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Alessandra Macbeth, Christine Chiarello
Several attempts have been made to understand when and how the two hemispheres of the brain work together to encode and retrieve information during memory tasks, but it remains unclear whether they are equally capable of encoding and retrieval, particularly when the stimuli do not evoke a leftward processing asymmetry. Using a divided visual field paradigm, we presented nonverbal visual stimuli to one visual field/hemisphere at encoding, and at retrieval presented the stimuli either to the same or opposite visual field/hemisphere...
July 19, 2018: Laterality
Alan A Beaton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2018: Laterality
Marco Hirnstein, Kenneth Hugdahl, Markus Hausmann
According to a longstanding view, sex differences in cognitive abilities such as mental rotation or verbal memory arise from sex differences in hemispheric asymmetry: males are thought to be more lateralized than females which boosts their spatial but hampers their verbal skills. This idea sparked great interest and, even though it lost support in the 1990s, it is still put forward in contemporary (popular) scientific papers and textbooks. We aimed to provide a comprehensive review that summarizes the last 40 years of research...
July 9, 2018: Laterality
Alexandre Jehan Marcori, Nathiele Dos Santos Grosso, Alessandra Beggiato Porto, Victor Hugo Alves Okazaki
Lateral preference is influenced by many different factors. Although studies that assessed handedness contributed greatly to our understanding of the phenomenon, looking to other dimensions of motor laterality, such as lower limbs, trunk, visual and hearing preference, may be an interesting strategy to further advance in the field. Comparing different age groups with a complete inventory also contributes to understanding the ageing impact on these variables. Our aim, therefore, was to assess six motor laterality dimensions in younger adults and older people...
July 5, 2018: Laterality
Jason W Flindall, Claudia L R Gonzalez
Handedness questionnaires are a common screening tool in psychology and neuroscience, used whenever a participant's performance on a given task may conceivably be affected by their laterality. Two widely-used examples of such questionnaires are the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory and the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire. Both instruments ask respondents to report their hand preference for performing a variety of common tasks (e.g., throwing a ball, or opening a drawer). Here we combined questions from the two instruments (E-WHQ; 22 questions total) and asked participants to report their preferred hand for each via a five-point scale...
July 5, 2018: Laterality
Patrick Friedrich, Catrona Anderson, Judith Schmitz, Caroline Schlüter, Stephanie Lor, Martin Stacho, Felix Ströckens, Gina Grimshaw, Sebastian Ocklenburg
The ability to speak is a unique human capacity, but where is it located in our brains? This question is closely connected to the pioneering work of Pierre Paul Broca in the 1860s. Based on post-mortem observations of aphasic patients' brains, Broca located language production in the 3rd convolution of the left frontal lobe and thus reinitiated the localizationist view of brain functions. However, contemporary neuroscience has partially rejected this view in favor of a network-based perspective. This leads to the question, whether Broca's findings are still relevant today...
June 22, 2018: Laterality
Sebastian Ocklenburg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: Laterality
Josu Barrenetxea-Garcia, Jon Torres-Unda, Izaro Esain, Susana M Gil
Most studies of the relative age effect (RAE) refer to popular sports. In contrast, we examined to what extent the RAE is present in elite water polo players, as well as the association between handedness and RAE. For these purposes, laterality, anthropometry, month of birth, performance and playing position of participants in the 2011, 2013 and 2015 World Championships (623 women, 622 men) were analised. No RAE was observed in the total sample. However, the proportion of male left-handed field players born in the first quarter (11%) was lower than those born in the second (35...
June 1, 2018: Laterality
Eric C Prichard
A recent study [Shobe, E., & Desimone, K. (2016). Inconsistent handers show higher psychopathy than consistent handers. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 21(2), 143-160. doi: 10.1080/1357650X.2015.1089879 ] found an association between inconsistent handedness (the use of one's non-dominant hand for some tasks) and psychopathy. Because this provides evidence for an association between an individual difference and a trait that is perceived negatively, the present study set out to (1) attempt to replicate the finding and (2) determine whether inconsistent handedness and psychopathy predict similar patterns of moral reasoning...
May 31, 2018: Laterality
Lauren Julius Harris, Rodrigo A Cárdenas, Nathaniel D Stewart, Jason B Almerigi
Most adults, especially women, hold infants and dolls but not books or packages on the left side. One reason may be that attention is more often leftward in response to infants, unlike emotionally neutral objects like books and packages. Women's stronger bias may reflect greater responsiveness to infants. Previously, we tested the attention hypothesis by comparing women's side-of-hold of a doll, book, and package with direction-of-attention on the Chimeric Faces Test (CFT) [Harris, L. J., Cárdenas, R. A...
May 16, 2018: Laterality
Paulo Ventura, João Delgado, Miguel Ferreira, António Farinha-Fernandes, José C Guerreiro, Bruno Faustino, Isabel Leite, Alan C-N Wong
Holistic processing has been regarded as a hallmark of face perception, indicating the automatic and obligatory tendency of the visual system to process all face parts as a perceptual unit rather than in isolation. Studies involving lateralized stimulus presentation suggest that the right hemisphere dominates holistic face processing. Holistic processing can also be shown with other categories such as words and thus it is not specific to faces or face-like expertize. Here, we used divided visual field presentation to investigate the possibly different contributions of the two hemispheres for holistic word processing...
