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Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153553/effectiveness-of-an-early-switch-from-intravenous-to-oral-antimicrobial-therapy-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-patients-with-severe-motor-intellectual-disabilities
#1
Masaru Kawamura, Takayuki Hoshina, Masato Ogawa, Takato Nakamoto, Koichi Kusuhara
An early switch from intravenous to oral antimicrobial therapy is useful for reducing the duration of the hospitalization in adult patients with community acquired-pneumonia, whereas the efficacy of switch therapy for pediatric patients with community acquired (CA)-lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is uncertain. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of switch therapy for LRTI in patients with severe motor intellectual disabilities (SMID). This retrospective study was performed on 92 patients with SMID who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics at the Hospital of University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2017 for the suspicion of bacterial LRTI and were initially treated with an intravenous antimicrobial agent...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150412/clinical-benefits-of-using-inulin-clearance-and-cystatin-c-for-determining-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals-treated-with-dolutegravir
#2
Satomi Yukawa, Dai Watanabe, Tomoko Uehira, Takuma Shirasaka
INTRODUCTION: Dolutegravir may inhibit creatinine transporters in renal tubules and elevate serum creatinine levels. We investigated the usefulness of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured using inulin clearance (Cin), creatinine clearance (Ccr), and estimated GFR based on both serum creatinine (eGFRcre) and serum cystatin C (eGFRcys). PATIENTS & METHODS: HIV-1-infected Japanese patients with suppressed viremia and whose antiretroviral drug was switched to dolutegravir from other drugs were included (n = 108, Study 1)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141775/impact-of-interventions-by-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-team-on-appropriate-antimicrobial-therapy-in-patients-with-bacteremic-urinary-tract-infection
#3
Mitsuru Yanai, Maiko Ogasawara, Yuta Hayashi, Kiyozumi Suzuki, Hiromichi Takahashi, Atsushi Satomura
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate antimicrobial therapy often leads to poor outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) team on appropriate therapy, in patients with bacteremic urinary tract infection (UTI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the interventions by the ASP team in 807 patients with bacteremic UTI. Interventions were divided into 3 groups: group A (conventional report), group B (conventional report and written alert on the chart), and group C (conventional report and oral recommendation with/without written alert)...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138021/gyra-and-or-parc-alterations-of-haemophilus-influenzae-strains-isolated-from-the-urethra-of-men-with-acute-urethritis
#4
Hiromi Kondo, Shin Ito, Kyoko Hatazaki, Kengo Horie, Keita Nakane, Kosuke Mizutani, Tomohiro Tsuchiya, Mitsuru Yasuda, Shigeaki Yokoi, Masahiro Nakano, Takashi Deguchi
Of 73 clinical strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from the urethra of men with urogenital infections, we enrolled 6 strains (8.2%) with levofloxacin (LVFX) minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ≥0.03 μg/ml in this study. All the strains were isolated from non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). We amplified the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA gene and the analogous region of the parC gene from bacterial DNAs by PCR and sequenced the PCR products. Two strains with a LVFX MIC of 0...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138020/moyamoya-syndrome-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-congenital-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection-resulting-in-intracranial-hemorrhage
#5
Junko Yamanaka, Ikuma Nozaki, Mizue Tanaka, Hideko Uryuu, Noriko Sato, Takeji Matsushita, Hiroyuki Shichino
In the era of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection affected children can expect a better prognosis, the importance of careful follow up of pediatric HIV-1 cases for neurological complications has been growing. We present a case of hemorrhagic Moyamoya syndrome in a child with congenital HIV-1 infection. A 10-year-old girl was referred to our hospital for the treatment of Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia (PCP: Pneumocystis pneumonia). Her HIV-1 control was poor and Moyamoya syndrome was found during the opportunistic infection screening at admission...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138019/a-patient-with-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-and-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-associated-involvement-of-the-central-nervous-system
#6
Kaneko Masahiko, Shikata Hisaharu, Matsukage Shoichi, Maruta Masaki, Shinomiya Hiroto, Suzuki Tadaki, Hasegawa Hideki, Shimojima Masayuki, Saijo Masayuki
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), a severe infectious disease caused by novel bunyavirus, SFTS virus (SFTSV), is endemic to China, Korea, and Japan. Most SFTS patients show abnormalities in consciousness. Pathological findings in the central nervous system (CNS) of SFTS patients are not reported. A 53-year-old Japanese man was admitted to Uwajima City Hospital with an 8-day history of fever and diarrhea. Laboratory tests revealed leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and liver enzyme elevation. He was diagnosed as having severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) following detection of the SFTSV genome in his blood...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132926/molecular-epidemiology-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-production-in-penicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-under-high-susceptibility-conditions
#7
Takashi Matono, Maki Nagashima, Kazuhisa Mezaki, Ayano Motohashi, Satoshi Kutsuna, Kayoko Hayakawa, Norio Ohmagari, Mitsuo Kaku
