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Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775661/canalization-a-central-concept-in-biology
#1
EDITORIAL
Vincent Debat, Arnaud Le Rouzic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775660/the-role-of-the-egfr-signaling-pathway-in-stem-cell-differentiation-during-planarian-regeneration-and-homeostasis
#2
REVIEW
Sara Barberán, Francesc Cebrià
Cell signaling is essential for cells to adequately respond to their environment. One of the most evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways is that of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Transmembrane receptors with intracellular tyrosine kinase activity are activated by the binding of their corresponding ligands. This in turn activates a wide variety of intracellular cascades and induces the up- or downregulation of target genes, leading to a specific cellular response. Freshwater planarians are an excellent model in which to study the role of cell signaling in the context of stem-cell based regeneration...
May 15, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763656/canalization-and-genetic-assimilation-reassessing-the-radicality-of-the-waddingtonian-concept-of-inheritance-of-acquired-characters
#3
REVIEW
Laurent Loison
Genetic assimilation is often mixed up with the Baldwin effect. For Waddington, genetic assimilation was both a phenomenon and a specific mechanism of adaptive evolution which was grounded in the concept of canalization. This theoretical link between canalization and genetic assimilation, which was pivotal in Waddington's view, has been weakened since the early 1960s. The aim of the present article is to emphasize the specificity and to reassess the possible radicality of Waddington's proposal. What he claimed to have elaborated was an actual and genuine mechanism of inheritance of acquired characters that did not rely on soft Lamarckian inheritance...
May 12, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753880/ligand-interactions-and-the-protein-order-disorder-energetic-continuum
#4
REVIEW
Mahdi Muhammad Moosa, Josephine C Ferreon, Allan Chris M Ferreon
Intrinsically disordered proteins as computationally predicted account for ∼1/3 of eukaryotic proteomes, are involved in a plethora of biological functions, and have been linked to several human diseases as a result of their dysfunctions. Here, we present a picture wherein an energetic continuum describes protein structural and conformational propensities, ranging from the hyperstable folded proteins on one end to the hyperdestabilized and sometimes functionally disordered proteins on the other. We distinguish between proteins that are folding-competent but disordered because of marginal stability and those that are disordered due mainly to the absence of folding code-completing structure-determining interactions, and postulate that disordered proteins that are unstructured by way of partial population of protein denatured states represent a sizable proportion of the proteome...
May 12, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758350/the-true-colours-of-the-flatworm-mechanisms-of-pigment-biosynthesis-and-pigment-cell-lineage-development-in-planarians
#5
REVIEW
Nicole Lindsay-Mosher, Bret J Pearson
Pigment cells serve a variety of important uses across the animal kingdom, and in many species can change and regenerate throughout the lifetime of the organism. The functions of these cells, as well as their origins in both embryonic development and adult regeneration, are not fully understood. Here, we review advances in the study of pigment cells in the freshwater planarian, a model system for stem cell biology and regeneration. Freshwater planarians produce at least three pigment types to generate brown eye and body colouration: melanin, porphyrin, and ommochrome...
May 11, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753879/protein-aggregation-in-cell-biology-an-aggregomics-perspective-of-health-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Dezerae Cox, Candice Raeburn, Xiaojing Sui, Danny M Hatters
Maintaining protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is essential for cellular health and is governed by a network of quality control machinery comprising over 800 genes. When proteostasis becomes imbalanced, proteins can abnormally aggregate or become mislocalized. Inappropriate protein aggregation and proteostasis imbalance are two of the central pathological features of common neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington, and motor neuron diseases. How aggregation contributes to the pathogenic mechanisms of disease remains incompletely understood...
May 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751086/decanalizing-thinking-on-genetic-canalization
#7
REVIEW
Kerry Geiler-Samerotte, Federica M O Sartori, Mark L Siegal
The concept of genetic canalization has had an abiding influence on views of complex-trait evolution. A genetically canalized system has evolved to become less sensitive to the effects of mutation. When a gene product that supports canalization is compromised, the phenotypic impacts of a mutation should be more pronounced. This expected increase in mutational effects not only has important consequences for evolution, but has also motivated strategies to treat disease. However, recent studies demonstrate that, when putative agents of genetic canalization are impaired, systems do not behave as expected...
