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Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429532/neu1-sialidase-interacts-with-perilipin-1-on-lipid-droplets-and-inhibits-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#1
Yujin Natori, Miwako Nasui, Fumiko Kihara-Negishi
Fatty acids are stored within adipocytes in lipid droplets (LDs) as triacylglycerol (TG), which is converted to free fatty acid (FFA) and glycerol via lipolysis. Increased plasma FFA levels in obesity are associated with several clinical conditions. We previously found that Neu1 activity is aberrant in the epididymal fat and liver of obese and diabetic mice. Here, we examined involvement of Neu1 in lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Small interfering RNA against Neu1 was introduced into adipocytes, and glycerol concentrations were measured in the culture medium...
April 21, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425215/lipid-raft-dynamics-linked-to-sperm-competency-for-fertilization-in-mice
#2
Hitomi Watanabe, Rie Takeda, Keiji Hirota, Gen Kondoh
It is well known that mammalian sperm acquires fertilization ability after several maturation processes, particularly within the female reproductive tract. In a previous study, we found that both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein (GPI-AP) release and lipid raft movement occur during the sperm maturation process. In several genetic studies, release of GPI-AP is a crucial step for sperm fertilization ability in the mouse. Here, we show that lipid raft movement is also fundamental for sperm to be competent for fertilization by comparing the sperm maturation process of two mouse inbred strains, C57BL/6 and BALB/c...
April 20, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397972/aging-dependent-expression-of-synapse-related-proteins-in-the-mouse-brain
#3
Hajime Shiotani, Tomohiko Maruo, Shotaro Sakakibara, Muneaki Miyata, Kenji Mandai, Hideki Mochizuki, Yoshimi Takai
A synapse is a cell adhesion structure that permits a neuron to pass a chemical or electrical signal to another neuron. They connect neurons and form neural networks that are essential for brain functions, such as learning and memory. At a chemical synapse, the presynapse and the postsynapse are connected by cell adhesion molecules. The presynapse contains synaptic vesicles and their release machinery, whereas the postsynapse contains postsynaptic densities and receptors for the neurotransmitters. Many proteins constituting a synapse have been identified, but their life-span expression profiles remain elusive...
April 11, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397381/ribosomal-protein-l31-in-escherichia-coli-contributes-to-ribosome-subunit-association-and-translation-whereas-short-l31-cleaved-by-protease-7-reduces-both-activities
#4
Masami Ueta, Chieko Wada, Yoshitaka Bessho, Maki Maeda, Akira Wada
Ribosomes routinely prepared from Escherichia coli strain K12 contain intact (70 amino acids) and short (62 amino acids) forms of ribosomal protein L31. By contrast, ribosomes prepared from ompT mutant cells, which lack protease 7, contain only intact L31, suggesting that L31 is cleaved by protease 7 during ribosome preparation. We compared ribosomal subunit association in wild-type and ompT( -) strains. In sucrose density gradient centrifugation under low Mg(2+) , 70S content was very high in ompT( -) ribosomes, but decreased in the wild-type ribosomes containing short L31...
April 10, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370817/behavioral-and-neuroanatomical-analyses-in-a-genetic-mouse-model-of-2q13-duplication
#5
Keiko Kishimoto, Jun Nomura, Jacob Ellegood, Keita Fukumoto, Jason P Lerch, Daniel Moreno-De-Luca, Thomas Bourgeron, Kota Tamada, Toru Takumi
Duplications of human chromosome 2q13 have been reported in patients with neurodevelopmental disorder including autism spectrum disorder. Nephronophthisis-1 (NPHP1) was identified as a causative gene in the minimal deletion on chromosome 2q13 for familial juvenile type 1 nephronophthisis and Joubert syndrome, an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a cerebellar and brain stem malformation, hypotonia, developmental delay, ataxia, and sometimes associated with cognitive impairment...
