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Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157919/pml-nuclear-bodies-membrane-less-domains-acting-as-ros-sensors
#1
REVIEW
Michiko Niwa-Kawakita, Hsin-Chieh Wu, Hugues de Thé, Valérie Lallemand-Breitenbach
PML Nuclear bodies (PML NBs) are spherical domains associated with a broad range of activities upon stress responses such as apoptosis, senescence DNA repair, epigenetic control, as well as control of oncogenesis. These bodies are considered as privileged sites for post-translational modifications, where sumoylation plays a key role. Here we summarize recent in vitro and in vivo findings on the link between PML NBs and ROS, in particular PML contributions to oxidative stress response. We discuss how it may regulate switch from cell protection against stress to cell arrest/cell death...
November 17, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155221/motor-axon-guidance-in-drosophila
#2
REVIEW
Aref Arzan Zarin, Juan-Pablo Labrador
The Drosophila motor system starts to assemble during embryonic development. It is composed of 30 muscles per abdominal hemisegment and 36 motor neurons assembling into nerve branches to exit the CNS, navigate within the muscle field and finally establish specific connections with their target muscles. Several families of guidance molecules that play a role controlling this process as well as transcriptional regulators that program the behavior of specific motoneurons have been identified. In this review we summarize the role of both groups of molecules in the motor system as well as their relationship where known...
November 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155220/complement-components-as-promoters-of-immunological-tolerance-in-dendritic-cells
#3
REVIEW
Ana Luque, Inmaculada Serrano, Josep M Aran
Complement and dendritic cells (DCs) share many functional features that drive the outcome of immune-inflammatory processes. Both have a sentinel function, acting as danger sensors specialized for a rapid, comprehensive and selective action against potential threats without damaging the healthy host cells. But while complement has been considered as a "master alarm" system poised for direct pathogen killing, DCs are regarded as "master regulators" or orchestrators of a vast range of effector immune cells for an effective immune response against threatening insults...
November 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155219/complement-anaphylatoxins-c3a-and-c5a-emerging-roles-in-cancer-progression-and-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Daniel Ajona, Sergio Ortiz-Espinosa, Ruben Pio
Recent insights into the role of complement anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a in cancer provide new opportunities for the development of innovative biomarkers and therapeutic strategies. These two complement activation products can maintain chronic inflammation, promote an immunosuppressive microenvironment, induce angiogenesis, and increase the motility and metastatic potential of cancer cells. Still, the diverse heterogeneity of responses mediated by these peptides poses a challenge both to our understanding of the role played by these molecules in cancer progression and to the development of effective treatments...
November 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146145/adars-and-editing-the-role-of-a-to-i-rna-modification-in-cancer-progression
#5
REVIEW
Kajsa Fritzell, Li-Di Xu, Jens Lagergren, Marie Öhman
Cancer arises when pathways that control cell functions such as proliferation and migration are dysregulated to such an extent that cells start to divide uncontrollably and eventually spread throughout the body, ultimately endangering the survival of an affected individual. It is well established that somatic mutations are important in cancer initiation and progression as well as in creation of tumor diversity. Now also modifications of the transcriptome are emerging as a significant force during the transition from normal cell to malignant tumor...
November 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154824/skeletal-muscle-development-on-the-30th-anniversary-of-myod
#6
EDITORIAL
Michael Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154823/regulation-of-cellular-and-pcp-signalling-by-the-scribble-polarity-module
#7
REVIEW
Michal Milgrom-Hoffman, Patrick O Humbert
Since the first identification of the Scribble polarity module proteins as a new class of tumour suppressors that regulate both cell polarity and proliferation, an increasing amount of evidence has uncovered a broader role for Scribble, Dlg and Lgl in the control of fundamental cellular functions and their signalling pathways. Here, we review these findings as well as discuss more specifically the role of the Scribble module in PCP signalling.
November 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154822/mef2-and-the-skeletal-muscle-differentiation-program
#8
REVIEW
Michael V Taylor, Simon M Hughes
Mef2 is a conserved and significant transcription factor in the control of muscle gene expression. In cell culture Mef2 synergises with MyoD-family members in the activation of gene expression and in the conversion of fibroblasts into myoblasts. Amongst its in vivo roles, Mef2 is required for both Drosophila muscle development and mammalian muscle regeneration. Mef2 has functions in other cell-types too, but this review focuses on skeletal muscle and surveys key findings on Mef2 from its discovery, shortly after that of MyoD, up to the present day...
November 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146144/drosophila-adult-muscle-development-and-regeneration
#9
REVIEW
Rajesh D Gunage, Nagaraju Dhanyasi, Heinrich Reichert, K VijayRaghavan
Myogenesis is a highly orchestrated, complex developmental process by which cell lineages that are mesodermal in origin generate differentiated multinucleate muscle cells as a final product. Considerable insight into the process of myogenesis has been obtained for the embryonic development of the larval muscles of Drosophila. More recently, the postembryonic development of the muscles of the adult fly has become a focus of experimental investigation of myogenesis since specific flight muscles of the fly manifest remarkable similarities to vertebrate muscles in their development and organization...
