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Genes & Genetic Systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30185720/dsh5-a-dihydrosphingosine-c4-hydroxylase-gene-family-member-shows-spatially-restricted-expression-in-rice-and-is-lethal-when-expressed-ectopically
#1
Tomohiro Imamura, Chihiro Obata, Kazuyoshi Yoneyama, Masatoshi Ichikawa, Akane Ikura, Hiromi Mutsuro-Aoki, Toshiki Ishikawa, Maki Kawai-Yamada, Tadamasa Sasaki, Hiroaki Kusano, Hiroaki Shimada
Dihydrosphingosine C4 hydroxylase (DSH), a diiron-binding membrane enzyme, catalyzes the hydration of dihydrosphingosine and acyl-sphinganine to produce phytosphingosine and phytoceramide, respectively. Rice has two types of DSH homologs: general DSHs, namely DSH1, DSH2 and DSH4, and others that show spatial expression profiles, namely DSH3 and DSH5. The general DSHs exist in many plant species. These DSHs showed similarity in their functions and complemented the yeast sur2D mutation. In contrast, homologs of DSH3 and DSH5 were found only in monocot plants...
September 4, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175721/identification-of-a-novel-myo6-mutation-associated-with-autosomal-dominant-non-syndromic-hearing-loss-in-a-chinese-family-by-whole-exome-sequencing
#2
Tao Tian, Yajie Lu, Jun Yao, Xin Cao, Qinjun Wei, Qi Li
Autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) is characterized by postlingual progressive onset. Due to its high genetic heterogeneity, it is difficult to perform a molecular diagnosis for most patients with ADNSHL. In our study, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was used to screen pathogenic gene candidates by analyzing genomic DNA samples from a large Chinese family (JSNY-067), including the proband and her father, who suffered from non-syndromic hearing loss. The pathogenicity of candidate nonsynonymous variants in ADNSHL genes was evaluated by co-segregation analysis in family members by direct PCR and Sanger sequencing...
August 31, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158334/an-albino-mutant-of-the-japanese-rat-snake-elaphe-climacophora-carries-a-nonsense-mutation-in-the-tyrosinase-gene
#3
Shuzo Iwanishi, Shohei Zaitsu, Hiroki Shibata, Eiji Nitasaka
The Japanese rat snake (Elaphe climacophora) is a common species in Japan and is widely distributed across the Japanese islands. An albino mutant of the Japanese rat snake ("pet trade" albino) has been bred and traded by hobbyists for around two decades because of its remarkable light-yellowish coloration with red eyes, attributable to a lack of melanin. Another albino Japanese rat snake mutant found in a natural population of the Japanese rat snake at high frequency in Iwakuni City, Yamaguchi Prefecture is known as "Iwakuni no Shirohebi"...
August 30, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30135335/the-mitochondrial-genome-of-an-asymmetrically-cell-fused-rapeseed-brassica-napus-containing-a-radish-derived-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-associated-gene
#4
Shin-Ichi Arimura, Shungo Yanase, Nobuhiro Tsutsumi, Nobuya Koizuka
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an agronomically important trait whose causative genes are located in the mitochondrial genome. A CMS rapeseed, Brassica napus 'SW18', was made 25 years ago by an asymmetric (or "donor-recipient") cell fusion between B. napus 'Westar' and a CMS radish (Raphanus sativus 'Kosena'), in order to transfer the radish CMS-associated gene without disturbing the rapeseed features. Here, we determined the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genomes of Kosena radish and SW18...
August 23, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089747/cytological-observation-of-chromosome-breakage-in-wheat-male-gametophytes-caused-by-gametocidal-action-of-aegilops-triuncialis-derived-chromosome-3c-t
#5
Kazuki Murata, Shota Watanabe, Hisashi Tsujimoto, Shuhei Nasuda
In this study, we investigated the chromosome breakage caused by gametocidal (Gc) chromosome 3Ct and its interaction with the suppressor gene Igc1 (inhibitor of gametocidal gene 1) on wheat chromosome 3B. We demonstrated cytologically that patterns of 3Ct -induced chromosomal fragmentation in microspores differed from patterns observed for other Gc genes. Uninuclear microspores of the monosomic 3Ct addition line had high frequencies of micronuclei, possibly explaining its low fertility. Chromosome fragmentation was observed in prometaphase and metaphase of the first pollen mitosis in the monosomic 3Ct addition line...
August 9, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078824/two-polymorphisms-rs2046210-and-rs3803662-are-associated-with-breast-cancer-risk-in-a-vietnamese-case-control-cohort
#6
Nguyen Thi Ngoc Thanh, Nguyen Thi Tuyet Lan, Phan Thanh Phat, Nguyen Dien Thanh Giang, Nguyen Thi Hue
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Breast tumorigenesis encompasses both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Among intrinsic aspects, the appearance of DNA variation can cause genetic instability, which may lead to carcinogenesis. Genome-wide association studies have found several potential breast cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in many different populations. Among these, seven (rs2046210, rs1219648, rs3817198, rs3803662, rs889312, rs10941679 and rs13281615) have been shown to be significantly associated with breast cancer risk in various populations including those very similar to the Vietnamese...
