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Damien Seth Hunter, Susan J Hazel, Karen L Kind, Hong Liu, Danila Marini, Lynne C Giles, Miles J De Blasio, Julie A Owens, Julia B Pitcher, Kathryn L Gatford
Poor perinatal growth in humans results in asymmetrical grey matter loss in fetuses and infants and increased functional and behavioural asymmetry, but specific contributions of pre- and postnatal growth are unclear. We therefore compared strength and direction of lateralization in obstacle avoidance and maze exit preference tasks in offspring of placentally restricted (PR: 10M, 13F) and control (CON: 23M, 17F) sheep pregnancies at 18 and 40 weeks of age, and examined gross brain structure of the prefrontal cortex at 52 weeks of age (PR: 14M, 18F; CON: 23M, 25F)...
October 19, 2016: Laterality
Aminda J O'Hare, Ruth Ann Atchley, Keith M Young
The motivated attention network is believed to be the system that allocates attention toward motivationally relevant, emotional stimuli in order to better prepare an organism for action [Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M., & Cuthbert, B. N. (1997). Motivated attention: Affect, activation, and action. In P. J. Lang, R. F. Simons, M. Balaban, & R. Simons (Eds.), Attention and orienting: Sensory and motivational processes (pp. 97-135). Psychology Press]. The late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential (ERP) that is a manifestation of the motivated attention network, has not been found to reliably differentiate the valence of emotionally relevant stimuli...
October 12, 2016: Laterality
Luigi Zechini, Alison Lilley, Emily Waddell, Thomas J Burns, J Roger Downie, Patrick T Walsh
There is considerable debate about the pattern and origin of laterality in forelimb emergence and turning behaviour within amphibians, with the latter being poorly investigated in tadpoles around metamorphic climax. Using 6 species of metamorphosing anurans, we investigated the effect of asymmetrical spiracle location, and disturbance at the time of forelimb emergence, on the pattern of forelimb emergence. Turning behaviour was observed to assess whether motor lateralization occurred in non-neobatrachian anurans and was linked to patterns of forelimb emergence...
September 26, 2016: Laterality
Annukka K Lindell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Laterality
Rob Found
In protected areas, wildlife may lose their fear of humans, and prey species may use human-disturbed areas to escape natural predators. Lateral bedding posture bias may reflect difference in monitoring and these changing patterns of risk stimuli. I studied wild elk in Banff and Jasper National Parks, Canada, where habituated animals enter into conflicts with humans, abandon migration, and negatively affect entire ecosystems. I recorded lateral bedding postures and lateral differences in detection distances when elk were approached...
August 31, 2016: Laterality
Annukka K Lindell
Portrait pose orientations influence perception: the left cheek is more emotionally expressive; females' right cheeks appear more attractive. Posing biases are established in paintings, photographs, and advertisements, however, book covers have not previously been examined. This paper assesses cover image orientation in a book genre that frequently features a cover portrait: the celebrity cookbook. If marketers intuitively choose to enhance chefs' emotional expressivity, left cheek poses should predominate; if attractiveness is more important, right cheek poses will be more frequent for females, with a left or no cheek bias for males...
August 22, 2016: Laterality
Ian Q Whishaw, Bryan Kolb
A human physical asymmetry is the near 90% clockwise occipitoparietal scalp hair-whorl direction in Europeans, an incidence that approximates the left lateralization of speech and right-handedness. Hair-whorl direction is also asymmetric in horses, Equus ferus caballus and placement is proposed to be related to temperament and lateralized skill in equitation manoeuvres. We describe a hair-whorl asymmetry in the horse, mane direction. Of 526, 3-year-old American Quarter horses, 69% of horses had mane directed to the right and 31% had mane directed to the left...
August 18, 2016: Laterality
Katie McCulloch, Natascha Lachner Bass, Heather Dial, Merrill Hiscock, Ben Jansen
Two dichotic listening experiments examined the degree to which the right-ear advantage (REA) for linguistic stimuli is altered by a "top-down" variable (i.e., directed attention) in conjunction with selected "bottom-up" (acoustic) variables. Halwes fused dichotic words were administered to 99 right-handed adults with instructions to attend to the left or right ear, or to divide attention equally. Stimuli in Experiment 1 were presented without noise or mixed with noise that was high-pass or low-pass filtered, or unfiltered...
August 18, 2016: Laterality
Sandra Virtue, Michael Schutzenhofer, Blaine Tomkins
Although a left hemisphere advantage is usually evident during language processing, the right hemisphere is highly involved during the processing of weakly constrained inferences. However, currently little is known about how the emotional valence of environmental stimuli influences the hemispheric processing of these inferences. In the current study, participants read texts promoting either strongly or weakly constrained predictive inferences and performed a lexical decision task to inference-related targets presented to the left visual field-right hemisphere or the right visual field-left hemisphere...
August 17, 2016: Laterality
Ramesh Kaipa, U Ajith Kumar
Functional symmetry of medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) as a function of handedness remains to be well investigated. The current study aimed to assess the functional symmetry of MOCB through contralateral inhibition of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) in right- and left-handed individuals. Thirteen left-handed and 13 right-handed individuals in the age range of 19-25 years participated. Behavioural experiment involved measuring speech perception in noise and vocal reaction time. Physiological experiment involved measuring the contralateral inhibition of OAEs in both the ears of participants...
August 9, 2016: Laterality
Alan A Beaton, Sofia Mutinelli, Philip J Corr
The Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire (AHPQ), as modified by Briggs and Nebes [(1975). Patterns of hand preference in a student population. Cortex, 11(3), 230-238. doi: 10.1016/s0010-9452(75)80005-0 ], was administered to a sample of 177 participants alongside the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality Questionnaire [RST-PQ; Corr, P. J., & Cooper, A. (2016). The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality Questionnaire (RST-PQ): Development and validation. Psychological Assessment. doi: 10.1037/pas000 ], which measures two factors of defensive negative emotion, motivation and affectivity-the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and the Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS)-and one positive-approach dimension related to reward sensitivity, persistence and reactivity-the Behavioural Approach System...
