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Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30424949/correlation-between-vancomycin-penetration-into-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-protein-concentration-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-serum-albumin-ratio
#1
Masayuki Ishikawa, Shingo Yamazaki, Takaaki Suzuki, Masashi Uchida, Yasuo Iwadate, Itsuko Ishii
Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening condition. Vancomycin (VCM) is one of the antibiotics used as empirical therapy for bacterial meningitis. It is essential to maintain an adequate concentration of VCM in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to treat bacterial meningitis effectively. VCM administered intravenously must pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to enter the CSF and the extent of VCM penetration into CSF varies widely among patients. Previous report indicated that CSF albumin level is useful for estimation of VCM CSF penetration...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30424948/identification-and-antifungal-sensitivity-of-two-new-species-of-diaporthe-isolated
#2
Kenji Ozawa, Kiyofumi Mochizuki, Daisuke Takagi, Kyoko Ishida, Atsuko Sunada, Kiyofumi Ohkusu, Katsuhiko Kamei, Akira Hashimoto, Kazuaki Tanaka
Diaporhte species are plant pathogens rarely involved in human diseases, especially eye diseases. We report our findings in two undescribed Diaporhte species. Both were identified by their morphological characteristics and by DNA sequence analyses. In Case 1, an 81-year-old male farmer who had pterygium surgery 7 years earlier developed keratitis and the causal fungus was identified as a new species of Diaporthe, D. oculi. This species can be distinguished from the closely related D. limonicola on Citrus limon (Rutaceae) by the ITS, tef1, and TUB (515/520 = 99...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30420153/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-tazobactam-ceftolozane-in-japanese-patients-with-uncomplicated-pyelonephritis-and-complicated-urinary-tract-infection
#3
Soichi Arakawa, Kazuya Kawahara, Motoshi Kawahara, Mitsuru Yasuda, Go Fujimoto, Asako Sato, Ruriko Yokokawa, Tomoko Yoshinari, Elizabeth G Rhee, Norihiro Aoyama
We report efficacy and safety results for a combination of a novel cephalosporin class antibiotic and a β-Lactamase inhibitor, tazobactam/ceftolozane (1:2) at a dose of 1.5 g intravenously every 8 h in Japanese patients with uncomplicated pyelonephritis and complicated urinary tract infection. This study design was a nonrandomized, multicenter, open-label trial, and the treatment period was 7 days. Of 115 patients enrolled in this study, 114 received tazobactam/ceftolozane, and 90 were included in the efficacy analyses...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414723/microorganisms-isolated-at-admission-and-treatment-outcome-in-sputum-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#4
Satoru Ishikawa, Hidetoshi Igari, Kazutaka Yamagishi, Shin Takayanagi, Fumio Yamagishi
Cured or completed cases in newly diagnosed sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is 47.7% in Japan in 2016. Aging of TB patients and their underlying conditions could affect treatment outcome. We analyzed the association between the isolation of microorganisms from sputum at admission and the 180-day mortality rate of the sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients in Chiba-East Hospital in Japan. Total subjects were 761 (median age: 63 years). Sputum test for microorganisms was conducted in 708 patients...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401513/antifungal-susceptibility-trend-and-analysis-of-resistance-mechanism-for-candida-species-isolated-from-bloodstream-at-a-japanese-university-hospital
#5
Toru Sakagami, Takaki Kawano, Kohei Yamashita, Eio Yamada, Noritomo Fujino, Makoto Kaeriyama, Yoshiko Fukuda, Nobuhiko Nomura, Junichi Mitsuyama, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Hiroki Watanabe, Nobuhiro Asai, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
We compared the susceptibility of six commercially available antifungal agents (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and amphotericin B) against 133 Candida bloodstream isolates between 2008 and 2013 at Aichi Medical University Hospital. C. albicans was the most common isolate, followed by C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis. MIC90 s of voriconazole against C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis were the lowest and that of micafungin against C. glabrata was the lowest among the agents tested...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30396822/an-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-derivative-and-anti-ros-agent-prevents-the-acquisition-of-multi-drug-resistance-in-clinical-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Sachiko Hayakawa, Masato Kawamura, Takumi Sato, Taizou Hirano, Toshiaki Kikuchi, Akira Watanabe, Shigeru Fujimura
