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Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631873/roles-of-afadin-in-functional-differentiations-of-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapse
#1
Xiaoqi Geng, Tomohiko Maruo, Kenji Mandai, Irwan Supriyanto, Muneaki Miyata, Shotaro Sakakibara, Akira Mizoguchi, Yoshimi Takai, Masahiro Mori
A hippocampal mossy fiber synapse has a complex structure and is implicated in learning and memory. In this synapse, the mossy fiber boutons attach to the dendritic shaft by puncta adherentia junctions and wrap around a multiply-branched spine, forming synaptic junctions. We have recently shown using transmission electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy and serial block face-scanning electron microscopy that atypical puncta adherentia junctions are formed in the afadin-deficient mossy fiber synapse and that the complexity of postsynaptic spines and mossy fiber boutons, the number of spine heads, the area of postsynaptic densities and the density of synaptic vesicles docked to active zones are decreased in the afadin-deficient synapse...
June 20, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597544/endoplasmic-reticulum-proteins-sdf2-and-sdf2l1-act-as-components-of-the-bip-chaperone-cycle-to-prevent-protein-aggregation
#2
Tsutomu Fujimori, Ryoji Suno, Shun-Ichiro Iemura, Tohru Natsume, Ikuo Wada, Nobuko Hosokawa
The folding of newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is assisted by ER-resident chaperone proteins. BiP (immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein), a member of the HSP70 family, plays a central role in protein quality control. The chaperone function of BiP is regulated by its intrinsic ATPase activity, which is stimulated by ER-resident proteins of the HSP40/DnaJ family, including ERdj3. Here, we report that two closely related proteins, SDF2 and SDF2L1, regulate the BiP chaperone cycle...
June 9, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557347/in-vitro-site-specific-recombination-mediated-by-the-tyrosine-recombinase-xera-of-thermoplasma-acidophilum
#3
Minji Jo, Yasuto Murayama, Yasuhiro Tsutsui, Hiroshi Iwasaki
In organisms with circular chromosomes, such as bacteria and archaea, an odd number of homologous recombination events can generate a chromosome dimer. Such chromosome dimers cannot be segregated unless they are converted to monomers before cell division. In Escherichia coli, dimer-to-monomer conversion is mediated by the paralogous XerC and XerD recombinases at a specific dif site in the replication termination region. Dimer resolution requires the highly conserved cell division protein/chromosome translocase FtsK, and this site-specific chromosome resolution system is present or predicted in most bacteria...
May 30, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557307/pervasive-yet-nonuniform-contributions-of-dcp2-and-cnot7-to-maternal-mrna-clearance-in-zebrafish
#4
Yuichiro Mishima, Yukihide Tomari
mRNA degradation is a fundamental biological process that erases transcribed genetic information from cells. During maternal-to-zygotic transition of animal development, thousands of maternal mRNAs are degraded by multiple mechanisms including microRNAs and codon-mediated decay. Enzymatic requirements for maternal mRNA clearance, however, are not fully understood. Here, we analyzed a contribution of the decapping enzyme Dcp2 to maternal mRNA clearance in zebrafish by over-expressing catalytically inactive Dcp2 and performing RNA-seq analysis...
May 30, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544195/long-and-branched-polyamines-are-required-for-maintenance-of-the-ribosome-trna-his-and-trna-tyr-in-thermus-thermophilus-cells-at-high-temperatures
#5
Misa Nakashima, Ryota Yamagami, Chie Tomikawa, Yuki Ochi, Toshiyuki Moriya, Haruichi Asahara, Dominique Fourmy, Satoko Yoshizawa, Tairo Oshima, Hiroyuki Hori
Thermus thermophilus is an extremely thermophilic eubacterium that produces various polyamines. Aminopropylagmatine ureohydrolase (SpeB) and SAM decarboxylase-like protein 1 (SpeD1) are involved in the biosynthesis of spermidine from arginine. Because long and branched polyamines in T. thermophilus are synthesized from spermidine, the speB and speD1 gene-deleted strains (ΔspeB and ΔspeD1, respectively) cannot synthesize long and branched polyamines. Although neither strain grew at high temperatures (>75°C) in minimal medium, both strains survived at 80°C when they were cultured at 70°C until the mid-log phase and then shifted to 80°C...