March 29, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326644/hiv-1-susceptibility-of-transgenic-rat-derived-primary-macrophage-t-cells-and-a-t-cell-line-that-express-human-receptors-cyclint1-and-crm1-genes
#6
Hisatoshi Shida, Hiroyuki Okada, Hajime Suzuki, Xianfeng Zhang, Jing Chen, Yasuko Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yuetsu Tanaka, Fumika Yakushiji, Yoshio Hayashi
We developed transgenic (Tg) rats that express human CD4, CCR5, CXCR4, CyclinT1, and CRM1 genes. Tg rat macrophages were efficiently infected with HIV-1 and supported production of infectious progeny virus. By contrast, both rat primary CD4(+) T cells and established T cell lines expressing human CD4, CCR5, CyclinT1, and CRM1 genes were infected inefficiently, but this was ameliorated by inhibition of cyclophilin A. The infectivity of rat T cell-derived virus was lower than that of human T cell-derived virus...
March 22, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318078/chromatin-tethering-to-the-nuclear-envelope-by-nuclear-actin-filaments-a-novel-role-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-the-xenopus-blastula
#7
Haruka Oda, Natsuki Shirai, Naoko Ura, Keita Ohsumi, Mari Iwabuchi
The Xenopus oocyte is known to accumulate filamentous or F-actin in the nucleus, but it is currently unknown whether F-actin also accumulates in embryo nuclei. Using fluorescence-labeled actin reporters, we examined the actin distribution in Xenopus embryonic cells and found that F-actin accumulates in nuclei during the blastula stage but not during the gastrula stage. To further investigate nuclear F-actin, we devised a Xenopus egg extract that reproduces the formation of nuclei in which F-actin accumulates...
April 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318075/thymine-dna-glycosylase-modulates-dna-damage-response-and-gene-expression-by-base-excision-repair-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms
#8
Tomohumi Nakamura, Kouichi Murakami, Haruto Tada, Yoshihiko Uehara, Jumpei Nogami, Kazumitsu Maehara, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Hisato Saitoh, Hideo Nishitani, Tetsuya Ono, Ryotaro Nishi, Masayuki Yokoi, Wataru Sakai, Kaoru Sugasawa
Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) is a base excision repair (BER) enzyme, which is implicated in correction of deamination-induced DNA mismatches, the DNA demethylation process and regulation of gene expression. Because of these pivotal roles associated, it is crucial to elucidate how the TDG functions are appropriately regulated in vivo. Here, we present evidence that the TDG protein undergoes degradation upon various types of DNA damage, including ultraviolet light (UV). The UV-induced degradation of TDG was dependent on proficiency in nucleotide excision repair and on CRL4(CDT)(2) -mediated ubiquitination that requires a physical interaction between TDG and DNA polymerase clamp PCNA...
April 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299863/dickkopf-3-attenuates-xanthine-dehydrogenase-expression-to-prevent-oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis
#9
Shuang Qui, Junko Kano, Masayuki Noguchi
Dickkopf (DKK) 3 is a DKK glycoprotein family member that controls cell fate during embryogenesis and exerts opposing effects on survival in a cell type-dependent manner; however, the mechanisms governing its pro-apoptosis versus pro-survival functions remain unclear. Here, we investigated DKK3 function in Li21 hepatoma cells and tPH5CH immortalized hepatocytes. DKK3 knockdown by siRNA resulted in reactive oxygen species accumulation and subsequent apoptosis, which were abrogated by administration of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine...
April 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296014/geminin-is-an-indispensable-inhibitor-of-cdt1-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#10
Masaki Hosogane, Lena Bosu, Emiko Fukumoto, Hidetoshi Yamada, Soichiro Sato, Keiko Nakayama
Geminin is implicated in regulation of the cell cycle and differentiation. Although loss of Geminin triggers unscheduled DNA rereplication as a result of interruption of its interaction with Cdt1 in some somatic cancer cells, whether such cell cycle regulation also operates in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) has remained unclear. To characterize the Geminin-Cdt1 axis in ESCs and compare it with that in somatic cells, we established conditional knockout (KO) of Geminin in mouse ESCs and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs)...
