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Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803896/the-thalamo-habenula-projection-revisited
#1
REVIEW
Suresh Jesuthasan
The thalamus is one of the most highly connected hubs of the vertebrate brain, with roles in perception, arousal, navigation, memory and consciousness. One connection that is missing from contemporary maps is a link to the habenula. This link was reported in the early part of the last century, but appears to have slipped into obscurity. Here, I review the evidence for the existence of this innervation and consider the potential roles it could play. In particular, the possibility that this pathway is involved in non-visual responses to ambient illumination is examined...
August 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803895/periderm-life-cycle-and-function-during-orofacial-and-epidermal-development
#2
REVIEW
Nigel L Hammond, Jill Dixon, Michael J Dixon
Development of the secondary palate involves a complex series of embryonic events which, if disrupted, result in the common congenital anomaly cleft palate. The secondary palate forms from paired palatal shelves which grow initially vertically before elevating to a horizontal position above the tongue and fusing together in the midline via the medial edge epithelia. As the epithelia of the vertical palatal shelves are in contact with the mandibular and lingual epithelia, pathological fusions between the palate and the mandible and/or the tongue must be prevented...
August 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803894/exosomes-in-cancer-use-them-or-target-them
#3
REVIEW
Nuno Bastos, Carolina F Ruivo, Soraia Silva, Sonia A Melo
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles with a significant role in most processes associated with cancer. On one hand, exosomes role in the different hallmarks of cancer has been widely described, highlighting the urge to understand the potential to target communication mediated by exosomes as a novel therapeutic approach in cancer. On the other hand, exosomes stability in circulation and tumor-targeting capacity shows their applicability in the delivery of anti-cancer molecules. This review will discuss the dual applicability of exosomes in cancer focusing on their usage for therapy improvement, or their targeting to block their supportive role in tumor progression and response to therapy...
August 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803893/the-companion-dog-as-a-unique-translation-model-for-aging
#4
REVIEW
Andrea Mazzatenta, Camillo Di Giulio, Domenico Robbe, Augusto Carluccio, Alessandro Cellerino
The dog is a unique species due to its wide variation among breeds in size, morphology, behavior and lifespan coupled with a genetic structure that facilitates the dissection of the genetic architecture controlling those traits. Dogs and humans coevolved and share recent evolutionary selection processes like, for example, adaptations to digest starch-rich diets. Many diseases of the dog have a human counterpart, notably Alzheimer's that is otherwise difficult to model in other organisms. Unlike laboratory animals, companion dogs share the human environment and lifestyle, are exposed to the same pollutants and are faced with pathogens and infections...
August 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802726/science-communication-in-the-field-of-fundamental-biomedical-research
#5
EDITORIAL
Sam Illingworth, Andreas Prokop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800931/molecular-signatures-of-longevity-insights-from-cross-species-comparative-studies
#6
REVIEW
Siming Ma, Vadim N Gladyshev
Much of the current research on longevity focuses on the aging process within a single species. Several molecular players (e.g. IGF1 and MTOR), pharmacological compounds (e.g. rapamycin and metformin), and dietary approaches (e.g. calorie restriction and methionine restriction) have been shown to be important in regulating and modestly extending lifespan in model organisms. On the other hand, natural lifespan varies much more significantly across species. Within mammals alone, maximum lifespan differs more than 100 fold, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood...
August 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800930/fashioning-blood-vessels-by-ros-signalling-and-metabolism
#7
REVIEW
Massimo M Santoro
Formation and maturation of a functional vascular network is a process called angiogenesis. This is a crucial biological event in all vertebrates. Precise morphogenetic and cellular mechanisms act in endothelial cells (ECs) to drive angiogenesis during growth and throughout adulthood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their metabolism are proving to be crucial participants in the shaping and stabilizing of blood vessels. Often, the same mechanisms are responsible for the insurgence of vascular-associated pathologies...
