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Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms

Mika Nomoto, Yasuomi Tada
Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems largely retain the endogenous translation machinery of the host organism, making them highly applicable for proteomics analysis of diverse biological processes. However, laborious and time-consuming cloning procedures hinder progress with CFPS systems. Herein, we report the development of a rapid and efficient two-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to prepare linear DNA templates for a wheat germ CFPS system. We developed a novel, effective short 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) sequence that facilitates translation...
December 13, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Lu Wu, Bin Sun, Xuejing Lin, Chunying Liu, Haihua Qian, Lei Chen, Yefa Yang, Feng Shen, Changqing Su
CD147 is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and associated with the invasion and metastasis of HCC. The efficacy of I131 -metuximab (I131 -mab), a newly developed agent that targets CD147, as a radio-immunotherapy for local HCC, has been validated in clinical practice. However, the synergistic anticancer activity and molecular mechanism of different conjugated components within I131 -mab remain unclear. In this study, the cytological experiments proved that I131 -mab inhibited the proliferation and invasion of HCC cells...
December 6, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Kentaro Shimasaki, Miho Watanabe-Takahashi, Masato Umeda, Satoru Funamoto, Yoshiro Saito, Noriko Noguchi, Keigo Kumagai, Kentaro Hanada, Fujiko Tsukahara, Yoshiro Maru, Norihito Shibata, Mikihiko Naito, Kiyotaka Nishikawa
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is caused by the chimeric protein p210 BCR-ABL encoded by a gene on the Philadelphia chromosome. Although the kinase domain of p210 BCR-ABL is an active driver of CML, the pathological role of its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain remains unclear. Here, we carried out phospholipid vesicle-binding assays to show that cardiolipin (CL), a characteristic mitochondrial phospholipid, is a unique ligand of the PH domain. Arg726, a basic amino acid in the ligand-binding region, was crucial for ligand recognition...
December 5, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Ryusuke Niwa, Takashi Nishimura
The 3rd International Insect Hormone (21st Ecdysone) Workshop (IIHW2017) was held in July 2017 at Nasu Highland, Japan. In the 40 years of the workshop's history, this was the first to be held in an Asian country. A total of 109 insect hormone researchers from 18 countries (62 overseas and 47 domestic participants) attended IIHW2017. During the workshop, all participants stayed on-site at the venue's hotel; this was ideal for fostering communication between participants, in particular, interactions between principal investigators and young scientists...
November 29, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Ken-Ichi Mizutani
Neurogenesis encompasses an entire set of events that leads to the generation of newborn neurons from neural stem cells and more committed progenitor cells, including cell division, the production of migratory precursors and their progeny, differentiation and integration into circuits. In particular, the precise control of neuronal migration and morphological changes is essential for the development of the neocortex. Postmitotic cells within the intermediate zone have been found to transiently assume a characteristic "multipolar" morphology, after which a multipolar-to-bipolar transition occurs before the cells enter the cortical plate; however, the importance of this multipolar phase in the establishment of mature cortical cytoarchitecture and the precise genetic control of this phase remains largely unknown...
November 29, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Xiaoyin Xu, Hiroaki Iwasa, Shakhawoat Hossain, Aradhan Sarkar, Junichi Maruyama, Kyoko Arimoto-Matsuzaki, Yutaka Hata
RASSF6, a member of the tumor suppressor Ras-association domain family proteins, induces apoptosis in the caspase-dependent and caspase-independent manners. RASSF6 interacts with MDM2 and stabilizes p53. BCL-XL is a prosurvival member of BCL-2 family proteins. BCL-XL directly inhibits proapoptotic BAX and BAK. BCL-XL also traps tBID, a proapoptotic activator BH3-only protein, and sequesters p53. In addition, BCL-XL regulates the mitochondrial membrane permeability via voltage-dependent anion channel. In these manners, BCL-XL plays an antiapoptotic role...
November 28, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Fiqri D Khaidizar, Yasukazu Nakahata, Akira Kume, Kyosuke Sumizawa, Kenji Kohno, Takaaki Matsui, Yasumasa Bessho
Senescent cells accumulate in tissues of aged animals and deteriorate tissue functions. The elimination of senescent cells from aged mice not only attenuates progression of already established age-related disorders, but also extends median lifespan. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian NAD+ salvage pathway, has shown a protective effect on cellular senescence of human primary cells. However, it still remains unclear how NAMPT has a protective impact on aging in vitro and in vivo...
