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Genes & Genetic Systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794351/unexpected-roles-of-a-shugoshin-protein-at-subtelomeres
#1
Junko Kanoh
A chromosome is composed of structurally and functionally distinct domains. Telomeres, which are located at the ends of linear chromosomes, play crucial roles in genome stability. Although substantial knowledge of telomeres has been accumulated, the regulation and function of subtelomeres, which are the domains adjacent to telomeres, remain largely unknown. In this review, I describe recent discoveries about the multiple roles of a shugoshin family protein, Sgo2, which is localized at centromeres in mitosis and contributes to precise chromosome segregation, in defining chromatin structure and functions of the subtelomeres in fission yeast...
August 9, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794350/microsatellite-primers-in-plantago-virginica-plantaginaceae-an-invasive-species-with-both-cleistogamous-and-chasmogamous-flowers
#2
Xinyu Xu, Xi Luo, Xiaoyi Wang, Hui Guo, Shuijin Hu
Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed in Plantago virginica, an invasive species in China with both cleistogamous and chasmogamous flowers, to investigate its genetic structure and mating patterns. Fourteen novel microsatellite primer sets were designed, and the marker loci they amplified were characterized in 96 individuals from four populations. Eleven of these markers showed polymorphism and the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to six. AMOVA and STRUCTURE indicated that there were distinct patterns of genetic differentiation among the one invasive and three native US populations...
August 9, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757510/rna-design-using-simulated-shape-data
#3
Mohadeseh Lotfi, Fatemeh Zare-Mirakabad, Soheila Montaseri
It has long been established that in addition to being involved in protein translation, RNA plays essential roles in numerous other cellular processes, including gene regulation and DNA replication. Such roles are known to be dictated by higher-order structures of RNA molecules. It is therefore of prime importance to find an RNA sequence that can fold to acquire a particular function that is desirable for use in pharmaceuticals and basic research. The challenge of finding an RNA sequence for a given structure is known as the RNA design problem...
July 28, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674280/interplay-between-chromatin-modulators-and-histone-acetylation-regulates-the-formation-of-accessible-chromatin-in-the-upstream-regulatory-region-of-fission-yeast-fbp1
#4
Akira Adachi, Satoshi Senmatsu, Ryuta Asada, Takuya Abe, Charles S Hoffman, Kunihiro Ohta, Kouji Hirota
Numerous noncoding RNA transcripts are detected in eukaryotic cells. Noncoding RNAs transcribed across gene promoters are involved in the regulation of mRNA transcription via chromatin modulation. This function of noncoding RNA transcription was first demonstrated for the fission yeast fbp1 gene, where a cascade of noncoding RNA transcription events induces chromatin remodeling to facilitate transcription factor binding. We recently demonstrated that the noncoding RNAs from the fbp1 upstream region facilitate binding of the transcription activator Atf1 and thereby promote histone acetylation...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674279/characterization-of-a-half-pipe-like-leaf1-mutant-that-exhibits-a-curled-leaf-phenotype
#5
Hikari Matsumoto, Yukiko Yasui, Toshihiro Kumamaru, Hiro-Yuki Hirano
Leaf forms are diverse in angiosperms, and different types of cells are differentiated depending on the species. Rice leaves are composed of a leaf blade, a leaf sheath and the junction region between them. Cells with characteristic features, such as bulliform cells and sclerenchyma cells, are differentiated in the leaf blade, together with standard epidermal and mesophyll cells. To understand the genetic mechanism underlying leaf morphogenesis in rice, we focused on a mutant, half-pipe-like leaf1 (hal1), whose leaves are adaxially curled...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674278/genetic-characterization-and-fine-mapping-of-s25-a-hybrid-male-sterility-gene-on-rice-chromosome-12
#6
Takahiko Kubo, Atsushi Yoshimura, Nori Kurata
Hybrid male sterility genes are important factors in creating postzygotic reproductive isolation barriers in plants. One such gene, S25, is known to cause severe transmission ratio distortion in inter-subspecific progeny of cultivated rice Oryza sativa ssp. indica and japonica. To further characterize the S25 gene, we fine-mapped and genetically characterized the S25 gene using near-isogenic lines with reciprocal genetic backgrounds. We mapped the S25 locus within a 0.67-1.02 Mb region on rice chromosome 12...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674277/telomere-binding-factors-in-the-regulation-of-dna-replication
#7
Hisao Masai, Yutaka Kanoh, Kenji Moriyama, Satoshi Yamazaki, Naoko Yoshizawa, Seiji Matsumoto
