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Genes & Genetic Systems

Kazuki Watanabe, Yuki Suzuki, Show Inami, Hirono Ohashi, Takaomi Sakai
In many animal species, females choose potential mating partners according to their own preferences. Thus, female preference-based mate choice affects intraspecific mating success and prevents interspecific mating. To clarify the neuronal basis of female mate choice, it is essential to identify the important relevant sensory cues. In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, the courtship song of males promotes female sexual receptivity. When wild-type virgin females can freely choose one of two types of courting males (winged or wingless males), they prefer to mate with winged males...
July 11, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Xianhui Ning, Liying Feng, Xue Li, Shuyue Wang, Mengran Zhang, Shi Wang, Lingling Zhang, Xiaoli Hu, Zhenmin Bao
Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding proteins (IMPs) function in localization, stability and translational control of their target RNAs. In this study, we identified an IMP gene (PyIMP) from Yesso scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis. The complete DNA sequence of PyIMP was 22,875 bp, consisting of seventeen exons and sixteen introns. The full-length cDNA sequence was 3,293 bp, with an open reading frame of 1,776 bp, encoding 592 amino acids. PyIMP exhibited characters typical of IMPs, namely two RNA recognition motifs and four hnRNP K homology domains...
July 11, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Ayumi Kudo, Takeshi Awasaki, Yukio Ishikawa, Takashi Matsuo
The development of transgenesis systems in non-model organisms provides a powerful tool for molecular analysis and contributes to the understanding of phenomena that are not observed in model organisms. Drosophila prolongata is a fruit fly that has unique morphology and behavior not found in other Drosophila species including D. melanogaster. In this study, we developed a phiC31 integrase-mediated transgenesis system for D. prolongata. First, using piggyBac-mediated transgenesis, 37 homozygous attP strains were established...
May 3, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Xinyu Xu, Xi Luo, Xiaoyi Wang, Hui Guo, Shuijin Hu
Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed in Plantago virginica, an invasive species in China with both cleistogamous and chasmogamous flowers, to investigate its genetic structure and mating patterns. Fourteen novel microsatellite primer sets were designed, and the marker loci they amplified were characterized in 96 individuals from four populations. Eleven of these markers showed polymorphism and the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to six. AMOVA and STRUCTURE indicated that there were distinct patterns of genetic differentiation among the one invasive and three native US populations...
May 3, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Mohadeseh Lotfi, Fatemeh Zare-Mirakabad, Soheila Montaseri
It has long been established that in addition to being involved in protein translation, RNA plays essential roles in numerous other cellular processes, including gene regulation and DNA replication. Such roles are known to be dictated by higher-order structures of RNA molecules. It is therefore of prime importance to find an RNA sequence that can fold to acquire a particular function that is desirable for use in pharmaceuticals and basic research. The challenge of finding an RNA sequence for a given structure is known as the RNA design problem...
May 3, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Akira Adachi, Satoshi Senmatsu, Ryuta Asada, Takuya Abe, Charles S Hoffman, Kunihiro Ohta, Kouji Hirota
Numerous noncoding RNA transcripts are detected in eukaryotic cells. Noncoding RNAs transcribed across gene promoters are involved in the regulation of mRNA transcription via chromatin modulation. This function of noncoding RNA transcription was first demonstrated for the fission yeast fbp1 gene, where a cascade of noncoding RNA transcription events induces chromatin remodeling to facilitate transcription factor binding. We recently demonstrated that the noncoding RNAs from the fbp1 upstream region facilitate binding of the transcription activator Atf1 and thereby promote histone acetylation...
May 3, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Hikari Matsumoto, Yukiko Yasui, Toshihiro Kumamaru, Hiro-Yuki Hirano
Leaf forms are diverse in angiosperms, and different types of cells are differentiated depending on the species. Rice leaves are composed of a leaf blade, a leaf sheath and the junction region between them. Cells with characteristic features, such as bulliform cells and sclerenchyma cells, are differentiated in the leaf blade, together with standard epidermal and mesophyll cells. To understand the genetic mechanism underlying leaf morphogenesis in rice, we focused on a mutant, half-pipe-like leaf1 (hal1), whose leaves are adaxially curled...
