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Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B

Lucia Rochi, María José Diéguez, Germán Burguener, Martín Alejandro Darino, María Fernanda Pergolesi, Lorena Romina Ingala, Alba Romina Cuyeu, Adrián Turjanski, Enrique Domingo Kreff, Francisco Sacco
Rust fungi are one of the most devastating pathogens of crop plants. The biotrophic fungus Puccinia sorghi Schwein (Ps) is responsible for maize common rust, an endemic disease of maize (Zea mays L) in Argentina that causes significant yield losses in corn production. In spite of this, the Ps genomic sequence was not available. We used Illumina sequencing to rapidly produce the 99.6 Mb draft genome sequence of Ps race RO10H11247, derived from a single-uredinial isolate from infected maize leaves collected in the Argentine Corn Belt Region during 2010...
October 13, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Antoine Porquier, Guillaume Morgant, Javier Moraga, Bérengère Dalmais, Isabelle Luyten, Adeline Simon, Jean-Marc Pradier, Joëlle Amselem, Isidro González Collado, Muriel Viaud
Botrydial (BOT) is a non-host specific phytotoxin produced by the polyphagous phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. The genomic region of the BOT biosynthetic gene cluster was investigated and revealed two additional genes named Bcbot6 and Bcbot7. Analysis revealed that the G+C/A+T-equilibrated regions that contain the Bcbot genes alternate with A+T-rich regions made of relics of transposable elements that have undergone repeat-induced point mutations (RIP). Furthermore, BcBot6, a Zn(II)2Cys6 putative transcription factor was identified as a nuclear protein and the major positive regulator of BOT biosynthesis...
October 6, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Janneke Aylward, Emma T Steenkamp, Léanne L Dreyer, Francois Roets, Michael J Wingfield, Brenda D Wingfield
Sexual reproduction is necessary to generate genetic diversity and, in ascomycete fungi, this process is controlled by a mating type (MAT) locus with two complementary idiomorphs. Knoxdaviesia capensis and K. proteae (Sordariomycetes; Microascales; Gondwanamycetaceae) are host-specific saprophytic fungi that show high population diversity within their Protea plant hosts in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. We hypothesise that this diversity is the result of outcrossing driven by a heterothallic mating system and sought to describe the MAT1 loci of both species...
October 5, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Ray F David, Michael Reinisch, Frances Trail, Linsey C Marr, David G Schmale
The plant pathogenic ascomycete Fusarium graminearum produces perithecia on corn and small grain residues. These perithecia forcibly discharge ascospores into the atmosphere. Little is known about the relationship among the strength of the perithecial wall, the age of the perithecium, and the quantity of ascospores produced. We used a mechanical compression testing instrument to examine the structural failure rate of perithecial walls from three different strains of F. graminearum (two wild type strains, and a mutant strain unable to produce asci)...
September 28, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Xin Xu, Yonglin Wang, Chengming Tian, Yingmei Liang
Rho GTPases regulate morphology and multiple cellular functions such as asexual development, polarity establishment, and differentiation in fungi. To determine the roles of CgRhoB, a Rho GTPase protein, here we characterized CgRhoB in the poplar anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. First of all, we determined that conidial germination was inhibited and intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) level was increased in the CgRhoB deletion mutants. Loss of CgRhoB resulted in shorter germ tubes and enhanced appressoria formation after germination on the hydrophobic surface...
September 23, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Shohei Kotani, Sho Izawa, Noriyuki Komai, Ayumi Takayanagi, Manabu Arioka
In mammals, cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2s) play important physiological roles by releasing arachidonic acid, a precursor for bioactive lipid mediators, from the biological membranes. In contrast, fungal cPLA2-like proteins are much less characterized and their roles have remained elusive. AoPlaA is a cPLA2-like protein in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae which, unlike mammalian cPLA2, localizes to mitochondria. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and physiological functions of AoPlaA...
September 12, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Avinash V Karpe, Vijay V Dhamale, Paul D Morrison, David J Beale, Ian H Harding, Enzo A Palombo
To increase the efficiency of winery-derived biomass biodegradation, grape pomace was ultrasonicated for 20 minutes in the presence of 0.25 M, 0.5 M and 1.0 M KOH and 1.0 M NaOH. This was followed by treatment with a 1:1 (v/v) mix of crude enzyme preparation derived from Phanerochaete chrysosprium and Trametes versicolor for 18 hours and a further 18 hour treatment with a 60:14:4:2 precent ratio combination of enzymes derived from Aspergillus niger: Penicillium chrysogenum: Trichoderma harzianum: P. citrinum, repsectively...
