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Sebastian Ocklenburg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2018: Laterality
Florian Loffing, Lino Prelle, Lukas Heil, Rouwen Cañal-Bruland
According to the body-specificity hypothesis, left-handers (right-handers) are more likely to associate positive attributes with the left (right) side. We tested whether such body-specific influences also apply to evaluative judgments in realistic dynamic scenes. In two experiments (order counterbalanced), N = 231 participants watched videos from dual mogul competition where two skiers turn downhill through moguls side by side simultaneously and then comparatively rated the skiers' technical performances...
September 14, 2018: Laterality
Christopher L Thomas, Alex M Bourdeau, Michael J Tagler
The current study investigated the role of interhemispheric communication in selective exposure to information. Participants (N = 241) reported their attitude and attitude strength toward a controversial social topic, engaged in a selective exposure task, and completed the Poffenberger paradigm. As expected, participants demonstrated a moderate (d = 0.50) preference for attitude consistent information on the selective exposure task and attitude strength was a significant predictor of participants' information search tendencies...
September 10, 2018: Laterality
Ulrich S Tran, Martin Voracek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2018: Laterality
Jason Flindall, Claudia L R Gonzalez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 2018: Laterality
Barak Morgan, Xanthe Hunt, Jechil Sieratzki, Bencie Woll, Mark Tomlinson
Human studies consistently report a 60%-80% maternal left cradling preference. The dominant explanation points to an engagement of the emotionally more-attuned right brain. In contrast, we found equal incidences of left (31.3%), right (34.3%) and no-preference (34.3%) cradling in an impoverished South African population living under adverse conditions characterized by extreme dangers. We found striking differences on the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) between mothers with no cradling laterality preference and mothers with either a left or right preference...
August 10, 2018: Laterality
Stewart J H McCann
The two present nomothetic studies focused on the period from 1996 to 2012 to determine relations between handedness and political orientation using the 48 contiguous American states as analytical units. The estimated percentage of left-handers in each state operationally defined handedness. A composite measure of Conservative-Republican preference was created from CBS/New York Times/Gallup polls of state resident conservatism and the percent in each state voting Republican in each presidential election from 1996 to 2012...
August 6, 2018: Laterality
Ruth E Propper, Andrew Wolfarth, Christophe Carlei, Tad T Brunye, Stephen D Christman
Categorical versus coordinate spatial tasks rely differentially on the left versus right hemisphere. Given the neuroanatomical and neurophysiological differences between inconsistent- versus consistent-right-handers (ICH versus CRH, respectively), such that the former demonstrates increased access to right hemisphere processes relative to the latter, it was hypothesized that ICH would outperform CRH on a test of coordinate spatial knowledge. Previous work demonstrating reliance on the right hemisphere for both categorical and coordinate information in non-right-handers using lateralized stimuli of brief duration suggested ICH might also outperform CRH on a categorical task as well...
July 24, 2018: Laterality
Alessandra Macbeth, Christine Chiarello
Several attempts have been made to understand when and how the two hemispheres of the brain work together to encode and retrieve information during memory tasks, but it remains unclear whether they are equally capable of encoding and retrieval, particularly when the stimuli do not evoke a leftward processing asymmetry. Using a divided visual field paradigm, we presented nonverbal visual stimuli to one visual field/hemisphere at encoding, and at retrieval presented the stimuli either to the same or opposite visual field/hemisphere...
July 19, 2018: Laterality
Alan A Beaton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2018: Laterality
Marco Hirnstein, Kenneth Hugdahl, Markus Hausmann
According to a longstanding view, sex differences in cognitive abilities such as mental rotation or verbal memory arise from sex differences in hemispheric asymmetry: males are thought to be more lateralized than females which boosts their spatial but hampers their verbal skills. This idea sparked great interest and, even though it lost support in the 1990s, it is still put forward in contemporary (popular) scientific papers and textbooks. We aimed to provide a comprehensive review that summarizes the last 40 years of research...
July 9, 2018: Laterality
Alexandre Jehan Marcori, Nathiele Dos Santos Grosso, Alessandra Beggiato Porto, Victor Hugo Alves Okazaki
Lateral preference is influenced by many different factors. Although studies that assessed handedness contributed greatly to our understanding of the phenomenon, looking to other dimensions of motor laterality, such as lower limbs, trunk, visual and hearing preference, may be an interesting strategy to further advance in the field. Comparing different age groups with a complete inventory also contributes to understanding the ageing impact on these variables. Our aim, therefore, was to assess six motor laterality dimensions in younger adults and older people...
