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Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633977/vascular-endothelial-cell-mechanosensing-new-insights-gained-from-biomimetic-microfluidic-models
#1
REVIEW
Kelsey M Gray, Kimberly M Stroka
In vivo, cells of the vascular system are subjected to various mechanical stimuli and have demonstrated the ability to adapt their behavior via mechanotransduction. Recent advances in microfluidic and "on-chip" techniques have provided the technology to study these alterations in cell behavior. Contrary to traditional in vitro assays such as transwell plates and parallel plate flow chambers, these microfluidic devices (MFDs) provide the opportunity to integrate multiple mechanical cues (e.g. shear stress, confinement, substrate stiffness, vessel geometry and topography) with in situ quantification capabilities...
June 17, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630027/talking-over-the-extracellular-matrix-how-do-cells-communicate-mechanically
#2
REVIEW
Liel Sapir, Shelly Tzlil
The communication between cells enables them to coordinate their activity and is key for the differentiation, development, and function of tissues and multicellular organisms. Cell-cell communication is discussed almost exclusively as having a chemical or electrical origin. Only recently, a new mode of cell communication was elucidated: mechanical communication through the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cells can communicate mechanically by responding either to mechanical deformations generated by their neighbors or to a change in the mechanical properties of the ECM induced by a neighboring cell...
June 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630026/what-have-we-learned-on-aging-from-omics-studies
#3
REVIEW
Alessandro Cellerino, Alessandro Ori
Aging is a complex process. Transcriptomic studies of the last decade have identified genes and pathways that are regulated during aging in multiple species and organs. Yet, since a manifold of pathways are regulated and the amplitude of regulation is often small, reproducibility across studies is moderate and disentangling cause-consequence relationships has proven challenging. Here, we review a number of consistent findings in the light of more recent, longitudinal studies and of studies combining transcriptomics and proteomics that identified deregulation of protein biosynthetic pathways as an early event and likely driver of aging...
June 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630025/the-clock-is-ticking-ageing-of-the-circadian-system-from-physiology-to-cell-cycle
#4
REVIEW
Eva Terzibasi-Tozzini, Antonio Martinez-Nicolas, Alejandro Lucas-Sánchez
The circadian system is the responsible to organise the internal temporal order in relation to the environment of every process of the organisms producing the circadian rhythms. These rhythms have a fixed phase relationship among them and with the environment in order to optimise the available energy and resources. From a cellular level, circadian rhythms are controlled by genetic positive and negative auto-regulated transcriptional and translational feedback loops, which generate 24hour rhythms in mRNA and protein levels of the clock components...
June 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624601/the-manchester-fly-facility-implementing-an-objective-driven-long-term-science-communication-initiative
#5
REVIEW
Sanjai Patel, Andreas Prokop
Science communication is increasingly important for scientists, although research, teaching and administration activities tend to eat up our time already, and budgets for science communication are usually low. It appears impossible to combine all these tasks and, in addition, to develop engagement activities to a quality and impact that would make the efforts worth their while. Here we argue that these challenges are easier addressed when centering science communication initiatives on a long-term vision with a view to eventually forming outreach networks where the load can be shared whilst being driven to higher momentum...
June 15, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627384/cadherin-genes-and-evolutionary-novelties-in-the-octopus
#6
REVIEW
Z Yan Wang, Clifton W Ragsdale
All animals with large brains must have molecular mechanisms to regulate neuronal process outgrowth and prevent neurite self-entanglement. In vertebrates, two major gene families implicated in these mechanisms are the clustered protocadherins and the atypical cadherins. However, the molecular mechanisms utilized in complex invertebrate brains, such as those of the cephalopods, remain largely unknown. Recently, we identified protocadherins and atypical cadherins in the octopus. The octopus protocadherin expansion shares features with the mammalian clustered protocadherins, including enrichment in neural tissues, clustered head-to-tail orientations in the genome, and a large first exon encoding all cadherin domains...
June 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627383/science-communication-at-scientific-societies
#7
REVIEW
Jeanne Braha
Scientific societies can play a key role in bridging the research and practice of scientists' engagement of public audiences. Societies are beginning to support translation of science communication research, connections between scientists and audiences, and the creation of opportunities for scientists to engage publics without extensive customization. This article suggests roles, strategies, and mechanisms for scientific societies to promote and enhance their member's engagement of public audiences.