May 24, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544270/localization-and-domain-characterization-of-the-sfla-regulator-of-flagellar-formation-in-vibrio-alginolyticus
#6
Satoshi Inaba, Takehiko Nishigaki, Norihiro Takekawa, Seiji Kojima, Michio Homma
Many swimming bacteria use flagella as locomotive organelles. The spatial and numerical regulation of flagellar biosynthesis differs by bacterial species. The marine bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus use a single polar flagellum whose number is regulated positively by FlhF and negatively by FlhG. Cells lacking FlhF and FlhG have no flagellum. The motility defect in an flhFG deletion was suppressed by a mutation in the sflA gene that resulted in the production of multiple, peritrichous flagella. SflA is a Vibrio-specific protein...
May 22, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503907/proteomics-analysis-for-asymmetric-inheritance-of-preexisting-proteins-between-mother-and-daughter-cells-in-budding-yeast
#7
Mitsuhiro Okada, Shunta Kusunoki, Yuko Ishibashi, Keiji Kito
In budding yeast, a mother cell can produce a finite number of daughter cells over its life. The accumulation of a variety of types of damaged components has an impact on the aging process. Asymmetrical inheritance during cell division causes these aberrant intracellular constituents to be retained in mother cells and prevents them from segregating to daughter cells. However, the understanding of asymmetrical inheritance of individual proteins that are damaged or old age, and their relevance to the aging process, has been limited...
May 15, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497562/different-aggregation-states-of-a-nuclear-localization-signal-tagged-25-kda-c-terminal-fragment-of-tar-rna-dna-binding-protein-43%C3%A2-kda
#8
Akira Kitamura, Sachiko Yuno, Hideki Muto, Masataka Kinjo
The mechanism and cause of motor neuronal cell death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, are unknown; gain of function of oligomers and aggregation of misfolded proteins, including carboxyl-terminal fragments (CTFs) of TAR RNA/DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), have been proposed as important causative factors in the onset of ALS. We recently reported that a nuclear localization signal (NLS)-tagged 25-kDa CTF of TDP-43 (TDP25) could decrease the cell-death proportion compared with that promoted by TDP25...
May 12, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497540/meikin-associated-polo-like-kinase-specifies-bub1-distribution-in-meiosis-i
#9
Seira Miyazaki, Jihye Kim, Yuya Yamagishi, Tadashi Ishiguro, Yuki Okada, Yuji Tanno, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe
In meiosis I, sister chromatids are captured by microtubules emanating from the same pole (mono-orientation), and centromeric cohesion is protected throughout anaphase. Shugoshin, which is localized to centromeres depending on the phosphorylation of histone H2A by Bub1 kinase, plays a central role in protecting meiotic cohesin Rec8 from separase cleavage. Another key meiotic kinetochore factor, meikin, may regulate cohesion protection, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that fission yeast Moa1 (meikin), which associates stably with CENP-C during meiosis I, recruits Plo1 (polo-like kinase) to the kinetochores and phosphorylates Spc7 (KNL1) to accumulate Bub1...
