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Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology

Leonardo Rossi, Alessandra Salvetti
Stem cell fate depends on surrounding microenvironment, the so called niche. For this reason, understanding stem cell niche is one of the most challenging target in cell biology field and need to be unraveled with in vivo studies. Planarians offer this unique opportunity, as their stem cells, the neoblasts, are abundant, highly characterized and genetically modifiable by RNA interference in alive animals. However, despite impressive advances have been done in the understanding planarian stem cells and regeneration, only a few information is available in defining signals from differentiated tissues, which affect neoblast stemness and fate...
March 10, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Benjamin H Durham
The systemic histiocytoses encompass a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders leading to tissue damage secondary to the accumulation and infiltration of pathological cells thought to be derived from the dendritic or monocytic lineages with accompanying inflammation. For decades, whether or not the histiocytoses were inflammatory or neoplastic disorders was unclear, and their cellular origins have long been obscure and heavily debated. However, the rise of the molecular era led to the discovery of recurrent BRAFV600E mutations in approximately 50% of patients with Langerhans cell and non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses, which provided the first convincing evidence that these are indeed histiocytic neoplasms...
March 8, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Jessica R Shartouny, Joshy Jacob
Discovering new therapeutics for human viral diseases is important for combatting emerging infectious viruses and omnipresent circulating viruses as well as those that can become resistant to the drugs we currently have available. The innate host defense peptide (HDP) repertoire present in animals is a wealth of potential antimicrobial agents that could be mined to meet these needs. While much of the body of research regarding HDPs is in the context of bacteria, there is increasing evidence that they can be an effective source for antivirals...
March 7, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Adilia Warris, Elizabeth R Ballou
The balance between reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species production by the host and stress response by fungi is a key axis of the host-pathogen interaction. This review will describe emerging themes in fungal pathogenesis underpinning this axis.
March 6, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Emmanuel C Patin, Aiysha Thompson, Selinda J Orr
Over the last decade, invasive fungal infections have emerged as a growing threat to human health worldwide and novel treatment strategies are urgently needed. In this context, investigations into host-pathogen interactions represent an important and promising field of research. Antigen presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells are strategically located at the frontline of defence against potential invaders. Importantly, these cells express germline encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which sense conserved entities from pathogens and orchestrate innate immune responses...
March 6, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Stephanie J Popa, Sarah E Stewart, Kevin Moreau
Eukaryotic cells have a highly evolved system of protein secretion, and dysfunction in this pathway is associated with many diseases including cancer, infection, metabolic disease and neurological disorders. Most proteins are secreted using the conventional endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi network and as such, this pathway is well-characterised. However, several cytosolic proteins have now been documented as secreted by unconventional transport pathways. This review focuses on two of these proteins families: annexins and galectins...
March 1, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Jonathan P Richardson, David L Moyes, Jemima Ho, Julian R Naglik
The tremendous diversity in microbial species that colonise the mucosal surfaces of the human body is only now beginning to be fully appreciated. Distinguishing between the behaviour of commensal microbes and harmful pathogens that reside at mucosal sites in the body is a complex, and exquisitely fine-tuned process central to mucosal health. The fungal pathobiont Candida albicans is frequently isolated from mucosal surfaces with an asymptomatic carriage rate of approximately 60% in the human population. While normally a benign member of the microbiota, overgrowth of C...
February 28, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Saahil Fruitwala, Darine W El-Naccache, Theresa L Chang
Defensins have been long recognized as natural antimicrobial peptides, but they also possess diverse and versatile immune functions. Defensins can both induce inflammation and suppress inflammatory responses by acting on specific cells through distinct mechanisms. Defensins can also modulate the immune response by forming a complex with cellular molecules including proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. The mechanisms of defensin-mediated immune modulation appear to be cell-type and context specific. Because the levels of human defensins are often altered in response to infection or disease states, suggesting their clinical relevance, this review summarizes the complex immune functions of human defensins and their underlying mechanisms of action, which have implications for the development of new therapeutics...
February 28, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
José R Regueiro, Francisco J Fernández, M Cristina Vega
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Scott Robertson, Rueyling Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Georgina J Clark, Pablo A Silveira, P Mark Hogarth, Derek N J Hart
Dendritic cells (DC) are bone marrow derived leucocytes that are part of the mononuclear phagocytic system. They are the surveillance cells of the body, found in all tissues and, as specialised antigen presenting cells, they direct immune responses. DC interact with the environment through membrane molecules. The membrane molecules form a landscape that defines DC as leucocytes, shows that DC are part of the mononuclear phagocytic system, interacts with the environment and directs interactions with other cells...
