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Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869347/myb-transcription-factor-gene-involved-in-sex-determination-in-asparagus-officinalis
#1
Kohji Murase, Shuji Shigenobu, Sota Fujii, Kazuki Ueda, Takanori Murata, Ai Sakamoto, Yuko Wada, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Yuriko Osakabe, Keishi Osakabe, Akira Kanno, Yukio Ozaki, Seiji Takayama
Dioecy is a plant mating system in which individuals of a species are either male or female. Although many flowering plants evolved independently from hermaphroditism to dioecy, the molecular mechanism underlying this transition remains largely unknown. Sex determination in the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis is controlled by X and Y chromosomes; the male and female karyotypes are XY and XX, respectively. Transcriptome analysis of A. officinalis buds showed that a MYB-like gene, Male Specific Expression 1 (MSE1), is specifically expressed in males...
November 21, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868330/structural-and-functional-analysis-of-cyclophilin-ppib-mutants-supports-an-in%C3%A2-vivo-function-not-limited-to-prolyl-isomerization-activity
#2
Aggeliki Skagia, Eleni Vezyri, Markezina Sigala, Areti Kokkinou, Michael Karpusas, Anastasia Venieraki, Panagiotis Katinakis, Maria Dimou
Escherichia coli cyclophilin PpiB is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase, EC: 5.2.1.8), involved in the negative modulation of various bacterial processes, such as swimming and swarming motility and biofilm formation ability. In this study, we show that PpiB possesses also a chaperone function as it can prevent the thermal denaturation of citrate synthase even with essentially eliminated PPIase activity. We demonstrate, using active site mutations, that the PPIase activity of PpiB is required in all processes, except for the negative effect on swimming, indicating a possible isomerase-independent function...
November 21, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868313/nutrient-dependent-increased-dendritic-arborization-of-somatosensory-neurons
#3
Kaori Watanabe, Yuki Furumizo, Tadao Usui, Yukako Hattori, Tadashi Uemura
Suboptimal nutrition imposes developmental constraints on infant animals, which marshal adaptive responses to eventually become mature adults. Such responses are mounted at multiple levels from systemic to cellular. At the cellular level, the underlying mechanisms of cell proliferation control have been intensively studied. However, less is known about how growth of postmitotic and morphologically complex cells, such as neurons, is controlled by nutritional status. We address this question using Class I and Class IV dendritic arborization neurons in Drosophila larvae...
November 21, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860073/oligomerization-of-hmo1-mediated-by-box-a-is-essential-for-dna-binding-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#4
Koji Kasahara, Ayako Higashino, Satoru Unzai, Hirofumi Yoshikawa, Tetsuro Kokubo
Hmo1, a member of HMGB family proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, binds to and regulates the transcription of genes encoding ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins. The functional motifs of Hmo1 include two HMG-like motifs, box A and box B, and a C-terminal tail. To elucidate the molecular roles of the HMG-like boxes in DNA binding in vivo, we analyzed the DNA-binding activity of various Hmo1 mutants using ChIP or reporter assays that enabled us to conveniently detect Hmo1 binding to the promoter of RPS5, a major target gene of Hmo1...
November 15, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859996/microphthalmia-associated-transcription-factor-ensures-the-elongation-of-axons-and-dendrites-in-the-mouse-frontal-cortex
#5
Koji Ohba, Kazuhisa Takeda, Tamio Furuse, Tomohiro Suzuki, Shigeharu Wakana, Takashi Suzuki, Hiroaki Yamamoto, Shigeki Shibahara
Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) is a mammalian transposable element, and its genomic insertion could cause neurological disorders in humans. Incidentally, LINE-1 is present in intron 3 of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (Mitf) gene of the black-eyed white mouse (Mitf(mi-bw) allele). Mice homozygous for the Mitf(mi-bw) allele show the white coat color with black eye and deafness. Here, we explored the functional consequences of the LINE-1 insertion in the Mitf gene using homozygous Mitf(mi-bw) mice on the C3H background (C3H-bw mice) or on the C57BL/6 background (bw mice)...
November 11, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862696/small-spheroids-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-with-time-dependent-enhancement-of-il-8-and-vegf-a-secretion
#6
Yuichi Furuhata, Yuka Kikuchi, Shunsuke Tomita, Keitaro Yoshimoto
Wound-healing factors secreted from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modulate the immune response and facilitate proliferation of neighboring cells. Although in vitro three-dimensional (3D) culture techniques have improved the therapeutic potential of MSCs, no studies have focused on the effects of cell aggregation alone. In this study, the effect of cell aggregation on the up-regulation of wound-healing proteins secretions was investigated by constructing small spheroids of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) on a micropatterned surface...
November 9, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813233/novel-translocation-intermediate-allows-re-evaluation-of-roles-of-atp-proton-motive-force-and-secg-at-the-late-stage-of-preprotein-translocation
#7
Ken-Ichi Nishiyama, Hajime Tokuda
Presecretory proteins such as pOmpA are translocated across the inner membrane of Escherichia coli by Sec translocase powered by ATP and proton motive force (PMF). Translocation activity has been determined by protease protection assaying in vitro. We identified a new translocation intermediate at a late stage, which was protected by proteinase K (PK), but became PK sensitive upon urea extraction. At a late stage of pOmpA translocation driven by PMF in the presence of a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue, the PK-protected materials arose, but were pulled back upon urea extraction, indicating that completion of translocation requires ATP hydrolysis...