September 3, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Daniela Freihorst, Melanie Brunsch, Sophia Wirth, Katrin Krause, Olaf Kniemeyer, Jörg Linde, Maritta Kunert, Wilhelm Boland, Erika Kothe
Mushrooms, such as Schizophyllum commune, have a specific odor. Whether this is linked to mating, prerequisite for mushroom formation, or also found in monokaryotic, unmated strains, was investigated with a comprehensive study on the transcriptome and proteome of this model organism. Mating interactions were investigated using a complete, cytosolic proteome map for unmated, monokaryotic, as well as for mated, dikaryotic mycelia. The regulations of the proteome were compared to transcriptional changes upon mating and to changes in smell by volatilome studies...
September 1, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Gerald N Presley, Jiwei Zhang, Jonathan S Schilling
Wood-degrading fungi that selectively remove carbohydrates (brown rot) combine Fenton-based oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis to degrade wood. These two steps are incompatible in close proximity. To explain this, brown rot fungi may stagger oxidative reactions ahead of hydrolysis, but the scale and environmental controls for such a mechanism have not been resolved in solid wood. Here, we focused on one reaction control parameter, oxalate. In coordination with Fe(3+)-reducing compounds (e.g., 2,5 dimethoxyhydroquinone), oxalate can either promote Fenton chemistry by mobilizing Fe(3+) as mono-oxalates (facilitative) or inhibit Fenton chemistry (protective) by restricting reducibility and the formation of Fenton's reagent as Fe(3+)/Fe(2)-(oxalate)2,3...
August 16, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Kristin Schulz-Bohm, Olaf Tyc, Wietse de Boer, Nils Peereboom, Fons Debets, Niels Zaagman, Thierry K S Janssens, Paolina Garbeva
Bacterial-fungal interactions are widespread in nature and there is a growing number of studies reporting distinct fungus-associated bacteria. However, little is known so far about how shifts in the fungus-associated bacteriome will affect the fungal host's lifestyle. In the present study, we describe for the first time the bacterial community associated with the saprotrophic fungus Mucor hiemalis, commonly found in soil and rhizosphere. Two broad-spectrum antibiotics that strongly altered the bacterial community associated with the fungus were applied...
July 30, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Yingjiao Sun, Yonglin Wang, Chengming Tian
Yeast AP1 transcription factor is a regulator of oxidative stress response. Here, we report the identification and characterization of CgAP1, an ortholog of YAP1 in poplar anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The expression of CgAP1 was highly induced by reactive oxygen species. CgAP1 deletion mutants displayed enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress compared with the wild-type strain, and their poplar leaf virulence was obviously reduced. However, the mutants exhibited no obvious defects in aerial hyphal growth, conidia production, and appressoria formation...
October 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Shermineh Shahi, Like Fokkens, Petra M Houterman, Martijn Rep
Heterokaryon formation is an essential step in asexual recombination in Fusarium oxysporum. Filamentous fungi have an elaborate nonself recognition machinery to prevent formation and proliferation of heterokaryotic cells, called heterokaryon incompatibility (HI). In F. oxysporum the regulation of this machinery is not well understood. In Neurospora crassa, Vib-1, a putative transcription factor of the p53-like Ndt80 family of transcription factors, has been identified as global regulator of HI. In this study we investigated the role of the F...
October 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Jie Gong, Weiwei Wu, MengLong Ran, Xiaowen Wang, Wei Liu, Zhe Wan, Limin Yao, Ruoyu Li
Little is known regarding the population information of Trichophyton rubrum due to a lack of strains with clear sampling information and molecular markers with high discriminatory power. In the present study, we developed a set of microsatellite markers that have a cumulative discriminatory power was 0.993. Using these microsatellites loci, 243 strains T. rubrum that had clear sampling information were analysed. Three genetic diversity indices (Shannon's Information Index, Nei's unbiased gene diversity and allelic richness) were shown to be related to the human population size of the sampling city rather than mean annual temperature or humidity...
