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Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803909/depletion-of-the-mitotic-kinase-cdc5p-in-candida-albicans-results-in-the-formation-of-elongated-buds-that-switch-to-the-hyphal-fate-over-time-in-a-ume6p-and-hgc1p-dependent-manner
#1
Amandeep Glory, Chloë Triplet van Oostende, Anja Geitmann, Catherine Bachewich
The fungal pathogen Candida albicans differentiates between yeast, hyphae and pseudohyphae in order to enhance survival in the human host. Environmental cues induce hyphal development and expression of hyphal-specific genes. Filaments also result from yeast cell cycle arrest, but the nature of these cells and their mechanisms of formation are less clear. We previously demonstrated that depletion of the mitotic polo-like kinase Cdc5p resulted in the production of filaments under yeast growth conditions that were distinct from hyphae with respect to several criteria, yet expressed hyphal-specific genes at later stages of development...
August 10, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803908/comparative-analysis-of-basidiomycete-transcriptomes-reveals-a-core-set-of-expressed-genes-encoding-plant-biomass-degrading-enzymes
#2
Mao Peng, Maria Victoria Aguilar-Pontes, Matthieu Hainaut, Bernard Henrissat, Kristiina Hildén, Miia R Mäkelä, Ronald P de Vries
Basidiomycete fungi can degrade a wide range of plant biomass, including living and dead trees, forest litter, crops, and plant matter in soils. Understanding the process of plant biomass decay by basidiomycetes could facilitate their application in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, detergent, and biofuels, and also provide new insights into their essential biological role in the global carbon cycle. The fast expansion of basidiomycete genomic and functional genomics data (e.g. transcriptomics, proteomics) has facilitated exploration of key genes and regulatory mechanisms of plant biomass degradation...
August 10, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803907/cu-sensing-transcription-factor-mac1-coordinates-with-the-ctr-transporter-family-to-regulate-cu-acquisition-and-virulence-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#3
Zhendong Cai, Wenlong Du, Qiuqiong Zeng, Nanbiao Long, Chuanchao Dai, Ling Lu
Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element and is regarded as an important virulence factor in fungal pathogens. Previous studies suggest that a putative Cu-sensing transcription factor Mac1 and the Cu transporter Ctr family play important roles during fungal development and virulence. However, how Cu importers of the Ctr family are involved in the Cu acquisition and what is the functional relationship between them have not been fully investigated yet. Here, we demonstrate that the yeast Mac1 homolog in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus is required during colony development under low Cu conditions...
August 10, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778753/fvset2-regulates-fungal-growth-pathogenicity-and-secondary-metabolism-in-fusarium-verticillioides
#4
Qin Gu, Zhenzhong Wang, Xiao Sun, Tiantian Ji, Hai Huang, Yang Yang, Hao Zhang, Hafiz Abdul Samad Tahir, Liming Wu, Huijun Wu, Xuewen Gao
Histone H3 lysine 36 methylation (H3K36me) is generally associated with activation of gene expression in most eukaryotic cells. However, the function of H3K36me in filamentous fungi is largely unknown. Set2 is the sole lysine histone methyltransferase (KHMTase) enzyme responsible for the methylation of H3K36 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the current study, we identified a single ortholog of S. cerevisiae Set2 in Fusarium verticillioides. We report that FvSet2 is responsible for the trimethylation of H3K36 (H3K36me3)...
August 1, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754285/dynamics-of-parasitophorous-vacuoles-formed-by-the-microsporidian-pathogen-encephalitozoon-cuniculi
#5
Soo Chan Lee, Joseph Heitman
It has been a long-standing debate if sexual development occurs in the microsporidian lineages. Previous studies, including morphological observations, ploidy analysis, and the presence of a sex-related locus, provided evidence of possible extant of sexual development. This study presents another line of evidence by monitoring the parasitophorous vacuoles (PVs) formed by Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Time lapse observations of infection cycles of E. cuniculi revealed that multiple PVs can be formed in a single host cell and the PVs in the single cell can merge (fusion) or split (fission)...
