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Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512016/mechanism-of-action-of-amp-jsa9-a-li-f-type-antimicrobial-peptide-produced-by-paenibacillus-polymyxa-jsa-9-against-fusarium-moniliforme
#1
Jinzhi Han, Fang Wang, Peng Gao, Zhi Ma, Shengming Zhao, Zhaoxin Lu, Fengxia Lv, Xiaomei Bie
LI-F type peptides (AMP-jsa9) are a group of cyclic lipodepsipeptides that exhibit broad antimicrobial spectrum against Gram-positive bacteria and filamentous fungi. We sought to assess the toxicity of AMP-jsa9 and the mechanism of AMP-jsa9 action against Fusarium moniliforme. AMP-jsa9 exhibited weak hemolytic activity and weak cytotoxicity at antimicrobial concentrations (32μg/ml). Confocal laser microscopy, SEM, and TEM indicated that AMP-jsa9 primarily targets the cell wall, plasma membrane, and cytoskeleton, increases membranepermeability, and enhances cytoplasm leakage (e...
May 13, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442441/aspergillus-flavus-aswa-a-gene-homolog-of-aspergillus-nidulans-oefc-regulates-sclerotial-development-and-biosynthesis-of-sclerotium-associated-secondary-metabolites
#2
Perng-Kuang Chang, Leslie L Scharfenstein, Robert W Li, Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares, Sarah De Saeger, José Diana Di Mavungu
Aspergillus flavus aswA (AFLA_085170) is a gene encoding a Zn(II)2Cys6 DNA-binding domain and a transcriptional activation domain, DUF3468. Disruption of aswA yielded strains that made a truncated gene transcript and generated a fungus that produced a greatly increased number of sclerotia. These sclerotia were odd-shaped and non-pigmented (white) and different from oval and pigmented (dark brown to black) mature sclerotia. Transcriptomic analysis of the ΔaswA strain grown on potato dextrose agar plates and Wickerham agar plates showed that expression of clustering genes involved in the biosynthesis of three sclerotium-associated secondary metabolites was down-regulated...
April 22, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438577/genomic-cg-dinucleotide-deficiencies-associated-with-transposable-element-hypermutation-in-basidiomycetes-some-lower-fungi-a-moss-and-a-clubmoss
#3
A John Clutterbuck
Many Basidiomycete genomes include substantial fractions that are deficient in CG dinucleotides, in extreme cases amounting to 70% of the genome. CG deficiency is variable and correlates with genome size and, more closely, with transposable element (TE) content. Many species have limited CG deficiency; it is therefore likely that there are other mechanisms that can control TE proliferation. Examination of TEs confirms that C-to-T transition mutations in CG dinucleotides may comprise a conspicuous proportion of differences between paired elements, however transition/transversion ratios are never as high as those due to RIP in some Ascomycetes, suggesting that repeat-associated CG mutation is not totally pervasive...
April 21, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435030/the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-glslt2-regulates-fungal-growth-fruiting-body-development-cell-wall-integrity-oxidative-stress-and-ganoderic-acid-biosynthesis-in-ganoderma-lucidum
#4
Guang Zhang, Zehua Sun, Ang Ren, Liang Shi, Dengke Shi, Xiongbiao Li, Mingwen Zhao
The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are crucial signaling instruments in eukaryotes that play key roles in regulating fungal growth, development, and secondary metabolism and in adapting to the environment. In this study, we characterized an Slt2-type MAPK in Ganoderma lucidum, GlSlt2, which was transcriptionally induced during the primordium and fruiting body stages. RNA interference was used to examine the function of GlSlt2. Knockdown of GlSlt2 caused defects in growth and increased hyphal branching as well as hypersensitivity to cell wall-disturbing substances...
