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Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217734/impact-of-alcohol-based-hand-sanitizers-antibiotic-consumption-and-other-measures-on-detection-rates-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-in-rural-japanese-hospitals
#1
Satoru Mitsuboshi, Masami Tsugita
There are limited data available on the relationship between multidrug-resistant bacteria and infection control activities in small to medium-sized hospitals. Therefore, we collected data on the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs), personal protective equipment, antibiotics, and the levels of detectable bacteria between April 2014 and March 2015 in 11 Japanese hospitals. Average total antibiotic consumption was 100 defined daily doses per 1000 patient-days (PD), and average use of ABHSs, masks, plastic aprons, and gloves was 5 L per 1000 PD, and 1, 2, and 26 pieces per 1 PD, respectively...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217733/a-case-of-acute-septic-arthritis-of-the-hip-joint-caused-by-panton-valentine-leukocidin-positive-st772-community-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#2
Shunsuke Takadama, Yuka Yamagishi, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Takkan Morishima, Masataka Deie, Hiroshige Mikamo, Norihisa Noguchi
Acute septic arthritis (ASA) caused by Staphylococcus aureus can lead to fulminant arthritis and cause permanent joint destruction. In particular, infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) becomes intractable and severe owing to limitation of therapeutic drugs. Here, we report the case of a young patient with ASA without any record of overseas travel, who was infected by the Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Bengal-Bay clone, which is a predominant community-acquired MRSA in India...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213500/paragonimus-westermani-infection-manifesting-as-a-pulmonary-cavity-and-adrenal-gland-mass-a-case-report
#3
Yong Shik Kwon, Hye Won Lee, Hyun Jung Kim
We report a case of Paragonimus westermani infection simultaneously affecting two separate organs that presented as both a pulmonary cavity and adrenal mass in an immunocompromised host. A 65-year-old male with a previous kidney transplant visited our clinic because of hemoptysis. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed a pulmonary cavity and right adrenal gland mass. The Aspergillus antigen titer in bronchial lavage fluid was elevated and showed positive conversion. It was necessary to differentiate lung cancer with adrenal gland metastasis from a fungal infection with an adrenal gland adenoma...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209024/efficacy-of-liposomal-amphotericin-b-against-four-species-of-candida-biofilms-in-an-experimental-mouse-model-of-intravascular-catheter-infection
#4
Koichi Fujimoto, Koji Takemoto
The formation of Candida biofilms on implanted medical devices is crucial to the development of infections and an important clinical problem because of elevated resistance to antifungals. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro activity of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) and micafungin (MCFG) against four species of Candida biofilms, and the efficacy of systemic plus lock therapy with L-AMB and MCFG in a Candida biofilm-associated catheter infection model. An XTT-reduction assay was used to measure the metabolic activity of the biofilms to evaluation of in vitro antibiofilm activity...