Little is known about the prevalence of β-lactamase production in penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates under high-susceptibility conditions. We analyzed S. aureus isolates with penicillin G minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤ 0.12 μg/ml that were recovered from in-/outpatients (n = 108) between 2016 and 2017 in Japan. β-Lactamase production was detected by nitrocefin-based and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute penicillin zone edge testing and blaZ PCR. All isolates were categorized as having penicillin G MIC ≤0...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132925/successful-transcatheter-arterial-antimicrobial-and-steroid-therapy-for-refractory-liver-abscess-in-chronic-granulomatous-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#8
Taito Kitano, Yuki Nishikawa, Satoru Sueyoshi, Noriko Horikawa, Hiroyuki Nakagawa, Sayaka Yoshida
Hepatic abscess in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is very refractory and frequently requires multiple surgeries with frequent morbidities. Although surgical interventions are often required, patients are often not able to have surgery for various reasons. We present the case of a 21-year-old man with recurrent hepatic abscess in CGD. We could not provide surgical interventions due to the lack of a fluid cavity and the patient's refusal, and therefore we administered transcatheter arterial antimicrobial and steroid therapy...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132924/impact-of-capsaicin-an-active-component-of-chili-pepper-on-pathogenic-chlamydial-growth-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-chlamydia-pneumoniae-in-immortal-human-epithelial-hela-cells
#9
Kazuya Yamakawa, Junji Matsuo, Torahiko Okubo, Shinji Nakamura, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Capsaicin, a component of chili pepper, which can stimulate actin remodeling via capsaicin receptor TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) and anti-inflammatory effects via PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) and LXRα (liver X receptor α), is a potential candidate to control chlamydial growth in host cells. We examined whether capsaicin could inhibit C. trachomatis growth in immortal human epithelial HeLa cells...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127021/severe-delayed-haemolytic-anaemia-associated-with-artemether-lumefantrine-treatment-of-malaria-in-a-japanese-traveller
#10
Chihiro Hasegawa, Masaharu Kudo, Haruhiko Maruyama, Mikio Kimura
Delayed haemolytic anaemia has been reported in association with intravenous artesunate treatment in patients with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and furthermore, oral artemisinin-based combination therapies including artemether-lumefantrine (AL) have also been incriminated. However, definite cases of delayed haemolytic anaemia associated with AL appear to be scarce, as reported cases were often treated concomitantly with other anti-malarials. In this study, we report a severe case of delayed haemolytic anaemia following AL alone in a Japanese traveller with severe parasitaemia caused by numerous P...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113775/spread-of-predominant-neuraminidase-and-hemagglutinin-co-mutations-in-the-influenza-a-h3n2-virus-genome
#11
Yong Chong, Hideyuki Ikematsu
Genetic variation of influenza neuraminidase (NA), unlike for hemagglutinin (HA), has not been fully characterized. Therefore, we determined the relation between mutations in the NA and HA genome segments of 205 influenza A/H3N2 viruses isolated from patients in Japan during the five seasons from 2010 to 2015. The amino acid (AA) sequences of the NA and HA proteins in these isolates were then determined. In the 2011-2012 season, there was the emergence of isolates with NA and HA sequences containing AA93G (NA93G) and AA278K (HA278K), respectively (24/48 isolates, 50...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108749/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-quantiferon-tb-gold-plus-compared-with-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-and-t-spot-tb-on-active-tuberculosis-in-japan
#12
Jin Takasaki, Toshie Manabe, Eriko Morino, Yoshikazu Muto, Masao Hashimoto, Motoyasu Iikura, Shinyu Izumi, Haruhito Sugiyama, Koichiro Kudo
BACKGROUND: The QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) was introduced in 2015 as a new generation of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) designed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (TB). Examination of its diagnostic accuracy is crucial before it is launched in Japan. METHOD: We examined 99 patients with laboratory-confirmed active TB (patients) and 117 healthy volunteers with no risk of TB infection (controls) at a medical center in Tokyo, Japan. Blood samples were collected from both the patients and controls and tested using three types of IGRAs: the QFT-Plus, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT), and the T-SPOT...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097028/the-effect-of-bezlotoxumab-for-prevention-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-cdi-in-japanese-patients
#13
Hiroshige Mikamo, Norihiro Aoyama, Miyuki Sawata, Go Fujimoto, Mary Beth Dorr, Tomoko Yoshinari
Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is considered as a significant health care burden. The global study (MODIFY II) of antibody treatment (bezlotoxumab) for the prevention of recurrent C. difficile infection includes Japanese patients (95 subjects); The aim of this subgroup analysis is to report the data obtained from Japanese patients. Patients with C. difficile infection receiving standard of care antibiotic treatment and a single infusion of bezlotoxumab 10 mg/kg, actoxumab 10 mg/kg + bezlotoxumab 10 mg/kg or placebo...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107652/association-of-the-exou-genotype-with-a-multidrug-non-susceptible-phenotype-and-mrna-expressions-of-resistance-genes-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Iichiro Takata, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