August 6, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998908/light-is-required-for-proper-female-mate-choice-between-winged-and-wingless-males-in-drosophila
#7
Kazuki Watanabe, Yuki Suzuki, Show Inami, Hirono Ohashi, Takaomi Sakai
In many animal species, females choose potential mating partners according to their own preferences. Thus, female preference-based mate choice affects intraspecific mating success and prevents interspecific mating. To clarify the neuronal basis of female mate choice, it is essential to identify the important relevant sensory cues. In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, the courtship song of males promotes female sexual receptivity. When wild-type virgin females can freely choose one of two types of courting males (winged or wingless males), they prefer to mate with winged males...
July 11, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998907/the-scallop-igf2-mrna-binding-protein-gene-pyimp-and-association-of-a-synonymous-mutation-with-growth-traits
#8
Xianhui Ning, Liying Feng, Xue Li, Shuyue Wang, Mengran Zhang, Shi Wang, Lingling Zhang, Xiaoli Hu, Zhenmin Bao
Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding proteins (IMPs) function in localization, stability and translational control of their target RNAs. In this study, we identified an IMP gene (PyIMP) from Yesso scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis. The complete DNA sequence of PyIMP was 22,875 bp, consisting of seventeen exons and sixteen introns. The full-length cDNA sequence was 3,293 bp, with an open reading frame of 1,776 bp, encoding 592 amino acids. PyIMP exhibited characters typical of IMPs, namely two RNA recognition motifs and four hnRNP K homology domains...
July 11, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343671/development-of-microsatellite-markers-for-the-endangered-orchid-calanthe-izu-insularis-orchidaceae
#9
Naoyuki Nakahama, Azusa Ito, Shingo Kaneko, Yu Matsuki, Yoshihisa Suyama, Azusa Hayano, Miho Murayama, Yuji Isagi
Microsatellite markers were developed for the endangered orchid Calanthe izu-insularis (Orchidaceae). This species is unique to the Izu Islands in Japan. Unfortunately, its population size has decreased because of excessive collection for horticultural purposes. In addition, although natural hybridization between C. izu-insularis and C. discolor var. discolor has been reported, morphological differences between C. izu-insularis and the hybridized individuals remain unclear. Using next-generation sequencing, 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed...
July 13, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343669/direct-interaction-between-vrn1-protein-and-the-promoter-region-of-the-wheat-ft-gene
#10
Chihiro Tanaka, Takafumi Itoh, Yukimoto Iwasaki, Nobuyuki Mizuno, Shuhei Nasuda, Koji Murai
The wheat florigen gene Wheat FLOWERING LOCUS T (WFT, which is identical to VRN3) is an integrator of the vernalization, photoperiod and autonomous pathways in wheat flowering. Many studies have indicated that VERNALIZATION 1 (VRN1) directly or indirectly up-regulates WFT expression in leaves. VRN1 encodes an APETALA1/FRUITFULL-like MADS box transcription factor that is up-regulated by vernalization and aging, leading to promotion of flowering. In this study, the VRN1 protein was expressed as a His-Tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)...
July 13, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343667/genotypic-effects-on-sugar-and-by-products-of-liquid-hydrolysates-and-on-saccharification-of-acid-insoluble-residues-from-wheat-straw
#11
Ryoko Ohno, Hiroshi Teramura, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo, Shigeo Takumi
Wheat straw is one of the major attractive resources for low-cost raw materials for renewable energy, biofuels and biochemicals. However, like other sources of lignocellulosic biomass, straw is a heterogeneous material due to its mixed origin from different tissue and cell types. Here, to examine the genotypic effects on biorefinery usage of wheat straw, straw obtained from different wheat cultivars and experimental lines was pretreated with dilute acid. Significant differences between cultivars were observed in the concentrations of glucose and toxic by-products of the liquid hydrolysates...
July 13, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343666/the-c-terminal-extension-domain-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-mrpl32-a-homolog-of-ribosomal-protein-l32-functions-in-trans-to-support-mitochondrial-translation
#12
Ivo Ngundu Woogeng, Madoka Kitakawa
Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L32 (MrpL32) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is homologous to the bacterial L32 ribosomal protein. MrpL32 carries an N-terminal mitochondrion-targeting sequence (MTS) and is about 60 amino acid residues longer at the C-terminus. Adding to its function as a leader sequence, the MTS of MrpL32 has been reported to regulate ribosome biogenesis through its processing by m-AAA protease. However, the function of the C-terminal extension (CE) remains totally unknown. Therefore, we constructed a series of C-terminally truncated mrpl32 (mrpl32ΔC) genes and expressed them in a Δmrpl32 mutant to examine their function...
July 13, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343665/molecular-characterization-of-gliadins-of-chinese-spring-wheat-in-relation-to-celiac-disease-elicitors
#13
Kanako Kawaura, Mayuko Miura, Yoko Kamei, Tatsuya M Ikeda, Yasunari Ogihara
The wheat seed storage proteins gliadin and glutenin are encoded by multigenes. Gliadins are further classified into α-, γ-, δ- and ω-gliadins. Genes encoding α-gliadins belong to a large multigene family, whose members are located on the homoeologous group 6 chromosomes at the Gli-2 loci. Genes encoding other gliadins are located on the homoeologous group 1 chromosomes at the Gli-1 loci. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to characterize and profile the gliadins. The gliadins in aneuploid Chinese Spring wheat lines were then compared in this study...