July 28, 2016: Laterality
Fatma Doganay, Zeynep Dadaci, Pinar Topcu-Yilmaz, Hacer Doganay Aydin
Physiological palpebral fissure asymmetry is a common observation in a physician's everyday practice. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between palpebral fissure height (PFH) and ocular dominance. Sixty-nine healthy volunteers (42 female, 27 male) were included in this research, and ocular dominance was determined using hole-in-the-card and pointing-a-finger tests. Those volunteers with inconsistent test results were excluded. Standard photographs were taken of all of the subjects in the primary position with a consistent background and photographic equipment...
July 26, 2016: Laterality
Jannick Niort, Francisco Javier Hernández Vázquez
Following on from the studies by McManus and Cornish [(1997). Fractionating handedness in mental retardation: What is the role of the cerebellum? Laterality, 2(2), 81-89] and Cornish, Pigram, and Shaw [(1997). Do anomalies of handedness exist in children with fragile-X syndrome? Laterality, 2(2), 91-101], the aim of this paper was to determine laterality in people with fragile X syndrome (FXS). The sample comprised three study groups: the first with 30 people with FXS (mean age 17.9 years), the second 34 people with various intellectual disabilities (ID, mean age 20...
July 19, 2016: Laterality
Anica Jansen van Vuuren, Michael M Saling, Ozyar Ameen, Nadraj Naidoo, Mark Solms
This study documents relationships between handedness and carotid arterial asymmetries. The article is divided into two sections, considering first geometric (n = 195) and then haemodynamic (n = 228) asymmetries. In the geometric study, diameters, lengths, and angles of the common carotid arteries in left and right-handed participants were measured using computed tomography angiography scans. Resistance to blood flow was calculated according to Poiseuille's formula. In the haemodynamic study, peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity, vessel diameter, and volume flow rate of the common, internal, and external carotid arteries were measured in left and right-handed participants, using Doppler ultrasonography...
July 5, 2016: Laterality
Satyam Mukherjee
Left-handedness is known to provide an intrinsic and tactical advantage at top level in many sports involving interactive contests. Again, most of the renowned leaders of the world are known to have been left-handed. Leadership plays an important role in politics, sports and mentorship. In this paper we show that Cricket captains who bat left-handed have a strategic advantage over the right-handed captains in One Day International (ODI) and Test matches. The present study involving 46 left-handed captains and 148 right-handed captains in ODI matches, reveal a strong relation between leader's laterality and team member performance, demonstrating the critical importance of left-handedness and successful leadership...
June 27, 2016: Laterality
Daigo Komatsu, Kazuma Ikeuchi, Toshihisa Kojima, Yasuhiko Takegami, Takafumi Amano, Masaki Tsuboi, Naoki Ishiguro, Yukiharu Hasegawa
There are few reports of the laterality in radiological knee osteoarthritis (ROA). This study aimed to evaluate laterality in terms of the minimum joint space width (mJSW) and osteophyte areas (OFs) in a cross-sectorial general population screen and elucidate the association between laterality and risk of osteoarthritis. We enrolled 330 participants (mean age 64.6 years) and examined the presence of ROA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≧ 2) laterality in terms of the mJSW and OF on the medial tibia using auto-measuring software...
June 27, 2016: Laterality
Seda Dural, Hakan Çetinkaya, Onur Güntürkün
The present study aimed to explore the existence of an asymmetrical bias in the imagination of pairs of objects of unequal size. We assumed that such pairs are conceptualized with the smaller object being placed on the left, creating an ascending size order from left to right. Such a bias could derive from a cognitive strategy known from the mental number line. Sixty-four participants were instructed to imagine stimulus-pairs that were staggered from those showing very prominent intra-pair size differences (e...
June 23, 2016: Laterality
Sobh Chahboun, Andrea Flumini, Carmen Pérez González, I Chris McManus, Julio Santiago
Does reading and writing direction (RWD) influence the aesthetic appreciation of photography? Pérez González showed that nineteenth-century Iranian and Spanish professional photographers manifest lateral biases linked to RWD in their compositions. The present study aimed to test whether a population sample showed similar biases. Photographs with left-to-right (L-R) and right-to-left (R-L) directionality were selected from Pérez González's collections and presented in both original and mirror-reversed forms to Spanish (L-R readers) and Moroccan (R-L readers) participants...
June 13, 2016: Laterality
Jacqueline Fagard, Sylvie Margules, Clémence Lopez, Lionel Granjon, Viviane Huet
As soon as infants grasp objects, they exhibit some degree of hand preference. Although all studies agree that the number of non-lateralized infants remains high during the first months of life, there is no consensus on the percentage of right- and left-handed infants. Reasons might be the different formulae used to calculate an handedness index, the basis on which handedness categories are distinguished, and the number of trials per session. In this study we aimed to provide a valid method of testing handedness, reliable without being lengthy so as to combine it with other evaluations...
June 2, 2016: Laterality
Nicola Bruno, Carole Bode, Marco Bertamini
Previous analyses suggest that artists prefer poses showing the left side of the subject's face when composing a portrait, but showing the right side when composing their own self-portrait. There is also some evidence that artists may prefer compositions with key features on the right of the picture. Do these findings generalize to spontaneous, pseudo-artistic productions by individuals with no formal training in painting and art history? To investigate this issue, we tested a sample of 104 British schoolchildren and teenagers (mean age = 13...
May 27, 2016: Laterality
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