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Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336393/contributions-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-to-cellular-morphology-sporulation-and-virulence-in-the-insect-fungal-pathogen-metarhizium-acridum
#1
Jie Zhang, Kai Jin, Yuxian Xia
β-tubulin is an elementary subunit of microtubules that form the cytoskeleton, participating in a wide range of cellular processes. The contributions of the single β-tubulin gene in affecting cell morphology, sporulation and virulence were examined in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum. Targeted gene knockout of β-tubulin resulted in resistance to benomyl but impaired proper nuclear segregation, lipid droplet transport, and deposition of chitin to the cell wall. M. acridum β-tubulin mutants displayed wavy hyphal growth and densely packed, wrinkled colonies...
March 20, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315405/location-and-functional-analysis-of-the-aspergillus-nidulans-aurora-kinase-confirm-mitotic-functions-and-suggest-non-mitotic-roles
#2
Colin P De Souza, Shahr B Hashmi, Natalie Hage, Rebecca M Fitch, Aysha H Osmani, Stephen A Osmani
Filamentous fungi have devastating negative impacts as pathogens and agents of food spoilage but also have critical ecological importance and are utilized for industrial applications. The characteristic multinucleate nature of filamentous fungi is facilitated by limiting if, when and where septation, the fungal equivalent of cytokinesis, occurs. In the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans septation does not occur immediately after mitosis and is an incomplete process resulting in the formation of a septal pore whose permeability is cell cycle regulated...
March 14, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288883/insights-regarding-fungal-phosphoproteomic-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Liliane F C Ribeiro, Cynthia L Chelius, Steven D Harris, Mark R Marten
Protein phosphorylation is a major means of regulation for cellular processes, and is important in cell signaling, growth, and cell proliferation. To study phosphorylated proteins, high throughput phosphoproteomic technologies, such as reverse phase protein array, phospho-specific flow cytometry, and mass spectrometry (MS) based technologies, have been developed. Among them, mass spectrometry has become the primary tool employed for the identification of phosphoproteins and phosphosites in fungi, leading to an improved understanding of a number of signaling pathways...
March 10, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286319/establishment-of-crispr-cas9-in-alternaria-alternata
#4
Maximilian Wenderoth, Christoph Pinecker, Benjamin Voß, Reinhard Fischer
The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata is a potent producer of many secondary metabolites, some of which like alternariol or alternariol-methyl ether are toxic and/or cancerogenic. Many Alternaria species do not only cause post-harvest losses of food and feed, but are aggressive plant pathogens. Despite the great economic importance and the large number of research groups working with the fungus, the molecular toolbox is rather underdeveloped. Gene deletions often result in heterokaryotic strains and therefore, gene-function analyses are rather tedious...
March 10, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285007/genetic-and-biochemical-characterization-of-the-gh72-family-of-cell-wall-transglycosylases-in-neurospora-crassa
#5
Jie Ao, Stephen J Free
The Neurospora crassa genome encodes five GH72 family transglycosylases, and four of these enzymes (GEL-1, GEL-2, GEL-3 and GEL-5) have been found to be present in the cell wall proteome. We carried out an extensive genetic analysis on the role of these four transglycosylases in cell wall biogenesis and demonstrated that the transglycosylases are required for the formation of a normal cell wall. As suggested by the proteomic analysis, we found that multiple transglycosylases were being expressed in N. crassa cells and that different combinations of the enzymes are required in different cell types...
March 8, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285895/transcriptomic-analysis-of-basidiocarp-development-in-ustilago-maydis-dc-cda
#6
C G León-Ramírez, J L Cabrera-Ponce, D Martínez-Soto, A Sánchez-Arreguin, E T Aréchiga-Carvajal, J Ruiz-Herrera
Previously, we demonstrated that when Ustilago maydis (DC) Cda., a phytopathogenic basidiomycete and the causal agent of corn smut, is grown in the vicinity of maize embryogenic calli in a medium supplemented with the herbicide Dicamba, it developed gastroid-like basidiocarps. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the basidiocarp development by the fungus, we proceeded to analyze the transcriptome of the process, identifying a total of 2002 and 1064 differentially expressed genes at two developmental stages, young and mature basidiocarps, respectively...
March 7, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28232095/mixed-colonies-of-aspergillus-niger-and-aspergillus-oryzae-cooperatively-degrading-wheat-bran
#7
I Benoit-Gelber, T Gruntjes, A Vinck, J G van Veluw, H A B Wösten, S Boeren, J J M Vervoort, R P de Vries
In both natural and man-made environments, microorganisms live in mixed populations, while in laboratory conditions monocultures are mainly used. Microbial interactions are often described as antagonistic, but can also be neutral or cooperative, and are generally associated with a metabolic change of each partner and cause a change in the pattern of produced bioactive molecules. A. niger and A. oryzae are two filamentous fungi widely used in industry to produce various enzymes (e.g. pectinases, amylases) and metabolites (e...