September 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30197093/evaluation-of-three-automated-treponema-pallidum-antibody-assays-for-syphilis-screening
#5
Chang-Sheng Xia, Zhi-Hong Yue, Hui Wang
The accuracy of the test is critical for the syphilis serology diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the values of the Elecsys syphilis assay, the Architect syphilis assay, and the Mindray syphilis assay, as syphilis screening tests for pregnant women and patients with syphilis or other diseases. A reverse algorithm was used for the syphilis serology diagnosis. Serum samples (n = 584) were tested with three automated screening assays. All reactive sera by one, two, or three screening assays were further analyzed with the tolulized red unheated serum test (TRUST)...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30197092/impact-of-carbapenem-versus-non-carbapenem-treatment-on-the-rates-of-superinfection-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#6
Khalid Eljaaly, Mushira A Enani, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq
Imipenem and meropenem are the recommended antipseudomonal carbapenems for nosocomial pneumonia per clinical practice guidelines. However, these agents have a relatively broader spectrum of activity than other antibiotics and need to be reserved. Carbapenems might cause higher rate of superinfection. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of superinfection between patients who received imipenem or meropenem versus those who received non-carbapenem treatment. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library databases and two trial registries were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials of hospitalized adults with pneumonia through February 24, 2017 without date or language restrictions...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195473/successful-voriconazole-treatment-of-talaromyces-marneffei-infection-in-an-hiv-negative-patient-with-osteolytic-lesions
#7
Yun Ge, Zhijun Xu, Yanting Hu, Man Huang
Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) is a dimorphic fungus that causes systemic infection in immunocompromised patients. Here, we present a case of T. marneffei infection in an immunocompetent patient with an osteolytic lesion. Diagnosis was established by fungal culture. The patient responded rapidly to intravenous voriconazole, followed by oral voriconazole. We reviewed 18 reported cases of T. marneffei infection with osteolytic lesions, which suggests a much higher rate of osteolytic lesions in immunocompetent patients than previously thought...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195472/pasteurella-multocida-multiple-intrapelvic-abscesses-in-a-young-woman-with-uterine-cervical-cancer
#8
Keigo Kimura, Hideharu Hagiya, Norihisa Yamamoto, Hisao Yoshida, Yukihiro Akeda, Isao Nishi, Kazunori Tomono
Pasteurella multocida, a zoonotic pathogen in humans, is known to be associated with skin and soft tissue infections following animal bites, but rarely causes visceral infections. We report a case of P. multocida-associated multiple intrapelvic abscesses in a young woman with uterine cervical cancer. A 29-year-old unmarried woman was referred to us because of prolonged high fever accompanying abdominal pain with muscular guarding. She had a domestic cat but denied of any bites or scratches before that. Computed tomography demonstrated ascites and multiple abscesses around her uterus...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193786/antimicrobial-prophylaxis-for-transurethral-resection-of-bladder-tumor-a-retrospective-comparison-of-preoperative-single-dose-administration-of-piperacillin-and-tazobactam-piperacillin
#9
Masaya Murakami, Hiroshi Kiyota, Kanako Kasai, Shigehiro Bando, Shinichiro Kira, Haruhisa Koide, Hiroki Yamada, Takahiro Kimura, Shin Egawa
We aimed to clarify prophylactic antimicrobial effects of single-dose piperacillin (PIPC) for perioperative infections in the transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) in comparison with those of single-dose tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC) through a retrospective analysis. We analyzed data from 192 TURBT patients treated with single-dose (4 g) intravenous PIPC (P group) between April 2015 and April 2017. For comparison, we analyzed data from 50 TURBT patients treated with single-dose (4.5 g) intravenous TAZ/PIPC (T/P group) between June 2013 and April 2014...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190106/surveillance-of-the-prevalence-of-macrolide-and-or-fluoroquinolone-resistance-associated-mutations-in-mycoplasma-genitalium-in-japan
#10
Takashi Deguchi, Shin Ito, Mitsuru Yasuda, Yuko Sato, Chiaki Uchida, Masayuki Sawamura, Kazushi Manda, Masaki Takanashi, Hiroshi Kiyota