July 25, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754284/temporal-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-white-rot-fungus-obba-rivulosa-shows-expression-of-a-constitutive-set-of-plant-cell-wall-degradation-targeted-genes-during-growth-on-solid-spruce-wood
#6
Mila Marinović, Maria Victoria Aguilar-Pontes, Miaomiao Zhou, Otto Miettinen, Ronald P de Vries, Miia R Mäkelä, Kristiina Hildén
The basidiomycete white-rot fungus Obba rivulosa, a close relative of Gelatoporia (Ceriporiopsis) subvermispora, is an efficient degrader of softwood. The dikaryotic O. rivulosa strain T241i (FBCC949) has been shown to selectively remove lignin from spruce wood prior to depolymerization of plant cell wall polysaccharides, thus possessing potential in biotechnological applications such as pretreatment of wood in pulp and paper industry. In this work, we studied the time-course of the conversion of spruce by the genome-sequenced monokaryotic O...
July 25, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736299/n-acetylglucosamine-the-building-block-of-chitin-inhibits-growth-of-neurospora-crassa
#7
Romana Gaderer, Verena Seidl-Seiboth, Ronald P de Vries, Bernhard Seiboth, Lisa Kappel
N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is the monomer of the polysaccharide chitin, an essential structural component of the fungal cell wall and the arthropod exoskeleton. We recently showed that the genes encoding the enzymes for GlcNAc catabolism are clustered in several ascomycetes. In the present study we tested these fungi for growth on GlcNAc and chitin. All fungi, containing the GlcNAc gene cluster, could grow on GlcNAc with the exception of four independent Neurospora crassa wild-type isolates, which were however able to grow on chitin...
July 20, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728987/genetic-analysis-of-virulence-in-the-pyrenophora-teres-f-teres-population-bb25%C3%A3-fgoh04ptt-21
#8
Vaidehi M Koladia, Jonathan K Richards, Nathan A Wyatt, Justin D Faris, Robert S Brueggeman, Timothy L Friesen
Pyrenophora teres f. teres is the causal agent of net form net blotch (NFNB) of barley. In order to map the genetics of avirulence/virulence in P. teres f. teres, a fungal population was developed using P. teres f. teres isolates BB25 (Denmark) and FGOH04Ptt-21 (North Dakota, USA) due to these two isolates differing in virulence on several common barley lines. 109 progeny isolates were obtained from the BB25 by FGOH04Ptt-21 cross that were then used for NFNB disease evaluation across eight barley lines, four of which have been used commonly as NFNB differential lines as well as four cultivars commonly used in barley production in the Northern Great Plains...
July 17, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694096/a-role-for-random-humidity-dependent-epiphytic-growth-prior-to-invasion-of-wheat-by-zymoseptoria-tritici
#9
Helen N Fones, Chris J Eyles, William Kay, Josh Cowper, Sarah J Gurr
Zymoseptoria tritici causes Septoria leaf blotch of wheat. The prevailing paradigm of the Z. tritici-wheat interaction assumes fungal ingress through stomata within 24-48h, followed by days of symptomless infection. This is extrapolated from studies testing the mode of fungal ingress under optimal infection conditions. Here, we explicitly assess the timing of entry, using GFP-tagged Z. tritici. We show that early entry is comparatively rare, and extended epiphytic growth possible. We test the hypotheses that our data diverge from earlier studies due to: i...
