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Nafiseh Faghihi, Omar Garcia, Jyotsna Vaid
Spatial biases in graphomotor production tasks such as figure drawing may reflect biological (cerebral lateralization), biomechanical (limb movement), and/or cultural (reading/writing direction) influences. The present study examined sources of bias in the placement in graphic space of a symmetrical drawn figure (a tree). A previous study using a child sample found an overall leftward placement bias, independent of participants' reading/writing direction experience [Picard & Zarhbouch, 2014 . Leftward spatial bias in children's drawing placement: Hemispheric activation versus directional hypotheses...
December 24, 2018: Laterality
Philippe P Hujoel
This study aims to determine whether breastfeeding duration affects the prevalence of nonrighthandedness in later life. A systematic search for studies on this topic was completed in 2018, and risk of bias was assessed by means of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Seven national surveys in five countries with Individual Participant Data (IPD) were identified (n = 62,129 mother-child dyads). These surveys had low risk of bias. An IPD meta-analysis showed that breastfeeding for < 1 month, 1 to 6 months, and > 6 months, when compared to bottle feeding, was associated with a 9%, 15% and 22% decreased prevalence of nonrighthandedness, respectively (Prevalence Ratio (PR) = 0...
December 18, 2018: Laterality
Annukka K Lindell
In social media's attention economy "likes" are currency; photos showing faces attract more "likes." Previous research has established a left cheek bias in photos uploaded to social media, but whether left cheek poses induce more engagement than right cheek poses remains to be determined. The present study thus examined whether pose orientation influences the number of "likes" and comments garnered by photos uploaded to Instagram. The top 20 single-user Instagram accounts were identified, and the most recent 10 left and 10 right cheek images were selected, resulting in a total of 400 images...
December 11, 2018: Laterality
Jeannette M Stein, Nathaniel S Miller
The purpose of the current study was to determine if the relationship between interhemispheric interaction and cognitive flexibility extends to explanations of forgiveness and apology acceptance. A growing body of research indicates that consistency of handedness may be reflective of an individual's degree of interhemispheric interaction and access to processes of the right hemisphere. As such, individual differences in processing that require interhemispheric interaction, such as belief updating, are associated with consistency of handedness...
November 27, 2018: Laterality
Marcus L Leppanen, Keith B Lyle, Freya M Edlin, Vanessa D Schäfke
Hand preference is commonly measured via self-report using instruments known as handedness inventories. These instruments query which hand subjects use to perform unimanual object-based tasks and also the consistency of usage. Scores reveal which hand people report using most (i.e., which hand is preferred). Some people report highly consistent usage of their preferred hand while others report relatively inconsistent usage. These reports are often assumed to be accurate descriptions of people's actual behavior, but empirical evidence concerning their validity is surprisingly scant...
November 23, 2018: Laterality
Peter A White
There is evidence for a tendency for European portrait paintings to have the head oriented so that the left side of the face is visible more than the right side. This is particularly the case for female sitters. There is evidence that the left side of the face shows emotion more than the right side does, so it has been proposed that there is a tendency for artists or sitters to want to show more of the emotionality of the sitter. It is shown here that the left-side tendency varies by date. In two studies, large samples were drawn from European gallery collections (study 1) and the National Portrait Gallery in London (study 2)...
November 16, 2018: Laterality
Meredith Scheppele, Julia L Evans, Timothy T Brown
Structural lateralization of cortical language areas has been extensively studied in the past, with the conclusion that there is a predominant left lateralization in the majority of typically developing adolescents. However, lateralization in this age group has often been examined using cortical volumetric measures, without taking into account the independence of surface area and thickness. Utilizing structural MRI data in a relatively large sample size, the lateralization of cortical volume, surface area, and thickness was analysed across regions of interest (ROIs) known to support language processing in 118 typically developing adolescents, ages 13;9 to 18;9 using a laterality index...
