan Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 27, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026076/ethical-issues-with-colorectal-cancer-screening-a-systematic-review
#14
Bjørn Hofmann
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is widely recommended and implemented. However, sometimes CRC screening is not implemented despite good evidence, and some types of CRC screening are implemented despite lack of evidence. The objective of this article is to expose and elucidate relevant ethical issues in the literature on CRC screening that are important for open and transparent deliberation on CRC screening. METHODS: An axiological question-based method is used for exposing and elucidating ethical issues relevant in HTA...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995688/self-administered-medications-in-the-postpartum-wards-a-study-on-satisfaction-and-perceptions
#15
Hugo Schérer, Emmy Bernier, Julie Rivard, Lavina Yu, Guillaume Duchesne-Côté, Denis Lebel, Jean-François Bussières, Ema Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe women's satisfaction and perceptions on the postpartum self-administered medication (SAM) program at our institution and on pain relief. Also, we aimed at describing maternal and breastfed infants' adverse events with the use of the postpartum SAM program. METHOD: This prospective 1-group mixed methods survey conducted in a mother-and-child tertiary center included women enrolled in the postpartum SAM program who had a live newborn, understood French or English, and were at least 18 years old...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981722/response-to-bjorn-hofmann-clarifying-overdiagnosis-without-losing-conceptual-complexity
#16
Wendy A Rogers, Yishai Mintzker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981695/expected-utility-versus-expected-regret-theory-versions-of-decision-curve-analysis-do-generate-different-results-when-treatment-effects-are-taken-into-account
#17
Iztok Hozo, Athanasios Tsalatsanis, Benjamin Djulbegovic
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Decision curve analysis (DCA) is a widely used method for evaluating diagnostic tests and predictive models. It was developed based on expected utility theory (EUT) and has been reformulated using expected regret theory (ERG). Under certain circumstances, these 2 formulations yield different results. Here we describe these situations and explain the variation. METHODS: We compare the derivations of the EUT- and ERG-based formulations of DCA for a typical medical decision problem: "treat none," "treat all," or "use model" to guide treatment...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976472/why-patients-self-refer-to-the-emergency-department-a-qualitative-interview-study
#18
Nicole Kraaijvanger, Douwe Rijpsma, Lisa Willink, Peter Lucassen, Henk van Leeuwen, Michael Edwards
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: There have been multiple studies investigating reasons for patients to self-refer to the Emergency Department (ED). The majority made use of questionnaires and excluded patients with urgent conditions. The goal of this qualitative study is to explore what motives patients have to self-refer to an ED, also including patients in urgent triage categories. METHODS: In a large teaching hospital in the Netherlands, a qualitative interview study focusing on reasons for self-referring to the ED was performed...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943579/pilot-of-integrated-colocated-neurology-in-a-primary-care-medical-home
#19
Nathan P Young, Muhamad Y Elrashidi, Sarah J Crane, Jon O Ebbert
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Novel health care delivery models are needed to reduce health care use while delivering effective and safe care. We developed a model of a neurologist integrated and colocated in primary care leveraging "curbside," electronic, and traditional consultations. Our objective was to examine the impact on health care resource use of diagnostic testing and referrals for face-to-face neurological consultation and adverse outcomes associated with electronic and curbside consultations...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928867/reduction-of-medication-errors-related-to-sliding-scale-insulin-by-the-introduction-of-a-standardized-order-sheet
#20
Saki Harada, Akio Suzuki, Shohei Nishida, Ryo Kobayashi, Sayuri Tamai, Keisuke Kumada, Nobuo Murakami, Yoshinori Itoh
Insulin is frequently used for glycemic control. Medication errors related to insulin are a common problem for medical institutions. Here, we prepared a standardized sliding scale insulin (SSI) order sheet and assessed the effect of its introduction. Observations before and after the introduction of the standardized SSI template were conducted at Gifu University Hospital. The incidence of medication errors, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia related to SSI were obtained from the electronic medical records. The introduction of the standardized SSI order sheet significantly reduced the incidence of medication errors related to SSI compared with that prior to its introduction (12/165 [7...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
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