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Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007866/first-case-of-a-bloodstream-infection-caused-by-the-genus-brachybacterium
#1
Kiyoko Tamai, Yusaku Akashi, Yuta Yoshimoto, Yuji Yaguchi, Yosuke Takeuchi, Masanari Shiigai, Jun Igarashi, Yumi Hirose, Hiromichi Suzuki, Kiyofumi Ohkusu
An 83-year-old previously self-sufficient man was referred to our hospital for a fever, severe tenderness over the lumbar spine, and elevated C-reactive protein levels. Computed tomography revealed fluid collection in the intervertebral space of L3/4. Gram-positive, short rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from two sets of blood cultures. A 16S rRNA sequence analysis of an isolate showed a similarity of 98.1% to the nearest type strain Brachybacterium squillarum JCM 16464T . Biochemical characteristics of the presently isolated strain differed from those of the most closely related species of the genus Brachybacterium...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007865/the-role-of-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-in-hospitalized-children-with-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia
#2
Yang Liu, Xinxing Zhang, Yuqing Wang, Canhong Zhu, Mingyue Fan, Xunwu Dou, Chuangli Hao, Yongdong Yan, Wei Ji, Guixiong Gu, Jiangyan Lou, Zhengrong Chen
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate inflammatory response in children with M. pneumoniae infection might be associated with disease severity. The role of Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in hospitalized children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) has not been fully discussed. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data of a total 40 children with MPP were collected. GM-CSF and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were detected by ELISAs. Meanwhile, normal human bronchial epithelium was infected by M...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007864/an-outbreak-of-respiratory-tract-infection-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-b-in-a-postpartum-center
#3
Sukhyun Ryu, Bryan Inho Kim, Byung Chul Chun
BACKGROUND: An outbreak of respiratory tract infection due to Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) type B in a postpartum center was reported on February 1, 2017. Investigation was conducted to identify the magnitude, possible source of infection and risk factors for this outbreak on February 2, 2017. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. A case was defined as a neonate having respiratory symptoms with or without fever and stayed at the postpartum center between January 1, 2017 and February 3, 2017...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006249/diagnosing-superinfection-keratitis-with-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction
#4
Masaaki Yoshida, Takehiro Hariya, Shunji Yokokura, Kazuichi Maruyama, Kota Sato, Sunao Sugita, Yasuhiro Tomaru, Norio Shimizu, Toru Nakazawa
PURPOSE: To report the potential usefulness of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) for diagnosing superinfection keratitis caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), bacteria and fungus. METHODS: Case series. Corneal scrapings were analyzed with mPCR for human herpes virus 1-8, bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and fungal 28S rDNA. RESULTS: Case 1 was a 69-year-old man who presented with refractory infectious keratitis. PCR examination was positive for bacterial 16S rDNA and negative for fungal 28S rDNA...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006248/false-positive-elevation-of-1-3-beta-d-glucan-caused-by-continuous-administration-of-penicillin-g
#5
Shoko Ito, Masahiro Ashizawa, Ryo Sasaki, Takashi Ikeda, Yumiko Toda, Kiyomi Mashima, Kento Umino, Daisuke Minakata, Hirofumi Nakano, Ryoko Yamasaki, Yasufumi Kawasaki, Miyuki Sugimoto, Chihiro Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro Fujiwara, Kaoru Hatano, Kazuya Sato, Iekuni Oh, Ken Ohmine, Kazuo Muroi, Jun Suzuki, Shuji Hatakeyama, Yuji Morisawa, Toshiyuki Yamada, Yoshinobu Kanda
The 1,3-beta-D-Glucan (BDG) assay is widely used for the diagnosis of fungal infections, especially in patients with hematologic malignancies. Some antimicrobials have been reported to cause false-positive results for BDG, but there has been no report on the effect of penicillin G (PCG) on BDG levels. We experienced a patient who developed false-positive BDG elevation during the administration of PCG for osteomyelitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. The serum BDG level increased up to 81.0 pg/ml during the continuous administration of PCG at 24 million units per day...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006247/in-vitro-synergy-and-postantibiotic-effect-of-colistin-combinations-with-meropenem-and-vancomycin-against-enterobacteriaceae-with-multiple-carbapenem-resistance-mechanisms
