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Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology

Luis Alberto Baena-Lopez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 12, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Ashutosh Kumar, Anwar Alam, Deeksha Tripathi, Mamta Rani, Hafeeza Khatoon, Saurabh Pandey, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
The biological paradox about how extremophiles persist at extreme ecological conditions throws a fascinating picture of the enormous potential of a single cell to adapt to homeostatic conditions in order to propagate. Unicellular organisms face challenges from both environmental factors and the ecological niche provided by the host tissue. Although the existence of extremophiles and their physiological properties were known for a long time, availability of whole genome sequence has catapulted the study on mechanisms of adaptation and the underlying principles that have enabled these unique organisms to withstand evolutionary and environmental pressures...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Toshiko Ichiye
The discovery of microbial communities in extreme conditions that would seem hostile to life leads to the question of how the molecules making up these microbes can maintain their structure and function. While microbes that live under extremes of temperature have been heavily studied, those that live under extremes of pressure, or "piezophiles", are now increasingly being studied because of advances in sample collection and high-pressure cells for biochemical and biophysical measurements. Here, adaptations of enzymes in piezophiles against the effects of pressure are discussed in light of recent experimental and computational studies...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Frank R Schubert, Arun J Singh, Oluwatomisin Afoyalan, Chrissa Kioussi, Susanne Dietrich
Craniofacial muscles, muscles that move the eyes, control facial expression and allow food uptake and speech, have long been regarded as a variation on the general body muscle scheme. However, evidence has accumulated that the function of head muscles, their developmental anatomy and the underlying regulatory cascades are distinct. This article reviews the key aspects of craniofacial muscle and muscle stem cell formation and discusses how this differs from the trunk programme of myogenesis; we show novel RNAseq data to support this notion...
January 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Monica Gonzalez Ramirez, Guy S Salvesen
Caspases belong to a diverse clan of proteolytic enzymes known as clan CD with highly disparate functions in cell signaling. The caspase members of this clan are only found in animals, and most of them orchestrate the demise of cells by the highly distinct regulated cell death phenotypes known as apoptosis and pyroptosis. This review looks at the mechanistic distinctions between the activity and activation mechanisms of mammalian caspases compared to other members of clan CD. We also compare and contrast the role of different caspase family members that program anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cell death pathways...
January 9, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Mihály Józsi, Andrea E Schneider, Éva Kárpáti, Noémi Sándor
Complement factor H is a major regulator of the alternative pathway of the complement system. The factor H-related proteins are less characterized, but recent data indicate that they rather promote complement activation. These proteins have some common ligands with factor H and have both overlapping and distinct functions depending on domain composition and the degree of conservation of amino acid sequence. Factor H and some of the factor H-related proteins also appear in a non-canonical function that is beyond their role in the modulation of complement activation...
January 2, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Alberto López-Lera, Fernando Corvillo, Pilar Nozal, José Ramón Regueiro, Pilar Sánchez-Corral, Margarita López-Trascasa
The complement system is a complex and autoregulated multistep cascade at the interface of innate and adaptive immunity. It is activated by immune complexes or apoptotic cells (classical pathway), pathogen-associated glycoproteins (lectin pathway) or a variety of molecular and cellular surfaces (alternative pathway). Upon activation, complement triggers the generation of proteolytic fragments that allow the elimination of the activating surface by enhancing inflammation, opsonization, phagocytosis, and cellular lysis...
December 29, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
C Brininger, S Spradlin, L Cobani, C Evilia
Discovering how organisms and their proteins adapt to extreme conditions is a complicated process. Every condition has its own set of adaptations that make it uniquely stable in its environment. The purpose of our review is to discuss what is known in the extremophilic community about protein adaptations. To simplify our mission, we broke the extremophiles into three broad categories: thermophiles, halophiles and psychrophiles. While there are crossover organisms- organisms that exist in two or more extremes, like heat plus acid or cold plus pressure, most of them have a primary adaptation that is within one of these categories which tends to be the most easily identifiable one...
December 27, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Yasuhito Sakuraba, Shuichi Yanagisawa
Light is the foremost regulator of plant growth and development, and the critical role of light signalling in the promotion of nutrient uptake and utilisation was clarified in recent decades. Recent studies with Arabidopsis demonstrated the molecular mechanisms underlying such promotive effects and uncovered the pivotal role of the transcription factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) whose activity is under the control of multiple photoreceptors. Together with a recent finding that phytochrome B, one of photoreceptors, is activated in subterranean plant parts, the discovery that HY5 directly promotes the transcription of genes involved in nutrient uptake and utilisation, including several nitrogen and sulphur assimilation-related genes, expands our understanding of the ways in which light signalling effectively and co-ordinately modulates uptake and utilisation of multiple nutrients in plants...
December 27, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Kohji Yamada, Yuriko Osakabe
The sessile nature of plants has driven their evolution to cope flexibly with ever-changing surrounding environments. The development of stress tolerance traits is complex, and a broad range of cellular processes are involved. Recent studies have revealed that sugar transporters contribute to environmental stress tolerance in plants, suggesting that sugar flow is dynamically fluctuated towards optimization of cellular conditions in adverse environments. Here, we highlight sugar compartmentation mediated by sugar transporters as an adaptation strategy against biotic and abiotic stresses...