August 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800929/directing-t-cell-fate-how-thymic-antigen-presenting-cells-coordinate-thymocyte-selection
#8
REVIEW
Elise R Breed, S Thera Lee, Kristin A Hogquist
The development of a self-tolerant and effective T cell receptor repertoire is dependent on interactions coordinated by various antigen presenting cells (APC) within the thymus. T cell receptor-self-peptide-MHC interactions are essential for determining T cell fate, however different cytokine and co-stimulatory signals provided by the diverse APCs within the thymus are also critical. Here, we outline the different localization and functional capabilities of thymic APCs. We also discuss how these distinct APCs work collectively to facilitate the establishment of a diverse T cell receptor repertoire that is tolerant to an array of different self-antigens...
August 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797840/nerves-h2o2-and-shh-three-players-in-the-game-of-regeneration
#9
REVIEW
Francesca Meda, Christine Rampon, Edmond Dupont, Carole Gauron, Aurélien Mourton, Isabelle Queguiner, Marion Thauvin, Michel Volovitch, Alain Joliot, Sophie Vriz
The tight control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels is required during regeneration. H2O2 in particular assumes clear signalling functions at different steps in this process. Injured nerves induce high levels of H2O2 through the activation of the Hedgehog (Shh) pathway, providing an environment that promotes cell plasticity, progenitor recruitment and blastema formation. In turn, high H2O2 levels contribute to growing axon attraction. Once re-innervation is completed, nerves subsequently downregulate H2O2 levels to their original state...
August 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797839/building-a-complex-complex-assembly-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-complex-i
#10
REVIEW
Luke E Formosa, Marris G Dibley, David A Stroud, Michael T Ryan
Mitochondrial complex I is the primary entry point for electrons into the electron transport chain, required for the bulk of cellular ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation. Complex I consists of 45 subunits, which are encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Currently, at least 15 assembly factors are known to be required for the complete maturation of complex I. Mutations in the genes encoding subunits and assembly factors leads to complex I deficiency, which can manifest as mitochondrial disease...
August 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797838/escrt-dependent-cargo-sorting-at-multivesicular-endosomes
#11
REVIEW
E B Frankel, Anjon Audhya
The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is composed of five multi-subunit protein complexes, which act cooperatively at specialized endosomes to facilitate the movement of specific cargoes from the limiting membrane into vesicles that bud into the endosome lumen. Over the past decade, numerous proteins, lipids, and RNAs have been shown to be incorporated into intralumenal vesicles (ILVs), but the mechanisms by which these unique cargoes are captured are only now becoming better understood...
August 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797837/endosomal-sort-of-signaling-control-the-role-of-escrt-machinery-in-regulation-of-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways
#12
REVIEW
Ewelina Szymanska, Noga Budick-Harmelin, Marta Miaczynska
The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) machinery consists of four protein assemblies (ESCRT-0 to -III subcomplexes) which mediate various processes of membrane remodeling in the cell. In the endocytic pathway, ESCRTs sort cargo destined for degradation into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of endosomes. Cargos targeted by ESCRTs include various signaling molecules, mainly internalized cell-surface receptors but also some cytosolic proteins. It is therefore expected that aberrant trafficking caused by ESCRT dysfunction affects different signaling pathways...
August 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797836/information-processing-in-the-vertebrate-habenula
#13
REVIEW
Stephanie Fore, Fabrizio Palumbo, Robbrecht Pelgrims, Emre Yaksi
The habenula is a brain region that has gained increasing popularity over the recent years due to its role in processing value-related and experience-dependent information with a strong link to depression, addiction, sleep and social interactions. This small diencephalic nucleus is proposed to act as a multimodal hub or a switchboard, where inputs from different brain regions converge. These diverse inputs to the habenula carry information about the sensory world and the animal's internal state, such as reward expectation or mood...
August 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789987/regulation-of-splicing-and-circularisation-of-rna-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity
#14
REVIEW
Daniel P Neumann, Gregory J Goodall, Philip A Gregory
Interconversions between epithelial and mesenchymal states, often referred to as epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its reverse MET, play important roles in embryonic development and are recapitulated in various adult pathologies including cancer progression. These conversions are regulated by complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms including programs of alternative splicing which are orchestrated by specific splicing factors. This review will focus on the latest developments in our understanding of the splicing factors regulating epithelial mesenchymal plasticity associated with cancer progression and the induction of pluripotency, including potential roles for circular RNAs (circRNAs) which have been recently implicated in these processes...
