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Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919353/presepsin-a-new-marker-of-catheter-related-blood-stream-infections-in-pediatric-patients
#1
Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Eda Karadag-Oncel, Kubra Aykac, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Ahmet Emre Aycan, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
BACKGROUND: Catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI) are mostly preventable hospital-acquired conditions. We aimed to investigate the value of presepsin in detection of CRBSI in hospitalized children. METHODS: Hospitalized pediatric patients who had clinical suspicion of CRBSI were followed. Results of peripheral blood cultures and blood cultures from central venous catheters, procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), total white blood cell (WBC) counts were recorded...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916276/individual-background-factors-associated-with-vaccination-for-seasonal-influenza-in-japanese-schoolchildren
#2
Mitsuo Uchida
There is little evidence about how individual background factors affect seasonal influenza vaccination of children. At the end of the 2014/2015 influenza season, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of all elementary schoolchildren in 29 schools in Matsumoto City, Japan, was conducted to obtain information about vaccine uptake activity and individual background factors. Of the 10,524 subjects who responded, 5063 (48.1%) had been vaccinated. Grade in school, underlying disease, number of siblings, and diagnosis with and vaccination for influenza during the previous influenza season differed significantly in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899610/nosocomial-acquired-and-community-onset-clostridium-difficile-infection-at-an-academic-hospital-in-italy-epidemiology-recurrences-and-toxin-genes-distribution
#3
Valeria Visconti, Grazia Brunetti, Maria Rosaria Cuomo, Alessandra Giordano, Giammarco Raponi
Toxinogenic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of infectious diarrhea. In this retrospective cohort study the molecular epidemiology of hospital-acquired and community-associated CDI was investigated in patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital. CD in stools samples was revealed by a two steps diagnostic algorithm, firstly screening for positivity to GDH antigen and thereafter RT-PCR analysis. Increased CDI incidence was observed ranging from 1.70episodes/10000patient-days in the 1st year, to 2...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923303/an-extremely-high-bioavailability-of-orally-administered-vancomycin-in-a-patient-with-severe-colitis-and-renal-insufficiency
#4
Shingo Yamazaki, Takaaki Suzuki, Tatsuya Suzuki, Hirokazu Takatsuka, Masayuki Ishikawa, Noriyuki Hattori, Takeshi Fujishiro, Hideaki Miyauchi, Takehiko Oami, Noritaka Ariyoshi, Shigeto Oda, Hisahiro Matsubara, Itsuko Ishii
Because there is little absorption of orally administered vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) through the normal intestinal microvillus membrane, the pharmacokinetics of VCM absorbed from the digestive tract are mostly unknown. Here we report a case of severe colitis and renal insufficiency in which the serum concentration of VCM reached the supratherapeutic range after oral administration. A 54-year-old man receiving outpatient chemotherapy for rectal cancer was admitted to our hospital for severe sepsis and acute renal failure...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923302/jaid-jsc-guidelines-for-clinical-management-of-infectious-disease-2015%C3%A2-urinary-tract-infection-male-genital-infection
#5
Shingo Yamamoto, Kiyohito Ishikawa, Hiroshi Hayami, Tadahiro Nakamura, Isao Miyairi, Tadashi Hoshino, Masafumi Hasui, Kazushi Tanaka, Hiroshi Kiyota, Soichi Arakawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923301/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamic-target-attainment-of-pazufloxacin-in-prostate-tissue-dosing-considerations-for-prostatitis
#6
Kogenta Nakamura, Kazuro Ikawa, Genya Nishikawa, Ikuo Kobayashi, Masahiro Narushima, Hiroyuki Muramatsu, Shingo Morinaga, Keishi Kajikawa, Yoshiharu Kato, Masahito Watanabe, Kenji Zennami, Kent Kanao, Norifumi Morikawa, Makoto Sumitomo
