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Genes & Genetic Systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151455/piggybac-and-phic31-integrase-mediated-transgenesis-in-drosophila-prolongata
#1
Ayumi Kudo, Takeshi Awasaki, Yukio Ishikawa, Takashi Matsuo
The development of transgenesis systems in non-model organisms provides a powerful tool for molecular analysis and contributes to the understanding of phenomena that are not observed in model organisms. Drosophila prolongata is a fruit fly that has unique morphology and behavior not found in other Drosophila species including D. melanogaster. In this study, we developed a phiC31 integrase-mediated transgenesis system for D. prolongata. First, using piggyBac-mediated transgenesis, 37 homozygous attP strains were established...
November 17, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993557/biological-functions-of-glucolipids-in-bacillus-subtilis
#2
Satoshi Matsuoka
Glyceroglycolipids are very important in Gram-positive bacteria and cyanobacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, a model organism for the Gram-positive bacteria, the ugtP mutant, which lacks glyceroglucolipids, shows abnormal morphology. Lack of glucolipids has many consequences: abnormal localization of the cytoskeletal protein MreB and activation of some extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors (σ(M), σ(V) and σ(X)) in the log phase are two examples. Conversely, the expression of monoglucosyldiacylglycerol (MGlcDG) by 1,2-diacylglycerol 3-glucosyltransferase from Acholeplasma laidlawii (alMGS) almost completely suppresses the ugtP disruptant phenotype...
October 6, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993556/telomere-biology-in-aging-and-cancer-early-history-and-perspectives
#3
Makoto T Hayashi
The ends of eukaryotic linear chromosomes are protected from undesired enzymatic activities by a nucleoprotein complex called the telomere. Expanding evidence indicates that telomeres have central functions in human aging and tumorigenesis. While it is undoubtedly important to follow current advances in telomere biology, it is also fruitful to be well informed in seminal historical studies for a comprehensive understanding of telomere biology, and for the anticipation of future directions. With this in mind, I here summarize the early history of telomere biology and current advances in the field, mostly focusing on mammalian studies relevant to aging and cancer...
October 6, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993555/complete-chloroplast-genome-and-45s-nrdna-sequences-of-the-medicinal-plant-species-glycyrrhiza-glabra-and-glycyrrhiza-uralensis
#4
Sang-Ho Kang, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Hyun Oh Lee, Byoung Ohg Ahn, So Youn Won, Seong-Han Sohn, Jung Sun Kim
Glycyrrhiza uralensis and G. glabra, members of the Fabaceae, are medicinally important species that are native to Asia and Europe. Extracts from these plants are widely used as natural sweeteners because of their much greater sweetness than sucrose. In this study, the three complete chloroplast genomes and five 45S nuclear ribosomal (nr)DNA sequences of these two licorice species and an interspecific hybrid are presented. The chloroplast genomes of G. glabra, G. uralensis and G. glabra × G. uralensis were 127,895 bp, 127,716 bp and 127,939 bp, respectively...
October 6, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674273/septal-membrane-localization-by-c-terminal-amphipathic-%C3%AE-helices-of-mind-in-bacillus-subtilis-mutant-cells-lacking-minj-or-diviva
#5
Kazuki Ishikawa, Satoshi Matsuoka, Hiroshi Hara, Kouji Matsumoto
The Min system, which inhibits assembly of the cytokinetic protein FtsZ, is largely responsible for positioning the division site in rod-shaped bacteria. It has been reported that MinJ, which bridges DivIVA and MinD, is targeted to the cell poles by an interaction with DivIVA, and that MinJ in turn recruits MinCD to the cell poles. MinC, however, is located primarily at active division sites at mid-cell when expressed from its native promoter. Surprisingly, we found that Bacillus subtilis MinD is located at nascent septal membranes and at an asymmetric site on lateral membranes between nascent septal membranes in filamentous cells lacking MinJ or DivIVA...
October 18, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381656/homologous-recombination-is-required-for-recovery-from-oxidative-dna-damage
#6
Michio Hayashi, Keiko Umezu
We have been studying the genetic events, including chromosome loss, chromosome rearrangements and intragenic point mutations, that are responsible for the deletion of a URA3 marker in a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) assay in the yeast Saccharomycess cerevisiae. With this assay, we previously showed that homologous recombination plays an important role in genome maintenance in response to DNA lesions that occur spontaneously in normally growing cells. Here, to investigate DNA lesions capable of triggering homologous recombination, we examined the effects of oxidative stress, a prominent cause of endogenous DNA damage, on LOH events...
