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Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503907/proteomics-analysis-for-asymmetric-inheritance-of-preexisting-proteins-between-mother-and-daughter-cells-in-budding-yeast
#1
Mitsuhiro Okada, Shunta Kusunoki, Yuko Ishibashi, Keiji Kito
In budding yeast, a mother cell can produce a finite number of daughter cells over its life. The accumulation of a variety of types of damaged components has an impact on the aging process. Asymmetrical inheritance during cell division causes these aberrant intracellular constituents to be retained in mother cells and prevents them from segregating to daughter cells. However, the understanding of asymmetrical inheritance of individual proteins that are damaged or old age, and their relevance to the aging process, has been limited...
May 15, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497562/different-aggregation-states-of-a-nuclear-localization-signal-tagged-25-kda-c-terminal-fragment-of-tar-rna-dna-binding-protein-43%C3%A2-kda
#2
Akira Kitamura, Sachiko Yuno, Hideki Muto, Masataka Kinjo
The mechanism and cause of motor neuronal cell death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, are unknown; gain of function of oligomers and aggregation of misfolded proteins, including carboxyl-terminal fragments (CTFs) of TAR RNA/DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), have been proposed as important causative factors in the onset of ALS. We recently reported that a nuclear localization signal (NLS)-tagged 25-kDa CTF of TDP-43 (TDP25) could decrease the cell-death proportion compared with that promoted by TDP25...
May 12, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497540/meikin-associated-polo-like-kinase-specifies-bub1-distribution-in-meiosis-i
#3
Seira Miyazaki, Jihye Kim, Yuya Yamagishi, Tadashi Ishiguro, Yuki Okada, Yuji Tanno, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe
In meiosis I, sister chromatids are captured by microtubules emanating from the same pole (mono-orientation), and centromeric cohesion is protected throughout anaphase. Shugoshin, which is localized to centromeres depending on the phosphorylation of histone H2A by Bub1 kinase, plays a central role in protecting meiotic cohesin Rec8 from separase cleavage. Another key meiotic kinetochore factor, meikin, may regulate cohesion protection, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that fission yeast Moa1 (meikin), which associates stably with CENP-C during meiosis I, recruits Plo1 (polo-like kinase) to the kinetochores and phosphorylates Spc7 (KNL1) to accumulate Bub1...
May 12, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493531/ternary-complex-of-human-ror%C3%AE-ligand-binding-domain-inverse-agonist-and-smrt-peptide-shows-a-unique-mechanism-of-corepressor-recruitment
#4
Masato Noguchi, Akihiro Nomura, Ken Murase, Satoki Doi, Keishi Yamaguchi, Kazuyuki Hirata, Makoto Shiozaki, Shintaro Hirashima, Masayuki Kotoku, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki Katsuda, Ruo Steensma, Xioalin Li, Haiyan Tao, Bruno Tse, Morgan Fenn, Robert Babine, Erin Bradley, Paul Crowe, Scott Thacher, Tsuyoshi Adachi, Masafumi Kamada
Retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma (RORγ) directly controls the differentiation of Th17 cell and the production of interleukin-17, which plays an integral role in autoimmune diseases. To obtain insight into RORγ, we have determined the first crystal structure of a ternary complex containing RORγ ligand-binding domain (LBD) bound with a novel synthetic inhibitor and a repressor peptide, 22-mer peptide from silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT). Comparison of a binary complex of nonliganded (apo) RORγ-LBD with a nuclear receptor co-activator (NCoA-1) peptide has shown that our inhibitor displays a unique mechanism different from those caused by natural inhibitor, ursolic acid (UA)...
May 11, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488421/retinoic-acid-modulates-lipid-accumulation-glucose-concentration-dependently-through-inverse-regulation-of-srebp-1-expression-in-3t3l1-adipocytes
#5
Mabrouk Attia Abd Eldaim, Shinya Matsuoka, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Akihiro Kamikawa, Mohamed Mohamed Ahmed, Akira Terao, Kei-Ichi Nakajima, Kazuhiro Kimura
It is well known that retinoic acid (RA) suppresses adipogenesis, although there are some contradicting reports. In this study, we examined the effect of extracellular glucose on RA-induced suppression of adipogenesis in 3T3L1 cell culture. When the cells were cultured in normal glucose medium (NG), the addition of RA suppressed lipid accumulation. However, when cultured in high glucose medium (HG), addition of RA to the cells enhanced lipid accumulation. These changes were accompanied by parallel alterations in fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 gene expression...
