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Christopher M Donoff, Christopher R Madan, Anthony Singhal
Previous studies of movement imagery have found inter-individual differences in the ability to imagine whole-body movements. The majority of these studies have used subjective scales to measure imagery ability, which may be confounded by other factors related to effort. Madan and Singhal [2013. Introducing TAMI: An objective test of ability in movement imagery. Journal of Motor Behavior, 45(2), 153-166. doi: 10.1080/00222895.2013.763764 ] developed the Test of Ability in Movement Imagery (TAMI) to address these confounds by using a multiple-choice format with objectively correct responses...
July 19, 2017: Laterality
Matia Okubo, Kenta Ishikawa, Akihiro Kobayashi
Our cognitive mechanisms are designed to detect cheaters in social exchanges. However, cheater detection can be thwarted by a posed smile, which cheaters display with greater emotional intensity than cooperators. The present study investigated the role of hemifacial asymmetries in the perception of trustworthiness using face photographs with left and right cheek poses. Participants (N = 170) observed face photographs of cheaters and cooperators in an economic game. In the photographs, models expressed happiness or anger and turned slightly to the left or right to show their left or right cheeks to the camera...
July 14, 2017: Laterality
Melita J Giummarra, Govinda Poudel, P Amanda Niu, Michael E R Nicholls, Joanne Fielding, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia, Izelle Labuschagne
We investigated emotional processing in vicarious pain (VP) responders. VP responders report an explicit sensory and emotional feeling of pain when they witness another in pain, which is greater in magnitude than the empathic processing of pain in the general population. In Study 1, 31 participants completed a chimeric faces task, judging whether emotional chimera in the left, or right, visual field was more intense. VP responders took longer to judge emotionality than non-responders, and fixated more on the angry hemiface in the right visual field, whereas non-responder controls had no lateralized fixation bias...
July 12, 2017: Laterality
Angelica Quercia, Daniela Bobbo, Gian Gastone Mascetti
Unihemispheric sleep is an aspect of the cerebral lateralization of certain species of birds. During sleep, domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) show brief periods of monocular-unihemispheric sleep (Mo-Un sleep): one eye is open and the connected hemisphere is awaken while the other eye remains shut and the connected hemisphere sleeps. The time spent in Mo-Un sleep was investigated following a brief monocular deprivation (MD) in chicks hatched from eggs incubated in darkness and reared in light (D-L), incubated in light and reared in light (L-L) and incubated in darkness and reared in darkness (D-D)...
July 2, 2017: Laterality
I C McManus, Giulia Buckens, Naomi Harris, Alexandra Flint, Hei Ling Abigail Ng, Foteini Vovou
People usually describe their handedness honestly, but that need not necessarily be the case. A legal case is described of a murder said by the pathologist to be committed by a left-hander but the defendant claimed to be right-handed, and the first author assessed the defendant's handedness as an expert witness. We know of no previous work on faking handedness, and so we tested 30 right-handers and 25 left-handers on various handedness tasks, and then asked the participants to repeat the tasks while faking being of opposite handedness...
June 7, 2017: Laterality
Christophe Carlei, Dirk Kerzel
The orientation-bias hypothesis states that there is a bias to attend to the right visual hemifield (RVF) when there is spatial competition between stimuli in the left and right hemifield [Pollmann, S. (1996). A pop-out induced extinction-like phenomenon in neurologically intact subjects. Neuropsychologia, 34(5), 413-425. doi: 10.1016/0028-3932(95)00125-5 ]. In support of this hypothesis, stronger interference was reported for RVF distractors with contralateral targets. In contrast, previous studies using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) found stronger interference from distractors in the left visual hemifield (LVF)...
May 13, 2017: Laterality
Guy Sion
Scar-asymmetry may reflect brain laterality because scar location may reflect behaviour when being attacked. This has been studied in a few organisms, but never in lizards. Wild geckos (Ptyodactylus guttatus) from Israel were examined for bite-scar numbers and their lateral asymmetry. Social status was documented in the field before capture. Foot-preference, for either the right (R-footed) or left (L-footed) hind leg was determined in six trials for each gecko on adults captured in Jerusalem. I studied 48 geckos: 15 R-footed, 6 ambidextrous and 9 L-footed females; 6 R-footed, 3 ambidextrous and 9 L-footed males...