The present study examined the clinical pharmacokinetics of pazufloxacin in prostate tissue and estimated the probability of target attainment for tissue-specific pharmacodynamic goals related to treating prostatitis using various intravenous dosing regimens. Patients with prostatic hypertrophy received prophylactic infusions of pazufloxacin (500 mg, n = 23; 1000 mg, n = 25) for 0.5 h prior to transurethral prostate resection. Drug concentrations in plasma (0.5-5 h) and prostate tissue (0.5-1.5 h) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and used for subsequent noncompartmental and three-compartmental analysis...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923300/influence-of-co-infection-complicated-with-human-papillomavirus-on-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia-development-in-patients-with-atypical-squamous-cells-of-undetermined-significance
#7
Hisami Kiseki, Yutaka Tsukahara, Natsumi Tajima, Ayako Tanaka, Aya Horimoto, Naohiko Hashimura
AIM: Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection is a primary cause of the development of cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer. However, the influence of other infections on intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) development has not been fully elucidated. We evaluated the association between co-infection and CIN development in subjects with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). METHOD: Data for ASCUS subjects who had undergone testing for high risk HPV (HR-HPV) and pathological diagnosis were analyzed...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889986/-haemophilus-quentini-in-the-urethra-of-men-complaining-of-urethritis-symptoms
#8
Kengo Horie, Shin Ito, Kyoko Hatazaki, Mitsuru Yasuda, Masahiro Nakano, Kyojiro Kawakami, Yasunori Fujita, Masafumi Ito, Takayuki Ezaki, Takashi Deguchi
We isolated a cryptic genospecies of Haemophilus influenzae referred to as 'Haemophilus quentini' in the urethra of 3 men complaining of urethritis symptoms. H. influenzae strains, which had been isolated from the urethra in 77 of 1518 men complaining of urethritis symptoms, identified by the conventional test, and stored, were re-cultured for this study. Sixty-seven strains surviving storage were screened by a PCR-based assay specific for the cryptic genital Haemophilus genospecies. Three strains (HI09003, HI11006, and HI14016) were screened by PCR and identified as 'H...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888855/cytomegalovirus-associated-severe-pneumonia-multi-organ-failure-and-ganciclovir-associated-arrhythmia-in-immunocompetent-child
#9
Ayman A Al-Eyadhy, Gamal Hasan, Rolan Bassrawi, Muneera Al-Jelaify, Mohamad-Hani Temsah, Ali Alhaboob, Fahad Al-Sohime, Majed Alabdulhafid
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can rarely cause severe manifestations in immunocompetent individuals. Hereby, we report a twelve-year-old boy who presented with tachycardia, tachypnea, fever and leukocytosis, which progressed to hypoxemic respiratory failure and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Subsequently, he developed multi-organ failure despite the ongoing full supportive care and empiric broad spectrum antibiotics. Cytomegalovirus infection was diagnosed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in blood and histopathological examination of lung biopsy...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847586/assessment-of-mortality-by-qsofa-in-patients-with-sepsis-outside-icu-a-post-hoc-subgroup-analysis-by-the-japanese-association-for-acute-medicine-sepsis-registry-study-group
#10
Yutaka Umemura, Hiroshi Ogura, Satoshi Gando, Shigeki Kushimoto, Daizoh Saitoh, Toshihiko Mayumi, Seitaro Fujishima, Toshikazu Abe, Hiroto Ikeda, Joji Kotani, Yasuo Miki, Shin-Ichiro Shiraishi, Atsushi Shiraishi, Koichiro Suzuki, Yasushi Suzuki, Naoshi Takeyama, Kiyotsugu Takuma, Ryosuke Tsuruta, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Norio Yamashita, Naoki Aikawa
Quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) was proposed in the new sepsis definition (Sepsis-3). Although qSOFA was created to identify patients with suspected infection and likely to have poor outcomes, the clinical utility of qSOFA to screen sepsis has not been fully evaluated. We investigated the number of patients diagnosed as having severe sepsis who could not be identified by the qSOFA criteria and what clinical signs could complement the qSOFA score. This retrospective analysis of a multicenter prospective registry included adult patients with severe sepsis diagnosed outside the intensive care unit (ICU) by conventional criteria proposed in 2003...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843641/a-study-on-the-colonization-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-among-outpatients-during-cancer-chemotherapy-and-among-healthy-smokers