May 8, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738884/pathway-perturbations-in-signaling-networks-linking-genotype-to-phenotype
#8
REVIEW
Yongsheng Li, Daniel J McGrail, Natasha Latysheva, Song Yi, M Madan Babu, Nidhi Sahni
Genes and gene products interact with each other to form signal transduction networks in the cell. The interactome networks are under intricate regulation in physiological conditions, but could go awry upon genome instability caused by genetic mutations. In the past decade with next-generation sequencing technologies, an increasing number of genomic mutations have been identified in a variety of disease patients and healthy individuals. As functional and systematic studies on these mutations leap forward, they begin to reveal insights into cellular homeostasis and disease mechanisms...
May 5, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738883/staying-in-shape-planarians-as-a-model-for-understanding-regenerative-morphology
#9
REVIEW
Taylor R Birkholz, Alanna V Van Huizen, Wendy S Beane
A key requirement of tissue/organ regeneration is the ability to induce appropriate shape in situ. Regenerated structures need to be integrated with pre-existing ones, through the combined regulation of new tissue growth and the scaling of surrounding tissues. This requires a tightly coordinated control of individual cell functions such as proliferation and stem cell differentiation. While great strides have been made in elucidating cell growth and differentiation mechanisms, how overall shape is generated during regeneration remains unknown...
May 5, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738882/a-sticky-situation-aberrant-protein-protein-interactions-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
James Brown, Mathew H Horrocks
The aberrant aggregation of normally soluble proteins into amyloid fibrils is the pathological hallmark of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Understanding this process will be key to developing both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for neurodegenerative diseases. Recent advances in biophysical techniques, coupled with kinetic analyses have enabled a thorough description of the key molecular steps involved in protein aggregation. In this review, we discuss these advances and how they have been applied to study the ability of one such protein, α-Synuclein, to form neurotoxic oligomers...
May 5, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738881/rhim-based-protein-protein-interactions-in-anti-microbial-defence-against-programmed-cell-death-by-necroptosis
#11
REVIEW
Max O D G Baker, Nirukshan Shanmugam, Chi L L Pham, Merryn Strange, Megan Steain, Margaret Sunde
The Receptor-interacting protein kinase Homotypic Interaction Motif (RHIM) is an amino acid sequence that mediates multiple protein:protein interactions in the mammalian programmed cell death pathway known as necroptosis. At least one key RHIM-based complex has been shown to have a functional amyloid fibril structure, which provides a stable hetero-oligomeric platform for downstream signaling. RHIMs and related motifs are present in immunity-related proteins across nature, from viruses to fungi to metazoans...
May 5, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738880/the-interaction-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-and-tau-a-molecular-conspiracy-in-neurodegeneration
#12
REVIEW
Xu Yan, Riikka-Liisa Uronen, Henri J Huttunen
α-synuclein and Tau are proteins prone to pathological misfolding and aggregation that are normally found in the presynaptic and axonal compartments of neurons. Misfolding initiates a homo-oligomerization and aggregation cascade culminating in cerebral accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein and Tau in insoluble protein inclusions in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Traditionally, α-synuclein-containing Lewy bodies have been associated with Parkinson's disease and Tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles with Alzheimer's disease and various frontotemporal dementia syndromes...
May 5, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738879/regulation-of-signaling-by-cooperative-assembly-formation-in-mammalian-innate-immunity-signalosomes-by-molecular-mimics
#13
REVIEW
Jeffrey D Nanson, Habibur Rahaman, Thomas Ve, Bostjan Kobe
Innate immunity pathways constitute the first line of defense against infections and cellular damage. An emerging concept in these pathways is that signaling involves the formation of finite (e.g. rings in NLRs) or open-ended higher-order assemblies (e.g. filamentous assemblies by members of the death-fold family and TIR domains). This signaling by cooperative assembly formation (SCAF) mechanism allows rapid and strongly amplified responses to minute amounts of stimulus. While the characterization of the molecular mechanisms of SCAF has seen rapid progress, little is known about its regulation...
