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Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B

Loretta Jackson-Hayes, Zainab Atiq, Brianna Betton, W Toler Freyaldenhoven, Lance Myers, Elisabet Olsen, Terry W Hill
The Aspergillus nidulans orthologue of Protein kinase C (PkcA) and the A. nidulans formin SepA participate in polarized growth. PkcA localizes to growing hyphal apices and septation sites, and amino acid sequences within PkcA that are required for PkcA to localize to these sites of cell wall synthesis have been identified. SepA is associated with the contractile actomyosin ring (CAR), and it localizes at hyphal tips in association with the Spitzenkörper (SPK) and as an apical dome. A mutation in the sepA gene (sepA1) renders A...
November 1, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Jinjie Shang, Lin Wu, Yanmei Yang, Yan Li, Zecheng Liu, Ying Huang
The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has two tRNase ZL genes (trz1 and trz2) involved in nuclear and mitochondrial tRNA 3'-end processing, respectively. Overexpression of trz2 but not trz1 is toxic to cells. In the present work, we showed that trz2 overexpression led to apoptotic cell death, as revealed by DAPI and Annexin V-FITC staining. Overexpression of trz2 also caused a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and an increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. These effects required mitochondrial localization but not its catalytic activity...
October 27, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
David Ribas, Isabel Soares-Silva, Daniel Vieira, Maria Sousa-Silva, Joana Sá-Pessoa, João Azevedo-Silva, Sandra Cristina Viegas, Cecília Maria Arraiano, George Diallinas, Sandra Paiva, Pedro Soares, Margarida Casal
Organic acids are recognized as one of the most prevalent compounds in ecosystems, thus the transport and assimilation of these molecules represent an adaptive advantage for organisms. The AceTr family members are associated with the active transport of organic acids, namely acetate and succinate. The phylogenetic analysis shows this family is dispersed in the tree of life. However, in eukaryotes, it is almost limited to microbes, though reaching a prevalence close to 100% in fungi, with an essential role in spore development...
October 16, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Ana Claudia G Zimbres, Priscila C Albuquerque, Luna S Joffe, Taiane N Souza, Leonardo Nimrichter, Stefânia O Frazão, Patricia Albuquerque, Fernanda L Fonseca, Marcio L Rodrigues
Trichosporon asahii shares with Cryptococcus species the ability to produce glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), an immunomodulatory fungal polysaccharide. The ability of other opportunistic species of Trichosporon to produce GXM-like polysaccharides is unknown. In this study, we observed that T. mucoides was less pathogenic than T. asahii in an infection model of Galleria mellonella and asked whether this difference was related to the characteristics of GXM-like molecules. Compositional analysis of samples obtained from both pathogens indicated that the components of GXM (mannose, xylose and glucuronic acid) were, in fact, detected in T...
September 27, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Pinkuan Zhu, Alexander Idnurm
The White Collar complex is responsible for sensing light and transmitting that signal in many fungal species. In Cryptococcus neoformans and C. deneoformans the complex is involved in protection against damage from ultraviolet (UV) light, repression of mating in response to light, and is also required for virulence. The mechanism by which the Bwc1 photoreceptor contributes to virulence is unknown. In this study, a bwc1 deletion mutant of C. neoformans was transformed with three versions of the BWC1 gene, the wild type, BWC1C605A or BWC1C605S , in which the latter two have the conserved cysteine residue replaced with either alanine or serine within the light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain that interacts with the flavin chromophore...
September 25, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Meritxell Riquelme, M Catherine Aime, Sara Branco, Alexandra Brand, Alistair Brown, N Louise Glass, Regine Kahmann, Michelle Momany, Antonis Rokas, Frances Trail
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Jie Cheng, Ziyi Yin, Zhengguang Zhang, Yongheng Liang
Snf7 is the core subunit protein of the yeast endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complex, which plays important roles in endocytosis and autophagy. In this study, we characterized MoSnf7 in Magnaporthe oryzae, a homolog of yeast Snf7, the core protein of ESCRT-III subcomplex. Like Snf7, MoSnf7 also localizes next to the vacuoles. Deletion of MoSNF7 resulted in significant decrease in vegetative growth and pathogenicity. Further analyses of ΔMosnf7 mutants showed that they were defective in endocytosis, sexual and asexual development, turgor pressure maintenance of appressorium at hyphal tips, and cell wall integrity...
