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Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292180/association-between-appropriate-empiric-antimicrobial-therapy-and-mortality-from-bloodstream-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#1
Satoshi Yamaga, Nobuaki Shime
BACKGROUND: Empirical antimicrobial treatment for patients presenting with bloodstream infections is considered to affect patients' outcome. METHOD: We conducted a single-center, retrospective study of critically-ill patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit, to examine whether the appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy is associated with mortality from bloodstream infections. The primary study endpoints were the mortality and survival time up to 60 days after the sampling of the blood cultures...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292179/significance-of-blood-cultures-in-nursing-home-acquired-pneumonia
#2
Masatoshi Yamazoe, Hiromi Tomioka, Shyuji Yamashita, Kenjirou Furuta, Masahiro Kaneko
The significance of blood cultures in nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) is incompletely understood. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and laboratory features of 515 patients with NHAP admitted to our hospital over an 11-year period. Blood cultures were obtained from 336 patients (65.2%). We compared 13 and 323 patients with positive and negative blood cultures, respectively. The former showed lower systolic blood pressure and higher blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP), and A-DROP scores than the latter...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292178/population-pharmacokinetics-of-teicoplanin-in-hospitalized-elderly-patients-using-cystatin-c-as-an-indicator-of-renal-function
#3
Hidefumi Kasai, Yasuhiro Tsuji, Yoichi Hiraki, Moeko Tsuruyama, Hideto To, Yoshihiro Yamamoto
OBJECTIVE: Serum cystatin C (CysC) has recently been proposed as an alternative marker to serum creatinine (SCR) for estimating renal clearance. In the present study, we performed a population pharmacokinetic analysis of teicoplanin (TEIC), which is mainly eliminated through the kidneys, using CysC as a predictor for renal clearance. METHODS: Thirty-six patients with MRSA infections who were administrated to the National Hospital Organization Beppu Medical Center between January 2012 and December 2013 were enrolled and gave 123 sets of blood TEIC concentration data...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29292177/aspects-of-urinary-tract-infections-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-hospitalized-urology-patients-in-asia-10-year-results-of-the-global-prevalence-study-of-infections-in-urology-gpiu
#4
Hyun-Sop Choe, Seung-Ju Lee, Yong-Hyun Cho, Mete Çek, Zafer Tandoğdu, Florian Wagenlehner, Truls Erik Bjerklund-Johansen, Kurt Naber
OBJECTIVES: To assess Asian data from Global Prevalence Study on Infections in Urology (GPIU study) which has been performed more than 10 years. METHODS: Seventeen Asian countries participated in the GPIU study between 2004 and 2013. Data for these countries were collected from the web-based GPIU database. The point prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTI) and antimicrobial susceptibility of representative pathogens were analysed for Asian geographic regions...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290527/mutant-selection-window-of-four-quinolone-antibiotics-against-clinical-isolates-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-haemophilus-influenzae-and-moraxella-catarrhalis
#5
Hajime Nakai, Takumi Sato, Takashi Uno, Emiko Furukawa, Masato Kawamura, Hiroshi Takahashi, Akira Watanabe, Shigeru Fujimura
Community-acquired pneumonia and otitis media are caused by several bacterial species, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. For the treatment of these diseases, various quinolones are frequently used. We determined the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) of four quinolones, levofloxacin, sitafloxacin, tosufloxacin, and garenoxacin, using 92 clinical isolates and evaluated each mutant selection window (MSW). Furthermore, the DNA sequence of the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) for the resistant mutant selected based on the MSW was determined...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289484/what-do-we-know-about-the-diagnostics-treatment-and-epidemiology-of-clostridioides-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-europe
#6
REVIEW
Elisabeth Nagy
Clostridium difficile, recently reclassified as Clostridioides difficile is responsible for a significant part of diarrheal diseases in the hospitals and in the community. Besides the main pathogenic factors, toxin A, toxin B and the binary toxin, several other putative virulence factors have been investigated. This manuscript summarize recent findings in Europe concerning source of infection, epidemiology of CDI, the changing pattern of PCR ribotypes of C. difficile strains in different European countries, recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of CDI...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273435/severe-abnormal-behavior-incidence-after-administration-of-neuraminidase-inhibitors-using-the-national-database-of-medical-claims
#7
Yuuki Nakamura, Tamie Sugawara, Yasushi Ohkusa, Kiyosu Taniguchi, Chiaki Miyazaki, Mariko Momoi, Nobuhiko Okabe