#11
Shun Takemoto, Megumi Ebara, Shinji Hasebe, Yoshihiro Yakushijin
AIMS: Pneumocystis Jirovecii (PJ) is regarded as an agent of fungal infection and in cases of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immune-compromised patients including cancer patients. It is not clear what kinds of cancer, treatments, and environment need prophylaxis for PCP. In this study, we have analyzed the detectability of PJ DNA from sputum, and discussed prophylaxis and risk factors regarding PCP. METHODS: A total of forty-nine materials (twenty-four from outpatients during cancer chemotherapies and twenty-five from healthy control subjects) was collected...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838778/outbreaks-of-influenza-b-infection-and-pneumococcal-pneumonia-at-a-mental-health-facility-in-japan
#12
Yoshitaka Yamazaki, Norihiko Goto, Naoya Iwanami, Mineyuki Hama, Noriko Fujiwara, Yuko Takahashi, Maki Sekiguchi, Bin Chang, Munehiro Yamazaki
BACKGROUND: Japan has an aging population and an increasing number of patients who reside in long-term care and mental health facilities. Both pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza B infection outbreaks have been observed in these populations, although no reports have described concurrent outbreaks of pneumococcal pneumonia and influenza B infection in these facilities. CASE PRESENTATION: Six patients and two staffs were initially diagnosed with influenza B infection at a mental health facility on March 14, 2015...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838777/pyelonephritis-in-japan-caused-by-salmonella-enterica-subspecies-arizonae
#13
Hiroaki Nishioka, Asako Doi, Hiroshi Takegawa
Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae is a bacteria commonly found in the gut of reptiles. In humans, infections caused by this organism are rare. Most cases originate from southwestern United States, where rattlesnake products are often used in traditional medicine. In Asia, only a few cases have been described. This case report documents a case involving a 64-year-old woman with pyelonephritis caused by S. arizonae in Japan. She had no history of contact with reptiles or foreign travel. The likely route of transmission is unclear...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830668/evaluation-of-anyplex%C3%A2-ii-rv16-and-rb5-real-time-rt-pcr-compared-to-seeplex-%C3%A2-rv15-onestep-ace-and-pneumobacter-ace-for-the-simultaneous-detection-of-upper-respiratory-pathogens
#14
Gretchen Parrott, Takeshi Kinjo, Daijiro Nabeya, Ayako Uehara, Saifun Nahar, Kazuya Miyagi, Shusaku Haranaga, Masao Tateyama, Jiro Fujita
This prospective study was performed to evaluate and compare the performance of the multiplex PCR Seeplex(®) assays and Anyplex™ II assays. From May 2014 until April 2016, a total of 247 respiratory samples were collected in Okinawa, Japan. Multiple respiratory pathogens were detected in 37% of patients with positive results. The most prevalent pathogens were influenza A virus and respiratory syncytial virus B. Despite minor differences in capabilities, both the Seeplex(®) assays and Anyplex™ II assays can be easily implemented in diagnostic or research laboratories to optimize the detection and management of respiratory pathogen induced diseases...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818548/severe-acute-interstitial-lung-disease-after-nivolumab-in-three-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-with-imaging-findings-of-airway-obstruction-adjacent-to-lung-tumors
#15
Kenji Nakahama, Akihiro Tamiya, Yoshihiko Taniguchi, Yumiko Sasaki, Masanori Akira, Shinji Atagi
Nivolumab has been associated with unique adverse events known as immune-related adverse events. Although interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a life-threatening immune-related adverse event, the risk of ILD during nivolumab treatment is unclear. In this report, we encountered three patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer with signs of lung obstruction caused by tumor-mediated compression on imaging who developed acute ILD within 10 days of commencing nivolumab treatment. The first case involved a 74-year-old Japanese female never-smoker, the second a 67-year-old Japanese female never-smoker, and the third a 75-year-old Japanese female current-smoker...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803866/pericarditis-caused-by-campylobacter-fetus-subspecies-fetus-associated-with-ingestion-of-raw-beef-liver