#6
Branka Bedenić, Haris Car, Domagoj Slačanac, Mario Sviben, Marko Čačić, Amarela Lukić-Grlić, Ana Benčić, Dorotea Šijak, Marko Tripković, Nataša Beader
AIM: The aim of the study was to determine in vitro synergy and postantibiotic effect of colistin alone and combined with meropenem or vancomycin against Enterobacteriaceae producing multiple carbapenemases; combinations of two metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) or MBL with OXA-48. Colistin-resistant strain positive for OXA-48 was also included in the study. METHODS: The antibiotic susceptibility was tested by broth microdilution method. Synergy was tested by chequerboard, time-kill and 2-well method...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001844/risk-factors-for-surgical-site-infection-after-major-hepatobiliary-and-pancreatic-surgery
#7
Yoshiko Takahashi, Yoshio Takesue, Masami Fujiwara, Sumiyo Tatsumi, Kaoru Ichiki, Jiro Fujimoto, Takeshi Kimura
Major hepatobiliary and pancreatic (HP) surgeries are complex procedures associated with a high incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) and are commonly performed in patients with cancer in Japan. This study was performed to investigate the risk factors for SSI, including incisional and organ/space SSI, in HP surgery. The following procedures were included in the study: hepatectomy with and without biliary tract resection, pancreatectomy [pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), others], and open cholecystectomy. In total, 735 patients were analyzed...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001843/a-case-of-refractory-cytomegalovirus-related-thrombocytopenia-that-achieved-complete-remission-without-antiviral-therapy
#8
Yosuke Nishio, Yoshihiko Kawano, Jun-Ichi Kawada, Yoshinori Ito, Shinya Hara
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the major infectious etiologies that induce thrombocytopenia. Although immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in children is often preceded by viral infections, thrombocytopenia associated with active CMV infection is considered CMV-related thrombocytopenia (CMV-thrombocytopenia), which can be distinguished from ITP. CMV-thrombocytopenia is reported to be less responsive to standard therapies for ITP and may require antiviral therapies. We herein report a case of refractory CMV-thrombocytopenia that achieved complete remission without antiviral therapy...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29945763/effectiveness-of-quadrivalent-influenza-vaccine-based-on-the-test-negative-control-study-in-children-during-the-2016-2017-season
#9
Soichiro Ando
To estimate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of quadrivalent influenza vaccine, I conducted a test-negative case control study in children, based on the rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT), during the 2016-2017 season. Overall, the adjusted VE was significant for any influenza (influenza A + B); VE: 30.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.4-48.4) and influenza B: 48.2% (95% CI: 11.3-69.7). The participants were divided into three age groups (group A: 0-4 years old, group B: 5-9 years old, and group C: 10-15 years old); in group A, the adjusted VE of quadrivalent influenza vaccine was significant for any influenza (A + B): 58...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941274/efficacy-of-pcr-based-open-reading-frame-typing-assay-for-outbreak-investigation-of-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-hematology-unit
#10
Ayako Nakamura, Shigeki Misawa, Masayoshi Chonan, Takaaki Kawakami, Takashi Horii, Norio Komatsu, Akimichi Ohsaka
We investigated the efficacy of the PCR-based open reading frame typing (POT) assay for outbreak investigation of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MBL-PA). A total of 53 P. aeruginosa isolates were detected between January 2010 and December 2012 on a hematology ward, of which 6 were identified as MBL-PA with the blaIMP-1 gene. The POT assay revealed the same genotype (207-41) in 3 of 6 MBL-PA, suggesting an outbreak caused by a single strain. Environmental investigation of bathroom samples revealed the same POT genotype (207-41) as those of the clinical isolates and no other MBL-PA strains...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941275/active-surveillance-in-response-to-the-identification-of-a-single-carbapenemase-producing-escherichia-coli-at-a-japanese-university-hospital