May 12, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493531/ternary-complex-of-human-ror%C3%AE-ligand-binding-domain-inverse-agonist-and-smrt-peptide-shows-a-unique-mechanism-of-corepressor-recruitment
#10
Masato Noguchi, Akihiro Nomura, Ken Murase, Satoki Doi, Keishi Yamaguchi, Kazuyuki Hirata, Makoto Shiozaki, Shintaro Hirashima, Masayuki Kotoku, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki Katsuda, Ruo Steensma, Xioalin Li, Haiyan Tao, Bruno Tse, Morgan Fenn, Robert Babine, Erin Bradley, Paul Crowe, Scott Thacher, Tsuyoshi Adachi, Masafumi Kamada
Retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma (RORγ) directly controls the differentiation of Th17 cell and the production of interleukin-17, which plays an integral role in autoimmune diseases. To obtain insight into RORγ, we have determined the first crystal structure of a ternary complex containing RORγ ligand-binding domain (LBD) bound with a novel synthetic inhibitor and a repressor peptide, 22-mer peptide from silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT). Comparison of a binary complex of nonliganded (apo) RORγ-LBD with a nuclear receptor co-activator (NCoA-1) peptide has shown that our inhibitor displays a unique mechanism different from those caused by natural inhibitor, ursolic acid (UA)...
May 11, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488421/retinoic-acid-modulates-lipid-accumulation-glucose-concentration-dependently-through-inverse-regulation-of-srebp-1-expression-in-3t3l1-adipocytes
#11
Mabrouk Attia Abd Eldaim, Shinya Matsuoka, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Akihiro Kamikawa, Mohamed Mohamed Ahmed, Akira Terao, Kei-Ichi Nakajima, Kazuhiro Kimura
It is well known that retinoic acid (RA) suppresses adipogenesis, although there are some contradicting reports. In this study, we examined the effect of extracellular glucose on RA-induced suppression of adipogenesis in 3T3L1 cell culture. When the cells were cultured in normal glucose medium (NG), the addition of RA suppressed lipid accumulation. However, when cultured in high glucose medium (HG), addition of RA to the cells enhanced lipid accumulation. These changes were accompanied by parallel alterations in fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 gene expression...
May 10, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488382/neuron-specific-knockdown-of-the-drosophila-fat-induces-reduction-of-life-span-deficient-locomotive-ability-shortening-of-motoneuron-terminal-branches-and-defects-in-axonal-targeting
#12
Aya Nakamura, Ryo Tanaka, Kazushige Morishita, Hideki Yoshida, Yujiro Higuchi, Hiroshi Takashima, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Mutations in FAT4 gene, one of the human FAT family genes, have been identified in Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS) and Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome (HS). The FAT4 gene encodes a large protein with extracellular cadherin repeats, EGF-like domains and Laminin G-like domains. FAT4 plays a role in tumor suppression and planar cell polarity. Drosophila contains a human FAT4 homologue, fat. Drosophila fat has been mainly studied with Drosophila eye and wing systems. Here, we specially knocked down Drosophila fat in nerve system...
May 9, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485554/identification-of-aca-28-a-1-acetoxychavicol-acetate-analogue-compound-as-a-novel-modulator-of-erk-mapk-signaling-which-preferentially-kills-human-melanoma-cells
#13
Ryosuke Satoh, Kanako Hagihara, Kazuki Matsuura, Yoshiaki Manse, Ayako Kita, Tatsuki Kunoh, Takashi Masuko, Mariko Moriyama, Hiroyuki Moriyama, Genzoh Tanabe, Osamu Muraoka, Reiko Sugiura
The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway is essential for cell proliferation and is frequently deregulated in human tumors such as melanoma. Melanoma remains incurable despite the use of conventional chemotherapy; consequently, development of new therapeutic agents for melanoma is highly desirable. Here, we carried out a chemical genetic screen using a fission yeast phenotypic assay and showed that ACA-28, a synthetic derivative of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), which is a natural ginger compound, effectively inhibited the growth of melanoma cancer cells wherein ERK MAPK signaling is hyperactivated due to mutations in the upstream activating regulators...
May 9, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474392/detection-and-characterization-of-individual-endocytosis-of-ampa-type-glutamate-receptor-around-postsynaptic-membrane
#14
Shumpei Fujii, Hiromitsu Tanaka, Tomoo Hirano
Synaptic plasticity such as long-term depression (LTD) has been regarded as a cellular mechanism of learning and memory. LTD is expressed by the decrease in number of postsynaptic AMPA-type receptor (AMPAR) at glutamatergic synapses. Although endocytosis is known to play an essential role in the decrease in AMPAR on postsynaptic membrane, the difficulty to detect individual endocytic events hampered clarification of AMPAR dynamics around synapses. Previously, we developed a method to induce formation of postsynaptic-like membrane (PSLM) on the glass surface and observed pHluorin-tagged AMPAR around PSLM with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy...