Recent studies have indicated new roles for telomere-binding factors in the regulation of DNA replication, not only at the telomeres but also at the arm regions of the chromosome. Among these factors, Rif1, a conserved protein originally identified in yeasts as a telomere regulator, play a major role in the spatiotemporal regulation of DNA replication during S phase. Its ability to interact with phosphatases and to create specific higher-order chromatin structures is central to the mechanism by which Rif1 exerts this function...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674276/brown-hagfish-from-the-northwest-and-east-coasts-of-honshu-japan-are-genetically-different
#8
Mikihiro Kase, Takayuki Shimizu, Keita Kamino, Kazuo Umetsu, Hideki Sugiyama, Takashi Kitano
The brown hagfish (Eptatretus atami) is one of several known hagfish species occurring in Japanese coastal waters. To date, there has been no research studying genetic polymorphisms in the species. In the present study, we analyzed differences in nucleotide sequences between two populations: one from Suruga Bay on the Pacific coast of Honshu, Japan, and the other from the Sea of Japan, off Akita on the northwest coast of Honshu. We sequenced part of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene (COX1) from the mitochondrial genome, and three G protein-coupled receptor genes from the nuclear genome...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674275/spontaneous-tyrosinase-mutations-identified-in-albinos-of-three-wild-frog-species
#9
Ikuo Miura, Masataka Tagami, Takeshi Fujitani, Mitsuaki Ogata
The present study reports spontaneous tyrosinase gene mutations identified in oculocutaneous albinos of three Japanese wild frog species, Pelophylax nigromaculatus, Glandirana rugosa and Fejervarya kawamurai. This represents the first molecular analyses of albinic phenotypes in frogs. Albinos of P. nigromaculatus collected from two different populations were found to suffer from frameshift mutations. These mutations were caused by the insertion of a thymine residue within each of exons 1 and 4, while albinos in a third population lacked three nucleotides encoding lysine in exon 1...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674274/all-are-equal-but-some-are-more-equal-than-others-epigenetic-regulation-of-germ-line-stem-cell-fate-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Sonam Mehrotra, Girish Deshpande
Adult stem cells are capable of both symmetric andasymmetric cell divisions. Asymmetric cell division allows self-renewal and gives rise to intermediate cells that ultimately differentiate into specific cell types. Consequently, adult stem cells play a key role in development and tissue homeostasis during the life span of an organism. Typically, adult stem cell divisions are regulated through coordination between non-autonomous signaling from the niche and cell-autonomous influences from stem cell-intrinsic factors...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674273/septal-membrane-localization-by-c-terminal-amphipathic-%C3%AE-helices-of-mind-in-bacillus-subtilis-mutant-cells-lacking-minj-or-diviva
#11
Kazuki Ishikawa, Satoshi Matsuoka, Hiroshi Hara, Kouji Matsumoto
The Min system, which inhibits assembly of the cytokinetic protein FtsZ, is largely responsible for positioning the division site in rod-shaped bacteria. It has been reported that MinJ, which bridges DivIVA and MinD, is targeted to the cell poles by an interaction with DivIVA, and that MinJ in turn recruits MinCD to the cell poles. MinC, however, is located primarily at active division sites at the mid-cell when expressed from its native promoter. Surprisingly, we found that B. subtilis MinD is located at nascent septal membranes and at an asymmetric site on lateral membranes between nascent septal membranes in filamentous cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674272/frequent-generation-of-mutants-with-coincidental-changes-in-multiple-traits-via-ion-beam-irradiation-in-soybean
#12
Shun Mikuriya, Megumi Kasai, Kenta Nakashima, Natasia, Yoshihiro Hase, Tetsuya Yamada, Jun Abe, Akira Kanazawa
Ion beams are powerful mutagens that can induce novel mutants in plants. We previously established a system for producing a mutant population of soybean via ion-beam irradiation, isolated plants that had chlorophyll deficiency, and maintained their progeny via self-fertilization. Here we report the characterization of the progeny plants in terms of chlorophyll content, flowering time and isoflavone content in seeds. Chlorophyll deficiency in the leaf tissues was linked with reduced levels of isoflavones, the major flavonoid compounds accumulated in soybean seeds, which suggested the involvement of metabolic changes associated with the chlorophyll deficiency...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408727/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-the-il-12-gene-lead-to-a-higher-cancer-risk-a-meta-analysis-based-on-22-670-subjects
#13
Xiaohan Shi, Yingxian Jia, Xiaochuan Xie, Shangwei Li
The associations between interleukin-12 (IL-12) gene polymorphisms and cancer risk have been discussed extensively, with controversial results. Therefore, we conducted the present meta-analysis to better assess the potential roles of IL-12 gene variation in cancer occurrence. Eligible articles were found via PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar and CNKI. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to evaluate the associations between IL-12 gene polymorphisms and cancer risk. Thirty-one studies with 10,749 cancer patients and 11,921 healthy subjects were included in the analyses...
