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Genes & Genetic Systems

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643269/signature-of-positive-selection-in-mitochondrial-dna-in-cetartiodactyla
#1
Satoko Mori, Masatoshi Matsunami
Acceleration of the amino acid substitution rate is a good indicator of positive selection in adaptive evolutionary changes of functional genes. Genomic information about mammals has become readily available in recent years, as many researchers have attempted to clarify the adaptive evolution of mammals by examining evolutionary rate change based on multiple loci. The order Cetartiodactyla (Artiodactyla and Cetacea) is one of the most diverse orders of mammals. Species in this order are found throughout all continents and seas, except Antarctica, and they exhibit wide variation in morphology and habitat...
April 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607881/melanocytes-contribute-to-the-vasculature-of-the-choroid
#2
Hirotoshi Shibuya, Ryutaro Watanabe, Akiteru Maeno, Kaoru Ichimura, Masaru Tamura, Shigeharu Wakana, Toshihiko Shiroishi, Koji Ohba, Kazuhisa Takeda, Hiroshi Tomita, Shigeki Shibahara, Hiroaki Yamamoto
Melanocytes develop from the vertebrate embryo-specific neural crest, migrate, and localize in various organs, including not only the skin but also several extracutaneous locations such as the heart, inner ear and choroid. Little is known about the functions of extracutaneous melanocytes except for cochlear melanocytes, which are essential for hearing ability. In this study, we focused on the structure of the choroid, in which melanocytes are abundant around the well-developed blood vascular system. By comparing structural differences in the choroid of wild-type and melanocyte-deficient Mitfmi-bw /Mitfmi-bw mutant mice, our observations suggest that choroidal melanocytes contribute to the morphogenesis and/or maintenance of the normal vasculature structure of that tissue...
April 2, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607880/a-novel-nuclear-localization-signal-spans-the-linker-of-the-two-dna-binding-subdomains-in-the-conserved-paired-domain-of-pax6
#3
Hiromasa Tabata, Akihiro Koinui, Atsushi Ogura, Daisuke Nishihara, Hiroaki Yamamoto
Paired box (Pax) 6, a member of the Pax family of transcription factors, contains two DNA-binding domains, called the paired domain (PD) and the homeodomain (HD), and plays pivotal roles in development of structures such as the eye, central nervous system and pancreas. Pax6 is a major developmental switching molecule because, for example, ectopic expression of the Pax6 gene can induce ectopic whole eye development. Intensive research has been devoted to elucidating the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the function(s) of Pax6, but many issues remain unexplained...
April 2, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607879/genetic-variation-and-structure-of-ubame-oak-quercus-phillyraeoides-in-japan-revealed-by-chloroplast-dna-and-nuclear-microsatellite-markers
#4
Ko Harada, Fifi Gus Dwiyanti, Huan-Zhen Liu, Yasunori Takeichi, Narumi Nakatani, Koichi Kamiya
Genetic variation and structure of Ubame oak (Quercus phillyraeoides A. Gray), a shrub tree on the Pacific coast of Japan, were examined to elucidate historical population dynamics using five chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) marker regions and 11 nuclear microsatellite loci. Three cpDNA haplotypes (A, B and C) were identified in a screen of 41 populations across the entire distribution range in Japan. Haplotype A was the most prevalent and was found in the entire range. Haplotype B was locally restricted to the Kii Peninsula, while haplotype C was restricted to the southwestern part of Japan...
April 2, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607885/association-analysis-of-nucks1-and-inpp5k-polymorphism-with-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Wenqing Zhu, Xiaoguang Luo, Atif Adnan, Peifu Yu, Siyi Zhang, Zhixin Huo, Qin Xu, Hao Pang
Genome-wide association studies have reported numerous candidate loci associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). NUCKS1 and INPP5K are two such candidate loci, although they have rarely been reported in Asian populations. To explore these potential genes for PD susceptibility, we investigated the association between PD and two SNPs, rs823114 and rs1109303, located on the NUCKS1 and INPP5K genes, respectively, in the Han population of northern China. We genotyped the two SNPs using the multiplex PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) technique...
March 30, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674278/genetic-characterization-and-fine-mapping-of-s25-a-hybrid-male-sterility-gene-on-rice-chromosome-12
#6
Takahiko Kubo, Atsushi Yoshimura, Nori Kurata
Hybrid male sterility genes are important factors in creating postzygotic reproductive isolation barriers in plants. One such gene, S25, is known to cause severe transmission ratio distortion in inter-subspecific progeny of cultivated rice Oryza sativa ssp. indica and japonica. To further characterize the S25 gene, we fine-mapped and genetically characterized the S25 gene using near-isogenic lines with reciprocal genetic backgrounds. We mapped the S25 locus within the 0.67-1.02 Mb region on rice chromosome 12...