#11
Daizo Kato, Hiroshi Morioka, Yuka Tomita, Mitsutaka Iguchi, Aki Hirabayashi, Noriyuki Tetsuka, Takuya Sadomoto, Miyuki Hyodo, Mariko Mochizuki, Yukari Osada, Masato Yamamoto, Yoshiaki Kato, Takayuki Inagaki, Kazuya Ichikawa, Tetsuya Yagi
This report described the experience of active surveillance culture implemented in response to the identification of a single carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli in a Japanese university hospital. It revealed a horizontal transmission event and an additional asymptomatic carrier of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli with unique drug susceptibility and resistance gene profiles. Early implementation of active surveillance culture as a part of multifaceted infection control measures appeared to be useful to control further transmission of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli even in the low endemic facility...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934056/efficacy-and-safety-of-fidaxomicin-for-the-treatment-of-clostridioides-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-randomized-double-blind-comparative-phase-iii-study-in-japan
#12
Hiroshige Mikamo, Kazuhiro Tateda, Katsunori Yanagihara, Shinya Kusachi, Yoshio Takesue, Takashi Miki, Yuki Oizumi, Kazuaki Gamo, Atsuki Hashimoto, Junko Toyoshima, Kenichi Kato
We assessed the efficacy and safety of fidaxomicin, a narrow-spectrum macrocyclic antibiotic, for treating inpatients with Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) in Japan. The objective was to demonstrate the non-inferior efficacy of fidaxomicin versus vancomycin. This Phase III, vancomycin-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study enrolled adults with CDI. Patients were randomly assigned to receive fidaxomicin (200 mg twice daily, orally) or vancomycin (125 mg four-times daily, orally) for 10 days...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909051/early-prophylactic-antibiotics-for-severe-acute-pancreatitis-a-population-based-cohort-study-using-a-nationwide-database-in-japan
#13
Kazuhiko Nakaharai, Kojiro Morita, Taisuke Jo, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies evaluating the clinical benefits of prophylactic antibiotics for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) have generated inconsistent results due to heterogeneities among the study settings. We determined if early prophylactic antibiotics improved the outcomes of SAP patients using a study designed to overcome these previous methodological weaknesses. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of SAP patients discharged between July 2010 and March 2016, using a Japanese nationwide inpatient database...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895453/mediastinitis-superinfected-by-achromobacter-xylosoxidans-a-case-report
#14
Karine Marion-Sanchez, François Lion, Claude Olive, Géraldine Cailleaux, François Roques
We describe an extremely rare case of mediastinitis superinfected by emerging Achromobacter xylosoxidans. After mitral and aortic valves replacement, the patient first developed a Staphylococcus aureus mediastinitis, and five days after starting adapted antibiotic therapy, superficial pus analysis revealed the presence of Achromobacter xylosoxidans. This superinfection was considered superficial and focus was made on Staphylococcus aureus mediastinitis. Three weeks later, no more Staphylococcus aureus was found in pus samples and the sepsis seemed under control...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895452/evaluation-of-filmarray-respiratory-panel-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-detection-of-pathogens-in-adult-outpatients-with-acute-respiratory-tract-infection
#15
Norihito Kaku, Kohji Hashiguchi, Yuki Iwanaga, Norihiko Akamatsu, Junichi Matsuda, Kosuke Kosai, Naoki Uno, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Takeshi Kitazaki, Hiroo Hasegawa, Taiga Miyazaki, Masaaki Fukuda, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Katsunori Yanagihara
Although viruses are the major pathogen that causes upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and acute bronchitis, antibiotics have been prescribed. This was a prospective observational study in influenza epidemics that enrolled adult outpatients who visited a hospital with respiratory tract infection symptoms. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of FilmArray respiratory panel (RP). Fifty patients were enrolled. FilmArray RP detected the pathogens in 28 patients. The common pathogens were influenza virus (n = 14), respiratory syncytial virus (n = 6), and human rhinovirus (n = 6)...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866491/neuraminidase-inhibitor-susceptibility-profile-of-human-influenza-viruses-during-the-2016-2017-influenza-season-in-mainland-china