May 9, 2017: Laterality
Alan A Beaton, Sofia Mutinelli, Philip J Corr
The Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire (AHPQ), as modified by Briggs and Nebes [(1975). Patterns of hand preference in a student population. Cortex, 11(3), 230-238. doi: 10.1016/s0010-9452(75)80005-0] , was administered to a sample of 177 participants alongside the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality Questionnaire [RST-PQ; Corr, P. J., & Cooper, A. (2016). The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality Questionnaire (RST-PQ): Development and validation. Psychological Assessment. doi: 10.1037/pas000 ], which measures two factors of defensive negative emotion, motivation and affectivity-the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and the Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS)-and one positive-approach dimension related to reward sensitivity, persistence and reactivity-the Behavioural Approach System...
July 2017: Laterality
Fatma Doganay, Zeynep Dadaci, Pinar Topcu-Yilmaz, Hacer Doganay Aydin
Physiological palpebral fissure asymmetry is a common observation in a physician's everyday practice. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between palpebral fissure height (PFH) and ocular dominance. Sixty-nine healthy volunteers (42 female, 27 male) were included in this research, and ocular dominance was determined using hole-in-the-card and pointing-a-finger tests. Those volunteers with inconsistent test results were excluded. Standard photographs were taken of all of the subjects in the primary position with a consistent background and photographic equipment...
July 2017: Laterality
Anica Jansen van Vuuren, Michael M Saling, Ozyar Ameen, Nadraj Naidoo, Mark Solms
This study documents relationships between handedness and carotid arterial asymmetries. The article is divided into two sections, considering first geometric (n = 195) and then haemodynamic (n = 228) asymmetries. In the geometric study, diameters, lengths, and angles of the common carotid arteries in left and right-handed participants were measured using computed tomography angiography scans. Resistance to blood flow was calculated according to Poiseuille's formula. In the haemodynamic study, peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity, vessel diameter, and volume flow rate of the common, internal, and external carotid arteries were measured in left and right-handed participants, using Doppler ultrasonography...
July 2017: Laterality
Satyam Mukherjee
Left-handedness is known to provide an intrinsic and tactical advantage at top level in many sports involving interactive contests. Again, most of the renowned leaders of the world are known to have been left-handed. Leadership plays an important role in politics, sports and mentorship. In this paper we show that Cricket captains who bat left-handed have a strategic advantage over the right-handed captains in One Day International (ODI) and Test matches. The present study involving 46 left-handed captains and 148 right-handed captains in ODI matches, reveal a strong relation between leader's laterality and team member performance, demonstrating the critical importance of left-handedness and successful leadership...
May 2017: Laterality
Daigo Komatsu, Kazuma Ikeuchi, Toshihisa Kojima, Yasuhiko Takegami, Takafumi Amano, Masaki Tsuboi, Naoki Ishiguro, Yukiharu Hasegawa
There are few reports of the laterality in radiological knee osteoarthritis (ROA). This study aimed to evaluate laterality in terms of the minimum joint space width (mJSW) and osteophyte areas (OFs) in a cross-sectorial general population screen and elucidate the association between laterality and risk of osteoarthritis. We enrolled 330 participants (mean age 64.6 years) and examined the presence of ROA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≧ 2) laterality in terms of the mJSW and OF on the medial tibia using auto-measuring software...
May 2017: Laterality
Seda Dural, Hakan Çetinkaya, Onur Güntürkün
The present study aimed to explore the existence of an asymmetrical bias in the imagination of pairs of objects of unequal size. We assumed that such pairs are conceptualized with the smaller object being placed on the left, creating an ascending size order from left to right. Such a bias could derive from a cognitive strategy known from the mental number line. Sixty-four participants were instructed to imagine stimulus-pairs that were staggered from those showing very prominent intra-pair size differences (e...