April 18, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427933/high-molecular-weight-genomic-dna-mini-prep-for-filamentous-fungi
#5
Mi-Kyung Lee, Hee-Soo Park, Kap-Hoon Han, Seung-Beom Hong, Jae-Hyuk Yu
Purification of high quality genomic DNA (gDNA) from filamentous fungi suitable for whole genome sequencing has previously involved many steps. Here, we report a simple and easy-to-follow mini-preparation protocol for high molecular weight (∼20kb) gDNA from filamentous fungi including Aspergillus and Eurotium. This comprehensive protocol includes graphic step-by-step instructions for inoculation, homogenization, and purification of gDNA. The most critical step is a thorough 3-5min homogenization of the freeze-dried mycelium using a motorized hand-held homogenizer with a mini spatula inserted...
April 18, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288883/insights-regarding-fungal-phosphoproteomic-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Liliane F C Ribeiro, Cynthia L Chelius, Steven D Harris, Mark R Marten
Protein phosphorylation is a major means of regulation for cellular processes, and is important in cell signaling, growth, and cell proliferation. To study phosphorylated proteins, high throughput phosphoproteomic technologies, such as reverse phase protein array, phospho-specific flow cytometry, and mass spectrometry (MS) based technologies, have been developed. Among them, mass spectrometry has become the primary tool employed for the identification of phosphoproteins and phosphosites in fungi, leading to an improved understanding of a number of signaling pathways...
March 10, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285007/genetic-and-biochemical-characterization-of-the-gh72-family-of-cell-wall-transglycosylases-in-neurospora-crassa
#7
Jie Ao, Stephen J Free
The Neurospora crassa genome encodes five GH72 family transglycosylases, and four of these enzymes (GEL-1, GEL-2, GEL-3 and GEL-5) have been found to be present in the cell wall proteome. We carried out an extensive genetic analysis on the role of these four transglycosylases in cell wall biogenesis and demonstrated that the transglycosylases are required for the formation of a normal cell wall. As suggested by the proteomic analysis, we found that multiple transglycosylases were being expressed in N. crassa cells and that different combinations of the enzymes are required in different cell types...
March 8, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285895/transcriptomic-analysis-of-basidiocarp-development-in-ustilago-maydis-dc-cda
#8
C G León-Ramírez, J L Cabrera-Ponce, D Martínez-Soto, A Sánchez-Arreguin, E T Aréchiga-Carvajal, J Ruiz-Herrera
Previously, we demonstrated that when Ustilago maydis (DC) Cda., a phytopathogenic basidiomycete and the causal agent of corn smut, is grown in the vicinity of maize embryogenic calli in a medium supplemented with the herbicide Dicamba, it developed gastroid-like basidiocarps. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the basidiocarp development by the fungus, we proceeded to analyze the transcriptome of the process, identifying a total of 2002 and 1064 differentially expressed genes at two developmental stages, young and mature basidiocarps, respectively...
March 7, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412478/mitochondrial-and-peroxisomal-lon-proteases-play-opposing-roles-in-reproduction-and-growth-but-co-function-in-the-normal-development-stress-resistance-and-longevity-of-thermomyces-lanuginosus
#9
Xiao Cui, Yi Wei, Xiang-Li Xie, Li-Na Chen, Shi-Hong Zhang
The ATP-dependent Lon enzyme is a highly conserved protease with multiple roles in diverse species such as fungi; however, there are few reports on Lon enzymes in filamentous fungi. Thermomyces lanuginosus, a typical thermophilic fungus, has been widely studied in physiology and cell biology; thus, studies on Thermomyces Lons are important. Two Lons were bioinformatically deduced in T. lanuginosus. Subcellular localization analysis showed that one is present in mitochondria (MLon), while the other is found in peroxisomes (PLon)...
June 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392426/population-genetic-structure-and-mycotoxin-potential-of-the-wheat-crown-rot-and-head-blight-pathogen-fusarium-culmorum-in-algeria
#10
Imane Laraba, Houda Boureghda, Nora Abdallah, Oussama Bouaicha, Friday Obanor, Antonio Moretti, David M Geiser, Hye-Seon Kim, Susan P McCormick, Robert H Proctor, Amy C Kelly, Todd J Ward, Kerry O'Donnell
Surveys for crown rot (FCR) and head blight (FHB) of Algerian wheat conducted during 2014 and 2015 revealed that Fusarium culmorum strains producing 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON) or nivalenol (NIV) were the causal agents of these important diseases. Morphological identification of the isolates (n FCR=110, n FHB=30) was confirmed by sequencing a portion of TEF1. To assess mating type idiomorph, trichothecene chemotype potential and global population structure, the Algerian strains were compared with preliminary sample of F...