May 10, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488382/neuron-specific-knockdown-of-the-drosophila-fat-induces-reduction-of-life-span-deficient-locomotive-ability-shortening-of-motoneuron-terminal-branches-and-defects-in-axonal-targeting
#6
Aya Nakamura, Ryo Tanaka, Kazushige Morishita, Hideki Yoshida, Yujiro Higuchi, Hiroshi Takashima, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Mutations in FAT4 gene, one of the human FAT family genes, have been identified in Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS) and Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome (HS). The FAT4 gene encodes a large protein with extracellular cadherin repeats, EGF-like domains and Laminin G-like domains. FAT4 plays a role in tumor suppression and planar cell polarity. Drosophila contains a human FAT4 homologue, fat. Drosophila fat has been mainly studied with Drosophila eye and wing systems. Here, we specially knocked down Drosophila fat in nerve system...
May 9, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485554/identification-of-aca-28-a-1-acetoxychavicol-acetate-analogue-compound-as-a-novel-modulator-of-erk-mapk-signaling-which-preferentially-kills-human-melanoma-cells
#7
Ryosuke Satoh, Kanako Hagihara, Kazuki Matsuura, Yoshiaki Manse, Ayako Kita, Tatsuki Kunoh, Takashi Masuko, Mariko Moriyama, Hiroyuki Moriyama, Genzoh Tanabe, Osamu Muraoka, Reiko Sugiura
The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway is essential for cell proliferation and is frequently deregulated in human tumors such as melanoma. Melanoma remains incurable despite the use of conventional chemotherapy; consequently, development of new therapeutic agents for melanoma is highly desirable. Here, we carried out a chemical genetic screen using a fission yeast phenotypic assay and showed that ACA-28, a synthetic derivative of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), which is a natural ginger compound, effectively inhibited the growth of melanoma cancer cells wherein ERK MAPK signaling is hyperactivated due to mutations in the upstream activating regulators...
May 9, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474392/detection-and-characterization-of-individual-endocytosis-of-ampa-type-glutamate-receptor-around-postsynaptic-membrane
#8
Shumpei Fujii, Hiromitsu Tanaka, Tomoo Hirano
Synaptic plasticity such as long-term depression (LTD) has been regarded as a cellular mechanism of learning and memory. LTD is expressed by the decrease in number of postsynaptic AMPA-type receptor (AMPAR) at glutamatergic synapses. Although endocytosis is known to play an essential role in the decrease in AMPAR on postsynaptic membrane, the difficulty to detect individual endocytic events hampered clarification of AMPAR dynamics around synapses. Previously, we developed a method to induce formation of postsynaptic-like membrane (PSLM) on the glass surface and observed pHluorin-tagged AMPAR around PSLM with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy...
May 5, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474362/identification-of-physical-interactions-between-genomic-regions-by-enchip-seq
#9
Toshitsugu Fujita, Miyuki Yuno, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Hodaka Fujii
Physical interactions between genomic regions play critical roles in the regulation of genome functions, including gene expression. Here, we show the feasibility of using engineered DNA-binding molecule-mediated chromatin immunoprecipitation (enChIP) in combination with next-generation sequencing (NGS) (enChIP-Seq) to detect such interactions. In enChIP-Seq, the target genomic region is captured by an engineered DNA-binding complex, such as a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system consisting of a catalytically inactive form of Cas9 and a single guide RNA...
May 5, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429532/neu1-sialidase-interacts-with-perilipin-1-on-lipid-droplets-and-inhibits-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#10
Yujin Natori, Miwako Nasui, Fumiko Kihara-Negishi
Fatty acids are stored within adipocytes in lipid droplets (LDs) as triacylglycerol (TG), which is converted to free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol via lipolysis. Increased plasma FFA levels in obesity are associated with several clinical conditions. We previously found that Neu1 activity is aberrant in the epididymal fat and liver of obese and diabetic mice. Here, we examined involvement of Neu1 in lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Small interfering RNA against Neu1 was introduced into adipocytes, and glycerol concentrations were measured in the culture medium...