April 12, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003573/a-novel-missense-variant-in-the-diaph1-gene-in-a-korean-family-with-autosomal-dominant-nonsyndromic-hearing-loss
#14
Tae-Hun Kang, Jeong-In Baek, Borum Sagong, Hong-Joon Park, Chan Ik Park, Kyu-Yup Lee, Un-Kyung Kim
Hair cells in the cochlea display highly regulated actin polymerization, which is mediated by the human diaphanous-related formin 1 gene (DIAPH1; also called DFNA1, DIA1). DFNA1, the first type of autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), is known to be associated with mutations in DIAPH1. However, no genetic study of DFNA1 in Koreans with hearing loss has yet been reported. A 51-year-old patient in a Korean family with ADNSHL was examined by pure-tone audiometry, and genetic analysis of DIAPH1 was performed...
April 4, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990012/characterization-of-the-traf3ip1-gene-in-yesso-scallop-patinopecten-yessoensis-and-its-expression-in-response-to-bacterial-challenge
#15
Jie Cheng, Jing Wang, Shuyue Wang, Ruojiao Li, Xianhui Ning, Qiang Xing, Xiaoli Ma, Lingling Zhang, Shi Wang, Xiaoli Hu, Zhenmin Bao
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) is an important adaptor that transmits upstream activation signals to induce innate immune responses. TRAF3 interacting protein 1 (TRAF3IP1) interacts specifically with TRAF3, but its function in innate immunity remains unclear, especially in marine invertebrates. In this study, to better understand the functions of TRAFs in innate immune responses, we identified and characterized the first bivalve TRAF3IP1 gene, PyTRAF3IP1, from Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis), one of the most important mollusk species for aquaculture...
April 4, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853052/co-evolution-in-a-putative-bundling-signal-of-bluetongue-and-epizootic-hemorrhagic-disease-viruses
#16
Yoshiyuki Suzuki
Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) possess a genome of 10 segmented RNAs (S1-S10), one copy of each of which is considered to be packaged in a virion. This selective packaging is thought to be mediated by supramolecular complex formation of the 10 RNAs, through intermolecular base pairing of complementary nucleotide sequences termed the bundling signal. Here, the whole genomic sequences of BTV and EHDV isolates were analyzed to identify co-evolving pairs of complementary nucleotide sequences within and between genomic segments...
April 4, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853051/expression-efficiency-of-nat2-haplotypes-in-a-korean-population
#17
Han Sung Na, Jin Sol Lee, Hyun Sub Cheong, Hee Jung Shin, Tae Sun Kang, Hyun Joo Park, Hyoung Doo Shin, Myeon Woo Chung
Since NAT2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are responsible for the efficacy of arylamines and hydrazine drugs, defining the effects of these SNPs in various ethnicities is an important factor in the development of personalized medicine. In the present study, we examined the expression efficiency of NAT2 using promoter haplotypes identified in a Korean population. To construct NAT2 promoter haplotypes, seven NAT2 promoter SNPs (rs4646241, rs4646242, rs4646243, rs4646267, rs4345600, rs4271002 and rs4646246) were genotyped in a total of 192 Korean subjects...
April 4, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582185/identification-of-gamma-ray-irradiation-induced-mutations-in-membrane-transport-genes-in-a-rice-population-by-tilling
#18
Jung Eun Hwang, Duk-Soo Jang, Kyung Jun Lee, Joon-Woo Ahn, Sang Hoon Kim, Si-Yong Kang, Dong Sub Kim, Jin-Baek Kim
A high-salt environment represents environmental stress for most plants. Those that can grow and thrive in such an environment must have membrane transport systems that can respond effectively. Plant roots absorb Na(+) from the soil, and the plant must maintain Na(+) homeostasis to survive salt stress. A major mechanism by which salt-tolerant plants adapt to salt stress is through modulation of ion transport genes. We have subjected a population of rice plants to mutagenesis, and identified lines with both single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in membrane transport genes and altered responses to salt stress...
April 4, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582049/assessment-of-housekeeping-genes-as-internal-references-in-quantitative-expression-analysis-during-early-development-of-oyster
#19
Pin Huan, Hongxia Wang, Baozhong Liu
The early development of mollusks exhibits important characteristics from the developmental and evolutionary perspective. With the increasing number of genome-wide studies, accurate analyses of quantitative gene expression during development are impeded by the lack of validated reference genes. To improve the situation, in this study, we analyzed the expression stability of seven candidate housekeeping genes during early development of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas: actin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh), α subunit of elongation factor 1 (elf1α), adp-ribosylation factor 1 (arf1), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein q, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme e2d2 and ribosomal protein s18...
April 4, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381656/homologous-recombination-is-required-for-recovery-from-oxidative-dna-damage
#20
Michio Hayashi, Keiko Umezu
We have been studying the genetic events, including chromosome loss, chromosome rearrangements and intragenic point mutations, that are responsible for the deletion of a URA3 marker in a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) assay in the yeast Saccharomycess cerevisiae. With this assay, we previously showed that homologous recombination plays an important role in genome maintenance in response to DNA lesions that occur spontaneously in normally growing cells. Here, to investigate DNA lesions capable of triggering homologous recombination, we examined the effects of oxidative stress, a prominent cause of endogenous DNA damage, on LOH events...
April 3, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
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