June 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376389/identification-and-characterization-of-the-verticillin-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-in-clonostachys-rogersoniana
#11
Ying Wang, Pengjie Hu, Yuanyuan Pan, Yaxin Zhu, Xingzhong Liu, Yongsheng Che, Gang Liu
Verticillin is one of the dimeric epipolythiodioxopiperazines (ETPs) which are toxic secondary metabolites produced only by fungi. ETPs have received substantial attention since its complex molecular architecture and a wide range of biological activities. Although biosynthesis of the monomeric gliotoxin has been studied extensively, the biosynthetic pathway of dimeric ETPs is far from being studied. To investigate the biosynthesis of dimeric ETPs and expand our understanding of their dimerization, the verticillin biosynthetic gene cluster (ver) was identified and cloned from a genomic DNA fosmid library of the Cordyceps-colonizing fungus Clonostachys rogersoniana with the designed primers based on the sequence of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) ChaP which was predicted to be responsible for chaetocin biosynthesis in Chaetomium virescens...
June 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351675/spatial-organization-of-organelles-in-fungi-insights-from-mathematical-modelling
#12
Congping Lin, Gero Steinberg
Mathematical modelling in cellular systems aims to describe biological processes in a quantitative manner. Most accurate modelling is based on robust experimental data. Here we review recent progress in the theoretical description of motor behaviour, early endosome motility, ribosome distribution and peroxisome transport in the fungal model system Ustilago maydis and illustrate the power of modelling in our quest to understand molecular details and cellular roles of membrane trafficking in filamentous fungi...
June 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336393/contributions-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-to-cellular-morphology-sporulation-and-virulence-in-the-insect-fungal-pathogen-metarhizium-acridum
#13
Jie Zhang, Kai Jin, Yuxian Xia
β-tubulin is an elementary subunit of microtubules that form the cytoskeleton, participating in a wide range of cellular processes. The contributions of the single β-tubulin gene in affecting cell morphology, sporulation and virulence were examined in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum. Targeted gene knockout of β-tubulin resulted in resistance to benomyl but impaired proper nuclear segregation, lipid droplet transport, and deposition of chitin to the cell wall. M. acridum β-tubulin mutants displayed wavy hyphal growth and densely packed, wrinkled colonies...
June 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315405/location-and-functional-analysis-of-the-aspergillus-nidulans-aurora-kinase-confirm-mitotic-functions-and-suggest-non-mitotic-roles
#14
Colin P De Souza, Shahr B Hashmi, Natalie Hage, Rebecca M Fitch, Aysha H Osmani, Stephen A Osmani
Filamentous fungi have devastating negative impacts as pathogens and agents of food spoilage but also have critical ecological importance and are utilized for industrial applications. The characteristic multinucleate nature of filamentous fungi is facilitated by limiting if, when and where septation, the fungal equivalent of cytokinesis, occurs. In the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans septation does not occur immediately after mitosis and is an incomplete process resulting in the formation of a septal pore whose permeability is cell cycle regulated...
June 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286319/establishment-of-crispr-cas9-in-alternaria-alternata
#15
Maximilian Wenderoth, Christoph Pinecker, Benjamin Voß, Reinhard Fischer
The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata is a potent producer of many secondary metabolites, some of which like alternariol or alternariol-methyl ether are toxic and/or cancerogenic. Many Alternaria species do not only cause post-harvest losses of food and feed, but are aggressive plant pathogens. Despite the great economic importance and the large number of research groups working with the fungus, the molecular toolbox is rather underdeveloped. Gene deletions often result in heterokaryotic strains and therefore, gene-function analyses are rather tedious...