November 10, 2018: Laterality
Sebastian Ocklenburg, Patrick Friedrich, Judith Schmitz, Caroline Schlüter, Erhan Genc, Onur Güntürkün, Jutta Peterburs, Gina Grimshaw
Frontal alpha EEG asymmetry, an indirect marker of asymmetries in relative frontal brain activity, are widely used in research on lateralization of emotional processing. While most authors focus on frontal electrode pairs (e.g., F3/F4 or F7/F8), several recent studies have indicated that EEG asymmetries can also be observed outside the frontal lobe and in frequency bands other than alpha. Because the focus of most EEG asymmetry research is on the correlations between asymmetry and other traits, much less is known about the distribution of patterns of asymmetry at the population level...
November 2, 2018: Laterality
Eliza L Nelson, Sandy L Gonzalez, Jose M El-Asmar, M Fouad Ziade, Reem S Abu-Rustum
While handedness questionnaires are widely used in adults, there is no comparable measure designed specifically for children. The current study developed the Home Handedness Questionnaire (HHQ), a new measure for preschoolers administered by parents using common household items. The HHQ has two scales that distinguish action types typically combined on other measures: actions performed with only the right or left hand (i.e., unimanual, such as holding a toothbrush), and actions performed with one hand holding the object for the other hand's action (i...
November 2, 2018: Laterality
Stephanie A Poindexter, Kathleen D Reinhardt, Vincent Nijman, K A I Nekaris
It has been suggested that strepsirrhines (lemurs, lorises, and galagos) retain the more primitive left-hand preference, whilst monkeys and apes more regularly display a right-hand preference at the individual-level. We looked to address questions of laterality in the slow loris (Nycticebus spp.) using spontaneous observations of 7 wild individuals, unimanual tests in 6 captive individuals, and photos of 42 individuals in a bilateral posture assessing handedness at the individual- and group-level. During the unimanual reach task, we found at the individual-level, only 4 slow lorises showed a hand use bias (R: 3, L: 1), Handedness index (HI) ranged from -0...
November 2018: Laterality
Martina Manns, Felix Ströckens, Philipp Stavenhagen, Sebastian Ocklenburg
It is still debated whether limb-use preferences represent a common trait in vertebrates, which is based on a shared phylogenetic history. Unravelling the evolutionary origin and pattern of paw preferences in vertebrates requires the analysis of a larger number of species within an ecologically relevant setting. We therefore investigated whether observations in a zoo enable the collection of reliable data sets by quantifying paw use in two independent groups of Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinerea). Employing a continuous focal animal sampling method, each day one of the ten individuals was video recorded from outside of the enclosure during usual activity...
November 2018: Laterality
Polina Stoycheva, Kaisa Tiippana
The brain's left hemisphere often displays advantages in processing verbal information, while the right hemisphere favours processing non-verbal information. In the haptic domain due to contra-lateral innervations, this functional lateralization is reflected in a hand advantage during certain functions. Findings regarding the hand-hemisphere advantage for haptic information remain contradictory, however. This study addressed these laterality effects and their interaction with memory retention times in the haptic modality...
November 2018: Laterality
Robert D McIntosh, Keira Hillary, Ailbhe Brennan, Magdalena Lechowicz
The writing attempts of children often feature mirror-reversals of individual letters. These reversals are thought to arise from an adaptive tendency to mirror-generalize. However, it is unclear whether mirror-writing is driven by mirror-generalisation of the visual letter forms, or of the actions for writing them. We report two studies of the relationship between mirror-writing and the ability to recognize whether a visually presented letter is in the correct orientation, amongst primary and preschool children learning to read and write in English...