November 4, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813205/dietary-fructose-induced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-development-manifested-in-mice-lacking-apoptosis-inhibitor-of-macrophage-aim
#8
Takayuki Ozawa, Natsumi Maehara, Toshihiro Kai, Satoko Arai, Toru Miyazaki
The consumption of fructose, including the use of high-fructose corn syrup as a sweetener, has increased continuously in recent decades. Although the involvement of fructose in the development of metabolic diseases has been emphasized recently, whether fructose intake increases susceptibility to steatosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. Here, we investigated this issue using mice lacking a circulating protein, apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM, encoded by cd5l). AIM does not induce carcinogenesis of hepatocytes, but provokes necrotic death specifically in AIM-bound cancer cells through complement cascade activation, thereby preventing HCC tumor development in wild-type mice...
November 4, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734597/sfp1-mediated-prion-dependent-lethality-is-caused-by-increased-sup35-aggregation-and-alleviated-by-sis1
#9
Andrew G Matveenko, Polina B Drozdova, Mikhail V Belousov, Svetlana E Moskalenko, Stanislav A Bondarev, Yury A Barbitoff, Anton A Nizhnikov, Galina A Zhouravleva
[PSI(+) ] is the prion form of the translation termination factor Sup35 (eRF3); [PSI(+) ] strains display nonsense suppression. Another prion-like element, [ISP(+) ], is linked to antisuppression in a specific background. Transcriptional regulator Sfp1 was shown to be responsible for [ISP(+) ] propagation. In this work, we identified SFP1 as a multicopy inducer of [PSI(+) ]-dependent lethality. Sfp1 is likely to up-regulate transcription of genes encoding release factors; however, its overproduction increases Sup35, but not Sup45 protein level...
October 12, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723196/rna-decay-systems-enhance-reciprocal-switching-of-sense-and-antisense-transcripts-in-response-to-glucose-starvation
#10
Atsuko Miki, Josephine Galipon, Satoshi Sawai, Toshifumi Inada, Kunihiro Ohta
Antisense RNA has emerged as a crucial regulator of opposite-strand protein-coding genes in the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) category, but little is known about their dynamics and decay process in the context of a stress response. Antisense transcripts from the fission yeast fbp1 locus (fbp1-as) are expressed in glucose-rich conditions and anticorrelated with transcription of metabolic stress-induced lncRNA (mlonRNA) and mRNA on the sense strand during glucose starvation. Here, we investigate the localization and decay of antisense RNAs at fbp1 and other loci, and propose a model to explain the rapid switch between antisense and sense mlonRNA/mRNA transcription triggered by glucose starvation...
October 10, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723178/small-maf-deficiency-recapitulates-the-liver-phenotypes-of-nrf1-and-nrf2-deficient-mice
#11
Fumiki Katsuoka, Hiromi Yamazaki, Masayuki Yamamoto
Nrf1 and Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factors 1 and 2, respectively) are transcription factors that belong to the Cap'n'collar (CNC) family and play critical roles in various tissues, including the liver. Liver-specific Nrf1 knockout mice show hepatic steatosis, accompanied by dysregulation of various metabolic genes. Nrf2 knockout mice show impairment in the induction of antioxidant and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme genes. Although it has been shown that small Maf (sMaf) proteins act as obligatory partners of CNC proteins, their precise contributions to the function of CNC proteins remain unclear especially in the context of adult liver functions...
October 10, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717094/terminal-differentiation-of-cortical-neurons-rapidly-remodels-rangap-mediated-nuclear-transport-system
#12
Kazushiro Fujiwara, Koichi Hasegawa, Masahiro Oka, Yoshihiro Yoneda, Kazuaki Yoshikawa
Terminal differentiation of neurons is accompanied by irreversible exit from the cell cycle and expression of neuronal phenotypes. The molecular mechanism whereby committed neuronal progenitors lose their ability to reenter the cell cycle is largely unknown. Here, we report that the nuclear transport system is rapidly remodeled in primary cortical progenitor cells (CPCs) at the very beginning of neuronal terminal differentiation. High levels of Ran GTPase-activating protein 1 (RanGAP), a key regulator of the Ran GTP-GDP cycle, in primary CPCs are drastically reduced upon neuronal induction...
November 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696626/ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent-degradation-of-tbp-like-protein-is-prevented-by-direct-binding-of-tfiia
#13
Momoko Isogai, Hidefumi Suzuki, Ryo Maeda, Taka-Aki Tamura
Although the majority of gene expression is driven by TATA-binding protein (TBP)-based transcription machinery, it has been reported that TBP-related factors (TRFs) are also involved in the regulation of gene expression. TBP-like protein (TLP), which is one of the TRFs and exhibits the highest affinity to TFIIA among known proteins, has recently been showed to have significant roles in gene regulation. However, how the level of TLP is maintained in vivo has remained unknown. In this study, we explored the mechanism by which TLP protein is turned over in vivo and the factor that maintains the amount of TLP...