April 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251761/3d-structural-analysis-of-protein-o-mannosyl-kinase-pomk-a-causative-gene-product-of-dystroglycanopathy
#11
Masamichi Nagae, Sushil K Mishra, Makiko Neyazaki, Rika Oi, Akemi Ikeda, Naohiro Matsugaki, Satoko Akashi, Hiroshi Manya, Mamoru Mizuno, Hirokazu Yagi, Koichi Kato, Toshiya Senda, Tamao Endo, Terukazu Nogi, Yoshiki Yamaguchi
Orchestration of the multiple enzymes engaged in O-mannose glycan synthesis provides a matriglycan on α-dystroglycan (α-DG) which attracts extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as laminin. Aberrant O-mannosylation of α-DG leads to severe congenital muscular dystrophies due to detachment of ECM proteins from the basal membrane. Phosphorylation at C6-position of O-mannose catalyzed by protein O-mannosyl kinase (POMK) is a crucial step in the biosynthetic pathway of O-mannose glycan. Several mis-sense mutations of the POMK catalytic domain are known to cause a severe congenital muscular dystrophy, Walker-Warburg syndrome...
April 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251751/histone-h1-chaperone-activity-of-taf-i-is-regulated-by-its-subtype-dependent-intramolecular-interaction
#12
Kaori Kajitani, Kohsuke Kato, Kyosuke Nagata
Linker histone H1 is involved in the regulation of gene activity through the maintenance of higher-order chromatin structure. Previously, we have shown that template activating factor-I (TAF-I or protein SET) is involved in linker histone H1 dynamics as a histone H1 chaperone. In human and murine cells, two TAF-I subtypes exist, namely TAF-Iα and TAF-Iβ. TAF-I has a highly acidic amino acid cluster in its C-terminal region and forms homo- or heterodimers through its dimerization domain. Both dimer formation and the C-terminal region of TAF-I are essential for the histone chaperone activity...
April 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295900/corrigendum
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233440/xeroderma-pigmentosum-group-c-protein-interacts-with-histones-regulation-by-acetylated-states-of-histone-h3
#14
Erina Kakumu, Seiya Nakanishi, Hiromi M Shiratori, Akari Kato, Wataru Kobayashi, Shinichi Machida, Takeshi Yasuda, Naoko Adachi, Naoaki Saito, Tsuyoshi Ikura, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Hiroshi Kimura, Masayuki Yokoi, Wataru Sakai, Kaoru Sugasawa
In the mammalian global genome nucleotide excision repair pathway, two damage recognition factors, XPC and UV-DDB, play pivotal roles in the initiation of the repair reaction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of the lesion recognition process in the context of chromatin structures remain to be understood. Here, we show evidence that damage recognition factors tend to associate with chromatin regions devoid of certain types of acetylated histones. Treatment of cells with histone deacetylase inhibitors retarded recruitment of XPC to sites of UV-induced DNA damage and the subsequent repair process...
March 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205312/essential-roles-of-tbx3-in-embryonic-skin-development-during-epidermal-stratification
#15
Ryo Ichijo, Yui Iizuka, Hirokazu Kubo, Fumiko Toyoshima
Stepwise differentiation of epidermal cells is essential for development of stratified epithelium, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that Tbx3, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors, plays a pivotal role in this mechanism. Tbx3 is expressed in both basal and suprabasal cells in the interfollicular epidermis of mouse embryos. Epidermis-specific Tbx3 conditional knockout (cKO) embryos are small in size and display a thinner epidermis with an impaired barrier function...
