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Laterality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803507/what-box-a-task-for-assessing-language-lateralization-in-young-children
#1
Nicholas A Badcock, Rachael Spooner, Jessica Hofmann, Atlanta Flitton, Scott Elliott, Lisa Kurylowicz, Louise M Lavrencic, Heather M Payne, Georgina K Holt, Anneka Holden, Owen F Churches, Mark J Kohler, Hannah A D Keage
The assessment of active language lateralization in infants and toddlers is challenging. It requires an imaging tool that is unintimidating, quick to setup, and robust to movement, in addition to an engaging and cognitively simple language processing task. Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound (fTCD) offers a suitable technique and here we report on a suitable method to elicit active language production in young children. The 34-second "What Box" trial presents an animated face "searching" for an object...
August 13, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786734/left-wings-to-the-left-posing-and-perceived-political-orientation
#2
Kari N Duerksen, Lorin J Elias
Images of individuals posing with the left cheek toward the camera are rated as more emotionally expressive than images with the right cheek toward the camera, which is theorized to be due to right hemisphere specialization for emotion processing. Liberals are stereotyped as being more emotional than conservatives. In the present study, we presented images of people displaying either leftward or rightward posing biases in an online task, and asked participants to rate people's perceived political orientation...
August 8, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764593/right-ear-precedence-and-vocal-emotion-contagion-the-role-of-the-left-hemisphere
#3
Astrid Schepman, Paul Rodway, Louise Cornmell, Bethany Smith, Sabrina Lauren de Sa, Ciara Borwick, Elisha Belfon-Thompson
Much evidence suggests that the processing of emotions is lateralized to the right hemisphere of the brain. However, under some circumstances the left hemisphere might play a role, particularly for positive emotions and emotional experiences. We explored whether emotion contagion was right-lateralized, lateralized valence-specifically, or potentially left-lateralized. In two experiments, right-handed female listeners rated to what extent emotionally intoned pseudo-sentences evoked target emotions in them. These sound stimuli had a 7 ms ear lead in the left or right channel, leading to stronger stimulation of the contralateral hemisphere...
August 2, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758841/associations-between-handedness-and-executive-function-in-upper-middle-aged-people
#4
Takeshi Hatta
Many studies have investigated the relationship between handedness and executive functioning using behavioural measures, although the exact nature of this relationship remains unclear. In this study, the relationship between handedness and executive function was examined using the D-CAT (Digit Cancellation Test) performances of 76 left-handed (42 men and 34 women) and 76 age-matched right-handed (42 men and 34 women) healthy community dwellers. The mean age of the participants was 62.7 years (SD = 10.3)...
July 31, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756732/translation-cultural-adaption-and-test-retest-reliability-of-chinese-versions-of-the-edinburgh-handedness-inventory-and-waterloo-footedness-questionnaire
#5
Nan Yang, Gordon Waddington, Roger Adams, Jia Han
Quantitative assessments of handedness and footedness are often required in studies of human cognition and behaviour, yet no reliable Chinese versions of commonly used handedness and footedness questionnaires are available. Accordingly, the objective of the present study was to translate the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI) and the Waterloo Footedness Questionnaire-Revised (WFQ-R) into Mandarin Chinese and to evaluate the reliability and validity of these translated versions in healthy Chinese people. In the first stage of the study, Chinese versions of the EHI and WFQ-R were produced from a process of translation, back translation and examination, with necessary cultural adaptations...
July 31, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724337/handedness-effects-of-imagined-fine-motor-movements
#6
Christopher M Donoff, Christopher R Madan, Anthony Singhal
Previous studies of movement imagery have found inter-individual differences in the ability to imagine whole-body movements. The majority of these studies have used subjective scales to measure imagery ability, which may be confounded by other factors related to effort. Madan and Singhal [2013. Introducing TAMI: An objective test of ability in movement imagery. Journal of Motor Behavior, 45(2), 153-166. doi: 10.1080/00222895.2013.763764 ] developed the Test of Ability in Movement Imagery (TAMI) to address these confounds by using a multiple-choice format with objectively correct responses...
July 19, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707557/the-cheek-of-a-cheater-effects-of-posing-the-left-and-right-hemiface-on-the-perception-of-trustworthiness
#7
Matia Okubo, Kenta Ishikawa, Akihiro Kobayashi
Our cognitive mechanisms are designed to detect cheaters in social exchanges. However, cheater detection can be thwarted by a posed smile, which cheaters display with greater emotional intensity than cooperators. The present study investigated the role of hemifacial asymmetries in the perception of trustworthiness using face photographs with left and right cheek poses. Participants (N = 170) observed face photographs of cheaters and cooperators in an economic game. In the photographs, models expressed happiness or anger and turned slightly to the left or right to show their left or right cheeks to the camera...