May 2017: Laterality
Sobh Chahboun, Andrea Flumini, Carmen Pérez González, I Chris McManus, Julio Santiago
Does reading and writing direction (RWD) influence the aesthetic appreciation of photography? Pérez González showed that nineteenth-century Iranian and Spanish professional photographers manifest lateral biases linked to RWD in their compositions. The present study aimed to test whether a population sample showed similar biases. Photographs with left-to-right (L-R) and right-to-left (R-L) directionality were selected from Pérez González's collections and presented in both original and mirror-reversed forms to Spanish (L-R readers) and Moroccan (R-L readers) participants...
May 2017: Laterality
Jacqueline Fagard, Sylvie Margules, Clémence Lopez, Lionel Granjon, Viviane Huet
As soon as infants grasp objects, they exhibit some degree of hand preference. Although all studies agree that the number of non-lateralized infants remains high during the first months of life, there is no consensus on the percentage of right- and left-handed infants. Reasons might be the different formulae used to calculate an handedness index, the basis on which handedness categories are distinguished, and the number of trials per session. In this study we aimed to provide a valid method of testing handedness, reliable without being lengthy so as to combine it with other evaluations...
May 2017: Laterality
Nicola Bruno, Carole Bode, Marco Bertamini
Previous analyses suggest that artists prefer poses showing the left side of the subject's face when composing a portrait, but showing the right side when composing their own self-portrait. There is also some evidence that artists may prefer compositions with key features on the right of the picture. Do these findings generalize to spontaneous, pseudo-artistic productions by individuals with no formal training in painting and art history? To investigate this issue, we tested a sample of 104 British schoolchildren and teenagers (mean age = 13...
May 2017: Laterality
Junhong Yu, Iris Rawtaer, Rathi Mahendran, Ee-Heok Kua, Lei Feng
Despite the abundance of studies on asymmetries in manual laterality, a marker for atypical brain lateralization in depression and anxiety, findings in this area are mixed. Traditionally, research have looked at individual differences in depression and anxiety as a function of the direction of asymmetry. However, recent research has emphasized on studying the degree of asymmetry in addition to its direction. To these ends, the present study aims to unravel the associations between the degree and direction of manual lateralization, and depression/anxiety...
May 2017: Laterality
Nicole S McKay, Sarina J Iwabuchi, Isabelle S Häberling, Michael C Corballis, Ian J Kirk
Information regarding anatomical connectivity in the human brain can be gathered using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fractional anisotropy (FA) is the most commonly derived value, and reflects how strongly directional are the underlying tracts. Differences in FA are thus associated with differences in the underlying microstructure of the brain. The relationships between these differences in microstructure and functional differences in corresponding regions have also been examined. Previous studies have found an effect of handedness on functional lateralization in the brain and corresponding microstructural differences...
May 2017: Laterality
Philippe P Hujoel
Lower face variability in modern humans has been associated with a series of phenotypic characteristics including body architecture and handedness. The aim of this study was to provide a systematic review of lower face variability and handedness in national health surveys conducted in the United States. Three informative surveys with a total of 13,663 participants were identified. Lower face variability was described as one of six facial phenotypes and related to handedness using logistic regression models while adjusting for sex, ancestry, geography, and income...
April 26, 2017: Laterality
Robin E Luijmes, Carien H G Beurskens, Sjaak Pouwels, Koen J A O Ingels
We investigated the differences in cosmetic appreciation of patients with a left and a right peripheral facial palsy (PFP) while smiling. Smiling pictures of patients with a facial palsy with House-Brackmann II-VI were reversed as a mirror image and offered as a pair of pictures, together with the true image. Twenty-six patients with a PFP and 24 medical professionals familiar with facial palsy were asked to choose the most attractive photograph. Patients rated their own pictures. Medical professionals preferred pictures of patients with a right and left PFP in, respectively, a mean of 43...
April 26, 2017: Laterality
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