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections, and its multi-drug resistance has been a serious problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure to piperacillin and reactive oxygen species (ROS) could lead to multi-drug resistance for clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa. The inhibition of this acquired resistance by the anti-ROS agent was also examined. In vitro inducement of multi-drug resistance was performed against 20 clinical isolates. These strains were incubated for 24 h and transferred 5 times after being exposed to 1 mM H2 O2 (ROS) in addition to a sub-MIC of piperacillin by the agar dilution method...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30396821/greater-burden-of-chronic-comorbidities-and-co-medications-among-people-living-with-hiv-versus-people-without-hiv-in-japan-a-hospital-claims-database-study
#7
Daniel J Ruzicka, Kentaro Imai, Kenichi Takahashi, Toshio Naito
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence of chronic comorbidities and the use of co-medications among people living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretrovirals in Japan, compared with age-matched controls without HIV. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study using a hospital claims database of Japanese hospitals with advanced medical capabilities (i.e., advanced treatment hospitals, general hospitals, acute care hospitals). We extracted data for PLWH aged ≥18 years with a prescription record of antiretrovirals between January 2010 and December 2015, and for age-, sex-, and hospital-matched people without HIV...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30396820/nationwide-study-of-outpatient-oral-antimicrobial-utilization-patterns-for-children-in-japan-2013-2016
#8
Noriko Kinoshita, Naho Morisaki, Kazuhiro Uda, Masashi Kasai, Yuho Horikoshi, Isao Miyairi
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major multinational public health concern. The Japanese government set goals in its AMR action plan to reduce use of oral cephalosporins, macrolides, and quinolones by half between 2013 and 2020. We aimed to evaluate antimicrobial use in children in Japan by observing prescription patterns as an interim assessment of the national AMR action plan. METHODS: Using the national health claims database, we retrospectively analyzed all oral antimicrobials dispensed from outpatient pharmacies in Japan to children under 15 years old from 2013 to 2016 by age, prefecture, type of antimicrobial, and year...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30377069/the-most-common-causative-bacteria-in-maternal-sepsis-related-deaths-in-japan-were-group-a-streptococcus-a-nationwide-survey
#9
Hiroaki Tanaka, Shinji Katsuragi, Junichi Hasegawa, Kayo Tanaka, Kazuhiro Osato, Masahiko Nakata, Takeshi Murakoshi, Akihiko Sekizawa, Naohiro Kanayama, Isamu Ishiwata, Tomoaki Ikeda
The present retrospective study provides an in-depth analysis of the maternal sepsis-related deaths reported in Japan, and aims to guide future care regarding maternal sepsis. This is a nationwide, retrospective, descriptive cohort study. Data were retrospectively analyzed on all maternal death cases related to sepsis reported in Japan from 2010 through 2016. A total of 7,347,727 births and 317 maternal deaths were reported during the study period. The cause of maternal death was sepsis in 24 women (7.5%). Causative bacteria were Streptococcus pyogenes (54...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30366862/gene-expression-analysis-in-the-potent-bactericidal-activity-of-sitafloxacin-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#10
Intetsu Kobayashi, Izumo Kanesaka, Akiko Kanayama Katsuse, Hiroshi Takahashi, Ryo Okumura, Yasuhiro Nakanishi, Akihiro Kaneko
We investigated the degree of expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae genes associated with bacteriolysis and cell death in relation to the rapid bactericidal activity of sitafloxacin. S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 was added to brain heart infusion containing sitafloxacin and garenoxacin concentrations equivalent to the Cmax achieved with the usual single dose and 4 h post-Cmax concentration. RNA was extracted and cDNA was prepared using reverse transcriptase. Following RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, quantitative PCR was performed to determine the amount of gene expression for 13 genes associated with cell death...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30366861/clinical-and-virological-outcomes-of-entecavir-therapy-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-a-real-life-experience