August 5, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779980/secretion-induces-cell-ph-dynamics-impacting-assembly-disassembly-of-the-fusion-protein-complex-a-combined-fluorescence-and-atomic-force-microscopy-study
#15
REVIEW
Kenneth T Lewis, Akshata R Naik, Suvra S Laha, Sunxi Wang, Guangzhao Mao, Eric Kuhn, Bhanu P Jena
A wide range of cellular activities including protein folding and cell secretion, such as neurotransmission or insulin release, are all governed by intracellular pH homeostasis, underscoring the importance of pH on critical life processes. Nano- scale pH measurements of cells and biomolecules therefore hold great promise in understanding a plethora of cellular functions, in addition to disease detection and therapy. In the current study, a novel approach using cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTeQDs) as pH sensors, combined with fluorescent imaging, spectrofluorimetry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Western blot analysis, enabled the study of intracellular pH dynamics at 1 milli-pH sensitivity and 80nm pixel resolution, during insulin secretion...
August 2, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779979/cancer-secretome-and-inflammation-the-bright-and-the-dark-sides-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#16
REVIEW
Daria Capece, Daniela Verzella, Alessandra Tessitore, Edoardo Alesse, Carlo Capalbo, Francesca Zazzeroni
Tumour promoting inflammation is widely recognized as a hallmark of cancer. The source of this chronic inflammation in cancer has been ascribed to the progressive activation over time of immune cells, mostly of the innate arm of the immune system. However, recent evidence has shown that chronic inflammation may also derive, at least in part, from senescent cells. Hence, due to the prominent role of inflammation in cancer, the cancer secretome definition includes all the secretory factors ensuing from the crosstalk between the cancer cell and the tumour microenvironment...
August 2, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778411/what-modulates-animal-longevity-fast-and-slow-aging-in-bivalves-as-a-model-for-the-study-of-lifespan
#17
REVIEW
Pierre U Blier, Doris Abele, Daniel Munro, Cyril Degletagne, Enrique Rodriguez, Tory Hagen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774579/afm-nanoindentation-of-protein-shells-expanding-the-approach-beyond-viruses
#18
REVIEW
Wouter H Roos
The archetypical protein nanoshell is the capsid that surrounds viral genomes. These capsids protect the viral RNA or DNA and function as transport vehicle for their nucleic acid. The material properties of a variety of viral capsids have been probed by Atomic Force Microscopy. In particular nanoindentation measurements revealed the complex mechanics of these shells and the intricate interplay of the capsid with its genomic content. Furthermore, effects of capsid protein mutations, capsid maturation and the effect of environmental changes have been probed...
July 31, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774578/regulation-of-wnt-signaling-by-protocadherins
#19
REVIEW
Kar Men Mah, Joshua A Weiner
The ∼70 protocadherins comprise the largest group within the cadherin superfamily. Their diversity, the complexity of the mechanisms through which their genes are regulated, and their many critical functions in nervous system development have engendered a growing interest in elucidating the intracellular signaling pathways through which they act. Recently, multiple protocadherins across several subfamilies have been implicated as modulators of Wnt signaling pathways, and through this as potential tumor suppressors...
July 31, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768152/mechanosensing-in-liver-regeneration
#20
REVIEW
Ziwei Song, Kapish Gupta, Inn Chuan Ng, Jiangwa Xing, Yi An Yang, Hanry Yu
Liver is highly regenerative as it can restore its function and size even after 70% partial hepatectomy. During liver regeneration, the mechanical and chemical environment of liver is altered with accumulation of various growth factors and remodeling of extracellular environment. Cells can sense the changes in their cellular environment through various chemo and mechanosensors present on their surfaces. These changes are then transduced by initiation of multiple signaling pathways. Traditional view of liver regeneration describes the process as a cascade of chemical signaling pathways...
July 30, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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