October 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Amy Kelly, Robert H Proctor, Francois Belzile, Sofia N Chulze, Randall M Clear, Christina Cowger, Wade Elmer, Theresa Lee, Friday Obanor, Cees Waalwijk, Todd J Ward
Fusarium graminearum and 21 related species comprising the F. sambucinum species complex lineage 1 (FSAMSC-1) are the most important Fusarium Head Blight pathogens of cereal crops world-wide. FSAMSC-1 species typically produce type B trichothecenes. However, some F. graminearum strains were recently found to produce a novel type A trichothecene (NX-2) resulting from functional variation in the trichothecene biosynthetic enzyme Tri1. We used a PCR-RFLP assay targeting the TRI1 gene to identify the NX-2 allele among a global collection of 2515 F...
October 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Leandro Nascimento da Silva Rodrigues, Wesley de Almeida Brito, Ana Flávia Alves Parente, Simone Schneider Weber, Alexandre Melo Bailão, Luciana Casaletti, Clayton Luiz Borges, Célia Maria de Almeida Soares
The ability to respond to stressful conditions is essential for most living organisms. In pathogenic organisms, this response is required for effective transition from a saprophytic lifestyle to the establishment of pathogenic interactions within a susceptible host. Hyperosmotic stress has been used as a model to study signal transduction and seems to cause many cellular adaptations, including the alteration of protein expression and cellular volume as well as size regulation. In this work, we evaluated the proteomic profile of Paracoccidioides lutzii Pb01 yeast cells during osmotic stress induced by potassium chloride...
October 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Michael Gatter, Stephanie Ottlik, Zsolt Kövesi, Benjamin Bauer, Falk Matthäus, Gerold Barth
The non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is able to utilize a wide range of different substrates like glucose, glycerol, ethanol, acetate, proteins and various hydrophobic molecules. Although most metabolic pathways for the utilization of these substrates have been clarified by now, it was not clear whether ethanol is oxidized by alcohol dehydrogenases or by an alternative oxidation system inside the cell. In order to detect the genes that are required for ethanol utilization in Y. lipolytica, eight alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes and one alcohol oxidase gene (FAO1) have been identified and respective deletion strains were tested for their ability to metabolize ethanol...
October 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Yulu Chen, Qilin Yu, Honggang Wang, Yijie Dong, Chang Jia, Bing Zhang, Chenpeng Xiao, Biao Zhang, Laijun Xing, Mingchun Li
The peroxisome plays an essential role in eukaryotic cellular metabolism, including β-oxidation of fatty acids and detoxification of hydrogen peroxide. However, its functions in the important fungal pathogen, C. albicans, remain to be investigated. In this study, we identified a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisomal protein Pex1 in this pathogen, and explored its functions in stress tolerance. Fluorescence observation revealed that C. albicans Pex1 was localized in the peroxisomes, and its loss led to the defect in peroxisome formation...
October 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Dorthe Rippert, Jürgen J Heinisch
Septins are key components of the cell division machinery from yeast to humans. The model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has five mitotic septins, Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11, Cdc12, and Shs1. Here we characterized the five orthologs from the genetically less-redundant milk yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. We found that except for KlSHS1 all septin genes are essential. Klshs1 deletions displayed temperature-sensitive growth and morphological defects. Heterologous complementation analyses revealed that all five K. lactis genes encode functional orthologs of their S...
September 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Colleen E Doyle, H Y Kitty Cheung, Kelsey L Spence, Barry J Saville
In this study, Ustilago maydis Ndt80 homolog one, unh1, of the obligate sexual pathogen U. maydis,is described. Unh1 is the sole Ndt80-like DNA-binding protein inU. maydis. In this model basidiomycete, Unh1 plays a role in sexual development, influencing tumor maturation, teliospore development and subsequent meiotic completion. Teliospore formation was reduced in deletion mutants, and those that did form had unpigmented, hyaline cell walls, and germinated without completing meiosis. Constitutively expressing unh1 in haploid cells resulted in abnormal pigmentation, when grown in both potato dextrose broth and minimal medium, suggesting that pigmentation may be triggered by unh1 in U...
September 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Ahai Chen, Qiurong Xie, Yahong Lin, Huaijian Xu, Wenjie Shang, Jun Zhang, Dongmei Zhang, Wenhui Zheng, Guangpu Li, Zonghua Wang
Septins are GTP-binding proteins that regulate cell polarity, cytokinesis and cell morphogenesis. Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. In this study, we have functionally characterized the core septins, Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11 and Cdc12 in F. graminearum. The loss of FgCdc3, FgCdc11, FgCdc12, but not FgCdc10, mutants showed significant reduction in growth, conidiation and virulence. Microscopic analyses revealed that all of them were involved in septum formation and nuclear division...
September 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
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