An earlier study using the number of abnormal behaviors reported to the study group as the numerator and the number of influenza patient prescribed each neuraminidase inhibitor (NI) estimated by respective pharmaceutical companies found no significant difference among incidence rates of the most severe abnormal behaviors by type of NI throughout Japan. However, the dataset for the denominator used in that earlier study was the estimated number of prescriptions. In the present study, to compare the incidence rates of abnormal behavior more precisely among influenza patients administered several sorts of NI or administered no NI, we used data obtained from the National Database of Electronic Medical Claims (NDBEMC) as the denominator to reach a definitive conclusion...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258809/could-qsofa-and-sofa-score-be-correctly-estimating-the-severity-of-healthcare-associated-pneumonia
#8
Nobuhiro Asai, Hiroki Watanabe, Arufumi Shiota, Hideo Kato, Daisuke Sakanashi, Mao Hagihara, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Hiroshige Mikamo
The Japanese Respiratory Society newly updated the prognostic guidelines for pneumonia in 2017. Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score are used to evaluate the severity of pneumonia and to select the therapy for pneumonia. This is a retrospective study at Aichi Medical University hospital from January to December of 2016 to investigate the accuracy and usefulness of qSOFA and SOFA score in evaluating the severity and prognosis of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP)...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29254741/factors-that-affect-the-duration-of-antimicrobial-therapy-for-cellulitis
#9
Makoto Inaoki, Asako Inaoki, Chihiro Nishijima
BACKGROUND: The recommended duration of antibiotic therapy for patients hospitalized with cellulitis is 5-14 days. However, factors that affect the duration of treatment have rarely been examined. METHODS: We conducted an observation study in a regional hospital in Japan to examine factors that affect the duration of antibiotic therapy for cellulitis. Our study included 102 patients with cellulitis of the lower extremities who were treated with intravenous cefazolin alone...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249642/corrigendum-to-serotype-distribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-from-adult-respiratory-tract-infections-in-nationwide-japanese-surveillances-from-2006-to-2014-j-infect-chemother-23-2017-538-544
#10
Hisashi Shoji, Maeda Masayuki, Takahiro Takuma, Satoshi Iwata, Hiroshige Mikamo, Jiro Fujita, Kenji Okada, Yoshihito Niki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249641/a-case-of-liver-abscess-co-infected-with-desulfovibrio-desulfuricans-and-escherichia-coli-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Tomoo Yamazaki, Satoru Joshita, Eriko Kasuga, Kazuki Horiuchi, Ayumi Sugiura, Naoyuki Fujimori, Michiharu Komatsu, Takeji Umemura, Akihiro Matsumoto, Eiji Tanaka
A 73-year-old woman was admitted with consciousness disturbance following a fever. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large liver abscess with which the presence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Escherichia coli was confirmed by thorough blood and abscess content culture. Empiric meropenem treatment was switched to cefoperazone/sulbactam, followed by ampicillin/sulbactam based on susceptibility testing. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans is a common bacterium that rarely causes liver abscess and may be overlooked during co-infection due to overgrowth of the accompanying bacteria...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248418/evaluation-of-the-modified-carbapenem-inactivation-method-for-the-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#12
Tomokazu Kuchibiro, Masaru Komatsu, Katsutoshi Yamasaki, Tatsuya Nakamura, Hisaaki Nishio, Isao Nishi, Keigo Kimura, Makoto Niki, Tamotsu Ono, Noriyuki Sueyoshi, Machiko Kita, Kaneyuki Kida, Masanobu Ohama, Kaori Satoh, Hirofumi Toda, Tetsu Mizutani, Nozomi Fukuda, Kana Sawa, Isako Nakai, Tomomi Kofuku, Tamaki Orita, Hideo Watari, Satoshi Shimura, Saori Fukuda, Akihiro Nakamura, Yasunao Wada
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are increasing worldwide. Rapid and accurate detection of CPE is necessary for appropriate antimicrobial treatment and hospital infection control. However, CPE contains some strains that are difficult to detect depending on genotype and MIC value of carbapenem, and a detection method has not been established. The recently reported modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM) has been developed in CLSI M100-S27 as a phenotypic technique for detecting carbapenemase activity...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229275/frequency-of-treponema-pallidum-invasion-into-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-primary-or-secondary-early-stage-syphilis
#13
Mao Hagihara, Yuka Yamagishi, Hideo Kato, Yuichi Shibata, Arufumi Shiota, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Hiroki Watanabe, Nobuhiro Asai, Yusuke Koizumi, Tatsuro Furui, Seiichiro Takahashi, Koji Izumi, Hiroshige Mikamo
Frequency of Treponema pallidum invasion into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has not been clear at this present. Since it is impossible to culture T. pallidum in vitro at this present, we need molecular based-approach to detect it in CSF. Additionally, neurosyphilis is usually a late sequela, however it might result in asymptomatic neurosyphilis even at primary or secondary syphilis. This study was to reveal the frequency of T. pallidum invasion into CSF especially at primary or secondary syphilis with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233460/molecular-typing-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-comparison-of-pcr-based-open-reading-frame-typing-multilocus-sequence-typing-and-staphylococcus-protein-a-gene-typing
#14
Shinji Ogihara, Ryoichi Saito, Etsuko Sawabe, Takahiro Kozakai, Mari Shima, Yoshibumi Aiso, Toshihide Fujie, Yoko Nukui, Ryuji Koike, Michio Hagihara, Shuji Tohda