The increased prevalence of the virulence factor exoU + genotype among multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been previously reported. However, the genes that are related to the multidrug resistance of the exoU + genotype strain have not been analyzed and remain to be elucidated. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlations between virulence factors and resistance genes. The exoU + genotype was frequently found in carbapenem and fluoroquinolone non-susceptible strains. The imp carbapenemase genotype, the quinolone-resistance-determining region mutation in GyrA and ParC and the defective mutation in OprD were not frequently found in the exoU + genotype and carbapenem and fluoroquinolone non-susceptible strains...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107651/is-antibiotic-prophylaxis-to-prevent-infective-endocarditis-worthwhile
#15
REVIEW
Mark Dayer, Martin Thornhill
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare condition which is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Almost 100 years ago, the links between endocarditis and procedures, particularly dental procedures, were postulated. Over 50 years ago the first guidelines recommending antibiotic prophylaxis (AP), with the aim of preventing IE developing after procedures, were proposed. However, there has only ever been circumstantial evidence in humans that AP prevents IE. The rarity of IE has made a randomised controlled clinical trial impractical to date...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107650/molecular-characterization-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subspecies-equisimilis-isolated-from-patients-with-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome
#16
T Ikebe, R Okuno, M Sasaki, Y Kanda, H Otsuka, R Kawahara, H Ohya, M Suzuki, K Uchida, H Nihonmatsu, M Ohnishi
Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a severe invasive infection characterized by the sudden onset of shock, multiorgan failure, and high mortality. Although STSS is mainly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, group G streptococcus identified as S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) causing STSS has also been reported; however, no study has analyzed >100 isolates of SDSE causing STSS. Therefore, we characterized the emm genotype of 173 SDSE isolates obtained from STSS patients in Japan during 2014-2016 and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the broth microdilution method and emm gene typing...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102349/bilateral-candida-endophthalmitis-accompanying-candida-lusitaniae-bloodstream-infection-a-case-report
#17
Shinya Yamamoto, Mahoko Ikeda, Fumie Fujimoto, Koh Okamoto, Yoshitaka Wakabayashi, Tomoaki Sato, Keita Tatsuno, Toshikatsu Kaburaki, Shuntaro Yoshida, Shu Okugawa, Kazuhiko Koike, Kyoji Moriya
Candida lusitaniae is an uncommon cause of candidiasis in humans. Ocular manifestations of C. lusitaniae infection have not been reported. C. lusitaniae is either intrinsically resistant to amphotericin B or can acquire such resistance. We describe a case of bilateral endophthalmitis due to C. lusitaniae bloodstream infection in a liver transplant patient with rectal cancer. The patient suffered fungemia and endophthalmitis and was treated with liposomal amphotericin B. The isolate was identified as C. lusitaniae by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the system based on biochemical tests, and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066218/emergence-of-arma-a-16s-rrna-methylase-in-highly-aminoglycoside-resistant-clinical-isolates-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-and-klebsiella-oxytoca-in-okinawa-japan
#18
Kohei Uechi, Tatsuya Tada, Kayo Shimada, Isamu Nakasone, Tetsu Sonozaki, Teruo Kirikae, Jiro Fujita
This study describes highly aminoglycoside-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca clinical isolates obtained from an inpatient in Okinawa, Japan, with no known record of traveling overseas. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of amikacin and arbekacin against these strains were >1024 μg/ml. Whole-genome sequencing analysis revealed that these isolates harbored armA, which encodes a 16S rRNA methylase, ArmA, that confers pan-aminoglycoside resistance. This is the second report of K. pneumoniae harboring armA and the first report of K...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066217/impact-of-mucosal-barrier-injury-laboratory-confirmed-bloodstream-infection-mbi-lcbi-on-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-clabsis-in-department-of-hematology-at-single-university-hospital-in-japan
#19
Yukiko Kato, Mao Hagihara, Ai Kurumiya, Tomoko Takahashi, Miki Sakata, Yuichi Shibata, Hideo Kato, Arufumi Shiota, Hiroki Watanabe, Nobuhiro Asai, Yusuke Koizumi, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are among the most serious complications especially in blood cancer patients. In January 2013, Centers for Disease and Prevention (CDC) introduced a new surveillance definition of mucosal barrier injury-associated laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (MBI-LCBI). This study was to determine the impact of MBI-LCBI on CLABSIs and compare the clinical characteristics of MBI versus non-MBI-LCBI cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 250 consecutive patients...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066216/performance-of-the-genotype-mtbdrsl-assay-for-the-detection-second-line-anti-tuberculosis-drug-resistance
#20
Young Seok Lee, Bo Young Lee, Kyung-Wook Jo, Tae Sun Shim
The rapid detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is important to improve treatment outcomes and prevent disease transmission. The GenoType MTBDRsl assay (MTBDRsl assay) was developed to detect fluoroquinolone (FQ) and second-line injectable drug (SLID) resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and clinical utility of MTBDRsl assay. We retrospectively reviewed patient medical records with MTBDRsl assay data between December 2011 and February 2017. MTBDRsl assay results were compared with that of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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