To clarify the status of macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance of clinical strains of Mycoplasma genitalium in Japan, we amplified portions of the gyrA, parC, and 23S rRNA genes from DNAs in 627 first-voided urine specimens collected from men with M. genitalium-positive urethritis who visited clinics mainly in Sendai, Tokyo, and Osaka, Japan, from 2013 to 2017, by PCR and sequenced. The incidence of single amino acid changes at Met95 or Asp99 in GyrA increased chronologically and was approximately 10% from 2015 onward...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190105/healthcare-burden-of-recurrent-clostridioides-difficile-infection-in-japan-a-retrospective-database-study
#11
Hiroyuki Kunishima, Kaoru Ito, Thomas Laurent, Machiko Abe
This retrospective database study aimed to assess the healthcare burden of hospitalization cost and duration associated with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) by comparison with C. difficile infection (CDI) in Japan, using a health claims database of 270 acute care hospitals. Overall, 5423 hospitalized patients, with a record of one hospital-onset, healthcare facility-associated primary CDI episode within the 180-day period, from its onset between January 2012 and September 2016, were included...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181031/risk-of-tuberculosis-infection-among-health-care-workers-and-nursing-students-in-japan
#12
Tomoyasu Nishimura, Masaki Ota, Masaaki Mori, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Yaoko Takano, Seiya Kato, Hiroshi Kawabe, Naoki Hasegawa
It is important to evaluate the risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection among health care workers (HCWs) and nursing students in Japan to propose the optimal countermeasure against new TB infection for them. To estimate the annual incidence of TB infection in HCWs at a Japanese university hospital without TB wards and in nursing students at a Japanese university using interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). Serial IGRAs were prospectively conducted on the HCWs between August 2010 and December 2015. For nursing students, two IGRA tests were conducted before commencement of clinical training and at employment as nurses between April 2007 and December 2015...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174285/comparison-between-non-septic-and-septic-cases-in-stone-related-obstructive-acute-pyelonephritis-and-risk-factors-for-septic-shock-a-multi-center-retrospective-study
#13
Fukashi Yamamichi, Katsumi Shigemura, Koichi Kitagawa, Masato Fujisawa
PURPOSE: This study assessed risk factors for septic shock in patients with obstructive acute pyelonephritis (APN) associated with upper urinary tract calculi in a multi-center retrospective study. METHODS: We studied 143 patients admitted to 4 hospitals in Japan with obstructive APN associated with upper urinary tract calculi. Data on gender, age, hypertension, diabetes, neurological disease or malignant disease, laboratory data (white blood cell (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP)), drainage, and bacterial strains including Escherichia coli in the non-septic and septic groups were collected...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172727/fatal-overwhelming-postsplenectomy-infection-due-to-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-10a-with-atypical-polysaccharide-capsule-in-a-patient-with-chromosome-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-case-report
#14
Keiko Matsuoka, Itaru Yanagihara, Yukiko Kawazu, Maho Sato, Masahiro Nakayama, Yukiko Nakura, Nao Kanagawa, Yukihiro Akeda, Futoshi Fujiwara, Kazutoshi Itoh, Hiroaki Kawata, Makoto Takeuchi
We report the first case of a teenage patient with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome who died of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection (OPSI) by Streptococcus pneumoniae despite appropriate prevention by pneumococcal vaccine. He had congenital heart disease and underwent several surgeries. Immunodeficiency had not been noticed clinically. Two years prior to death, splenectomy was performed for a drug-resistant idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and he was immunized with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) 4 months after splenectomy...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172726/efficacy-and-safety-of-intermittent-maintenance-therapy-after-successful-treatment-of-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease
#15
Takanori Asakura, Taku Nakagawa, Shoji Suzuki, Ho Namkoong, Kozo Morimoto, Makoto Ishii, Atsuyuki Kurashima, Tomoko Betsuyaku, Kenji Ogawa, Naoki Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of antimicrobial therapy for Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD) is unknown, and recurrence rates are high after treatment discontinuation. Intermittent therapy is recommended for the initial treatment of non-cavitary nodular/bronchiectatic MAC-LD. We hypothesized that intermittent maintenance therapy (IMT) could effectively prevent recurrence after successful treatment of MAC-LD. METHODS: Adult patients diagnosed with MAC-LD who received IMT after successful daily therapy (DT) between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2016 were identified from clinical databases at three institutions in Japan...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170735/oral-vancomycin-versus-metronidazole-for-the-treatment-of-clostridioides-difficile-infection-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