June 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627382/bpag1-a-distinctive-role-in-skin-and-neurological-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Arshad Ali, Lifang Hu, Fan Zhao, Wuxia Qiu, Pai Wang, Xiaoli Ma, Yan Zhang, Lei Chen, Airong Qian
Spectraplakins are multifunctional cytoskeletal linker proteins that act as important communicators, connecting cytoskeletal components with each other and to cellular junctions. Bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (BPAG1)/dystonin is a member of spectraplakin family and expressed in various tissues. Alternative splicing of BPAG1 gene produces various isoforms with unique structure and domains. BPAG1 plays crucial roles in numerous biological processes, such as cytoskeleton organization, cell polarization, cell adhesion, and cell migration as well as signaling transduction...
June 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627381/mechanosensing-in-hypothalamic-osmosensory-neurons
#9
REVIEW
Masha Prager-Khoutorsky
Osmosensory neurons are specialized cells activated by increases in blood osmolality to trigger thirst, secretion of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin, and elevated sympathetic tone during dehydration. In addition to multiple extrinsic factors modulating their activity, osmosensory neurons are intrinsically osmosensitive, as they are activated by increased osmolality in the absence of neighboring cells or synaptic contacts. This intrinsic osmosensitivity is a mechanical process associated with osmolality-induced changes in cell volume...
June 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619622/the-spectraplakins-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-cytoskeletal-crosslinkers-and-beyond
#10
REVIEW
Rong Fu, Xiaowan Jiang, Zhaohui Huang, Huimin Zhang
Spectraplakins are evolutionary conserved cytolinkers with characteristics of both the spectrin and the plakin family proteins. Caenorhabditis elegans possesses two categories of spectraplakin isoforms encoded by a single locus termed vab-10. Here we summarize the structure, homology, expression and functions of these spectraplakin family proteins in the nematode. We particularly focus on the diverse roles of VAB-10 isoforms in a number of organs and tissue types, as well as the similarities and distinctions of the underlying mechanisms...
June 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610943/stretch-induced-actomyosin-contraction-in-epithelial-tubes-mechanotransduction-pathways-for-tubular-homeostasis
#11
REVIEW
Kriti Sethi, Erin J Cram, Ronen Zaidel-Bar
Many tissues in our body have a tubular shape and are constantly exposed to various stresses. Luminal pressure imposes tension on the epithelial and myoepithelial or smooth muscle cells surrounding the lumen of the tubes. Contractile forces generated by actomyosin assemblies within these cells oppose the luminal pressure and must be calibrated to maintain tube diameter homeostasis and tissue integrity. In this review, we discuss mechanotransduction pathways that can lead from sensation of cell stretch to activation of actomyosin contractility, providing rapid mechanochemical feedback for proper tubular tissue function...
June 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603077/configuring-a-robust-nervous-system-with-fat-cadherins
#12
REVIEW
Evelyn C Avilés, Lisa V Goodrich
Atypical Fat cadherins represent a small but versatile group of signaling molecules that influence proliferation and tissue polarity. With huge extracellular domains and intracellular domains harboring many independent protein interaction sites, Fat cadherins are poised to translate local cell adhesion events into a variety of cell behaviors. The need for such global coordination is particularly prominent in the nervous system, where millions of morphologically diverse neurons are organized into functional networks...
June 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603076/functional-roles-of-p120ctn-family-of-proteins-in-central-neurons
#13
REVIEW
Li Yuan, Jyothi Arikkatha
The cadherin-catenin complex in central neurons is associated with a variety of cytosolic partners, collectively called catenins. The p120ctn members are a family of catenins that are distinct from the more ubiquitously expressed α- and β-catenins. It is becoming increasingly clear that the functional roles of the p120ctn family of catenins in central neurons extend well beyond their functional roles in non-neuronal cells in partnering with cadherin to regulate adhesion. In this review, we will provide an overview of the p120ctn family in neurons and their varied functional roles in central neurons...
June 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591566/regulation-of-clustered-protocadherin-genes-in-individual-neurons
#14
REVIEW
Teruyoshi Hirayama, Takeshi Yagi
Individual neurons are basic functional units in the complex system of the brain. One aspect of neuronal individuality is generated by stochastic and combinatorial expression of diverse clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs), encoded by the Pcdha, Pcdhb, and Pcdhg gene clusters, that are critical for several aspects of neural circuit formation. Each clustered Pcdh gene has its own promoter containing conserved sequences and is transcribed by a promoter choice mechanism involving interaction between the promoter and enhancers...
