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Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms

Nariko Arimura, Ken-Ichi Dewa, Mako Okada, Yuchio Yanagawa, Shin-Ichiro Taya, Mikio Hoshino
The layer structure has been intensively characterized in the developing neocortex and cerebellum based on the various molecular markers. However, as to the developing dorsal midbrain, comprehensive analyses have not been intensely performed and therefore the name as well as the definition of each layer is not commonly shared. Here, we redefined the three layers, such as the ventricular zone, intermediate zone, and marginal zone, based on various markers for proliferation and differentiation in embryonic dorsal midbrain...
November 13, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Kentaro Kawata, Katsuyuki Yugi, Atsushi Hatano, Toshiya Kokaji, Yoko Tomizawa, Masashi Fujii, Shinsuke Uda, Hiroyuki Kubota, Masaki Matsumoto, Keiichi I Nakayama, Shinya Kuroda
Cellular signaling regulates various cellular functions via protein phosphorylation. Phosphoproteomic data potentially includes information for a global regulatory network from signaling to cellular functions, but a procedure to reconstruct this network using such data has yet to be established. In this paper we provide a procedure to reconstruct a global regulatory network from signaling to cellular functions from phosphoproteomic data by integrating prior knowledge of cellular functions and inference of the kinase-substrate relationships (KSRs)...
November 12, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Jagadeeswara Rao Bommi, H D Prasada Rao, Kiran Challa, Mika Higashide, Kaori Shinmyozu, Jun-Ichi Nakayama, Miki Shinohara, Akira Shinohara
Proteins in the nuclear envelope (NE) play a role in the dynamics and functions of the nucleus and of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis. Mps3, a yeast NE protein with a conserved SUN domain, predominantly localizes on a yeast centrosome equivalent, spindle pole body (SPB), in mitotic cells. During meiosis, Mps3, together with SPB, forms a distinct multiple ensemble on NE. How meiosis-specific NE localization of Mps3 is regulated remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that a meiosis-specific component of the protein complex essential for sister chromatid cohesion, Rec8, binds to Mps3 during meiosis, and controls Mps3 localization and proper dynamics on NE...
November 11, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Siqi Zhou, Kazuichi Sakamoto
Melanin is the main product of human melanocytes and functions to protect skin from ultraviolet (UV) radiation while conferring color to skin and hair. Tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme for melanin synthesis along with tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1 and TRP-2. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor regulates tyrosinase gene expression and is in turn regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3β signaling pathways...
November 11, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Kentaro Togashi, Masaya Hasegawa, Jun Nagai, Aine Tonouchi, Daiki Masukawa, Kenneth Hensley, Yoshio Goshima, Toshio Ohshima
Parkinson's disease (PD) is common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by slow and progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Levodopa (L-Dopa), the current main treatment for PD, supplies dopamine, but it does not prevent neurodegeneration. There is thus no promising remedy for PD. Recent in vitro study showed the increase in the phosphorylation levels of Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2 (CRMP2) is involved in dopaminergic axon degeneration. In the present study, we report elevation of CRMP2 phosphorylation in dopaminergic neurons in SNc after challenge with the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a common model for PD...
October 29, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Akira Sonoda, Naganori Kamiyama, Sotaro Ozaka, Yoshiko Gendo, Takashi Ozaki, Haruna Hirose, Kaori Noguchi, Benjawan Saechue, Nozomi Sachi, Kumiko Sakai, Kazuhiro Mizukami, Shinya Hidano, Kazunari Murakami, Takashi Kobayashi
Antibiotics sometimes exert adverse effects on the pathogenesis of colitis due to the dysbiosis resulting from the disruption of gut homeostasis. However, the precise mechanisms underlying colitogenic effects of antibiotics-induced colitis are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate a novel murine fecal occult bleeding model induced by the combinatorial treatment of ampicillin and vancomycin, which is accompanied by an enlarged caecum, the presence of fecal occult blood, upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12, a reduction in Ki-67 positive epithelial cell number, and an increase in the apoptotic cell number in the colon...
October 24, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Yijun Tian, Sayaka Matusi, Maki Touma, Qiong Wu, Kenkichi Sugimoto
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in initiation, development, progression and metastasis of tumors. MiR-342 has been reported as a tumor-suppressor or an onco-miRNA based on functions or expression changes in various types of cancers. However, the biological roles and underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-342 in tumorigenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we found that miR-342 was expressed significantly less in a murine MS-K tumor cell line that showed riched blood vessels. Overexpression of miR-342 in MS-K cells inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, reduced frequency of S phase population in vitro and suppressed tumor growth in vivo...