September 18, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Kevin V Solomon, John K Henske, Sean P Gilmore, Anna Lipzen, Igor V Grigoriev, Dawn Thompson, Michelle A O'Malley
Early-diverging anaerobic fungi (order: Neocallimastigomycota), lignocelluolytic chytrid-like fungi central to fiber degradation in the digestive tracts of large herbivores, are attractive sources of cellulases and hemicellulases for biotechnology. Enzyme expression is tightly regulated and coordinated through mechanisms that remain unelucidated to optimize hydrolytic efficiency. Our analysis of anaerobic fungal transcriptomes reveals hundreds of cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs), which we hypothesize play an integral role in this regulation...
September 15, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Tad Woraratanadharm, Stephanie Kmosek, Flora Banuett
The spatial organization of a cell is crucial for distribution of cell components and for cell morphogenesis in all organisms. Ustilago maydis, a basidiomycete fungus, has a yeast-like and a filamentous form. The former buds once per cell cycle at one of the cell poles, and can use the same site repeatedly or choose a new site at the same pole or opposite pole. The filamentous form consists of a long apical cell with short septate basal compartments lacking cytoplasm. It grows at the apex and can reverse growth forming a new growth zone at the basal end...
September 8, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Chao Liang, Bing Zhang, Lifang Cui, Jianrong Li, Qilin Yu, Mingchun Li
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, and their shapes and sizes are regulated by mitochondrial fusion and fission. The proteins essential for mitochondrial fusion in Candida albicans have not been clearly characterized. In this study, Mgm1 was explored for its roles in mitochondrial function, cell cycle, hyphal growth and virulence in this pathogen. The deletion of MGM1 led to mitochondrial fragmentation and mtDNA loss and activated the checkpoint pathway to arrest the cell cycle in G1 phase. Moreover, loss of MGM1 led to defects in hyphal development and attenuation of virulence in a macrophage cell line and a mouse model of disseminated infection...
November 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Xi Zhang, Xiaodong Jia, Shuguang Tian, Changjian Zhang, Zhongyi Lu, Yong Chen, Fangyan Chen, Zongwei Li, Xueting Su, Xuelin Han, Yansong Sun, Li Han
Aspergillus fumigatus is a major pathogen of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The small GTPase, Rho1, of A. fumigatus is reported to comprise a potential regulatory subunit of β-1,3-glucan synthase and is indispensable for fungal viability; however, the role of AfRho1 on the growth, cell wall integrity, and pathogenesis of A. fumigatus is still poorly understood. We constructed A. fumigatus mutants with conditional- and overexpression of Rho1 and found that defects of AfRho1 expression led to the reduction of β-1,3-glucan and glucosamine moieties on the cell wall, with down-regulated transcription of genes in the cell wall integrity signaling pathway and a decrease of calcofluor white (CFW)-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MpkA) phosphorylation and cytoplasmic leakage compared to those of the wild-type strain (WT)...
November 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Marina Zoppo, Lisa Lombardi, Cosmeri Rizzato, Antonella Lupetti, Daria Bottai, Csaba Papp, Attila Gácser, Arianna Tavanti
Candida orthopsilosis is a human fungal pathogen belonging to the Candida parapsilosis sensu lato species complex. C. orthopsilosis annotated genome harbors 3 putative agglutinin-like sequence (ALS) genes named CORT0B00800, CORT0C04210 and CORT0C04220. The aim of this study was to investigate the role played by CORT0C04210 (CoALS4210) in the virulence and pathogenicity of this opportunistic yeast. Heterozygous and null mutant strains lacking one or both copies of CoALS4210 were obtained using the SAT1-flipper cassette strategy and were characterized in in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models...
November 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Océane Seudre, Alice Namias, Olivia Gardella, Guillaume Da Silva, Pierre-Henri Gouyon, Manuela López-Villavicencio
Most species able to reproduce both sexually and asexually (facultative sexual species) invest more in sexual reproduction in stressful environment conditions. According to the abandon-ship hypothesis, plasticity for investment in sexual reproduction may have been selected in these species, allowing unfit genotypes to generate progeny carrying new advantageous allelic combinations. We tested this hypothesis in Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus able to reproduce asexually, or sexually, by outcrossing and/or haploid selfing (i...