July 14, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701109/emotion-processing-in-persons-who-respond-vicariously-towards-others-in-pain-disinhibited-left-lateralized-neural-activity-for-threatening-expressions
#8
Melita J Giummarra, Govinda Poudel, P Amanda Niu, Michael E R Nicholls, Joanne Fielding, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Izelle Labuschagne
We investigated emotional processing in vicarious pain (VP) responders. VP responders report an explicit sensory and emotional feeling of pain when they witness another in pain, which is greater in magnitude than the empathic processing of pain in the general population. In Study 1, 31 participants completed a chimeric faces task, judging whether emotional chimera in the left, or right, visual field was more intense. VP responders took longer to judge emotionality than non-responders, and fixated more on the angry hemiface in the right visual field, whereas non-responder controls had no lateralized fixation bias...
July 12, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670970/the-effect-of-monocular-deprivation-on-unihemispheric-sleep-in-light-and-dark-incubated-reared-domestic-chicks
#9
Angelica Quercia, Daniela Bobbo, Gian Gastone Mascetti
Unihemispheric sleep is an aspect of the cerebral lateralization of certain species of birds. During sleep, domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) show brief periods of monocular-unihemispheric sleep (Mo-Un sleep): one eye is open and the connected hemisphere is awaken while the other eye remains shut and the connected hemisphere sleeps. The time spent in Mo-Un sleep was investigated following a brief monocular deprivation (MD) in chicks hatched from eggs incubated in darkness and reared in light (D-L), incubated in light and reared in light (L-L) and incubated in darkness and reared in darkness (D-D)...
July 2, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589779/faking-handedness-individual-differences-in-ability-to-fake-handedness-social-cognitions-of-the-handedness-of-others-and-a-forensic-application-using-bayes-theorem
#10
I C McManus, Giulia Buckens, Naomi Harris, Alexandra Flint, Hei Ling Abigail Ng, Foteini Vovou
People usually describe their handedness honestly, but that need not necessarily be the case. A legal case is described of a murder said by the pathologist to be committed by a left-hander but the defendant claimed to be right-handed, and the first author assessed the defendant's handedness as an expert witness. We know of no previous work on faking handedness, and so we tested 30 right-handers and 25 left-handers on various handedness tasks, and then asked the participants to repeat the tasks while faking being of opposite handedness...
June 7, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276877/evolutionary-and-mechanistic-drivers-of-laterality-a-review-and-new-synthesis
#11
Mallory L Wiper
Laterality, best understood as asymmetries of bilateral structures or biases in behaviour, has been demonstrated in species from all major vertebrate classes, and in many invertebrates, showing a large degree of evolutionary conservation across vertebrate groups. Despite the establishment of this phenomenon in so many species, however, the evolutionary and mechanistic study of laterality is uneven with numerous areas in this field requiring greater attention. Here, I present a partial review of how far the study of laterality has come, outlining previous pioneering work, I discuss the hypothesized costs and benefits of a lateralized brain and the suggested path of the evolution of laterality for populations and individuals...
November 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103762/cultural-and-biological-factors-modulate-spatial-biases-over-development
#12
Luisa Girelli, Chiara Valeria Marinelli, Giuseppe Grossi, Lisa S Arduino
Increasing evidence supports the contribution of both biological and cultural factors to visuospatial processing. The present study adds to the literature by exploring the interplay of perceptual and linguistic mechanisms in determining visuospatial asymmetries in adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2). In particular, pre-schoolers (3 and 5 year-olds), school-aged children (8 year-old), and adult participants were required to bisect different types of stimuli, that is, lines, words, and figure strings...
November 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041532/laterality-and-body-ownership-effect-of-handedness-on-experience-of-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#13
M Smit, D I Kooistra, I J M van der Ham, H C Dijkerman
Body ownership has mainly been linked to the right hemisphere and larger interhemispheric connectivity has been shown to be associated with greater right hemispheric activation. Mixed-handed participants tend to have more interhemispheric connectivity compared to extreme handed participants. The aim of this study was to examine whether feelings of ownership as assessed with the rubber hand illusion (RHI) are differentiated by handedness and differed between the left and right hand. Sinistrals-, dextrals-, and mixed-handed individuals (n = 63) were subjected to the RHI...