#16
Yoshihiko Kiyasu, Daiki Akiyama, Yoko Kurihara, Hiroshi Koganemaru, Shigemi Hitomi
Campylobacter fetus is an organism residing primarily in the gastrointestinal tracts of cattle and sheep and transmitting to humans through ingestion of contaminated food products or surface water. The organism has caused various extraintestinal infections but, to date, purulent pericarditis due to the organism has rarely been described. We report a case of purulent pericarditis due to C. fetus subsp. fetus, occurring in a patient having several predisposing conditions, including receiving hemodialysis therapy, recent surgery for cecal cancer, and administration of esomeprazole...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803865/ureaplasma-urealyticum-necrotizing-soft-tissue-infection
#17
Ian Gassiep, Letitia Gore, Joanne L Dale, E Geoffrey Playford
Ureaplasma urealyticum is a urogenital commensal and often associated with localised infection. With the advent of monoclonal immunosuppressive therapy and improved diagnostic methods, reports of non-urogenital infections are accumulating. We report a rare case of U. urealyticum necrotizing soft tissue infection and left hip septic arthritis in a hypogammaglobulinaemic patient. Consideration of this organism as an etiological agent, and potential early use of nucleic-acid diagnostic investigation with empiric therapy including activity against Ureaplasma in this patient population may be warranted...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751155/primary-lung-abscess-caused-by-staphylococcus-lugdunensis
#18
Deng-Wei Chou, Chao-Tai Lee
Staphylococcus lugdunensis, a strain of coagulase-negative staphylococci, is part of the normal flora of human skin but can cause multiple infections at various sites. This microorganism has emerged as a major human pathogen. However, no study has reported primary lung abscess caused by S. lugdunensis. A 54-year-old alcoholic man without relevant past medical history was admitted because of primary lung abscesses. Empirical amoxicillin/clavulanate therapy was initially administered; however, the patient had persistent pleuritic chest pain and fever...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743428/a-therapeutic-benefit-of-daptomycin-against-glycopeptide-resistant-gram-positive-cocci-bloodstream-infections-under-neutropenia
#19
Kensuke Matsuda, Junji Koya, Kazuhiro Toyama, Mahoko Ikeda, Shunya Arai, Fumihiko Nakamura, Shu Okugawa, Kyoji Moriya, Mineo Kurokawa
Antibiotic-resistant infections remain to be a major issue for all over the world. Although appropriate diagnosis and rapid treatment initiation are crucially important particularly in immunocompromised patients, selection of antibiotics without identification of causative bacteria is often challenging. A 44-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) under myelosuppression suffered from teicoplanin-resistant gram-positive cocci bacteremia. Taking severe neutropenia due to chemotherapy and glycopeptide-resistance into account, teicoplanin was empirically substituted with daptomycin, which led to prompt defervescence...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729050/an-infant-with-concurrent-serotype-6c-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-and-infectious-mononucleosis
#20
Naoko Nishikawa-Nakamura, Takafumi Okada, Keiko Nishimura, Tsuyako Iwai, Kimiko Ubukata, Satoshi Iwata, Asayuki Iwai
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a main causative agent of serious invasive bacterial infections. However, concurrent infection with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and viral infectious mononucleosis (IM) is rare. We report an infant with serotype 6C infection causing IPD occurring simultaneously with IM. A previously healthy 11-month-old girl referred to our hospital because of fever, leukopenia, and elevated C-reactive protein presented to us with disturbance of consciousness, tachycardia, tachypnea and agranulocytosis...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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