July 8, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690095/evolution-of-polyketide-synthesis-in-a-dothideomycete-forest-pathogen
#10
I Kutay Ozturk, Pranav Chettri, Pierre-Yves Dupont, Irene Barnes, Rebecca L McDougal, Geromy G Moore, Andre Sim, Rosie E Bradshaw
Fungal secondary metabolites have many important biological roles and some, like the toxic polyketide aflatoxin, have been intensively studied at the genetic level. Complete sets of polyketide synthase (PKS) genes can now be identified in fungal pathogens by whole genome sequencing and studied in order to predict the biosynthetic potential of those fungi. The pine needle pathogen Dothistroma septosporum is predicted to have only three functional PKS genes, a small number for a hemibiotrophic fungus. One of these genes is required for production of dothistromin, a polyketide virulence factor related to aflatoxin, whose biosynthetic genes are dispersed across one chromosome rather than being clustered...
July 6, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676260/quantitative-itraq-based-secretome-analysis-reveals-species-specific-and-temporal-shifts-in-carbon-utilization-strategies-among-manganese-ii-oxidizing-ascomycete-fungi
#11
Carolyn A Zeiner, Samuel O Purvine, Erika M Zink, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Dominique L Chaput, Si Wu, Cara M Santelli, Colleen M Hansel
Fungi generate a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes and reactive metabolites, collectively known as the secretome, that synergistically drive plant litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates, particularly filamentous Ascomycetes, or directly compared temporal patterns of enzyme utilization among diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon (C) degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood...
July 1, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666924/role-of-carbon-source-in-the-shift-from-oxidative-to-hydrolytic-wood-decomposition-by-postia-placenta
#12
Jiwei Zhang, Jonathan S Schilling
Brown rot fungi initiate wood decay using oxidative pretreatments to improve access for cellulolytic enzymes. These pretreatments are incompatible with enzymes, and we recently showed that Postia placenta overcomes this issue by delaying glycoside hydrolase (GH) gene upregulation briefly (<48h) until expression of oxidoreductases (ORs) is repressed. This implies an inducible cellulase system rather than a constitutive system, as often reported, and it remains unclear what cues this transition. To address this, we grew P...
June 27, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648816/how-light-affects-the-life-of-botrytis
#13
REVIEW
Julia Schumacher
Fungi, like other organisms, actively sense the environmental light conditions in order to drive adaptive responses, including protective mechanisms against the light-associated stresses, and to regulate development. Ecological niches are characterized by different light regimes, for instance light is absent underground, and light spectra from the sunlight are changed underwater or under the canopy of foliage due to the absorption of distinct wavelengths by bacterial, algal and plant pigments. Considering the fact that fungi have evolved to adapt to their habitats, the complexities of their 'visual' systems may vary significantly...
June 23, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602831/species-boundaries-in-the-human-pathogen-paracoccidioides
#14
David A Turissini, Oscar M Gomez, Marcus M Teixeira, Juan G McEwen, Daniel R Matute
The use of molecular taxonomy for identifying recently diverged species has transformed the study of speciation in fungi. The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides spp has been hypothesized to be composed of five phylogenetic species, four of which compose the brasiliensis species complex. Nuclear gene genealogies support this divergence scenario, but mitochondrial loci do not; while all species from the brasiliensis complex are differentiated at nuclear coding loci, they are not at mitochondrial loci. We addressed the source of this incongruity using 11 previously published gene fragments, 10 newly-sequenced nuclear non-coding loci, and 10 microsatellites...
June 9, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602830/phenotypic-analysis-of-newly-isolated-short-lifespan-neurospora-crassa-mutant-deficient-in-a-high-mobility-group-box-protein
#15
Ryouhei Yoshihara, ZhengHao Li, Keisuke Ishimori, Kazuki Kuwabara, Shin Hatakeyama, Shuuitsu Tanaka
To elucidate genetic mechanisms affecting the lifespan of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, we attempted to identify a gene of which a defect causes a short-lifespan. By screening a Neurospora knockout library, provided by the Fungal Genetics Stock Center at Kansas State University, several KO strains with a short-lifespan were isolated. FGSC#11693 is one of these, which shows similar phenotypes to known Neurospora short-lifespan mutants as follows: 1) hyphal growth ceases after about 2weeks of cultivation, despite that of the wild-type continuing for over 2years, 2) viability of conidia is lower than that of the wild-type, and 3) high sensitivity to mutagens such as methyl methanesulfonate, ultraviolet radiation, and hydroxyl urea is exhibited...