March 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185378/ric-8a-an-activator-protein-of-g%C3%AE-i-controls-mammalian-epithelial-cell-polarity-for-tight-junction-assembly-and-cystogenesis
#16
Kanako Chishiki, Sachiko Kamakura, Junya Hayase, Hideki Sumimoto
Correct cyst morphogenesis of epithelial cells requires apical-basal polarization, which is partly regulated by mitotic spindle orientation, a process dependent on the heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gαi and its binding protein LGN. Here, we show that in three-dimensional culture of mammalian epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, the Gαi-activating protein Ric-8A is crucial for orientation of the mitotic spindle and formation of normal cysts that comprise a single layer of polarized cells with their apical surfaces lining an inner lumen...
March 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185367/codon-degeneracy-and-amino-acid-abundance-influence-the-measures-of-codon-usage-bias-improved-nc-n%C3%AC-c-and-encprime-n%C3%AC-c-measures
#17
Siddhartha Sankar Satapathy, Ajit Kumar Sahoo, Suvendra Kumar Ray, Tapash Chandra Ghosh
Effective number of codons (N^c) and its variant N^'c (effective number of codons prime) are the two widely used methods for measuring unequal usage of synonymous codons in coding sequences, known as the codon usage bias (CUB). The mathematical formula used in calculating N^c and N^'c values is giving inappropriate measures of CUB in case of low abundance of amino acids. In addition, the magnitude of error also varies according to codon degeneracy. In this study, a modified formula for N^c and N^'c has been developed to measure the CUB more accurately...
March 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151579/mediator-cyclin-dependent-kinases-upregulate-transcription-of-inflammatory-genes-in-cooperation-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-c-ebp%C3%AE-on-stimulation-of-toll-like-receptor-9
#18
Seiji Yamamoto, Tomoko Hagihara, Yoshiyuki Horiuchi, Akira Okui, Shotaro Wani, Tokuyuki Yoshida, Takao Inoue, Aki Tanaka, Takashi Ito, Yutaka Hirose, Yoshiaki Ohkuma
In eukaryotes, the Mediator complex has important roles in regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II. Mediator is a large complex with more than 20 subunits that form head, middle, tail and CDK/cyclin modules. Among them, CDK8 and/or CDK19 (CDK8/19), and their counterpart cyclin C, form the CDK/cyclin module together with Mediator subunits MED12 and MED13. Despite evidences of both activation and repression, the precise functional roles of CDK8/19 in transcription are still elusive. Our previous results indicate that CDK8/19 recruits epigenetic regulators to repress immunoresponse genes...
March 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124402/knock-in-strategy-at-3-end-of-crx-gene-by-crispr-cas9-system-shows-the-gene-expression-profiles-during-human-photoreceptor-differentiation
#19
Kohei Homma, Sumiko Usui, Makoto Kaneda
Fluorescent reporter gene knock-in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines have been used to evaluate the efficiency of differentiation into specific cell lineages. Here, we report a knock-in strategy for the generation of human iPSC reporter lines in which a 2A peptide sequence and a red fluorescent protein (E2-Crimson) gene were inserted at the termination codon of the cone-rod homeobox (Crx) gene, a photoreceptor-specific transcriptional factor gene. The knock-in iPSC lines were differentiated into fluorescence-expressing cells in 3D retinal differentiation culture, and the fluorescent cells also expressed Crx specifically in the nucleus...
March 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111885/severe-damage-to-the-placental-fetal-capillary-network-causes-mid-to-late-fetal-lethality-and-reduction-in-placental-size-in-peg11-rtl1-ko-mice
#20
Moe Kitazawa, Masaru Tamura, Tomoko Kaneko-Ishino, Fumitoshi Ishino
Paternally expressed 11/Retrotransposon-like 1 (Peg11/Rtl1) knockout (KO) mice show mid- to late fetal lethality or late fetal growth retardation associated with frequent neonatal lethality. The lethal phenotype is largely dependent on genetic background and becomes more severe with each succeeding generation in the course of backcross experiments to C57BL/6 (B6). We previously suggested that these lethal and growth phenotypes in the fetal stages were due to severe defects in placental fetal capillaries in the labyrinth layer...
February 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
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