#16
Weijuan Huang, Yanhui Cheng, Xiyan Li, Minju Tan, Hejiang Wei, Xiang Zhao, Ning Xiao, Jie Dong, Dayan Wang
To understand the current situation of antiviral-resistance of influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) in Mainland China, The antiviral-resistant surveillance data of the circulating influenza viruses in Mainland China during the 2016-2017 influenza season were analyzed. The total 3215 influenza viruses were studied to determine 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) for oseltamivir and zanamivir using a fluorescence-based assay. Approximately 0.3% (n = 10) of viruses showed either highly reduced inhibition (HRI) or reduced inhibition (RI) against at least one NAI...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866490/tetanus-in-a-partially-immunized-child
#17
Yusuke Akane, Takeshi Tsugawa, Tsukasa Hori, Atsuo Togashi, Yuko Yoto, Natsuko Inazawa, Nozomi Ito, Ryoko Kyan, Mitsutoshi Senoh, Haru Kato, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi
A 13-year-old boy developed tetanus, although he had protective antitoxin antibody raised by three doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine. Four days after injury, he presented with muscle rigidity of his posterior neck, excessive diaphoresis, and risus sardonicus and was subsequently diagnosed with tetanus. Tetanus is rare in developed countries, particularly during childhood, but must be promptly diagnosed based on clinical symptoms.
June 1, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861187/the-limited-impact-of-psychiatric-disease-and-psychotropic-medication-on-the-outcome-of-hospitalization-for-pneumonia
#18
Hiroshi Ishii, Hisako Kushima, Yoshiaki Kinoshita, Takemasa Matsumoto, Kentaro Watanabe, Masaki Fujita
Psychotropic medicine has been suggested to be a risk factor for the onset of pneumonia, especially aspiration pneumonia. However, the impact of coexisting psychiatric disease and psychotropic medication on the outcomes of pneumonia patients in the respiratory care unit setting is less well-known. We conducted a single-centre retrospective study of 209 consecutive patients who were hospitalized due to pneumonia. Using the patients' records, coexisting psychiatric diseases and the use of psychotropic medicines were reviewed to examine their association with the clinical course of inpatients with pneumonia...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861186/duration-of-fever-and-other-symptoms-after-the-inhalation-of-laninamivir-octanoate-hydrate-in-the-2016-17-japanese-influenza-season-comparison-with-the-2011-12-to-2015-16-seasons
#19
Hideyuki Ikematsu, Naoki Kawai, Norio Iwaki, Seizaburo Kashiwagi, Yusuke Ishikawa, Hiroki Yamaguchi, Kazuhito Shiosakai
The duration of fever and symptoms after laninamivir octanoate hydrate (laninamivir) inhalation were investigated in the Japanese 2016/17 influenza season and the results were compared with those of the 2011/12 to 2015/16 seasons. A total of 1278 patients were evaluated for the duration of fever and symptoms in the six studied seasons. In the 2016/17 season, the influenza types/subtypes of the patients were 6 A (H1N1)pdm09 (2.9%), 183 A (H3N2) (87.6%), and 20 B (9.6%). The respective median durations of fever for A (H1N1)pdm09, A (H3N2), and B were 38...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861185/cutaneous-mycobacterium-chelonae-infection-following-autologous-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-transplantation-for-poems-syndrome
#20
Yoshinori Hashimoto, Ayano Ikeda, Yusuke Tokuyasu, Hiromi Omura, Takayuki Tanaka
Although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may increase the curability of refractory hematologic diseases, it requires complication management due to a long-term immunocompromised state. We experienced a case who received an autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (Auto-PBSCT) for POEMS syndrome (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes) and developed cutaneous Mycobacterium chelonae infection. It is clear that attention needs to be paid to prevent bacterial, fungal and viral infection after HSCT...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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