May 3, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Satoko Mori, Masatoshi Matsunami
Acceleration of the amino acid substitution rate is a good indicator of positive selection in adaptive evolutionary changes of functional genes. Genomic information about mammals has become readily available in recent years, as many researchers have attempted to clarify the adaptive evolution of mammals by examining evolutionary rate change based on multiple loci. The order Cetartiodactyla (Artiodactyla and Cetacea) is one of the most diverse orders of mammals. Species in this order are found throughout all continents and seas, except Antarctica, and they exhibit wide variation in morphology and habitat...
April 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Jianming Su, Hongyu Lei, Tiaoyi Xiao, Shuliang Cui
A full-length cDNA clone encoding grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) α1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor (Ci-AMBP) was isolated by subtracted differential hybridization screening from a liver cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence shared approximately 50% sequence identity with its mammalian counterparts, but more than 90% identity with another fish species. AMBPs are the precursors of the plasma glycoproteins α1-microglobulin (α1m) and bikunin. Both peptide structures and their chromosomal organization were well conserved in Ci-AMBP...
April 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Satoshi Matsuoka
Glyceroglycolipids are very important in Gram-positive bacteria and cyanobacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, a model organism for the Gram-positive bacteria, the ugtP mutant, which lacks glyceroglucolipids, shows abnormal morphology. Lack of glucolipids has many consequences: abnormal localization of the cytoskeletal protein MreB and activation of some extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors (σM , σV and σX ) in the log phase are two examples. Conversely, the expression of monoglucosyldiacylglycerol (MGlcDG) by 1,2-diacylglycerol 3-glucosyltransferase from Acholeplasma laidlawii (alMGS) almost completely suppresses the ugtP disruptant phenotype...
April 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Koichi Ishiguro, Saneyuki Higashino, Hideki Hirakawa, Shusei Sato, Yasunori Aizawa
Long interspersed element 1 (L1) retrotransposon sequences are widespread in the human genome, occupying ~500,000 locations. The majority of L1s have lost their retrotransposition capability, although a significant population of human L1s maintains bidirectional transcriptional activity from the internal promoter. While the sense promoter drives transcription of the entire L1 mRNA and leads to L1 retrotransposition, the antisense promoter (ASP) transcribes L1-gene chimeric RNAs that include neighboring exon sequences...
April 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Hirotoshi Shibuya, Ryutaro Watanabe, Akiteru Maeno, Kaoru Ichimura, Masaru Tamura, Shigeharu Wakana, Toshihiko Shiroishi, Koji Ohba, Kazuhisa Takeda, Hiroshi Tomita, Shigeki Shibahara, Hiroaki Yamamoto
Melanocytes develop from the vertebrate embryo-specific neural crest, migrate, and localize in various organs, including not only the skin but also several extracutaneous locations such as the heart, inner ear and choroid. Little is known about the functions of extracutaneous melanocytes except for cochlear melanocytes, which are essential for hearing ability. In this study, we focused on the structure of the choroid, in which melanocytes are abundant around the well-developed blood vascular system. By comparing structural differences in the choroid of wild-type and melanocyte-deficient Mitfmi-bw /Mitfmi-bw mutant mice, our observations suggest that choroidal melanocytes contribute to the morphogenesis and/or maintenance of the normal vasculature structure of that tissue...
April 2, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Hiromasa Tabata, Akihiro Koinui, Atsushi Ogura, Daisuke Nishihara, Hiroaki Yamamoto
Paired box (Pax) 6, a member of the Pax family of transcription factors, contains two DNA-binding domains, called the paired domain (PD) and the homeodomain (HD), and plays pivotal roles in development of structures such as the eye, central nervous system and pancreas. Pax6 is a major developmental switching molecule because, for example, ectopic expression of the Pax6 gene can induce ectopic whole eye development. Intensive research has been devoted to elucidating the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the function(s) of Pax6, but many issues remain unexplained...