October 18, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344191/transposition-of-insertion-sequence-is256bsu1-in-bacillus-subtilis-168-is-strictly-dependent-on-reca
#7
Motohiro Akashi, Shota Harada, Syunsuke Moki, Yuki Okouji, Kiwamu Takahashi, Shigeki Kada, Keigo Yamagami, Yasuhiko Sekine, Satoru Watanabe, Taku Chibazakura, Hirofumi Yoshikawa
We developed an insertion sequence transposition detection system called the "jumping cat assay" and applied it to the Bacillus subtilis chromosome using IS256Bsu1 derived from B. subtilis natto. The high frequency of transposition enabled us to explore host factors; combining the assay and genetic analyses revealed that recA is essential for the transposition of IS256Bsu1. Detailed analyses using various domain mutants of recA demonstrated that this essentiality is not related to the function of recA in homologous recombination...
October 18, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216509/development-of-microsatellite-markers-for-partially-and-putative-fully-mycoheterotrophic-varieties-of-pyrola-japonica-sensu-lato-ericaceae
#8
Kohtaroh Shutoh, Ayako Izuno, Yuji Isagi, Takahide Kurosawa, Shingo Kaneko
We developed microsatellite markers to compare the genetic variation and reproductive biology between the partially mycoheterotrophic Pyrola japonica var. japonica and the putative fully mycoheterotrophic P. japonica var. subaphylla. Fifteen primer pairs were developed for P. japonica sensu lato and they were tested on 77 ramets from three populations of the two varieties. Thirteen loci were polymorphic in at least one of the two var. japonica populations, whereas only four loci were polymorphic in the var...
October 18, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794351/unexpected-roles-of-a-shugoshin-protein-at-subtelomeres
#9
Junko Kanoh
A chromosome is composed of structurally and functionally distinct domains. Telomeres, which are located at the ends of linear chromosomes, play crucial roles in genome stability. Although substantial knowledge of telomeres has been accumulated, the regulation and function of subtelomeres, which are the domains adjacent to telomeres, remain largely unknown. In this review, I describe recent discoveries about the multiple roles of a shugoshin family protein, Sgo2, which is localized at centromeres in mitosis and contributes to precise chromosome segregation, in defining chromatin structure and functions of the subtelomeres in fission yeast...
August 9, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794350/microsatellite-primers-in-plantago-virginica-plantaginaceae-an-invasive-species-with-both-cleistogamous-and-chasmogamous-flowers
#10
Xinyu Xu, Xi Luo, Xiaoyi Wang, Hui Guo, Shuijin Hu
Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed in Plantago virginica, an invasive species in China with both cleistogamous and chasmogamous flowers, to investigate its genetic structure and mating patterns. Fourteen novel microsatellite primer sets were designed, and the marker loci they amplified were characterized in 96 individuals from four populations. Eleven of these markers showed polymorphism and the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to six. AMOVA and STRUCTURE indicated that there were distinct patterns of genetic differentiation among the one invasive and three native US populations...
August 9, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757510/rna-design-using-simulated-shape-data
#11
Mohadeseh Lotfi, Fatemeh Zare-Mirakabad, Soheila Montaseri
It has long been established that in addition to being involved in protein translation, RNA plays essential roles in numerous other cellular processes, including gene regulation and DNA replication. Such roles are known to be dictated by higher-order structures of RNA molecules. It is therefore of prime importance to find an RNA sequence that can fold to acquire a particular function that is desirable for use in pharmaceuticals and basic research. The challenge of finding an RNA sequence for a given structure is known as the RNA design problem...
July 28, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674280/interplay-between-chromatin-modulators-and-histone-acetylation-regulates-the-formation-of-accessible-chromatin-in-the-upstream-regulatory-region-of-fission-yeast-fbp1
#12
Akira Adachi, Satoshi Senmatsu, Ryuta Asada, Takuya Abe, Charles S Hoffman, Kunihiro Ohta, Kouji Hirota
Numerous noncoding RNA transcripts are detected in eukaryotic cells. Noncoding RNAs transcribed across gene promoters are involved in the regulation of mRNA transcription via chromatin modulation. This function of noncoding RNA transcription was first demonstrated for the fission yeast fbp1 gene, where a cascade of noncoding RNA transcription events induces chromatin remodeling to facilitate transcription factor binding. We recently demonstrated that the noncoding RNAs from the fbp1 upstream region facilitate binding of the transcription activator Atf1 and thereby promote histone acetylation...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674279/characterization-of-a-half-pipe-like-leaf1-mutant-that-exhibits-a-curled-leaf-phenotype
#13
Hikari Matsumoto, Yukiko Yasui, Toshihiro Kumamaru, Hiro-Yuki Hirano
Leaf forms are diverse in angiosperms, and different types of cells are differentiated depending on the species. Rice leaves are composed of a leaf blade, a leaf sheath and the junction region between them. Cells with characteristic features, such as bulliform cells and sclerenchyma cells, are differentiated in the leaf blade, together with standard epidermal and mesophyll cells. To understand the genetic mechanism underlying leaf morphogenesis in rice, we focused on a mutant, half-pipe-like leaf1 (hal1), whose leaves are adaxially curled...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674278/genetic-characterization-and-fine-mapping-of-s25-a-hybrid-male-sterility-gene-on-rice-chromosome-12