October 22, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Akihito Inoko, Tomoki Yano, Tatsuo Miyamoto, Shinya Matsuura, Tohru Kiyono, Naoki Goshima, Masaki Inagaki, Yuko Hayashi
The centrosome is a small but important organelle that participates in centriole duplication, spindle formation, and ciliogenesis. Each event is regulated by key enzymatic reactions, but how these processes are integrated remains unknown. Recent studies have reported that ciliogenesis is controlled by distal appendage proteins such as FBF1, also known as Albatross. However, the precise role of Albatross in the centrosome cycle, including centriole duplication and centrosome separation, remains to be determined...
October 15, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Yoshio Yaoita, Keisuke Nakajima
Thyroid hormones (THs) induce metamorphosis in amphibians, causing dynamic changes, whereas mammalian newborns undergo environmental transition from placenta to open air at birth. The similarity between amphibian metamorphosis and the mammalian perinatal periods has been repeatedly discussed. However, a corresponding developmental gene expression analysis has not yet been reported. In this study, we examined the developmental gene expression profiles in the brain and liver of Xenopus tropicalis during metamorphosis climax and compared them with the respective gene expression profiles of newborn rodents...
October 8, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Nguyen Thi Minh Viet, Duong Long Duy, Kazuhiro Saito, Kaoru Irie, Yasuyuki Suda, Tomoaki Mizuno, Kenji Irie
The PUF RNA-binding protein Puf5 is involved in regulation of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway in yeast. Puf5 negatively regulates expression of LRG1 mRNA, encoding for a GTPase-activating protein for Rho1 small GTPase. Here, we further analyzed the effect of Puf5 on LRG1 expression, together with Ccr4 and Pop2 deadenylases, Dhh1 decapping activator, and other PUF proteins. We found that the growth defect of puf5∆ mutant was enhanced by ccr4∆ mutation, which was partially suppressed by LRG1 deletion...
October 3, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Koji Yamano, Michael Lazarou
The 1st International Mitochondria Meeting for Young Scientists (International YoungMito 2018) was held at Hotel Co-op Inn Kyoto in Kyoto, Japan, from 20 to 22 April 2018. The meeting was attended by 130 mitochondrial researchers from 15 countries. International YoungMito 2018 was the first international mitochondria meeting held in Japan organized by and for young mitochondrial researchers. Over the 3-day period, there were 28 oral presentations including two keynote lectures, 20 presentations from invited speakers, and six short talks selected from abstract submissions...
October 1, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Masashi Takao, Yutaka Nagai, Masami Ito, Tetsuhiko Ohba
Extracellular vesicles (EV) have attracted attention as circulating biomarkers for many diseases, particularly cancer. Conventional immunofluorescence staining has been used for the detection of target antigens on EV by flow cytometry. However, the staining intensity depends on the amount of antigen expressed on the vesicles and is often only around the noise level. Instead of immunofluorescence, we combined immunomagnetic separation using nanosize MACS® MicroBeads with phospholipid staining of EV (IMS-PS method)...
September 16, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Yan Li, Kyosuke Kobayashi, Kosho Murayama, Kohichi Kawahara, Yuichi Shima, Akira Suzuki, Kenzaburo Tani, Atsushi Takahashi
FEAT, the protein encoded by methyltransferase-like 13 (METTL13), is aberrantly upregulated in most human cancers and potently drives tumorigenesis in vivo; however, its role in normal tissues remains elusive. Immunoblotting has displayed weak FEAT expression in normal human tissues, including the testis. Here, we found that FEAT is expressed in fetal and adult Leydig cells in the testis. FEAT knockdown using siRNA increased primary cilia formation in MA-10 Leydig tumor cells, accompanied by enhanced 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation...
September 4, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Mikio Takagi, Masaya Ikegawa, Takashi Shimada, Susumu Ishikawa, Mihoko Kajita, Takeshi Maruyama, Tomoko Kamasaki, Yasuyuki Fujita
At the initial stage of carcinogenesis, transformation occurs in single cells within the epithelium. Recent studies have revealed that the newly emerging transformed cells are often apically eliminated from epithelial tissues. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this cancer preventive phenomenon still remain elusive. In this study, we first demonstrate that myosin-II accumulates in Src-transformed cells when they are surrounded by normal epithelial cells. Knock-down of the heavy chains of myosin-II substantially diminishes apical extrusion of Src cells, suggesting that accumulated myosin-II positively regulates the apical elimination of transformed cells...