June 8, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576657/wish-a-novel-cfem-gpcr-is-indispensable-for-surface-sensing-asexual-and-pathogenic-differentiation-in-rice-blast-fungus
#16
Nazmiara Sabnam, Subhankar Roy Barman
We have selected and characterized a unique Conserved Fungal-specific Extra-cellular Membrane-spanning (CFEM) domain containing PTH11 like G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), which is responsible for Water wettability, Infection, Surface sensing and Hyper-conidiation (WISH). The pathogenicity gene WISH is predicted to encode a novel seven transmembrane protein in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, one of the deadliest pathogens of rice. We generated knockout mutants through a homologous recombination-based method to understand the function of the gene...
May 31, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559109/real-time-visualization-of-immune-cell-clearance-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-spores-and-hyphae
#17
Benjamin P Knox, Anna Huttenlocher, Nancy P Keller
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a disease of the immunocompromised host and generally caused by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. While both host and fungal factors contribute to disease severity and outcome, there are fundamental features of IA development including fungal morphological transition from infectious conidia to tissue-penetrating hyphae as well as host defenses rooted in mechanisms of innate phagocyte function. Here we address recent advances in the field and use real-time in vivo imaging in the larval zebrafish to visually highlight conserved vertebrate innate immune behaviors including macrophage phagocytosis of conidia and neutrophil responses post-germination...
May 27, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552364/rna-seq-analysis-of-the-role-of-calcium-chloride-stress-and-electron-transport-in-mitochondria-for-malachite-green-decolorization-by-aspergillus-niger
#18
Ola M Gomaa, Nabila S Selim, Josephine Wee, John E Linz
Aspergillus niger was previously demonstrated to decolorize the commercial dye malachite green (MG) and this process was enhanced under calcium chloride (CaCl2) treatment. Previous data also suggested that the decolorization process is related to mitochondrial cytochrome c. In the current work, we analyzed in depth the specific relationship between CaCl2 treatment and MG decolorization. Gene expression analysis (RNA Seq) using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) revealed up-regulation of 28 genes that are directly or indirectly associated with stress response functions as early as 30min of CaCl2 treatment; these data further strengthen our previous findings that CaCl2 treatment induces a stress response in A...
May 24, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579390/fluorescent-markers-of-various-organelles-in-the-wheat-pathogen-zymoseptoria-tritici
#19
S Kilaru, M Schuster, W Ma, G Steinberg
Development of novel strategies to control fungal plant pathogens requires understanding of their cellular organisation and biology. Live cell imaging of fluorescent organelle markers has provided valuable insight into various aspects of their cell biology, including invasion strategies in plant pathogenic fungi. Here, we introduce a set of 17 vectors that encode fluorescent markers to visualize the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), chromosomes, the actin cytoskeleton, peroxisomes and autophagosomes in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici...
August 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552321/vital-role-for-cyclophilin-b-cypb-in-asexual-development-dimorphic-transition-and-virulence-of-beauveria-bassiana
#20
Zhen-Jian Chu, Huan-Huan Sun, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Cyclophilin B (CypB) was previously revealed as one of many putative secretory proteins in the transcriptome of Beauveria bassiana infection to a lepidopteran pest. Here we show a main localization of CypB in hyphal cell walls and septa and its essential role in the in vitro and in vivo asexual cycles of the fungal insect pathogen. Deletion of cypB reduced colony growth by 16-42% on two rich media and 30 scant media with different carbon or nitrogen sources. The deletion mutant suffered a delayed conidiation on a standard medium and a final 47% reduction in conidial yield, accompanied with drastic transcript depression of several key genes required for conidiation and conidial maturation...
August 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
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