June 4, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587976/mechanosensing-of-matrix-by-stem-cells-from-contractility-and-matrix-heterogeneity-to-cardiogenesis-and-muscle-stem-cells
#15
REVIEW
Lucas Smith, Sangkyun Cho, Dennis E Discher
Stem cells are particularly 'plastic' cell types that are induced by various cues to become specialized, tissue-functional lineages by switching on the expression of specific gene programs. Matrix stiffness is among the cues that multiple stem cell types can sense and respond to. This seminar-style review focuses on mechanosensing of matrix elasticity in the differentiation or early maturation of a few illustrative stem cell types, with an intended audience of biologists and physical scientists. Contractile forces applied by a cell's acto-myosin cytoskeleton are often resisted by the extracellular matrix and transduced through adhesions and the cytoskeleton ultimately into the nucleus to modulate gene expression...
June 3, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587975/ros-signalling-in-the-biology-of-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer N Moloney, Thomas G Cotter
Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been detected in various cancers and has been shown to have several roles, for example, they can activate pro-tumourigenic signalling, enhance cell survival and proliferation, and drive DNA damage and genetic instability. Counterintuitively ROS can also promote anti-tumourigenic signalling, initiating oxidative stress-induced tumour cell death. Tumour cells express elevated levels of antioxidant proteins to detoxify elevated ROS levels, establish a redox balance, while maintaining pro-tumourigenic signalling and resistance to apoptosis...
June 3, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579453/building-dialogues-between-clinical-and-biomedical-research-through-cross-species-collaborations
#17
REVIEW
Hsiao-Tuan Chao, Lucy Liu, Hugo J Bellen
Today, biomedical science is equipped with an impressive array of technologies and genetic resources that bolster our basic understanding of fundamental biology and enhance the practice of modern medicine by providing clinicians with a diverse toolkit to diagnose, prognosticate, and treat a plethora of conditions. Many significant advances in our understanding of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions have arisen from fruitful dialogues between clinicians and biomedical research scientists. However, the increasingly specialized scientific and medical disciplines, globalization of science and technology, and complex datasets often hinder the development of effective interdisciplinary collaborations between clinical medicine and biomedical research...
June 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579452/the-role-of-macf1-in-nervous-system-development-and-maintenance
#18
REVIEW
Jeffrey J Moffat, Minhan Ka, Eui-Man Jung, Amanda L Smith, Woo-Yang Kim
Microtubule-actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1), also known as actin crosslinking factor 7 (ACF7), is essential for proper modulation of actin and microtubule cytoskeletal networks. Most MACF1 isoforms are expressed broadly in the body, but some are exclusively found in the nervous system. Consequentially, MACF1 is integrally involved in multiple neural processes during development and in adulthood, including neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration. Furthermore, MACF1 participates in several signaling pathways, including the Wnt/β-catenin and GSK-3 signaling pathways, which regulate key cellular processes, such as proliferation and cell migration...
June 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579451/the-fifth-sense-mechanosensory-regulation-of-alpha-actinin-4-and-its-relevance-for-cancer-metastasis
#19
REVIEW
Dustin G Thomas, Douglas N Robinson
Metastatic cancer cells invading through dense tumor stroma experience internal and external forces that are sensed through a variety of mechanosensory proteins that drive adaptations for specific environments. Alpha-actinin-4 (ACTN4) is a member of the α-actinin family of actin crosslinking proteins that is upregulated in several types of cancers. It shares 86% protein similarity with α-actinin-1, another non-muscle ACTN isoform, which appears to have a more modest role, if any, in cancer progression. While they share regulatory mechanisms, such as phosphorylation, calcium binding, phosphatidyl inositol binding, and calpain cleavage, α-actinin-4 exhibits a unique mechanosensory regulation that α-actinin-1 does not...
June 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579450/drosophila-short-stop-as-a-paradigm-for-the-role-and-regulation-of-spectraplakins
#20
REVIEW
Andre Voelzmann, Yu-Ting Liew, Yue Qu, Ines Hahn, Cristina Melero, Natalia Sánchez-Soriano, Andreas Prokop
Spectraplakins are evolutionarily well conserved cytoskeletal linker molecules that are true members of three protein families: plakins, spectrins and Gas2-like proteins. Spectraplakin genes encode at least 7 characteristic functional domains which are combined in a modular fashion into multiple isoforms, and which are responsible for an enormous breadth of cellular functions. These functions are related to the regulation of actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments, intracellular organelles, cell adhesions and signalling processes during the development and maintenance of a wide variety of tissues...
June 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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