May 5, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474362/identification-of-physical-interactions-between-genomic-regions-by-enchip-seq
#15
Toshitsugu Fujita, Miyuki Yuno, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Hodaka Fujii
Physical interactions between genomic regions play critical roles in the regulation of genome functions, including gene expression. Here, we show the feasibility of using engineered DNA-binding molecule-mediated chromatin immunoprecipitation (enChIP) in combination with next-generation sequencing (NGS) (enChIP-Seq) to detect such interactions. In enChIP-Seq, the target genomic region is captured by an engineered DNA-binding complex, such as a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system consisting of a catalytically inactive form of Cas9 and a single guide RNA...
May 5, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608430/erratum
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429532/neu1-sialidase-interacts-with-perilipin-1-on-lipid-droplets-and-inhibits-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#17
Yujin Natori, Miwako Nasui, Fumiko Kihara-Negishi
Fatty acids are stored within adipocytes in lipid droplets (LDs) as triacylglycerol (TG), which is converted to free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol via lipolysis. Increased plasma FFA levels in obesity are associated with several clinical conditions. We previously found that Neu1 activity is aberrant in the epididymal fat and liver of obese and diabetic mice. Here, we examined involvement of Neu1 in lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Small interfering RNA against Neu1 was introduced into adipocytes, and glycerol concentrations were measured in the culture medium...
May 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425215/lipid-raft-dynamics-linked-to-sperm-competency-for-fertilization-in-mice
#18
Hitomi Watanabe, Rie Takeda, Keiji Hirota, Gen Kondoh
It is well known that mammalian sperm acquires fertilization ability after several maturation processes, particularly within the female reproductive tract. In a previous study, we found that both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein (GPI-AP) release and lipid raft movement occur during the sperm maturation process. In several genetic studies, release of GPI-AP is a crucial step for sperm fertilization ability in the mouse. Here, we show that lipid raft movement is also fundamental for sperm to be competent for fertilization by comparing the sperm maturation process of two mouse inbred strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c...
May 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397972/aging-dependent-expression-of-synapse-related-proteins-in-the-mouse-brain
#19
Hajime Shiotani, Tomohiko Maruo, Shotaro Sakakibara, Muneaki Miyata, Kenji Mandai, Hideki Mochizuki, Yoshimi Takai
A synapse is a cell adhesion structure that permits a neuron to pass a chemical or electrical signal to another neuron. They connect neurons and form neural networks that are essential for brain functions, such as learning and memory. At a chemical synapse, the presynapse and the postsynapse are connected by cell adhesion molecules. The presynapse contains synaptic vesicles and their release machinery, whereas the postsynapse contains postsynaptic densities and receptors for the neurotransmitters. Many proteins constituting a synapse have been identified, but their life-span expression profiles remain elusive...
May 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397381/ribosomal-protein-l31-in-escherichia-coli-contributes-to-ribosome-subunit-association-and-translation-whereas-short-l31-cleaved-by-protease-7-reduces-both-activities
#20
Masami Ueta, Chieko Wada, Yoshitaka Bessho, Maki Maeda, Akira Wada
Ribosomes routinely prepared from Escherichia coli strain K12 contain intact (70 amino acids) and short (62 amino acids) forms of ribosomal protein L31. By contrast, ribosomes prepared from ompT mutant cells, which lack protease 7, contain only intact L31, suggesting that L31 is cleaved by protease 7 during ribosome preparation. We compared ribosomal subunit association in wild-type and ompT( -) strains. In sucrose density gradient centrifugation under low Mg(2+) , 70S content was very high in ompT( -) ribosomes, but decreased in the wild-type ribosomes containing short L31...
May 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
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