December 26, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Hugo Ducuing, Thibault Gardette, Aurora Pignata, Servane Tauszig-Delamasure, Valérie Castellani
The navigation of commissural axons in the developing spinal cord has attracted multiple studies over the years. Many important concepts emerged from these studies which have enlighten the general mechanisms of axon guidance. The navigation of commissural axons is regulated by a series of cellular territories which provides the diverse guidance information necessary to ensure the successive steps of their pathfinding towards, across, and away from the ventral midline. In this review, we discuss how repulsive forces, by propelling, channelling, and confining commissural axon navigation, bring key contributions to the formation of this neuronal projection...
December 22, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Zhe Chen
Topographic arrangement of neuronal cell bodies and axonal tracts are crucial for proper wiring of the nervous system. This involves often-coordinated neuronal migration and axon guidance during development. Most neurons migrate from their birthplace to specific topographic coordinates as they adopt the final cell fates and extend axons. The axons follow temporospatial specific guidance cues to reach the appropriate targets. When neuronal or axonal migration or their coordination is disrupted, severe consequences including neurodevelopmental disorders and neurological diseases, can arise...
December 20, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Kazuharu Kai, Rachel L Dittmar, Subrata Sen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression predominantly by inhibiting transcription and/or promoting degradation of target mRNAs also in addition to being involved in non-canonical mechanisms regulating transcription, translation and cell signaling processes. Extracellular secretory miRNAs, either in complex with specific proteins or encapsulated in microvesicles called exosomes, are transported between cells as means of intercellular communication. Secretory miRNAs in circulation remain functional after delivery to recipient cells, regulating target genes and their corresponding signaling pathways...
December 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Marketa Kaucka, Igor Adameyko
Chrondrocranium, the cartilaginous skull, is one of the major innovations that underlie evolution of the vertebrate head. Control of the induction and shaping of the cartilage is a key for the formation of the facial bones and largely defines facial shape. The appearance of cartilage in the head enabled many new functions such as protection of central nervous system and sensory structures, support of the feeding apparatus and formation of muscle attachment points ensuring faster and coordinated jaw movements...
December 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Jennifer L Fish
The skull is a vertebrate novelty. Morphological adaptations of the skull are associated with major evolutionary transitions, including the shift to a predatory lifestyle and the ability to masticate while breathing. These adaptations include the chondrocranium, dermatocranium, articulated jaws, primary and secondary palates, internal choanae, the middle ear, and temporomandibular joint. The incredible adaptive diversity of the vertebrate skull indicates an underlying bauplan that promotes evolvability. Comparative studies in craniofacial development suggest that the craniofacial bauplan includes three secondary organizers, two that are bilaterally placed at the Hinge of the developing jaw, and one situated in the midline of the developing face (the FEZ)...
December 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Simone Fulda
Caspases are a family of proteolytic enzymes that play a critical role in the regulation of programmed cell death via apoptosis. Activation of caspases is frequently impaired in human cancers, contributing to cancer formation, progression and therapy resistance. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating caspase activation in cancer cells is therefore highly important. Thus, targeted modulation of caspase activation and apoptosis represents a promising approach for the development of new therapeutic options to elucidate cancer cell death...
December 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Russell A DeBose-Boyd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Christophe Macri, Ee Shan Pang, Timothy Patton, Meredith O'Keeffe
Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells comprisinga variety of subsets, as either resident or migrating cells, in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs. In the steady state DC continually process and present antigens on MHCI and MHCII, processes that are highly upregulated upon activation. By expressing differential sets of pattern recognition receptors different DC subsets are able to respond to a range of pathogenic and danger stimuli, enabling functional specialisation of the DC. The knowledge of functional specialisation of DC subsets is key to efficient priming of T cells, to the design of effective vaccine adjuvants and to understanding the role of different DC in health and disease...
December 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Gabriela Huelgas-Morales
In virtually all sexually reproducing animals, oocytes arrest in meiotic prophase and resume meiosis in a conserved biological process called meiotic maturation. Meiotic arrest enables oocytes, which are amongst the largest cells in an organism, to grow and accumulate the necessary cellular constituents required to support embryonic development. Oocyte arrest can be maintained for a prolonged period, up to 50 years in humans, and defects in the meiotic maturation process interfere with the faithful segregation of meiotic chromosomes, representing the leading cause of human birth defects and female infertility...
December 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Ruijun Zhu, Chenshu Liu, Gregg G Gundersen
The positioning and movement of the nucleus has recently emerged as an important aspect of cell migration. Understanding of nuclear positioning and movement has reached an apogee in studies of fibroblast migration. Specific nuclear positioning and movements have been described in the polarization of fibroblast for cell migration and in active migration in 2D and 3D environments. Here, we review recent studies that have uncovered novel molecular mechanisms that contribute to these events in fibroblasts. Many of these involve a connection between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton through the LINC complex composed of outer nuclear membrane nesprins and inner nuclear membrane SUN proteins...
December 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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