February 20, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216441/the-dynamics-of-signal-complex-formation-mediating-germling-fusion-in-neurospora-crassa
#8
Antonio Serrano, Hamzeh H Hammadeh, Stephanie Herzog, Julia Illgen, Marcel R Schumann, Martin Weichert, André Fleiβner
Colony initiation of filamentous fungi commonly involves fusion of germinating vegetative spores. Studies in Neurospora crassa revealed an unusual cell-cell communication mechanism mediating this process, in which the fusion partners coordinately alternate between two physiological stages, probably related to signal sending and receiving. This "cell dialog" involves the alternating, oscillatory recruitment of the SO protein and the MAK-2 MAP kinase module to the apical plasma membrane of growing fusion tips...
February 16, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214601/the-inhibition-of-mating-in-phycomyces-blakesleeanus-by-light-is-dependent-on-the-mada-madb-complex-that-acts-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#9
Viplendra P S Shakya, Alexander Idnurm
Light is an environmental signal that influences reproduction in the Mucoromycotina fungi, as it does in many other species of fungi. Mating in Phycomyces blakesleeanus is inhibited by light, but the molecular mechanisms for this inhibition are uncharacterized. In this analysis, the role of the light-sensing MadA-MadB complex in mating was tested. The MadA-MadB complex is homologous to the Neurospora crassa White Collar complex. Three genes required for cell type determination in the sex locus or pheromone biosynthesis are transcriptionally-regulated by light and are controlled by MadA and MadB...
February 16, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212851/the-high-affinity-phosphodiesterase-pdeh-regulates-development-and-aflatoxin-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-flavus
#10
Kunlong Yang, Yinghang Liu, Linlin Liang, Zhenguo Li, Qiuping Qin, Xinyi Nie, Shihua Wang
Cyclic AMP signaling controls a range of physiological processes in response to extracellular stimuli in organisms. Among the signaling cascades, cAMP, as a second messenger, is orchestrated by adenylate cyclase (biosynthesis) and cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs) (hydrolysis). In this study, we investigated the function of the high-affinity (PdeH) and low-affinity (PdeL) cAMP phosphodiesterase from the carcinogenic aflatoxin producing fungus Aspergillus flavus, and found that instead of PdeL, inactivation of PdeH exhibited a reduction in conidiation and sclerotia formation...
February 14, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215981/vacuolar-control-of-subcellular-cation-distribution-is-a-key-parameter-in-the-adaptation-of-debaryomyces-hansenii-to-high-salt-concentrations
#11
R Herrera, A Salazar, L Ramos-Moreno, C Ruiz-Roldan, J Ramos
Debaryomyces hansenii is a halotolerant and Na(+)-includer yeast that can be isolated from different food and low-water activity products. It has also been defined as a marine-occurring yeast but key aspects for this salt tolerant behavior are far from being understood. Here, we searched for clues helping to elucidate the basis of this ability. Our results on growth, Rb(+) transport, total K(+) and Na(+) content and vacuolar fragmentation are compatible with a yeast species adapted to cope with salt stress...
February 12, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188884/a-new-transformant-selection-system-for-the-gray-mold-fungus-botrytis-cinerea-based-on-the-expression-of-fenhexamid-insensitive-erg27-variants
#12
Kim Christopher Cohrs, Joachim Burbank, Julia Schumacher
The gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea features a wide host range and causes severe economic losses, making it an important object for molecular research. Thus far, genetic modification of the fungus mainly is relied on two selection systems (nourseothricin and hygromycin), while other selection systems hold significant disadvantages. To broaden the spectrum of available molecular tools, a new selection system based on the cheap and widely used fungicide fenhexamid (hydroxyanilide group) was established. Fenhexamid specifically targets the 3-ketoreductase ERG27 from the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway...
February 7, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109774/a-tomatinase-like-enzyme-acts-as-a-virulence-factor-in-the-wheat-pathogen-fusarium-graminearum
#13
Jason Carere, Aurélie H Benfield, Mélodie Ollivier, Chunji J Liu, Kemal Kazan, Donald M Gardiner
During their interactions with plants, fungal pathogens employ large numbers of pathogenesis-associated molecules including secreted effectors and enzymes that can degrade various defence compounds. However, in many cases, in planta targets of pathogen-produced enzymes remain unknown. We identified a gene in the wheat pathogen Fusarium graminearum, encoding a putative enzyme that shows 84% sequence identity to FoTom1, a tomatinase produced by the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. In F. oxysporum f...
January 18, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108400/overexpression-of-a-three-gene-conidial-pigment-biosynthetic-pathway-in-aspergillus-nidulans-reveals-the-first-nrps-known-to-acetylate-tryptophan
#14
Calvin T Sung, Shu-Lin Chang, Ruth Entwistle, Green Ahn, Tzu-Shyang Lin, Vessela Petrova, Hsu-Hua Yeh, Mike B Praseuth, Yi-Ming Chiang, Berl R Oakley, Clay C C Wang
Fungal nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are megasynthetases that produce cyclic and acyclic peptides. In Aspergillus nidulans, the NRPS ivoA (AN10576) has been associated with the biosynthesis of grey-brown conidiophore pigments. Another gene, ivoB (AN0231), has been demonstrated to be an N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan oxidase that putatively acts downstream of IvoA. A third gene, ivoC, has also been predicted to be involved in pigment biosynthesis based on publicly available genomic and transcriptomic information...