#14
Takahiko Kubo, Atsushi Yoshimura, Nori Kurata
Hybrid male sterility genes are important factors in creating postzygotic reproductive isolation barriers in plants. One such gene, S25, is known to cause severe transmission ratio distortion in inter-subspecific progeny of cultivated rice Oryza sativa ssp. indica and japonica. To further characterize the S25 gene, we fine-mapped and genetically characterized the S25 gene using near-isogenic lines with reciprocal genetic backgrounds. We mapped the S25 locus within a 0.67-1.02 Mb region on rice chromosome 12...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674277/telomere-binding-factors-in-the-regulation-of-dna-replication
#15
Hisao Masai, Yutaka Kanoh, Kenji Moriyama, Satoshi Yamazaki, Naoko Yoshizawa, Seiji Matsumoto
Recent studies have indicated new roles for telomere-binding factors in the regulation of DNA replication, not only at the telomeres but also at the arm regions of the chromosome. Among these factors, Rif1, a conserved protein originally identified in yeasts as a telomere regulator, play a major role in the spatiotemporal regulation of DNA replication during S phase. Its ability to interact with phosphatases and to create specific higher-order chromatin structures is central to the mechanism by which Rif1 exerts this function...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674276/brown-hagfish-from-the-northwest-and-east-coasts-of-honshu-japan-are-genetically-different
#16
Mikihiro Kase, Takayuki Shimizu, Keita Kamino, Kazuo Umetsu, Hideki Sugiyama, Takashi Kitano
The brown hagfish (Eptatretus atami) is one of several known hagfish species occurring in Japanese coastal waters. To date, there has been no research studying genetic polymorphisms in the species. In the present study, we analyzed differences in nucleotide sequences between two populations: one from Suruga Bay on the Pacific coast of Honshu, Japan, and the other from the Sea of Japan, off Akita on the northwest coast of Honshu. We sequenced part of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene (COX1) from the mitochondrial genome, and three G protein-coupled receptor genes from the nuclear genome...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674275/spontaneous-tyrosinase-mutations-identified-in-albinos-of-three-wild-frog-species
#17
Ikuo Miura, Masataka Tagami, Takeshi Fujitani, Mitsuaki Ogata
The present study reports spontaneous tyrosinase gene mutations identified in oculocutaneous albinos of three Japanese wild frog species, Pelophylax nigromaculatus, Glandirana rugosa and Fejervarya kawamurai. This represents the first molecular analyses of albinic phenotypes in frogs. Albinos of P. nigromaculatus collected from two different populations were found to suffer from frameshift mutations. These mutations were caused by the insertion of a thymine residue within each of exons 1 and 4, while albinos in a third population lacked three nucleotides encoding lysine in exon 1...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674274/all-are-equal-but-some-are-more-equal-than-others-epigenetic-regulation-of-germ-line-stem-cell-fate-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Sonam Mehrotra, Girish Deshpande
Adult stem cells are capable of both symmetric andasymmetric cell divisions. Asymmetric cell division allows self-renewal and gives rise to intermediate cells that ultimately differentiate into specific cell types. Consequently, adult stem cells play a key role in development and tissue homeostasis during the life span of an organism. Typically, adult stem cell divisions are regulated through coordination between non-autonomous signaling from the niche and cell-autonomous influences from stem cell-intrinsic factors...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674272/frequent-generation-of-mutants-with-coincidental-changes-in-multiple-traits-via-ion-beam-irradiation-in-soybean
#19
Shun Mikuriya, Megumi Kasai, Kenta Nakashima, Natasia, Yoshihiro Hase, Tetsuya Yamada, Jun Abe, Akira Kanazawa
Ion beams are powerful mutagens that can induce novel mutants in plants. We previously established a system for producing a mutant population of soybean via ion-beam irradiation, isolated plants that had chlorophyll deficiency, and maintained their progeny via self-fertilization. Here we report the characterization of the progeny plants in terms of chlorophyll content, flowering time and isoflavone content in seeds. Chlorophyll deficiency in the leaf tissues was linked with reduced levels of isoflavones, the major flavonoid compounds accumulated in soybean seeds, which suggested the involvement of metabolic changes associated with the chlorophyll deficiency...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239025/the-role-of-single-nucleotide-variants-of-the-energy-metabolism-linked-genes-sirt3-ppargc1a-and-apoe-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-risk
#20
Diego Albani, Elisabetta Pupillo, Elisa Bianchi, Armando Chierchia, Rosalba Martines, Gianluigi Forloni, Ettore Beghi
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a multifactorial disease, possibly with contributions from genetics and lifestyle. We examined variants in genes relevant to energy metabolism and physical activity in a case-control association study, with the aim of assessing genetics and physical activity as contributors to ALS risk. A well-characterized sample of Italian ALS patients (101) and controls (101) from the EURALS Consortium underwent a questionnaire interview on demographic, physical and other lifestyle habits, and venipuncture for DNA extraction...
May 13, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
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