The recently developed PCR-based open reading frame typing (POT) method is a useful molecular typing tool. Here, we evaluated the performance of POT for molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates and compared its performance to those of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and Staphylococcus protein A gene typing (spa typing). Thirty-seven MRSA isolates were collected between July 2012 and May 2015. MLST, spa typing, and POT were performed, and their discriminatory powers were evaluated using Simpson's index analysis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233459/invasive-meningococcal-disease-due-to-ciprofloxacin-resistant-neisseria-meningitidis-sequence-type-4821-the-first-case-in-japan
#15
Yu Kawasaki, Kousaku Matsubara, Hideyuki Takahashi, Masatomo Morita, Makoto Ohnishi, Masayuki Hori, Kenichi Isome, Aya Iwata, Hiroyuki Nigami, Mami Ikemachi, Go Yamamoto, Kiyofumi Ohkusu
We present a 4-year-old girl who developed invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C sequence type (ST)-4821. She was hospitalized due to fever, vomiting, rash and altered consciousness. Serogroup C N. meningitidis was isolated from blood culture taken on admission and was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, a biochemical test, and molecular microbiological analysis. The patient was successfully treated with 50 mg/kg ceftriaxone every 12 hours for 7 days without any complications...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223615/differences-in-drug-susceptibility-pattern-between-mycobacterium-avium-and-mycobacterium-intracellulare-isolated-in-respiratory-specimens
#16
Eun Hye Cho, Hee Jae Huh, Dong Joon Song, Seong Mi Moon, Seung-Heon Lee, So Youn Shin, Chang Ki Kim, Chang-Seok Ki, Won-Jung Koh, Nam Yong Lee
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most common etiologic organisms of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease. In this study, we aimed to retrospectively investigate the differences in drug susceptibility patterns of two major MAC species; Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare. A total of 1883 major two MAC isolates (1060 M. avium and 823 M. intracellulare) from respiratory specimens were included in this study during the period 2011─2016. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution method and MIC50/MIC90 values were derived from MIC distribution...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223614/host-susceptibility-to-mers-cov-infection-a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-the-2015-korean-mers-outbreak
#17
Jae-Hoon Ko, Hyeri Seok, Ga Eun Park, Ji Yeon Lee, Ji Yong Lee, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Ji-Man Kang, Yae-Jean Kim, Cheol-In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Jae-Hoon Song, Kyong Ran Peck
To evaluate host susceptibility factors to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, we conducted a retrospective cohort study from the single largest exposure event of the 2015 Korean MERS outbreak. A total of 175 patients were closely exposed to a super-spreader, 26 of which were infected (14.9%). In a multivariate analysis, history of autologous stem cell transplantation (HR, 31.151; 95% CI, 5.447-178.145; P < 0.001) and tachypnea at ED (HR, 4.392; 95% CI, 1.402-13.761; P = 0...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221755/unilateral-brachial-plexopathy-a-rare-complication-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection
#18
Barbara Robnik, Darja Keše, Tereza Rojko, Alenka Horvat-Ledinek, Aleš Pražnikar, Bojana Beović
Few reports in the literature describe isolated peripheral neuropathies in relation to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection without concurrent damage to the central nervous system. To our knowledge only a single case of mononeuritis multiplex with brachial plexus neuropathy coincident with M. pneumoniae has been documented until now. Here we present the first clinical case of lobar M. pneumoniae pneumonia in a 19-year-old female patient, where coincident neurological complications manifested as unilateral brachial plexus neuropathy, affecting axillar and suprascapular nerves...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208344/characteristic-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-from-gastroenteritis
#19
Yunchun Luo, Wen Yi, Yuzhou Yao, Ni Zhu, Pengfei Qin
Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne disease worldwide and may cause to gastroenteritis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, serotypes, virulence genes, molecular subtyping, and antibiotic resistance phenotype of Salmonella from gastroenteritis in Hubei, China. Of 500 patients stools samples collected from January 2015 to January 2016, 52 (10.40%) samples were contaminated by Salmonella. The results showed that most of the isolates were positive for eight virulence genes that appear on pathogenicity islands, prophages, plasmid, and fimbrial...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198902/inoculum-effect-of-high-concentrations-of-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-on-the-efficacy-of-cefazolin-and-other-beta-lactams
#20
Masachika Saeki, Masaaki Shinagawa, Yuki Yakuwa, Shinya Nirasawa, Yuki Sato, Nozomi Yanagihara, Satoshi Takahashi
The existence of a cefazolin inoculum effect (InE) of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), which is speculated to be a reason for cefazolin treatment failure in MSSA infections, is controversial. In Japan, although cefazolin is one of the therapeutic choices for patients with MSSA infection, there are few reports of this effect. Additionally, the association between InE and blaZ type in beta-lactams other than cefazolin has not been well documented. In this study, we confirmed an MSSA InE in several beta-lactams, including cefazolin, and its relationship with blaZ, using 52 MSSA isolates from blood cultures...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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