July 5, 2018: Laterality
Jason W Flindall, Claudia L R Gonzalez
Handedness questionnaires are a common screening tool in psychology and neuroscience, used whenever a participant's performance on a given task may conceivably be affected by their laterality. Two widely-used examples of such questionnaires are the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory and the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire. Both instruments ask respondents to report their hand preference for performing a variety of common tasks (e.g., throwing a ball, or opening a drawer). Here we combined questions from the two instruments (E-WHQ; 22 questions total) and asked participants to report their preferred hand for each via a five-point scale...
July 5, 2018: Laterality
Stephanie A Poindexter, Kathleen D Reinhardt, Vincent Nijman, K A I Nekaris
It has been suggested that strepsirrhines (lemurs, lorises, and galagos) retain the more primitive left-hand preference, whilst monkeys and apes more regularly display a right-hand preference at the individual-level. We looked to address questions of laterality in the slow loris (Nycticebus spp.) using spontaneous observations of 7 wild individuals, unimanual tests in 6 captive individuals, and photos of 42 individuals in a bilateral posture assessing handedness at the individual- and group-level. During the unimanual reach task, we found at the individual-level, only 4 slow lorises showed a hand use bias (R: 3, L: 1), Handedness index (HI) ranged from -0...
November 2018: Laterality
Martina Manns, Felix Ströckens, Philipp Stavenhagen, Sebastian Ocklenburg
It is still debated whether limb-use preferences represent a common trait in vertebrates, which is based on a shared phylogenetic history. Unravelling the evolutionary origin and pattern of paw preferences in vertebrates requires the analysis of a larger number of species within an ecologically relevant setting. We therefore investigated whether observations in a zoo enable the collection of reliable data sets by quantifying paw use in two independent groups of Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinerea). Employing a continuous focal animal sampling method, each day one of the ten individuals was video recorded from outside of the enclosure during usual activity...
November 2018: Laterality
Polina Stoycheva, Kaisa Tiippana
The brain's left hemisphere often displays advantages in processing verbal information, while the right hemisphere favours processing non-verbal information. In the haptic domain due to contra-lateral innervations, this functional lateralization is reflected in a hand advantage during certain functions. Findings regarding the hand-hemisphere advantage for haptic information remain contradictory, however. This study addressed these laterality effects and their interaction with memory retention times in the haptic modality...
November 2018: Laterality
Robert D McIntosh, Keira Hillary, Ailbhe Brennan, Magdalena Lechowicz
The writing attempts of children often feature mirror-reversals of individual letters. These reversals are thought to arise from an adaptive tendency to mirror-generalize. However, it is unclear whether mirror-writing is driven by mirror-generalisation of the visual letter forms, or of the actions for writing them. We report two studies of the relationship between mirror-writing and the ability to recognize whether a visually presented letter is in the correct orientation, amongst primary and preschool children learning to read and write in English...
November 2018: Laterality
Priscilla Savopoulos, Annukka K Lindell
Over 100 years ago Lombroso [(1876/2006). Criminal man. Durham: Duke University Press] proposed a biological basis for criminality. Based on inspection of criminals' skulls he theorized that an imbalance of the cerebral hemispheres was amongst 18 distinguishing features of the criminal brain. Specifically, criminals were less lateralized than noncriminals. As the advent of neuroscientific techniques makes more fine-grained inspection of differences in brain structure and function possible, we review criminals' and noncriminals' structural, functional, and behavioural lateralization to evaluate the merits of Lombroso's thesis and investigate the evidence for the biological underpinning of criminal behaviour...
November 2018: Laterality
Chiara Sacco, Rocco Di Michele, Gabriele Semprini, Franco Merni, Gabriele Soffritti
Recently, some studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of two latent variable approaches in which hand preferences are analysed using either latent class methods or latent class factor (LCF) methods. The main aims of this study are: (i) to establish whether these approaches are adequate for assessing footedness, (ii) to evaluate their appropriateness when hand and foot preferences are jointly analysed, and (iii) to measure the association between handedness and footedness based on the examined latent variable models...
November 2018: Laterality
Philip Furley, Jannik Dörr, Florian Loffing
The aim of the present study was to test if lateral preferences of surfers are associated with behaviour and performance depending on the direction of a breaking wave. We hypothesized that wave direction and surf stance interact in creating favourable or debilitative performance demands as surfers are either facing the wave (frontside) or the wave is breaking in the back of the surfers (backside). Study 1 was an online survey collecting self-report data of recreational surfers (n = 394). In Study 2, we analysed all wave scores (n = 2,552) and laterality of professional surfers during the season of 2014...
November 2018: Laterality
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