Yuki Igarashi, Sho Tashiro, Yuki Enoki, Kazuaki Taguchi, Kazuaki Matsumoto, Hiroki Ohge, Hiromichi Suzuki, Atsushi Nakamura, Nobuaki Mori, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Yuka Yamagishi, Sadako Yoshizawa, Katsunori Yanagihara, Hiroshige Mikamo, Hiroyuki Kunishima
At present, vancomycin (VCM) and metronidazole (MNZ) are used for the first-line standard treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). However, their differential use has not been sufficiently investigated. In this study, a meta-analysis on differences in the efficacy for CDI between VCM and MNZ was performed. Reports of randomized controlled studies using VCM or MNZ to treat CDI were surveyed. Meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel method and random-effects model, and the risk ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139692/clinical-utility-of-direct-application-of-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-and-rapid-disk-diffusion-test-in-presumptive-antimicrobial-therapy-for-bacteremia
#17
Hiroki Magarifuchi, Yohei Hamada, Megumi Oho, Koji Kusaba, Toshiharu Urakami, Yosuke Aoki
OBJECTIVE: To study how and to what degree the rapid pathogen identification by MALDI-TOF MS coupled with rapid disk diffusion test improve the current clinical practice of patients with bacteremia in a tertiary teaching hospital with full-time ID consultation service. PATIENTS AND METHODS: MALDI-TOF MS and 8H disk diffusion tests were directly applied to the positive blood cultures samples and the results were reflected on antimicrobial therapy (n = 119). The appropriateness of antimicrobial selection through these interventions was verified with conventional culture results in comparison with historical control (n = 129)...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126693/acquisition-of-antimicrobial-resistant-variants-in-repeated-infections-caused-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-revealed-by-whole-genome-sequencing
#18
Noriko Nakanishi, Ryohei Nomoto, Kanako Sato, Chihiro Koike, Mari Kusuki, Tatsuya Nakamura, Katsumi Shigemura, Toshiro Shirakawa, Masato Fujisawa, Issei Tokimatsu, Kayo Osawa
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, responsible for serious nosocomial-acquired infections, possesses intrinsic antibiotic resistance mechanisms and commonly exhibits multidrug resistance. Here, we report the evolving resistance profiles of strains isolated from the sputum of a patient being treated for repeated P. aeruginosa infections following cancer resection. Whole genome sequencing of six isolates obtained over a 2-month period revealed two key single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mexR and gyrB genes that affected efflux pump expression and antimicrobial resistance...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100401/effect-of-sodium-mercaptoacetic-acid-on-different-antimicrobial-disks-in-the-sodium-mercaptoacetic-acid-double-disk-synergy-test-for-detection-of-imp-1-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-in-japan
#19
Daisuke Sakanashi, Narimi Miyazaki, Yuzuka Kawamoto, Tomoko Ohno, Atsuko Yamada, Isao Koita, Setsuo Miyajima, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Mao Hagihara, Nobuhiro Asai, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
We determined the optimal antimicrobial in the sodium mercaptoacetic acid double disk synergy test (SMA-DDST) for the detection of IMP-1-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in Japan and evaluated the performance of the test. Fifty-four P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were tested, including 39 IMP-1 producers and 15 non-metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing carbapenem- and ceftazidime (CAZ)-resistant isolates. The SMA-DDST was performed with CAZ, cefepime (CFPM), imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEPM), doripenem (DRPM), or biapenem (BIPM)-containing disks...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100400/influenza-vaccine-showed-a-good-preventive-effect-against-influenza-associated-hospitalization-among-elderly-patients-during-the-2016-17-season-in-japan
#20
Yuki Seki, Akira Onose, Takaya Murayama, Chiaki Koide, Norio Sugaya
The 2016/17 influenza season in Japan was characterized by a predominance of influenza A (H3N2) activity; with H3N2 accounting for 85% of all detected influenza virus infections. We assessed the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) in adult patients, using a test-negative case-control design study based on the results of a rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT). Between November 2016 and March 2017, a total of 1048 adult patients were enrolled: including 363 RIDT positive for influenza A, 9 RIDT-positive for influenza B, and 676 RIDT-negative...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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