November 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997277/opposite-brain-laterality-in-analogous-auditory-and-visual-tests
#14
Leif Oltedal, Kenneth Hugdahl
Laterality for language processing can be assessed by auditory and visual tasks. Typically, a right ear/right visual half-field (VHF) advantage is observed, reflecting left-hemispheric lateralization for language. Historically, auditory tasks have shown more consistent and reliable results when compared to VHF tasks. While few studies have compared analogous tasks applied to both sensory modalities for the same participants, one such study by Voyer and Boudreau [(2003). Cross-modal correlation of auditory and visual language laterality tasks: a serendipitous finding...
November 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973985/relationship-between-sustained-unilateral-hand-clench-emotional-state-line-bisection-performance-and-prefrontal-cortical-activity-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#15
Ruth E Propper, Kyle Dodd, Stephen D Christman, Tad T Brunyé
Sustained unilateral hand clenching alters perceptual processing and affective/motivational state, with these alterations presumed to reflect increased hemispheric activity contralateral to the side of motor movement. However, data from electroencephalographic and imaging studies are contradictory regarding the relationship between sustained hand clenching and brain activity. In order to investigate the relationship between brain activity, sustained unilateral hand clenching, and changes in affect and perceptual processing, frontal hemispheric activity was measured via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), using derived O2Hb prior to, during, and post-sustained unilateral hand clench...
November 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973982/pupil-size-asymmetry-is-a-physiologic-trait-related-to-gender-attentional-function-and-personality
#16
William D Poynter
A small difference in the size of the two pupils is common in healthy individuals, a condition termed benign or physiologic anisocoria (BA). Past research indicates that BA is probably caused by asymmetry in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) function [e.g., Rosenberg (2008). Physiologic anisocoria: A manifestation of a physiologic sympathetic asymmetry. Neuro-Ophthalmology, 32, 147-149]. This study is the first to show that BA varies with psychological factors linked to brain asymmetry and autonomic arousal, including gender, attention, and personality...
November 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666522/turning-into-frogs-asymmetry-in-forelimb-emergence-and-escape-direction-in-metamorphosing-anurans
#17
Luigi Zechini, Alison Lilley, Emily Waddell, Thomas J Burns, J Roger Downie, Patrick T Walsh
There is considerable debate about the pattern and origin of laterality in forelimb emergence and turning behaviour within amphibians, with the latter being poorly investigated in tadpoles around metamorphic climax. Using 6 species of metamorphosing anurans, we investigated the effect of asymmetrical spiracle location, and disturbance at the time of forelimb emergence, on the pattern of forelimb emergence. Turning behaviour was observed to assess whether motor lateralization occurred in non-neobatrachian anurans and was linked to patterns of forelimb emergence...
November 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951740/cultural-influence-on-directional-tendencies-in-children-s-drawing
#18
Marine Portex, Jean-Noël Foulin, Bertrand Troadec
The present study was aimed at investigating how print experience as a cultural factor influences directional tendencies in children's drawing in the interplay with biomechanical (hand), syntactic (shape orientation) and semantic (shape meaning) factors. Eighty-eight right-handed children from three literacy/age groups (preliterate, first graders and third graders) had to copy a geometrical shape adapted from the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure. The shape was presented alternatively leftward and rightward, while using both dominant (right) and non-dominant (left) hands...
September 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852139/the-handedness-of-historiated-spiral-columns
#19
Robert Couzin
Trajan's Column in Rome (AD 113) was the model for a modest number of other spiral columns decorated with figural, narrative imagery from antiquity to the present day. Most of these wind upwards to the right, often with a congruent spiral staircase within. A brief introductory consideration of antique screw direction in mechanical devices and fluted columns suggests that the former may have been affected by the handedness of designers and the latter by a preference for symmetry. However, for the historiated columns that are the main focus of this article, the determining factor was likely script direction...
September 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759494/effects-of-induced-placental-and-fetal-growth-restriction-size-at-birth-and-early-neonatal-growth-on-behavioural-and-brain-structural-lateralization-in-sheep
#20
Damien Seth Hunter, Susan J Hazel, Karen L Kind, Hong Liu, Danila Marini, Lynne C Giles, Miles J De Blasio, Julie A Owens, Julia B Pitcher, Kathryn L Gatford
Poor perinatal growth in humans results in asymmetrical grey matter loss in fetuses and infants and increased functional and behavioural asymmetry, but specific contributions of pre- and postnatal growth are unclear. We therefore compared strength and direction of lateralization in obstacle avoidance and maze exit preference tasks in offspring of placentally restricted (PR: 10M, 13F) and control (CON: 23M, 17F) sheep pregnancies at 18 and 40 weeks of age, and examined gross brain structure of the prefrontal cortex at 52 weeks of age (PR: 14M, 18F; CON: 23M, 25F)...
September 2017: Laterality
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