#11
Abdulrahman A Aljumah, Nawaf A Bin Selayem, Sultan Y Al-Howti, Mutasim Dafallah, Hamdan AlGhamdi, Hazem Mokhtar, Abdulkareem M Albekairy, Faisal M Sanai
BACKGROUND: Entecavir (ETV) is a nucleoside analogue (NA) that is effective for treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) due to its low resistance rates and potent antiviral effects. We aimed to evaluate the clinical, biochemical and virological response to ETV in patients without a prior use of nucleos(t)ide (NA-naïve) vs. those who failed prior NA use (NA-experienced) in the treatment of CHB. METHODS: Patients treated between April 2012 and December 2017 were retrospectively studied...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30342838/changes-in-the-early-mortality-of-adult-patients-with-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-bacteremia-during-11-years-at-an-academic-medical-center
#12
Seong-Ho Choi, Eun Been Cho, Jin-Won Chung, Mi-Kyung Lee
BACKGROUND: In the past decade, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) has emerged as a major pathogen of serious infections in critically ill adult patients. Despite very limited antimicrobial options, clinicians have sought to reduce the mortality of patients with serious CRAB infections. To determine whether these long-term efforts effectively lessened the mortality of such patients, we investigated changes in the early mortality of adult patients with CRAB bacteremia and related clinical factors...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322736/characterization-of-compensatory-mutations-associated-with-restoration-of-daptomycin-susceptibility-in-daptomycin-non-susceptible-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-the-role-mprf-mutations
#13
Izumo Kanesaka, Shingo Fujisaki, Yoshifumi Aiba, Shinya Watanabe, Takashi Mikawa, Akiko Kanayama Katsuse, Hiroshi Takahashi, Longzhu Cui, Intetsu Kobayashi
The objective of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanism explaining reversion of clinical DAP non-susceptible (NS) MRSA isolates to DAP-susceptible (S) by analysis of genomic and cell wall characteristics of clinical DAP-NS MRSA and DAP-S MRSA isolates as well as in vitro revertant DAP-S MRSA using whole genome sequencing (WGS) and analysis of biological properties. WGS of the 4 clinical DAP-NS MRSA revealed mprF mutations resulting in amino acid substitutions or deletion. These same amino acid substitutions and deletion were also observed in the 4 in vitro revertant DAP-S strains...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316744/cryptococcal-meningitis-following-umbilical-cord-blood-transplantation-association-between-the-occurrence-of-cryptococcal-infection-and-tacrolimus-discontinuation-among-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-recipients
#14
Takashi Mitsuki, Muneyoshi Kimura, Hideki Araoka, Kosei Kageyama, Shinsuke Takagi, Go Yamamoto, Shigeki Nakamura, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Naoyuki Uchida, Akiko Yoneyama, Shuichi Taniguchi
Few cases of cryptococcal infection following umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) have been reported. We report a case, where cryptococcal infection occurred soon after rapidly reducing the dose of tacrolimus in a UCBT recipient who received micafungin prophylaxis during the early phase of transplantation. The etiology of cryptococcal infection following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), including UCBT, might be associated with rapid dose-reduction of calcineurin inhibitors, such as tacrolimus during early phase of allo-HSCT...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292768/characterization-of-ctx-m-type-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-isolated-from-asymptomatic-healthy-individuals-who-live-in-a-community-of-the-okinawa-prefecture-japan
#15
Seina Higa, Rosantia Sarassari, Kouta Hamamoto, Yasuaki Yakabi, Kanta Higa, Yasuko Koja, Itaru Hirai
This study was performed to characterize CTX-M type extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae carriage in asymptomatic health individuals, which has not been well investigated, in a community of the Okinawa prefecture, Japan. Fecal samples were voluntary collected from asymptomatic healthy individuals who were going to take a routine medical checkup. The collected fecal samples were inoculated on MacConkey agar supplemented with 2 μg/ml of cefotaxime and incubated at 37 °C. Randomly selected three lactose-fermented colonies per each sample were analyzed...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292767/the-prevalence-of-low-serum-free-testosterone-and-the-short-term-effect-of-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-male-japanese-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-patients