January 17, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093309/paracoccidioides-spp-catalases-and-their-role-in-antioxidant-defense-against-host-defense-responses
#15
Diana Tamayo, José F Muñoz, Agostinho J Almeida, Juan D Puerta, Ángela Restrepo, Christina A Cuomo, Juan G McEwen, Orville Hernández
Dimorphic human pathogenic fungi interact with host effector cells resisting their microbicidal mechanisms. Yeast cells are able of surviving within the tough environment of the phagolysosome by expressing an antioxidant defense system that provides protection against host-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). This includes the production of catalases (CATs). Here we identified and analyzed the role of CAT isoforms in Paracoccidioides, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Firstly, we found that one of these isoforms was absent in the closely related dimorphic pathogen Coccidioides and dermatophytes, but all of them were conserved in Paracoccidioides, Histoplasma and Blastomyces species...
January 16, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089933/hfb7-a-novel-orphan-hydrophobin-of-the-harzianum-and-virens-clades-of-trichoderma-is-involved-in-response-to-biotic-and-abiotic-stresses
#16
Agnes Przylucka, Gunseli Bayram Akcapinar, Komal Chenthamara, Feng Cai, Marica Grujuc, Juriy Karpenko, Miriam Livoi, Qirong Shen, Christian P Kubicek, Irina S Druzhinina
Hydrophobins are small secreted cysteine-rich proteins exclusively found in fungi. They are able to self-assemble in single molecular layers at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces and can therefore be directly involved in establishment of fungi in their habitat. The genomes of filamentous mycotrophic fungi Trichoderma encode a rich diversity of hydrophobins, which are divided in several groups based on their structure and evolution. Here we describe a new member of class II hydrophobins, HFB7, that has a taxonomically restricted occurrence in Harzianum and Virens clades of Trichoderma...
January 12, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089076/comparative-analyses-of-secreted-proteins-in-plant-pathogenic-smut-fungi-and-related-basidiomycetes
#17
Mariana Schuster, Gabriel Schweizer, Regine Kahmann
In the ten years since the genome sequence of the basidiomycete corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis was published, additional genomes of smut species infecting different hosts became available. In addition, the genomes of related Malassezia species causing skin diseases and of Pseudozyma species not known to infect plants were determined. As secreted proteins are critical virulence determinants in U. maydis we compare here the secretomes of 12 basidiomycete species to gain information about their composition and conservation...
January 6, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064038/characterization-of-hexose-transporters-in-yarrowia-lipolytica-reveals-new-groups-of-sugar-porters-involved-in-yeast-growth
#18
Zbigniew Lazar, Cécile Neuvéglise, Tristan Rossignol, Hugo Devillers, Nicolas Morin, Małgorzata Robak, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le Coq
Sugar assimilation has been intensively studied in the model yeast S. cerevisiae, and for two decades, it has been clear that the homologous HXT genes, which encode a set of hexose transporters, play a central role in this process. However, in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, which is well-known for its biotechnological applications, sugar assimilation is only poorly understood, even though this yeast exhibits peculiar intra-strain differences in fructose uptake: some strains (e.g., W29) are known to be slow-growing in fructose while others (e...
January 5, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064039/roles-of-an-n-terminal-coiled-coil-containing-domain-in-the-localization-and-function-of-bem3-a-rho-gtpase-activating-protein-in-budding-yeast
#19
Wen-Chao Nie, Fei He, Si-Min Yuan, Zhi-Wen Jia, Rui-Rui Wang, Xiang-Dong Gao
GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) play critical roles in the spatial and temporal control of small GTPases. The budding yeast Bem3 is a GAP for Cdc42, a Rho GTPase crucial for actin and septin organization. Bem3 localizes to the sites of polarized growth. However, the amino acid sequence determinants mediating recruitment of Bem3 to its physiological sites of action and those important for Bem3 function are not clear. Here, we show that Bem3's localization is guided by two distinct targeting regions-the PX-PH-domain-containing TD1 and the coiled-coil-containing TD2...
January 4, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089630/the-aspergillus-nidulans-pbp1-homolog-is-required-for-normal-sexual-development-and-secondary-metabolism
#20
Alexandra A Soukup, Gregory J Fischer, Jerry Luo, Nancy P Keller
P bodies and stress granules are RNA-containing structures governing mRNA degradation and translational arrest, respectively. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pbp1 protein localizes to stress granules and promotes their formation and is involved in proper polyadenylation, suppression of RNA-DNA hybrids, and preventing aberrant rDNA recombination. A genetic screen for Aspergillus nidulans mutants aberrant in secondary metabolism identified the Pbp1 homolog, PbpA. Using Dcp1 (mRNA decapping) as a marker for P-body formation and FabM (Pab1, poly-A binding protein) to track stress granule accumulation, we examine the dynamics of RNA granule formation in A...
March 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
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