September 2, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Lijuan Huang, Masaaki Ozawa, Etsuko Miyamoto-Sato
To clarify the pathogenic mechanism of disease and establish effective therapies, animal disease models that can be dynamically analyzed are urgently required. Knockout mouse models and conditional genetically engineered mouse models were developed to analyze genes and proteins involved in disease. However, these methods have drawbacks, including embryonic lethality, side effects and low efficiency. To address this issue, we created a novel transgenic mouse model in which the YB1 gene was fused with a destabilizing domain (DD), named the YB1-DD mouse...
August 30, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Atsuo Iida, Zi Wang, Hiromi Hirata, Atsuko Sehara-Fujisawa
Integrins are transmembrane molecules that facilitate cell-to-cell and cell-to-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Integrin molecules are heterodimers that consist of α- and β-subunits. The integrin β1 gene is widely expressed in vivo and is the major β molecule in many tissues; however, tissue-specific roles of integrin β1 are still elusive. In this study, we investigated integrin β1 function in endothelial cells of zebrafish. An integrin β1b mutant zebrafish exhibited morphological abnormalities in blood vessel formation, cephalic hemorrhage and a decreased responsiveness to tactile stimulation during development...
August 27, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Takahiro Komori, Atsushi Shibai, Hiromi Saito, Yuya Akeno, Arno Germond, Takaaki Horinouchi, Chikara Furusawa, Saburo Tsuru
Evolutionary strategies in growth improvement can be classified into r- or K-strategies. The former strategy corresponds to an evolutionary increase in growth rate, whereas the latter corresponds to an increase in the maximum amount of organisms or carrying capacity. What determines the strategies to be adopted during evolution? Spatial structures that compartmentalize the population into small patches are key to inducing the K-strategy. Interestingly, previous evolution experiments using Escherichia coli in a glucose-limited batch culture showed that carrying capacity could improve evolutionally even in the absence of spatial structures...
August 24, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Yuki Hattori, Takaki Miyata
Neocortical development proceeds through the formation of new zones in which neural-lineage cells are organized based on their differentiation status. Although microglia initially distribute homogeneously throughout the growing cerebral wall, they accumulate in the inner cytogenic zone, the ventricular zone (VZ) and the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the mid-embryonic stage. However, the roles of these cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we found that microglia, despite being only a minor population of the cells that constitute the cerebral wall, promote the differentiation of neural progenitor cells by frequently moving throughout the cortex; their migration is mediated by the CXCL12/CXCR4 system...
August 24, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Akihiro Nakamura, Natsuko Kawano, Kei Motomura, Akio Kuroda, Kiyoshi Sekiguchi, Mami Miyado, Woojin Kang, Yoshitaka Miyamoto, Maito Hanai, Maki Iwai, Mitsutoshi Yamada, Toshio Hamatani, Takakazu Saito, Hidekazu Saito, Mamoru Tanaka, Akihiro Umezawa, Kenji Miyado
In bacteria, a polymer of inorganic phosphate (Pi) (inorganic polyphosphate; polyP) is enzymatically produced and consumed as an alternative phosphate donor for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production to protect against nutrient starvation. In vertebrates, polyP has been dismissed as a "molecular fossil" due to the lack of any known physiological function. Here, we have explored its possible role by producing transgenic (TG) mice widely expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae exopolyphosphatase 1 (ScPPX1), which catalyzes hydrolytic polyP degradation...
August 24, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Rolf Müller, Maria Stumpf, Regina Wehrstedt, Salil K Sukumaran, Malte A Karow, Marija Marko, Angelika A Noegel, Ludwig Eichinger
phr2AB is the regulatory subunit of the Dictyostelium discoideum phosphatase PP2A and is the ortholog of the human B55 regulatory subunit of PP2A. phr2AB was isolated as a binding partner of the centrosomal protein CEP161, an ortholog of mammalian CDK5RAP2. CEP161 is presumably a phosphoprotein and a component of the Hippo pathway. The interaction site was located in the N-terminal half of CEP161 which encompasses the γTURC binding domain in CEP161. This binding domain is responsible for binding of the γ-tubulin ring complex which allows microtubule nucleation at the centrosome...
August 22, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
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