November 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141181/axon-pathfinding-for-locomotion
#10
REVIEW
Dario Bonanomi
Motor neurons of the spinal cord are responsible for the assembly of neuromuscular connections indispensable for basic locomotion and skilled movements. A precise spatial relationship exists between the position of motor neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord and the course of their axonal projections to peripheral muscle targets. Motor neuron innervation of the vertebrate limb is a prime example of this topographic organization and by virtue of its accessibility and predictability has provided access to fundamental principles of motor system development and neuronal guidance...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141180/motor-neuron-migration-and-positioning-mechanisms-new-roles-for-guidance-cues
#11
REVIEW
Minkyung Kim, Brielle Bjorke, Grant S Mastick
Motor neurons differentiate from progenitor cells and cluster as motor nuclei, settling next to the floor plate in the brain stem and spinal cord. Although precise positioning of motor neurons is critical for their functional input and output, the molecular mechanisms that guide motor neurons to their proper positions remain poorly understood. Here, we review recent evidence of motor neuron positioning mechanisms, highlighting situations in which motor neuron cell bodies can migrate, and experiments that show that their migration is regulated by axon guidance cues...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141179/formation-of-longitudinal-axon-pathways-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
REVIEW
Harald Hutter
The small number of neurons and the simple architecture of the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) nervous system enables researchers to study axonal pathfinding at the level of individually identified axons. Axons in C. elegans extend predominantly along one of the two major body axes, the anterior-posterior axis and the dorso-ventral axis. This review will focus on axon navigation along the anterior-posterior axis, leading to the establishment of the longitudinal axon tracts, with a focus on the largest longitudinal axon tract, the ventral nerve cord (VNC)...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133230/birth-coming-of-age-and-death-the-intriguing-life-of-long-noncoding-rnas
#13
REVIEW
Samudyata, Gonçalo Castelo-Branco, Alessandro Bonetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129746/caspase-signaling-a-conserved-inductive-cue-for-metazoan-cell-differentiation
#14
REVIEW
Patrick G Burgon, Lynn A Megeney
Caspase signaling pathways were originally discovered as conveyors of programmed cell death, yet a compendium of research over the past two decades have demonstrated that these same conduits have a plethora of physiologic functions. Arguably the most extensive non-death activity that has been attributed to this protease clade is the capacity to induce cell differentiation. Caspase control of differentiation is conserved across diverse metazoan organisms from flies to humans, suggesting an ancient origin for this form of cell fate control...
November 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128623/shape-and-form-in-plant-development
#15
EDITORIAL
Elena Kramer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111414/environmental-sensing-and-morphological-plasticity-in-plants
#16
REVIEW
Miya Mizutani, Masahiro M Kanaoka
All creatures on earth are affected by their surrounding environment. Animals can move and escape unfavorable environmental changes, whereas plants must respond to environmental stimuli. Plants adapt to changes with cellular-level responses to short-term environmental changes, but may adapt to changes in the environment by regulating their development and growth. In this review, we considered changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, dry/wet moisture conditions, flooding, and temperature as examples of environmental stimuli...
November 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127046/function-of-the-myogenic-regulatory-factors-myf5-myod-myogenin-and-mrf4-in-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells-and-regenerative-myogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Peter S Zammit
Discovery of the myogenic regulatory factor family of transcription factors MYF5, MYOD, Myogenin and MRF4 was a seminal step in understanding specification of the skeletal myogenic lineage and control of muscle differentiation during development. These factors are also involved in specification of the muscle satellite cell lineage, which becomes the resident stem cell compartment in adult skeletal muscle. While MYF5, MYOD, Myogenin and MRF4 have subtle roles in mature muscle, they again play a crucial role in directing satellite cell function to regenerate skeletal muscle: linking the genetic control of developmental and regenerative myogenesis...
November 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127045/the-myogenic-regulatory-factors-determinants-of-muscle-development-cell-identity-and-regeneration
#18
REVIEW
J Manuel Hernández-Hernández, Estela G García-González, Caroline E Brun, Michael A Rudnicki
The Myogenic Regulatory Factors (MRFs) Myf5, MyoD, myogenin and MRF4 are members of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors that control the determination and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells during embryogenesis and postnatal myogenesis. The dynamics of their temporal and spatial expression as well as their biochemical properties have allowed the identification of a precise and hierarchical relationship between the four MRFs. This relationship establishes the myogenic lineage as well as the maintenance of the terminal myogenic phenotype...
November 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113870/molecular-features-of-lipid-based-antigen-presentation-by-group-1-cd1-molecules
#19
REVIEW
Jérôme Le Nours, Adam Shahine, Stephanie Gras
Lipids are now widely considered to play a variety of important roles in T-cell mediated immunity, including serving as antigens. Lipid-based antigens are presented by a specialised group of glycoproteins termed CD1. In humans, three classes of CD1 molecules exist: group 1 (CD1a, CD1b, CD1c), group 2 (CD1d), and group 3 (CD1e). While CD1d-mediated T-cell immunity has been extensively investigated, we have only recently gained insights into the structure and function of group 1 CD1 molecules. Structural studies have revealed how lipid-based antigens are presented by group 1 CD1 molecules, as well as shedding light on the molecular requirements for T-cell recognition...
November 4, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113869/the-escrt-machinery-when-function-follows-form
#20
EDITORIAL
Maximilian Furthauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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