November 2018: Laterality
Priscilla Savopoulos, Annukka K Lindell
Over 100 years ago Lombroso [(1876/2006). Criminal man. Durham: Duke University Press] proposed a biological basis for criminality. Based on inspection of criminals' skulls he theorized that an imbalance of the cerebral hemispheres was amongst 18 distinguishing features of the criminal brain. Specifically, criminals were less lateralized than noncriminals. As the advent of neuroscientific techniques makes more fine-grained inspection of differences in brain structure and function possible, we review criminals' and noncriminals' structural, functional, and behavioural lateralization to evaluate the merits of Lombroso's thesis and investigate the evidence for the biological underpinning of criminal behaviour...
November 2018: Laterality
Chiara Sacco, Rocco Di Michele, Gabriele Semprini, Franco Merni, Gabriele Soffritti
Recently, some studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of two latent variable approaches in which hand preferences are analysed using either latent class methods or latent class factor (LCF) methods. The main aims of this study are: (i) to establish whether these approaches are adequate for assessing footedness, (ii) to evaluate their appropriateness when hand and foot preferences are jointly analysed, and (iii) to measure the association between handedness and footedness based on the examined latent variable models...
November 2018: Laterality
Philip Furley, Jannik Dörr, Florian Loffing
The aim of the present study was to test if lateral preferences of surfers are associated with behaviour and performance depending on the direction of a breaking wave. We hypothesized that wave direction and surf stance interact in creating favourable or debilitative performance demands as surfers are either facing the wave (frontside) or the wave is breaking in the back of the surfers (backside). Study 1 was an online survey collecting self-report data of recreational surfers (n = 394). In Study 2, we analysed all wave scores (n = 2,552) and laterality of professional surfers during the season of 2014...
November 2018: Laterality
Hanna Sandve, Håvard Lorås, Arve Vorland Pedersen
Previous studies have argued that a person's ability to write legibly with the non-dominant hand after a limited amount of practice suggests that manual skill can be easily transferred. The present study investigated the degree to which handedness can be altered by short-term practice on the highly complex manual activity of handwriting. Nine strongly right-handed individuals practiced writing with their left hand daily for 15 consecutive days. On three occasions, at baseline, at the end of the practice period and after a one-month retention interval, the similarity of left- and right-hand writing was inspected and handedness was tested by means of the Purdue Pegboard as well as handedness questionnaires...
October 13, 2018: Laterality
Ronit Saban-Bezalel, Naama Coral, Nira Mashal
Previous studies on adults with dyslexia (DYS) have indicated difficulties in the comprehension of figurative language. Using the divided visual field paradigm, the present study investigated the hemispheric processing of idioms among 22 adults with DYS and 21 regular reader (RR) adults. Participants performed a lexical decision task for a target word related to either a literal or a figurative interpretation of an idiom. The results show that whereas the RR group demonstrated a bilateral pattern of hemispheric processing of idiomatic meanings, the DYS group showed a right hemisphere (RH) advantage...
October 9, 2018: Laterality
Jorge Mario Andreau, Santiago Torres Batán
The original approach of the Hemispheric Encoding/Retrieval Asymmetry model (HERA) was aimed at the operations of encoding and retrieving episodic memories. However, whether HERA presumptions can apply to different types of stimuli (e.g., words and pictures) continues to be a matter of debate. Therefore, in order to analyse the effects of brain pre-activation on subsequent memory, HERA was tested through a hand-clenching paradigm using four types of stimuli: words, fractal images, silhouettes of common objects, and pseudowords...
October 5, 2018: Laterality
Emre Eskicioglu, Serhat Taslica, Baris Narin, Cagdas Guducu, Adile Oniz, Murat Ozgoren
In a classical dichotic listening paradigm, besides auditory brain asymmetry, cognitive functions such as attention and conflict resolution play a major role. The aim of this study is to reveal the possible haemodynamic mechanisms of higher attentional performance in prefrontal cortex during dichotic listening test. Twenty-six healthy participants underwent a dichotic listening task in three sessions; non-forced attention, attention focused to right ear, and attention focused to left ear. In each session, haemodynamic activity of prefrontal brain area was recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
September 27, 2018: Laterality
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