May 5, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727725/dna-damage-and-tissue-repair-what-we-can-learn-from-planaria
#14
REVIEW
Paul G Barghouth, Manish Thiruvalluvan, Melanie LeGro, Néstor J Oviedo
Faithful renewal of aging and damaged tissues is central to organismal lifespan. Stem cells (SCs) generate the cellular progeny that replenish adult tissues across the body but this task becomes increasingly compromised over time. The age related decline in SC-mediated tissue maintenance is a multifactorial event that commonly affects genome integrity. The presence of DNA damage in SCs that are under continuous demand to divide poses a great risk for age-related disorders such as cancer. However, performing analysis of SCs with genomic instability and the DNA damage response during tissue renewal present significant challenges...
May 3, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727728/human-dendritic-cells
#15
EDITORIAL
Matthew Collin, Florent Ginhoux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727727/it-takes-a-village-phagocytes-play-a-central-role-in-fungal-immunity
#16
REVIEW
Michael B Feldman, Jatin M Vyas, Michael K Mansour
Phagocytosis is an essential step in the innate immune response to invasive fungal infections. This process is carried out by a proverbial "village" of professional phagocytic cells, which have evolved efficient machinery to recognize and ingest pathogens, namely macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells. These innate immune cells drive early cytokine production, fungicidal activity, antigen presentation and activation of the adaptive immune system. Despite the development of antifungal agents with potent activity, the biological activity of professional phagocytic innate immune cells has proven indispensable in protecting a host from invasive fungal infections...
May 1, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727726/a-lineage-cloud-for-neoblasts
#17
REVIEW
Thao Anh Tran, Luca Gentile
In planarians, pluripotency can be studied in vivo in the adult animal, making these animals a unique model system where pluripotency-based regeneration (PBR) -and its therapeutic potential- can be investigated. This review focuses on recent findings to build a cloud model of fate restriction likelihood for planarian stem and progenitor cells. Recently, a computational approach based on functional and molecular profiling at the single cell level was proposed for human hematopoietic stem cells. Based on data generated both in vivo and ex vivo, we hypothesized that planarian stem cells could acquire multiple direction lineage biases, following a "badlands" landscape...
May 1, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705301/it-is-not-all-about-regeneration-planarians-striking-power-to-stand-starvation
#18
REVIEW
Daniel A Felix, Óscar Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Lilia Espada, Anne Thems, Cristina González-Estévez
All living forms, prokaryotes as eukaryotes, have some means of adaptation to food scarcity, which extends the survival chances under extreme environmental conditions. Nowadays we know that dietary interventions, including fasting, extends lifespan of many organisms and can also protect against age-related diseases including in humans. Therefore, the capacity of adapting to periods of food scarcity may have evolved billions of years ago not only to allow immediate organismal survival but also to be able to extend organismal lifespan or at least to lead to a healthier remaining lifespan...
April 26, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705300/post-translational-regulation-of-planarian-regeneration
#19
REVIEW
Nicholas S Strand, John M Allen, Ricardo M Zayas
Most mammals cannot easily overcome degenerative disease or traumatic injuries. In contrast, an innate ability to regenerate is observed across animal phyla. Freshwater planarians are amongst the organisms that are capable of stem cell-mediated whole-body regeneration and have served as an exemplary model to study how pluripotency is maintained and regulated in vivo. Here, we review findings on the role of post-translational modifications and the genes regulating phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, and chromatin remodeling in planarian regeneration...
April 26, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705299/planarian-regeneration-between-1960s-and-1990s-from-skilful-baffled-ancestors-to-bold-integrative-descendants-a-personal-account
#20
REVIEW
Jaume Baguñà
Scientific fields grow by accretion of knowledge brought up by succesive generations of scientists. With the field of planarian regeneration as a general background, here I give a personal account of it from the late 1960s until the late 1990s when new research groups, namely Americans, broke into it. After a short historical summary, I report how I got into regeneration, why I choose planarians, and most especially the finding and description of the current model organism Schmidtea mediterranea. Next, I concentrate on the quantitative cellular approaches to regeneration, growth, and degrowth undertaken in our lab in Barcelona, and the long struggle to set neoblasts as a totipotent/pluripotent heterogeneous population of mitotic and non-mitotic cells for homeostatic somatic cell renewal, reproduction, and blastema formation during regeneration...
April 26, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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