February 27, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
David Cruz-Garcia, Vivek Malhotra, Amy J Curwin
It is usually assumed that eukaryotic cells secrete only proteins that contain a signal sequence for Sec61 mediated translocation into the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Surprisingly however, many proteins, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, acyl-CoA binding protein (Acb1), interleukin 1β, fibroblast growth factor 2 and the adipokine Unpaired2, to name a few, are secreted even though they lack a signal sequence. The discovery that these proteins are secreted has presented a new challenge and we describe here a common pathway by which SOD1 and Acb1 are specifically secreted upon nutrient starvation...
February 24, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Siyi Gu, Marta Borowska, Christopher T Boughter, Erin J Adams
Despite playing critical roles in the immune response and having significant potential in immunotherapy, γδ T cells have garnered little of the limelight. One major reason for this paradox is that their antigen recognition mechanisms are largely unknown, limiting our understanding of their biology and our potential to modulate their activity. One of the best-studied γδ subsets is the human Vγ9Vδ2 T cell population, which predominates in peripheral blood and can combat both microbial infections and cancers...
February 19, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Julia P Steringer, Walter Nickel
As illustrated by a diverse set of examples in this special issue, multiple mechanisms of protein secretion have been identified in eukaryotes that do not involve the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus. Here we focus on the type I pathway with Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) being the most prominent example. Unconventional secretion of FGF2 from cells is mediated by direct protein translocation across the plasma membrane. A unique feature of this process is the ability of FGF2 to form its own membrane translocation intermediate through oligomerization and membrane insertion...
February 16, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Christian E Bryant, Sarah Sutherland, Benjamin Kong, Michael S Papadimitrious, Derek N J Hart
The ability of immune therapies to control cancer has recently generated intense interest. This therapeutic outcome is reliant on T cell recognition of tumour cells. The natural function of dendritic cells (DC) is to generate adaptive responses, by presenting antigen to T cells, hence they are a logical target to generate specific anti-tumour immunity. Our understanding of the biology of DC is expanding, and they are now known to be a family of related subsets with variable features and function. Most clinical experience to date with DC vaccination has been using monocyte-derived DC vaccines...
February 14, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Venetia Bigley, Urszula Cytlak, Matthew Collin
The critical functions of dendritic cells (DCs) in immunity and tolerance have been demonstrated in many animal models but their non-redundant roles in humans are more difficult to probe. Human primary immunodeficiency (PID), resulting from single gene mutations, may result in DC deficiency or dysfunction. This relatively recent recognition illuminates the in vivo role of human DCs and the pathophysiology of the associated clinical syndromes. In this review, the development and function of DCs as established in murine models and human in vitro systems, is discussed...
February 13, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Emir E Avilés-Pagán, Terry L Orr-Weaver
The transition from oocyte to embryo marks the onset of development. This process requires complex regulation to link developmental signals with profound changes in mRNA translation, cell cycle control, and metabolism. This control is beginning to be understood for most organisms, and research in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has generated new insights. Recent findings have increased our understanding of the roles played by hormone and Ca 2+ signaling events as well as metabolic remodeling crucial for this transition...
February 12, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Tsing-Lee Tang-Huau, Elodie Segura
When entering tissues, monocytes can differentiate into cells that share morphological and functional features with either dendritic cells (DC) or macrophages. Monocyte-derived DC have been observed in humans at mucosal tissues and in inflammatory settings, where they are usually referred to as « inflammatory DC ». In this chapter, we review recent studies on the characterization of these cells in humans. We also discuss nomenclature and examine the criteria defining in vivo-differentiated human mo-DC.
February 12, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Herbert Strobl, Corinna Krump, Izabela Borek
Human Langerhans cells (LC) can be generated ex vivo from hematopoietic precursor cells in response to cytokines and cell-membrane associated ligands. These in vitro differentiation models provided mechanistic insights into the molecular and cellular pathways underlying the development of this unique, epithelia-associated dendritic cell subset. Notably, the human epidermal microenvironment is fully sufficient to induce LC differentiation from hematopoietic progenitors. Hence, dissecting the molecular characteristics of the human epithelial/epidermal LC niche, and testing defined ligands for their capacity to induce LC differentiation, led to a refined molecular model of LC lineage commitment...
February 12, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Joachim L Schultze, Anna C Aschenbrenner
As the most important antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells connect the innate and adaptive part of our immune system and play a pivotal role in our course of action against invading pathogens as well as during successful vaccination. Immunologists have therefore studied these cells in great detail using flow cytometry-based analyses, in vitro assays and in vivo models, both in murine models and in humans. Albeit, sophisticated, classical immunological, and molecular approaches were often unable to unequivocally determine the subpopulation structure of the dendritic cell lineage and not surprisingly, conflicting results about dendritic cell subsets co-existed throughout the last decades...
February 12, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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