November 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696624/tak1-maintains-the-survival-of-immunoglobulin-%C3%AE-chain-positive-b-cells
#14
Hisaaki Shinohara, Takeshi Nagashima, Marilia I Cascalho, Tomohiro Kurosaki
TAK1 (MAP3K7) mediation of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex-nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway is crucial for the activation of immune response and to perpetuate inflammation. Although progress has been made to understand TAK1 function in the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling, the physiological roles of TAK1 in B-cell development, particularly in the bone marrow (BM), remain elusive. Previous studies suggested that the IKK complex is required for the development of immunoglobulin light chain λ-positive B cells, but not for receptor editing...
November 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696620/erk-activation-in-endothelial-cells-is-a-novel-marker-during-neovasculogenesis
#15
Ayumi Nagasawa-Masuda, Kenta Terai
Vasculogenesis is essential during early development to construct networks transporting oxygen, blood and nutrients. Tip and stalk cells are specialized endothelial cells involved in novel vessel formation because of their behavior such as sprouting as a leading cell and following tip cell. However, the spatiotemporal details determining the emergence of these cells are unknown. Here, we first show that the ERK activity in endothelial cells represents the precursor of tip and stalk cells for vasculogenesis in zebrafish...
November 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696608/repetitive-dna-methylome-analysis-by-small-scale-and-single-cell-shotgun-bisulfite-sequencing
#16
Hisato Kobayashi, Tasuku Koike, Akihiko Sakashita, Keisuke Tanaka, Soichiro Kumamoto, Tomohiro Kono
Whole-genome shotgun bisulfite sequencing (WG-SBS) is currently the most powerful tool available for understanding genomewide cytosine methylation with single-base resolution; however, the high sequencing cost limits its widespread application, particularly for mammalian genomes. We mapped high- to low-coverage SBS short reads of mouse and human female developing germ cells to consensus sequences of repetitive elements that were multiplied in the respective host genome. This mapping strategy effectively identified active and evolutionarily young retrotransposon subfamilies and centromeric satellite repeats that were resistant to DNA demethylation during the investigated progressive stages of germ cell development...
November 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659147/dendritic-transport-element-of-human-arc-mrna-confers-rna-degradation-activity-in-a-translation-dependent-manner
#17
Kensuke Ninomiya, Mutsuhito Ohno, Naoyuki Kataoka
Localization of mRNA in neuronal cells is a critical process for spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression. Cytoplasmic localization of mRNA is often conferred by transport elements in 3' untranslated region (UTR). Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (arc) mRNA is one of the localizing mRNAs in neuronal cells, and its localization is mediated by dendritic targeting element (DTE). As arc mRNA has introns in its 3' UTR, it was thought that arc mRNA is a natural target of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD)...
November 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659023/highly-multiplexed-crispr-cas9-nuclease-and-cas9-nickase-vectors-for-inactivation-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#18
Tetsushi Sakuma, Keiichi Masaki, Hiromi Abe-Chayama, Keiji Mochida, Takashi Yamamoto, Kazuaki Chayama
CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome-editing technology contributes not only to basic genomic studies but also to clinical studies such as genetic correction and virus inactivation. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major target for potential application of CRISPR-Cas9 in eliminating viral DNA from human cells. However, the high stability of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) makes it difficult to completely clear HBV infection. Here, we report highly multiplexed CRISPR-Cas9-nuclease and Cas9-nickase vector systems that simultaneously target three critical domains of the HBV genome...
November 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658920/dna-damage-inhibits-lateral-root-formation-by-up-regulating-cytokinin-biosynthesis-genes-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
La Ode Muhammad Muchdar Davis, Nobuo Ogita, Soichi Inagaki, Naoki Takahashi, Masaaki Umeda
Lateral roots (LRs) are an important organ for water and nutrient uptake from soil. Thus, control of LR formation is crucial in the adaptation of plant growth to environmental conditions. However, the underlying mechanism controlling LR formation in response to external factors has remained largely unknown. Here, we found that LR formation was inhibited by DNA damage. Treatment with zeocin, which causes DNA double-strand breaks, up-regulated several DNA repair genes in the LR primordium (LRP) through the signaling pathway mediated by the transcription factor SUPPRESSOR OF GAMMA RESPONSE 1 (SOG1)...
November 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658801/development-of-mouse-models-of-malignant-phyllodes-tumors-by-transplantation-of-syngeneic-mammary-gland-cells-expressing-mutant-h-ras
#20
Yayoi Takamoto, Yoshimi Arima, Hideyuki Saya
Phyllodes tumors (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial tumors of the breast with epithelial and stromal components, and surgical resection is the standard and only available treatment for malignant PTs. To provide a better understanding of these tumors, we developed mouse models that recapitulate the pathological and clinical properties of human malignant PTs. Mouse undifferentiated mammary gland cells were infected with a retrovirus encoding the human oncoprotein H-Ras(G12V) , and the infected cells were transplanted orthotopically into the mammary fat pads of syngeneic mice...
November 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
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