February 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674276/brown-hagfish-from-the-northwest-and-east-coasts-of-honshu-japan-are-genetically-different
#7
Mikihiro Kase, Takayuki Shimizu, Keita Kamino, Kazuo Umetsu, Hideki Sugiyama, Takashi Kitano
The brown hagfish (Eptatretus atami) is one of several known hagfish species occurring in Japanese coastal waters. To date, there has been no research studying genetic polymorphisms in the species. In the present study, we analyzed differences in nucleotide sequences between two populations: one from Suruga Bay on the Pacific coast of Honshu, Japan, and the other from the Sea of Japan, off Akita on the northwest coast of Honshu. We sequenced part of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene (COX1) from the mitochondrial genome, and three G protein-coupled receptor genes from the nuclear genome...
February 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674275/spontaneous-tyrosinase-mutations-identified-in-albinos-of-three-wild-frog-species
#8
Ikuo Miura, Masataka Tagami, Takeshi Fujitani, Mitsuaki Ogata
The present study reports spontaneous tyrosinase gene mutations identified in oculocutaneous albinos of three Japanese wild frog species, Pelophylax nigromaculatus, Glandirana rugosa and Fejervarya kawamurai. This represents the first molecular analyses of albinic phenotypes in frogs. Albinos of P. nigromaculatus collected from two different populations were found to suffer from frameshift mutations. These mutations were caused by the insertion of a thymine residue within each of exons 1 and 4, while albinos in a third population lacked three nucleotides encoding lysine in exon 1...
February 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674274/all-are-equal-but-some-are-more-equal-than-others-epigenetic-regulation-of-germline-stem-cell-fate-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#9
Sonam Mehrotra, Girish Deshpande
Adult stem cells are capable of both symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions. Asymmetric cell division allows self-renewal and gives rise to intermediate cells that ultimately differentiate into specific cell types. Consequently, adult stem cells play a key role in development and tissue homeostasis during the life span of an organism. Typically, adult stem cell divisions are regulated through coordination between non-autonomous signaling from the niche and cell-autonomous influences from stem cell-intrinsic factors...
February 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408727/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-the-il-12-gene-lead-to-a-higher-cancer-risk-a-meta-analysis-based-on-22-670-subjects
#10
Xiaohan Shi, Yingxian Jia, Xiaochuan Xie, Shangwei Li
The associations between interleukin-12 (IL-12) gene polymorphisms and cancer risk have been discussed extensively, with controversial results. Therefore, we conducted the present meta-analysis to better assess the potential roles of IL-12 gene variation in cancer occurrence. Eligible articles were found via PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar and CNKI. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to evaluate the associations between IL-12 gene polymorphisms and cancer risk. Thirty-one studies with 10,749 cancer patients and 11,921 healthy subjects were included in the analyses...
February 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162774/the-dna-damage-response-at-dysfunctional-telomeres-and-at-interstitial-and-subtelomeric-dna-double-strand-breaks
#11
Keiko Muraki, John P Murnane
In mammals, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are primarily repaired by classical non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ), although homologous recombination repair and alternative NHEJ (A-NHEJ), which involve DSB processing, can also occur. These pathways are tightly regulated to maintain chromosome integrity. The ends of chromosomes, called telomeres, contain telomeric DNA that forms a cap structure in cooperation with telomeric proteins to prevent the activation of the DNA damage response and chromosome fusion at chromosome termini...
January 20, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993556/telomere-biology-in-aging-and-cancer-early-history-and-perspectives
#12
Makoto T Hayashi
The ends of eukaryotic linear chromosomes are protected from undesired enzymatic activities by a nucleoprotein complex called the telomere. Expanding evidence indicates that telomeres have central functions in human aging and tumorigenesis. While it is undoubtedly important to follow current advances in telomere biology, it is also fruitful to be well informed in seminal historical studies for a comprehensive understanding of telomere biology, and for the anticipation of future directions. With this in mind, I here summarize the early history of telomere biology and current advances in the field, mostly focusing on mammalian studies relevant to aging and cancer...
January 20, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794351/unexpected-roles-of-a-shugoshin-protein-at-subtelomeres
#13
Junko Kanoh
A chromosome is composed of structurally and functionally distinct domains. Telomeres, which are located at the ends of linear chromosomes, play crucial roles in genome stability. Although substantial knowledge of telomeres has been accumulated, the regulation and function of subtelomeres, which are the domains adjacent to telomeres, remain largely unknown. In this review, I describe recent discoveries about the multiple roles of a shugoshin family protein, Sgo2, which is localized at centromeres in mitosis and contributes to precise chromosome segregation, in defining chromatin structure and functions of the subtelomeres in fission yeast...