July 13, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151455/piggybac-and-phic31-integrase-mediated-transgenesis-in-drosophila-prolongata
#14
Ayumi Kudo, Takeshi Awasaki, Yukio Ishikawa, Takashi Matsuo
The development of transgenesis systems in non-model organisms provides a powerful tool for molecular analysis and contributes to the understanding of phenomena that are not observed in model organisms. Drosophila prolongata is a fruit fly that has unique morphology and behavior not found in other Drosophila species including D. melanogaster. In this study, we developed a phiC31 integrase-mediated transgenesis system for D. prolongata. First, using piggyBac-mediated transgenesis, 37 homozygous attP strains were established...
May 3, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794350/microsatellite-primers-in-plantago-virginica-plantaginaceae-an-invasive-species-with-both-cleistogamous-and-chasmogamous-flowers
#15
Xinyu Xu, Xi Luo, Xiaoyi Wang, Hui Guo, Shuijin Hu
Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed in Plantago virginica, an invasive species in China with both cleistogamous and chasmogamous flowers, to investigate its genetic structure and mating patterns. Fourteen novel microsatellite primer sets were designed, and the marker loci they amplified were characterized in 96 individuals from four populations. Eleven of these markers showed polymorphism and the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to six. AMOVA and STRUCTURE indicated that there were distinct patterns of genetic differentiation among the one invasive and three native US populations...
May 3, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757510/rna-design-using-simulated-shape-data
#16
Mohadeseh Lotfi, Fatemeh Zare-Mirakabad, Soheila Montaseri
It has long been established that in addition to being involved in protein translation, RNA plays essential roles in numerous other cellular processes, including gene regulation and DNA replication. Such roles are known to be dictated by higher-order structures of RNA molecules. It is therefore of prime importance to find an RNA sequence that can fold to acquire a particular function that is desirable for use in pharmaceuticals and basic research. The challenge of finding an RNA sequence for a given structure is known as the RNA design problem...
May 3, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674280/interplay-between-chromatin-modulators-and-histone-acetylation-regulates-the-formation-of-accessible-chromatin-in-the-upstream-regulatory-region-of-fission-yeast-fbp1
#17
Akira Adachi, Satoshi Senmatsu, Ryuta Asada, Takuya Abe, Charles S Hoffman, Kunihiro Ohta, Kouji Hirota
Numerous noncoding RNA transcripts are detected in eukaryotic cells. Noncoding RNAs transcribed across gene promoters are involved in the regulation of mRNA transcription via chromatin modulation. This function of noncoding RNA transcription was first demonstrated for the fission yeast fbp1 gene, where a cascade of noncoding RNA transcription events induces chromatin remodeling to facilitate transcription factor binding. We recently demonstrated that the noncoding RNAs from the fbp1 upstream region facilitate binding of the transcription activator Atf1 and thereby promote histone acetylation...
May 3, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674279/characterization-of-a-half-pipe-like-leaf1-mutant-that-exhibits-a-curled-leaf-phenotype
#18
Hikari Matsumoto, Yukiko Yasui, Toshihiro Kumamaru, Hiro-Yuki Hirano
Leaf forms are diverse in angiosperms, and different types of cells are differentiated depending on the species. Rice leaves are composed of a leaf blade, a leaf sheath and the junction region between them. Cells with characteristic features, such as bulliform cells and sclerenchyma cells, are differentiated in the leaf blade, together with standard epidermal and mesophyll cells. To understand the genetic mechanism underlying leaf morphogenesis in rice, we focused on a mutant, half-pipe-like leaf1 (hal1), whose leaves are adaxially curled...
May 3, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643269/signature-of-positive-selection-in-mitochondrial-dna-in-cetartiodactyla
#19
Satoko Mori, Masatoshi Matsunami
Acceleration of the amino acid substitution rate is a good indicator of positive selection in adaptive evolutionary changes of functional genes. Genomic information about mammals has become readily available in recent years, as many researchers have attempted to clarify the adaptive evolution of mammals by examining evolutionary rate change based on multiple loci. The order Cetartiodactyla (Artiodactyla and Cetacea) is one of the most diverse orders of mammals. Species in this order are found throughout all continents and seas, except Antarctica, and they exhibit wide variation in morphology and habitat...
April 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343670/anti-sigma-factor-mediated-cell-surface-stress-responses-in-bacillus-subtilis
#20
REVIEW
Kei Asai
Proteins belonging to the sigma factor family in eubacteria initiate transcription by associating with RNA polymerase. A subfamily, the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors, which form a widely distributed bacterial signal transduction system comprising a sigma factor and a cognate membrane-embedded anti-sigma factor, regulates genes in response to stressors that threaten cell envelope integrity including the cell wall and membrane. The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis provides a valuable model for investigation of the ECF sigma factors...
April 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
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