May 13, 2018: Laterality
Eric Siéroff, Yael Slama
Word processing in left (LVF) and right (RVF) visual fields may be affected by left hemisphere activation during reading and by script direction. We evaluated the effect of script direction by presenting words in left-to-right (French) and right-to-left (Hebrew) scripts to bilingual French participants. Words of different lengths were presented in the LVF and the RVF in a naming task. Results showed (1) a stronger word length effect in the LVF than in the RVF in French, and no difference of word length effect between LVF and RVF in Hebrew; (2) a first-letter advantage only in the LVF in French and in the RVF in Hebrew, showing an effect of script direction on letter processing; and (3) a stronger advantage of external over internal letters in words presented in the LVF than in the RVF for both languages, showing a left hemisphere influence on letter activation...
July 2018: Laterality
Alessio Rossi, Damiano Formenti, Luca Cavaggioni, Alice Morgante, Palmina Caruso, Marco Gargano, Nicola Ludwig, Isabella Merzagora, Giampietro Alberti
Facial asymmetry is considered a marker of psychological, emotional and physiological distress, while anxiety is a behavioural, psychological and physiological response to a threat to well-being. Since individuals respond to anxiety with specific patterns (e.g., muscular tension), it is reasonable to hypothesize that anxiety could contribute to facial tension and therefore facial asymmetry. Instead, since facial asymmetry is perceived as "unpleasant" from peers, its presence may be a hindrance to social adaptation contributing to generate anxiety...
July 2018: Laterality
Michael C Corballis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Laterality
Judith Schmitz, Robert Kumsta, Dirk Moser, Onur Güntürkün, Sebastian Ocklenburg
Handedness is a complex trait influenced by both genetic and non-genetic factors. Asymmetries of DNA methylation and gene expression in the developing foetus are thought to underlie its development. However, its molecular epigenetics are not well understood. We collected buccal cells from adult left- and right-handers (n = 60) to investigate whether epigenetic biomarkers of handedness can be identified in non-neuronal tissue. We associated DNA methylation in promoter regions of candidate genes with handedness direction...
July 2018: Laterality
Benjamin Gingras, Claude M J Braun
Disparity of verbal and performance intelligence (VIQ, PIQ) on the Wechsler scales of intelligence is a conceptually cluttered and empirically weak measure of hemispheric specialization (HS). However, in the context of life span research, it is the only measure that can be exploited meta-analytically with the lesion method from prenatal life to late senescence. We assembled 1917 cases with a unilateral cortical focal brain lesion occurring at all ages and a post-lesion VIQ and PIQ. Lesion locus, volume and side were documented for each case, as well as age at lesion onset, age at first symptoms and age at the IQ test, presence/absence of epilepsy, lesion aetiology, gender, date of publication or of transfer of medical file...
July 2018: Laterality
Stephen Prunier, Stephen Christman, John Jasper
Bilateral saccadic eye movements enhance episodic memory retrieval; however, this usually only occurs for consistent-handed, not inconsistent-handed, individuals. It was hypothesized that inconsistent-handers begin closer to the peak of a Yerkes-Dodson-type inverted-U curve and increasing activation pushes them along the curve eventually decreasing performance, while consistent-handers start at a lower baseline and therefore increasing activation increases their performance. The current study tested this hypothesis by using hand clenching (grip strength) to increase activation at 5 different levels for both consistent- and inconsistent-handers...
July 2018: Laterality
Nicholas A Badcock, Rachael Spooner, Jessica Hofmann, Atlanta Flitton, Scott Elliott, Lisa Kurylowicz, Louise M Lavrencic, Heather M Payne, Georgina K Holt, Anneka Holden, Owen F Churches, Mark J Kohler, Hannah A D Keage
The assessment of active language lateralization in infants and toddlers is challenging. It requires an imaging tool that is unintimidating, quick to setup, and robust to movement, in addition to an engaging and cognitively simple language processing task. Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound (fTCD) offers a suitable technique and here we report on a suitable method to elicit active language production in young children. The 34-second "What Box" trial presents an animated face "searching" for an object...
July 2018: Laterality
Robin E Luijmes, Carien H G Beurskens, Sjaak Pouwels, Koen J A O Ingels
We investigated the differences in cosmetic appreciation of patients with a left and a right peripheral facial palsy (PFP) while smiling. Smiling pictures of patients with a facial palsy with House-Brackmann II-VI were reversed as a mirror image and offered as a pair of pictures, together with the true image. Twenty-six patients with a PFP and 24 medical professionals familiar with facial palsy were asked to choose the most attractive photograph. Patients rated their own pictures. Medical professionals preferred pictures of patients with a right and left PFP in, respectively, a mean of 43...
July 2018: Laterality
Matia Okubo
Laboratory studies have shown that people tend to show the left side of their face when asked to broadly express emotions, while they tend to show the right side when asked to hide emotions. Because emotions are expressed more intensely in the left side of the face, it is hypothesized that an individual's intention to express or hide emotions biases the direction of lateral facial poses. The present study tested this hypothesis using photographic portraits of individuals experiencing emotional events in a naturalistic setting: the reception of medals in Brazilian jiu-jitsu competitions...
April 20, 2018: Laterality
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