November 27, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Sumino Yanase, Hitoshi Suda, Kayo Yasuda, Naoaki Ishii
In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the mammalian tumor suppressor p53 ortholog CEP-1 mediates the stress response, activates germ line apoptosis and regulates meiotic chromosome segregation. A reduction in its expression, which frequently occurs in mammalian cancer cells, extends lifespan and induces an adaptive response in C. elegans. However, these effects do not involve an increase in oxidative stress resistance. Here, we showed that intermittent exposure to hyperoxia, which induces oxidative stress resistance and lowers the production of ROS derived from mitochondrial respiration in C...
November 8, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Shingo Koinuma, Kohei Takeuchi, Naoyuki Wada, Takeshi Nakamura
Cyclic AMP plays a pivotal role in neurite growth. During outgrowth, a trafficking system supplies membrane at growth cones. However, the cAMP-induced signaling leading to the regulation of membrane trafficking remains unknown. TC10 is a Rho family GTPase that is essential for specific types of vesicular trafficking. Recent studies have shown a role of TC10 in neurite growth in NGF-treated PC12 cells. Here, we investigated a mechanical linkage between cAMP and TC10 in neuritogenesis. Plasmalemmal TC10 activity decreased abruptly after cAMP addition in neuronal cells...
October 26, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Hiroshi Kaneko, Takehide Katoh, Ikuo Hirano, Atsushi Hasegawa, Tadayuki Tsujita, Masayuki Yamamoto, Ritsuko Shimizu
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone that promotes proliferation, differentiation and survival of erythroid progenitors. EPO gene expression is regulated in a tissue-specific and hypoxia-inducible manner and is mainly restricted to renal EPO-producing cells after birth. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) confers high risk for renal anemia due to lower EPO production from injured kidneys. In transgenic reporter lines of mice, disruption of a GATA-binding motif within the Epo gene promoter-proximal region restores constitutive reporter expression in epithelial cells...
October 18, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Khondoker Md Zulfiker Rahman, Hiroshi Mamada, Masatoshi Takagi, Shingo Kose, Naoko Imamoto
Hikeshi mediates the heat stress-induced nuclear import of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70s: HSP70/HSC70). Dysfunction of Hikeshi causes some serious effects in humans; however, the cellular function of Hikeshi is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of Hikeshi depletion on the survival of human cells after proteotoxic stress and found opposite effects in HeLa and hTERT-RPE1 (RPE) cells; depletion of Hikeshi reduced the survival of HeLa cells, but increased the survival of RPE cells in response to proteotoxic stress...
October 5, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Tatsuya Hirano, Tomoko Nishiyama, Katsuhiko Shirahige
The second international meeting on "SMC proteins: Chromosomal Organizers from Bacteria to Human" (SMC2017) was held in Nanyo City, Yamagata, Japan, from 13 to 16 June 2017. The meeting was attended by 134 participants (among them, 76 from outside of Japan) who were interested in one of the highly conserved classes of chromosomal proteins regulating large-scale chromosome structure and function. A keynote lecture was followed by 41 oral presentations and 71 poster presentations in the four-day meeting. Diverse topics surrounding eukaryotic SMC protein complexes (cohesins, condensins and SMC5/6) and prokaryotic SMCs, and a wide range of cutting-edge approaches (from polymer physics through medical genetics) were presented...
November 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Ze Zhang, Ping Ren, Ajay A Vashisht, James A Wohlschlegel, David G Quintana, Fanli Zeng
In eukaryotic cells, a surveillance mechanism, the S phase checkpoint, detects and responds to insults that challenge chromosomal replication, arresting cell cycle progression and triggering appropriate events to prevent genomic instability. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mec1/ATM/ATR, and its downstream kinase, Rad53/Chk2, mediate the response to genotoxic stress. In this study, we place Cip1, a recently identified Cdk1 inhibitor (CKI), under the regulation of Mec1 and Rad53 in response to genotoxic stress...