April 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108400/overexpression-of-a-three-gene-conidial-pigment-biosynthetic-pathway-in-aspergillus-nidulans-reveals-the-first-nrps-known-to-acetylate-tryptophan
#16
Calvin T Sung, Shu-Lin Chang, Ruth Entwistle, Green Ahn, Tzu-Shyang Lin, Vessela Petrova, Hsu-Hua Yeh, Mike B Praseuth, Yi-Ming Chiang, Berl R Oakley, Clay C C Wang
Fungal nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are megasynthetases that produce cyclic and acyclic peptides. In Aspergillus nidulans, the NRPS ivoA (AN10576) has been associated with the biosynthesis of grey-brown conidiophore pigments. Another gene, ivoB (AN0231), has been demonstrated to be an N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan oxidase that putatively acts downstream of IvoA. A third gene, ivoC, has also been predicted to be involved in pigment biosynthesis based on publicly available genomic and transcriptomic information...
April 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093309/paracoccidioides-spp-catalases-and-their-role-in-antioxidant-defense-against-host-defense-responses
#17
Diana Tamayo, José F Muñoz, Agostinho J Almeida, Juan D Puerta, Ángela Restrepo, Christina A Cuomo, Juan G McEwen, Orville Hernández
Dimorphic human pathogenic fungi interact with host effector cells resisting their microbicidal mechanisms. Yeast cells are able of surviving within the tough environment of the phagolysosome by expressing an antioxidant defense system that provides protection against host-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). This includes the production of catalases (CATs). Here we identified and analyzed the role of CAT isoforms in Paracoccidioides, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Firstly, we found that one of these isoforms was absent in the closely related dimorphic pathogen Coccidioides and dermatophytes, but all of them were conserved in Paracoccidioides, Histoplasma and Blastomyces species...
March 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089630/the-aspergillus-nidulans-pbp1-homolog-is-required-for-normal-sexual-development-and-secondary-metabolism
#18
Alexandra A Soukup, Gregory J Fischer, Jerry Luo, Nancy P Keller
P bodies and stress granules are RNA-containing structures governing mRNA degradation and translational arrest, respectively. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pbp1 protein localizes to stress granules and promotes their formation and is involved in proper polyadenylation, suppression of RNA-DNA hybrids, and preventing aberrant rDNA recombination. A genetic screen for Aspergillus nidulans mutants aberrant in secondary metabolism identified the Pbp1 homolog, PbpA. Using Dcp1 (mRNA decapping) as a marker for P-body formation and FabM (Pab1, poly-A binding protein) to track stress granule accumulation, we examine the dynamics of RNA granule formation in A...
March 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232095/mixed-colonies-of-aspergillus-niger-and-aspergillus-oryzae-cooperatively-degrading-wheat-bran
#19
I Benoit-Gelber, T Gruntjes, A Vinck, J G van Veluw, H A B Wösten, S Boeren, J J M Vervoort, R P de Vries
In both natural and man-made environments, microorganisms live in mixed populations, while in laboratory conditions monocultures are mainly used. Microbial interactions are often described as antagonistic, but can also be neutral or cooperative, and are generally associated with a metabolic change of each partner and cause a change in the pattern of produced bioactive molecules. A. niger and A. oryzae are two filamentous fungi widely used in industry to produce various enzymes (e.g. pectinases, amylases) and metabolites (e...
February 20, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216441/the-dynamics-of-signal-complex-formation-mediating-germling-fusion-in-neurospora-crassa
#20
Antonio Serrano, Hamzeh H Hammadeh, Stephanie Herzog, Julia Illgen, Marcel R Schumann, Martin Weichert, André Fleiβner
Colony initiation of filamentous fungi commonly involves fusion of germinating vegetative spores. Studies in Neurospora crassa revealed an unusual cell-cell communication mechanism mediating this process, in which the fusion partners coordinately alternate between two physiological stages, probably related to signal sending and receiving. This "cell dialog" involves the alternating, oscillatory recruitment of the SO protein and the MAK-2 MAP kinase module to the apical plasma membrane of growing fusion tips...
February 16, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
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