May 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425215/lipid-raft-dynamics-linked-to-sperm-competency-for-fertilization-in-mice
#11
Hitomi Watanabe, Rie Takeda, Keiji Hirota, Gen Kondoh
It is well known that mammalian sperm acquires fertilization ability after several maturation processes, particularly within the female reproductive tract. In a previous study, we found that both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein (GPI-AP) release and lipid raft movement occur during the sperm maturation process. In several genetic studies, release of GPI-AP is a crucial step for sperm fertilization ability in the mouse. Here, we show that lipid raft movement is also fundamental for sperm to be competent for fertilization by comparing the sperm maturation process of two mouse inbred strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c...
May 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397972/aging-dependent-expression-of-synapse-related-proteins-in-the-mouse-brain
#12
Hajime Shiotani, Tomohiko Maruo, Shotaro Sakakibara, Muneaki Miyata, Kenji Mandai, Hideki Mochizuki, Yoshimi Takai
A synapse is a cell adhesion structure that permits a neuron to pass a chemical or electrical signal to another neuron. They connect neurons and form neural networks that are essential for brain functions, such as learning and memory. At a chemical synapse, the presynapse and the postsynapse are connected by cell adhesion molecules. The presynapse contains synaptic vesicles and their release machinery, whereas the postsynapse contains postsynaptic densities and receptors for the neurotransmitters. Many proteins constituting a synapse have been identified, but their life-span expression profiles remain elusive...
May 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397381/ribosomal-protein-l31-in-escherichia-coli-contributes-to-ribosome-subunit-association-and-translation-whereas-short-l31-cleaved-by-protease-7-reduces-both-activities
#13
Masami Ueta, Chieko Wada, Yoshitaka Bessho, Maki Maeda, Akira Wada
Ribosomes routinely prepared from Escherichia coli strain K12 contain intact (70 amino acids) and short (62 amino acids) forms of ribosomal protein L31. By contrast, ribosomes prepared from ompT mutant cells, which lack protease 7, contain only intact L31, suggesting that L31 is cleaved by protease 7 during ribosome preparation. We compared ribosomal subunit association in wild-type and ompT( -) strains. In sucrose density gradient centrifugation under low Mg(2+) , 70S content was very high in ompT( -) ribosomes, but decreased in the wild-type ribosomes containing short L31...
May 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370817/behavioral-and-neuroanatomical-analyses-in-a-genetic-mouse-model-of-2q13-duplication
#14
Keiko Kishimoto, Jun Nomura, Jacob Ellegood, Keita Fukumoto, Jason P Lerch, Daniel Moreno-De-Luca, Thomas Bourgeron, Kota Tamada, Toru Takumi
Duplications of human chromosome 2q13 have been reported in patients with neurodevelopmental disorder including autism spectrum disorder. Nephronophthisis-1 (NPHP1) was identified as a causative gene in the minimal deletion on chromosome 2q13 for familial juvenile type 1 nephronophthisis and Joubert syndrome, an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a cerebellar and brain stem malformation, hypotonia, developmental delay, ataxia, and sometimes associated with cognitive impairment...
May 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326644/hiv-1-susceptibility-of-transgenic-rat-derived-primary-macrophage-t-cells-and-a-t-cell-line-that-express-human-receptors-cyclint1-and-crm1-genes
#15
Hisatoshi Shida, Hiroyuki Okada, Hajime Suzuki, Xianfeng Zhang, Jing Chen, Yasuko Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yuetsu Tanaka, Fumika Yakushiji, Yoshio Hayashi
We developed transgenic (Tg) rats that express human CD4, CCR5, CXCR4, CyclinT1, and CRM1 genes. Tg rat macrophages were efficiently infected with HIV-1 and supported production of infectious progeny virus. By contrast, both rat primary CD4(+) T cells and established T cell lines expressing human CD4, CCR5, CyclinT1, and CRM1 genes were infected inefficiently, but this was ameliorated by inhibition of cyclophilin A. The infectivity of rat T cell-derived virus was lower than that of human T cell-derived virus...