April 2, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Ko Harada, Fifi Gus Dwiyanti, Huan-Zhen Liu, Yasunori Takeichi, Narumi Nakatani, Koichi Kamiya
Genetic variation and structure of Ubame oak (Quercus phillyraeoides A. Gray), a shrub tree on the Pacific coast of Japan, were examined to elucidate historical population dynamics using five chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) marker regions and 11 nuclear microsatellite loci. Three cpDNA haplotypes (A, B and C) were identified in a screen of 41 populations across the entire distribution range in Japan. Haplotype A was the most prevalent and was found in the entire range. Haplotype B was locally restricted to the Kii Peninsula, while haplotype C was restricted to the southwestern part of Japan...
April 2, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Wenqing Zhu, Xiaoguang Luo, Atif Adnan, Peifu Yu, Siyi Zhang, Zhixin Huo, Qin Xu, Hao Pang
Genome-wide association studies have reported numerous candidate loci associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). NUCKS1 and INPP5K are two such candidate loci, although they have rarely been reported in Asian populations. To explore these potential genes for PD susceptibility, we investigated the association between PD and two SNPs, rs823114 and rs1109303, located on the NUCKS1 and INPP5K genes, respectively, in the Han population of northern China. We genotyped the two SNPs using the multiplex PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) technique...
March 30, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Takahiko Kubo, Atsushi Yoshimura, Nori Kurata
Hybrid male sterility genes are important factors in creating postzygotic reproductive isolation barriers in plants. One such gene, S25, is known to cause severe transmission ratio distortion in inter-subspecific progeny of cultivated rice Oryza sativa ssp. indica and japonica. To further characterize the S25 gene, we fine-mapped and genetically characterized the S25 gene using near-isogenic lines with reciprocal genetic backgrounds. We mapped the S25 locus within the 0.67-1.02 Mb region on rice chromosome 12...
February 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Mikihiro Kase, Takayuki Shimizu, Keita Kamino, Kazuo Umetsu, Hideki Sugiyama, Takashi Kitano
The brown hagfish (Eptatretus atami) is one of several known hagfish species occurring in Japanese coastal waters. To date, there has been no research studying genetic polymorphisms in the species. In the present study, we analyzed differences in nucleotide sequences between two populations: one from Suruga Bay on the Pacific coast of Honshu, Japan, and the other from the Sea of Japan, off Akita on the northwest coast of Honshu. We sequenced part of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene (COX1) from the mitochondrial genome, and three G protein-coupled receptor genes from the nuclear genome...
February 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Ikuo Miura, Masataka Tagami, Takeshi Fujitani, Mitsuaki Ogata
The present study reports spontaneous tyrosinase gene mutations identified in oculocutaneous albinos of three Japanese wild frog species, Pelophylax nigromaculatus, Glandirana rugosa and Fejervarya kawamurai. This represents the first molecular analyses of albinic phenotypes in frogs. Albinos of P. nigromaculatus collected from two different populations were found to suffer from frameshift mutations. These mutations were caused by the insertion of a thymine residue within each of exons 1 and 4, while albinos in a third population lacked three nucleotides encoding lysine in exon 1...
February 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Sonam Mehrotra, Girish Deshpande
Adult stem cells are capable of both symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions. Asymmetric cell division allows self-renewal and gives rise to intermediate cells that ultimately differentiate into specific cell types. Consequently, adult stem cells play a key role in development and tissue homeostasis during the life span of an organism. Typically, adult stem cell divisions are regulated through coordination between non-autonomous signaling from the niche and cell-autonomous influences from stem cell-intrinsic factors...
February 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Xiaohan Shi, Yingxian Jia, Xiaochuan Xie, Shangwei Li
The associations between interleukin-12 (IL-12) gene polymorphisms and cancer risk have been discussed extensively, with controversial results. Therefore, we conducted the present meta-analysis to better assess the potential roles of IL-12 gene variation in cancer occurrence. Eligible articles were found via PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Google Scholar and CNKI. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to evaluate the associations between IL-12 gene polymorphisms and cancer risk. Thirty-one studies with 10,749 cancer patients and 11,921 healthy subjects were included in the analyses...
February 10, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
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