November 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Brandon T Pfannenstiel, Claudio Greco, Andrew T Sukowaty, Nancy P Keller
Due to the role, both beneficial and harmful, that fungal secondary metabolites play in society, the study of their regulation is of great importance. Genes for any one secondary metabolite are contiguously arranged in a biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) and subject to regulation through the remodeling of chromatin. Histone modifying enzymes can place or remove post translational modifications (PTM) on histone tails which influences how tight or relaxed the chromatin is, impacting transcription of BGCs. In a recent forward genetic screen, the epigenetic reader SntB was identified as a transcriptional regulator of the sterigmatocystin BGC in A...
November 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Salomon Bartnicki-Garcia, Marisela Garduño-Rosales, Diego Luis Delgado-Alvarez, Rosa Reyna Mouriño-Pérez
The present study examines the notion that polarized exocytosis in the tips of growing hyphae creates an excess of plasma membrane and thus the need for its removal by endocytosis. To measure endocytosis experimentally, we developed a photobleaching (FRAP) procedure to count endocytic events in hyphae of Neurospora crassa carrying a fluorescent tag on the actin-binding protein fimbrin (FIM-1-GFP). Given 40 nm as the average diameter of endocytic vesicles, we calculated that about 12.5% of the plasma membrane discharged in the apex becomes endocytosed in the subapex...
September 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Susanne Kosanke, Lutz Hamann, Christiane Kupsch, Sarah Moreno Garcia, Avneesh Chopra, Yvonne Gräser
The mating type (MAT) locus is the key regulator of sexual reproduction in fungi. In the dermatophytes and other Ascomycetes this genomic region exists in two distinct forms (idiomorphs) and their balanced presence is a precondition for successful mating in heterothallic fungi. But the MAT locus not only drives sexual reproduction, it has also been shown to influence pathogenicity, virulence, and/or morphological changes in pathogenic fungi of the genera Candida, Histoplasma, and Cryptococcus. In order to find out whether there are similar trends in dermatophytes, we investigated the MAT locus of 19 anthropophilic and zoophilic species via Sanger sequencing and primer walking...
September 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Gangzheng Wang, ShaSha Zhou, Yi Luo, Chaojun Ma, Yuhua Gong, Yan Zhou, Shuangshuang Gao, Zhicheng Huang, Lianlian Yan, Yue Hu, Yinbing Bian
DnaJ proteins, termed heat shock proteins based on their molecular weight, function as molecular chaperones that play critical roles in regulating organism growth and development as well as adaptation to the environment. However, little has been reported on their gene function in higher basidiomycetes. Here, the heat shock protein 40 (LeDnaJ) gene was cloned and characterized from Lentinula edodes. RNA interference was used to explore the function of LeDnaJ in response to heat stress and Trichoderma atroviride...
September 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Pedro Lemos, Carmen Ruiz-Roldán, Concepción Hera
Reversible protein phosphorylation is crucial for cell signal transduction in stress response. Fusarium oxysporum is a soil inhabiting fungus that can adapt to a wide range of ecological niches and environmental conditions. Three mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have been shown to orchestrate the response of the fungus to external insults such as high temperature, cell wall, oxidative or hyperosmotic stress in F. oxysporum. However, the protein phosphatases that fine-tune phosphorylation levels of different MAPKs in this fungus are unknown...
September 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Ying Wang, Pengjie Hu, Honghua Li, Yanling Wang, Liang-Kun Long, Kuan Li, Xiaoling Zhang, Yuanyuan Pan, Gang Liu
Acremonium chrysogenum is the industrial producer of cephalosporin C (CPC). We isolated a mutant (AC554) from a T-DNA inserted mutant library of A. chrysogenum. AC554 exhibited a reduced conidiation and lack of CPC production. In consistent with it, the transcription of cephalosporin biosynthetic genes pcbC and cefEF was significantly decreased in AC554. Thermal asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction (TAIL-PCR) was performed and sequence analysis indicated that a T-DNA was inserted upstream of an open reading frame (ORF) which was designated AcmybA...
September 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Osney Leiva-Peláez, Guadalupe Gutiérrez-Escobedo, Eunice López-Fuentes, José Cruz-Mora, Alejandro De Las Peñas, Irene Castaño
An important virulence factor for the fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is the ability to adhere to the host cells, which is mediated by the expression of adhesins. Epa1 is responsible for ∼95% of the in vitro adherence to epithelial cells and is the founding member of the Epa family of adhesins. The majority of EPA genes are localized close to different telomeres, which causes transcriptional repression due to subtelomeric silencing. In C. glabrata there are three Sir proteins (Sir2, Sir3 and Sir4) that are essential for subtelomeric silencing...
September 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
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