January 20, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674277/telomere-binding-factors-in-the-regulation-of-dna-replication
#14
Hisao Masai, Yutaka Kanoh, Kenji Moriyama, Satoshi Yamazaki, Naoko Yoshizawa, Seiji Matsumoto
Recent studies have indicated new roles for telomere-binding factors in the regulation of DNA replication, not only at the telomeres but also at the arm regions of the chromosome. Among these factors, Rif1, a conserved protein originally identified in yeasts as a telomere regulator, plays a major role in the spatiotemporal regulation of DNA replication during S phase. Its ability to interact with phosphatases and to create specific higher-order chromatin structures is central to the mechanism by which Rif1 exerts this function...
January 20, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674272/frequent-generation-of-mutants-with-coincidental-changes-in-multiple-traits-via-ion-beam-irradiation-in-soybean
#15
Shun Mikuriya, Megumi Kasai, Kenta Nakashima, Natasia, Yoshihiro Hase, Tetsuya Yamada, Jun Abe, Akira Kanazawa
Ion beams are powerful mutagens that can induce novel mutants in plants. We previously established a system for producing a mutant population of soybean via ion-beam irradiation, isolated plants that had chlorophyll deficiency, and maintained their progeny via self-fertilization. Here we report the characterization of the progeny plants in terms of chlorophyll content, flowering time and isoflavone content in seeds. Chlorophyll deficiency in the leaf tissues was linked with reduced levels of isoflavones, the major flavonoid compounds accumulated in soybean seeds, which suggested the involvement of metabolic changes associated with the chlorophyll deficiency...
January 20, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343671/development-of-microsatellite-markers-for-the-endangered-orchid-calanthe-izu-insularis-orchidaceae
#16
Naoyuki Nakahama, Azusa Ito, Shingo Kaneko, Yu Matsuki, Yoshihisa Suyama, Azusa Hayano, Miho Murayama, Yuji Isagi
Microsatellite markers were developed for the endangered orchid Calanthe izu-insularis (Orchidaceae). This species is unique to the Izu Islands in Japan. Unfortunately, its population size has decreased because of excessive collection for horticultural purposes. In addition, although natural hybridization between C. izu-insularis and C. discolor var. discolor has been reported, morphological differences between C. izu-insularis and the hybridized individuals remain unclear. Using next-generation sequencing, 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343670/anti-sigma-factor-mediated-cell-surface-stress-responses-in-bacillus-subtilis
#17
Kei Asai
Proteins belonging to the sigma factor family in eubacteria initiate transcription by associating with RNA polymerase. A subfamily, the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors, which form a widely distributed bacterial signal transduction system comprising a sigma factor and a cognate membrane-embedded anti-sigma factor, regulates genes in response to stressors that threaten cell envelope integrity including the cell wall and membrane. The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis provides a valuable model for investigation of the ECF sigma factors...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343669/direct-interaction-between-vrn1-protein-and-the-promoter-region-of-the-wheat-ft-gene
#18
Chihiro Tanaka, Takafumi Itoh, Yukimoto Iwasaki, Nobuyuki Mizuno, Shuhei Nasuda, Koji Murai
The wheat florigen gene Wheat FLOWERING LOCUS T (WFT, which is identical to VRN3) is an integrator of the vernalization, photoperiod and autonomous pathways in wheat flowering. Many studies have indicated that VERNALIZATION 1 (VRN1) directly or indirectly up-regulates WFT expression in leaves. VRN1 encodes an APETALA1/FRUITFULL-like MADS-box transcription factor that is up-regulated by vernalization and aging, leading to promotion of flowering. In this study, the VRN1 protein was expressed as a His-Tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343668/configuration-of-the-sugar-head-of-glycolipids-in-thylakoid-membranes
#19
Egi Tritya Apdila, Koichiro Awai
Glycolipids constitute the majority of membrane components in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, whereas they are minor lipids in other organisms. In cyanobacteria, three glycolipids comprise ~90 mol% of the total lipids in thylakoid membranes, where photosynthetic electron transport occurs. Among these glycolipids, 80 mol% are galactolipids (monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol). Galactolipids are well conserved in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms and are believed to be essential for the integrity of the membrane system...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343667/genotypic-effects-on-sugar-and-by-products-of-liquid-hydrolysates-and-on-saccharification-of-acid-insoluble-residues-of-from-wheat-straw
#20
Ryoko Ohno, Hiroshi Teramura, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo, Shigeo Takumi
Wheat straw is one of the major attractive resources for low-cost raw materials for renewable energy, biofuels and biochemicals. However, like other sources of lignocellulosic biomass, straw is a heterogeneous material due to its mixed origin from different tissue and cell types. Here, to examine the genotypic effects on biorefinery usage of wheat straw, straw obtained from different wheat cultivars and experimental lines was pretreated with dilute acid. Significant differences between cultivars were observed in the concentrations of glucose and toxic by-products of the liquid hydrolysates...
January 17, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
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