May 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318078/chromatin-tethering-to-the-nuclear-envelope-by-nuclear-actin-filaments-a-novel-role-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-the-xenopus-blastula
#16
Haruka Oda, Natsuki Shirai, Naoko Ura, Keita Ohsumi, Mari Iwabuchi
The Xenopus oocyte is known to accumulate filamentous or F-actin in the nucleus, but it is currently unknown whether F-actin also accumulates in embryo nuclei. Using fluorescence-labeled actin reporters, we examined the actin distribution in Xenopus embryonic cells and found that F-actin accumulates in nuclei during the blastula stage but not during the gastrula stage. To further investigate nuclear F-actin, we devised a Xenopus egg extract that reproduces the formation of nuclei in which F-actin accumulates...
April 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318075/thymine-dna-glycosylase-modulates-dna-damage-response-and-gene-expression-by-base-excision-repair-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms
#17
Tomohumi Nakamura, Kouichi Murakami, Haruto Tada, Yoshihiko Uehara, Jumpei Nogami, Kazumitsu Maehara, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Hisato Saitoh, Hideo Nishitani, Tetsuya Ono, Ryotaro Nishi, Masayuki Yokoi, Wataru Sakai, Kaoru Sugasawa
Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) is a base excision repair (BER) enzyme, which is implicated in correction of deamination-induced DNA mismatches, the DNA demethylation process and regulation of gene expression. Because of these pivotal roles associated, it is crucial to elucidate how the TDG functions are appropriately regulated in vivo. Here, we present evidence that the TDG protein undergoes degradation upon various types of DNA damage, including ultraviolet light (UV). The UV-induced degradation of TDG was dependent on proficiency in nucleotide excision repair and on CRL4(CDT)(2) -mediated ubiquitination that requires a physical interaction between TDG and DNA polymerase clamp PCNA...
April 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299863/dickkopf-3-attenuates-xanthine-dehydrogenase-expression-to-prevent-oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis
#18
Shuang Qui, Junko Kano, Masayuki Noguchi
Dickkopf (DKK) 3 is a DKK glycoprotein family member that controls cell fate during embryogenesis and exerts opposing effects on survival in a cell type-dependent manner; however, the mechanisms governing its pro-apoptosis versus pro-survival functions remain unclear. Here, we investigated DKK3 function in Li21 hepatoma cells and tPH5CH immortalized hepatocytes. DKK3 knockdown by siRNA resulted in reactive oxygen species accumulation and subsequent apoptosis, which were abrogated by administration of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine...
April 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296014/geminin-is-an-indispensable-inhibitor-of-cdt1-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#19
Masaki Hosogane, Lena Bosu, Emiko Fukumoto, Hidetoshi Yamada, Soichiro Sato, Keiko Nakayama
Geminin is implicated in regulation of the cell cycle and differentiation. Although loss of Geminin triggers unscheduled DNA rereplication as a result of interruption of its interaction with Cdt1 in some somatic cancer cells, whether such cell cycle regulation also operates in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) has remained unclear. To characterize the Geminin-Cdt1 axis in ESCs and compare it with that in somatic cells, we established conditional knockout (KO) of Geminin in mouse ESCs and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs)...
April 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251761/3d-structural-analysis-of-protein-o-mannosyl-kinase-pomk-a-causative-gene-product-of-dystroglycanopathy
#20
Masamichi Nagae, Sushil K Mishra, Makiko Neyazaki, Rika Oi, Akemi Ikeda, Naohiro Matsugaki, Satoko Akashi, Hiroshi Manya, Mamoru Mizuno, Hirokazu Yagi, Koichi Kato, Toshiya Senda, Tamao Endo, Terukazu Nogi, Yoshiki Yamaguchi
Orchestration of the multiple enzymes engaged in O-mannose glycan synthesis provides a matriglycan on α-dystroglycan (α-DG) which attracts extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as laminin. Aberrant O-mannosylation of α-DG leads to severe congenital muscular dystrophies due to detachment of ECM proteins from the basal membrane. Phosphorylation at C6-position of O-mannose catalyzed by protein O-mannosyl kinase (POMK) is a crucial step in the biosynthetic pathway of O-mannose glycan. Several mis-sense mutations of the POMK catalytic domain are known to cause a severe congenital muscular dystrophy, Walker-Warburg syndrome...
April 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
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