#16
Yusuke Yoshino, Ichiro Koga, Keita Misu, Kazunori Seo, Takatoshi Kitazawa, Yasuo Ota
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of hypogonadism in HIV patients is still a matter of debate. Today, serum free testosterone (fTST) is thought to be more important than serum testosterone in the diagnosis of hypogonadism in patients with HIV. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of low fTST levels and the effects of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on fTST levels in treatment-naïve male Japanese patients with HIV. METHODS: Patients who visited Teikyo University Hospital, Japan between 2010 and 2016 were enrolled...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30287186/antimicrobial-activity-of-solithromycin-and-levofloxacin-against-a-murine-pneumonia-mixed-infection-model-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-anaerobic-bacteria
#17
Hideo Kato, Yuka Yamagishi, Mao Hagihara, Yuki Yokoyama, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Nobuhiro Asai, Yusuke Koizumi, Hiroshige Mikamo
INTRODUCTION: Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide developed to treat pneumonia. But, few studies evaluating its antimicrobial activity against S. pneumoniae in a mixed-infection model with anaerobes are available, while community-acquired pneumonia can involve mixed-infection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and anaerobic bacteria. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of solithromycin against macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae and anaerobic bacteria with a murine pneumonia mixed-infection model...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30279114/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-haemophilus-influenzae-and-moraxella-catarrhalis-clinical-isolates-from-children-with-acute-otitis-media-in-japan-from-2014-to-2017
#18
Kosuke Nagai, Osamu Kimura, Hisanori Domon, Tomoki Maekawa, Daisuke Yonezawa, Yutaka Terao
Increase in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among pathogenic bacteria is a serious threat to public health. Surveillance studies to monitor shifting trends in resistance are important and guide the selection of appropriate antimicrobial agents for a particular organism. Furthermore, these studies help in dissemination of accurate information regarding AMR to the public. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates from outpatient children with acute otitis media in Japan from 2014 to 2017...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30279113/comparative-analysis-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-outpatients-of-dermatology-unit-in-hospitals-and-clinics
#19
Hidemasa Nakaminami, Taku Sugiyama, Yuu Okamura, Mamiko Hanawa, Masaki Abou, Kaori Sawada, Yoshiyuki Chiba, Yoko Kobayashi, Satoru Kawasaki, Toru Ueki, Sakae Funatsu, Tetsuo Nagatani, Norihisa Noguchi
Community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) is a causative agent of intractable skin infections. In general, clinical symptoms of hospital outpatients with skin infections are severer than those of clinic patients. Hence, molecular epidemiological features of the CO-MRSA strains from hospital outpatients are predicted to be different from those of clinic patients. Here, we conducted a comparative analysis for CO-MRSA isolates from outpatients with impetigo in hospitals and clinics located in the same district of Tokyo, Japan...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30279112/emergence-of-a-carbapenem-resistant-and-colistin-heteroresistant-enterobacter-cloacae-clinical-isolate-in-japan
#20
Kohei Uechi, Tatsuya Tada, Kayo Shimada, Isamu Nakasone, Teruo Kirikae, Jiro Fujita
A carbapenem-resistant and colistin-heteroresistant clinical isolate of Enterobacter cloacae was obtained from an inpatient in Okinawa, Japan. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of both imipenem and meropenem were 32 μg/mL. The isolate showed heteroresistance to colistin using the Etest method and resistance to colistin using the broth microdilution method. It had a disrupted ompC and a mutation in the promoter region of blaACT-2 , but did not harbor any genes encoding carbapenemase. The disruption of ompC and the mutation in blaACT-2 was associated with the carbapenem resistance of this isolate...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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