October 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Hirohiko Ise, Sadanori Yamasaki, Kazuaki Sueyoshi, Yoshiko Miura
Vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and peripherin belong to type III intermediate filament family and are expressed in mesenchymal cells, skeletal muscle cells, astrocytes and peripheral neurons, respectively. Vimentin and desmin possess N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc)-binding properties on cell surfaces. The rod II domain of these proteins is a GlcNAc-binding site, which also exists in GFAP and peripherin. However, the GlcNAc-binding activities and behaviors of these proteins remain unclear...
September 12, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Takuya Ooishi, Daita Nadano, Tsukasa Matsuda, Kenzi Oshima
Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a divalent-binding secretory protein possessing an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif and a phosphatidylserine (PS)-binding motif. This protein has been shown to be involved in mammary gland development and morphogenesis. Integrin-binding activity is necessary for these MFG-E8-dependent cell processes. Although the target cells and molecules of MFG-E8 in the cellular microenvironment are important to understand its physiological function, its localization is largely unclear. Here, we found that mouse MFG-E8 localized to the basal lamina of the mammary gland during involution...
September 8, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Kiichi Yoshinaka, Ai Yamaguchi, Ritsuko Matsumura, Koichi Node, Isao Tokuda, Makoto Akashi
Approximately 20% of workers in developed countries are involved in night work. Nevertheless, many studies have strongly suggested that night-work-induced chronic circadian misalignment increases the risk of a diverse range of health problems. Although a relation between night work and irregular menstrual cycles has been indicated epidemiologically, a direct causal link remains elusive. Here, we report that repetitive reversal of light-dark (LD) cycles triggers irregular estrous cycles in mice. The findings showed that the estrous cycle remained irregular for more than four weeks after the mice were returned to regular LD cycles...
September 8, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Akihiro Mori, Amy D Holdorf, Albertha J M Walhout
Reverse genetic screens by RNA interference (RNAi) in model organisms such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have provided numerous insights into gene function, thereby connecting genotype to phenotype. However, genes that contribute only subtly are often missed because relatively large numbers of measurements and reliable quantification are required to overcome experimental and biological noise that may mask subtle phenotypic effects. Here, we address this challenge by focusing on two phenotypes in C...
September 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Keai Sinn Tan, Kasem Kulkeaw, Yoichi Nakanishi, Daisuke Sugiyama
In mouse fetal liver, hepatoblasts, sinusoidal endothelial cells and macrophages (or erythroblastic islands) promote differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells through cell-cell interactions and secretion of cytokines and extracellular matrix factors. Until now, we have had little knowledge of the hematopoietic cytokines or extracellular matrix mRNAs expressed in hepatic stellate cells. Using p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) to mark this cell population, we sorted 12.5, 14.5 and 16.5 dpc hepatic stellate cells and analyzed expression of cytokines and extracellular matrix mRNAs...
September 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Daisuke Irikura, Morihiro Saito, Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi, Takahiro Ohnishi, Kei-Ichi Sugiyama, Maiko Watanabe, Akiko Yamazaki, Shinji Izumiyama, Hirotaka Sato, Yusuke Kimura, Rie Doi, Yoichi Kamata
Raw horsemeat has the potential to induce food poisoning which often presents with diarrheal symptoms. A sample of horsemeat was found to be infected with Sarcocystis fayeri, and a 15-kDa protein isolated from the cysts of S. fayeri was found to clearly show its diarrhea-inducing activity. A nested polymerase chain reaction was used to clone the cDNA of the 15-kDa protein. The deduced amino acid sequence showed homology to actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF). A recombinant 15-kDa protein depolymerized prepolymerized actins in a test tube...
September 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Aggeliki Skagia, Chrysoula Zografou, Anastasia Venieraki, Costas Fasseas, Panagiotis Katinakis, Maria Dimou
Escherichia coli PpiB is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase, EC: with chaperone activity. Here, we show that the ΔppiB deletion strain and the PpiB over-expression wild-type strain are both characterized by defects in cell division involving milder or severe cell filamentation, respectively. Using various PpiB mutants, we show that the PPIase activity of PpiB is necessary for the observed cell filamentation, whereas other structural features apart from the active site are also important for this phenotype...
September 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
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