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Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology

E Sachiko Seilie, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg
Staphylococcus aureus is a prominent human pathogen capable of infecting a variety of host species and tissue sites. This versatility stems from the pathogen's ability to secrete diverse host-damaging virulence factors. Among these factors, the S. aureus pore-forming toxins (PFTs), α-toxin and the bicomponent leukocidins, have garnered much attention for their ability to lyse cells at low concentrations and modulate disease severity. Although many of these toxins were discovered nearly a century ago, their host cell specificity has only been elucidated over the past five to six years, starting with the discovery of the eukaryotic receptor for α-toxin and rapidly followed by identification of the leukocidin receptors...
April 23, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Sam Illingworth
Science communication is becoming ever more prevalent, with more and more scientists expected to not only communicate their research to a wider public, but to do so in an innovative and engaging manner. Given the other commitments that researchers and academics are required to fulfil as part of their workload models, it is unfair to be expect them to also instantly produce effective science communication events and activities. However, by thinking carefully about what it is that needs to be communicated, and why this is being done, it is possible to develop high-quality activities that are of benefit to both the audience and the communicator(s)...
April 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Richard W Birkinshaw, Peter E Czabotar
Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death critical for the development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms. A key event within the mitochondrial pathway to apoptosis is the permeabilisation of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM), a point of no return in apoptotic progression. This event is governed by a complex interplay of interactions between BCL-2 family members. Here we discuss the roles of opposing factions within the family. We focus on the structural details of these interactions, how they promote or prevent apoptosis and recent developments towards understanding the conformational changes of BAK and BAX that lead to MOM permeabilisation...
April 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Yifat Ofir-Birin, Meta Heidenreich, Neta Regev-Rudzki
Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death of children worldwide, causing a tenacious and major public-health burden. The dynamic interplay between pathogens and their host is one of the most complicated themes of the disease progression. Pathogens excel in developing different means to facilitate cell-cell communication via secreted vesicles, among others. The released vesicles are involved in the transfer of biologically active molecules that induce phenotypic changes in the recipient cells. The messages within the vesicles are delivered to coordinate diverse processes, including virulence factor expression, differentiation state and control of their population density...
March 30, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Rebekah M Charney, Kitt D Paraiso, Ira L Blitz, Ken W Y Cho
Germ layer formation is among the earliest differentiation events in metazoan embryos. In triploblasts, three germ layers are formed, among which the endoderm gives rise to the epithelial lining of the gut tube and associated organs including the liver, pancreas and lungs. In frogs (Xenopus), where early germ layer formation has been studied intensively, the process of endoderm specification involves the interplay of dozens of transcription factors. Here, we review the interactions between these factors, summarized in a transcriptional gene regulatory network (GRN)...
March 21, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Tsukasa Kadota, Yusuke Yoshioka, Yu Fujita, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Takahiro Ochiya
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite significant advances in lung cancer research and novel therapies, a better understanding of the disease is crucially needed to facilitate early detection and appropriate diagnoses and to improve treatment outcomes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies, are released from all tested cell types and modulate cell-cell communication. EVs transfer a wide variety of molecules, such as proteins, messenger RNAs and microRNAs...
March 4, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Kyle W McCracken, James M Wells
The stomach is a digestive organ that has important roles in human physiology and pathophysiology. The developmental origin of the stomach is the embryonic foregut, which also gives rise a number of other structures. There are several signaling pathways and transcription factors that are known to regulate stomach development at different stages, including foregut patterning, stomach specification, and gastric regionalization. These developmental events have important implications in later homeostasis and disease in the adult stomach...
February 24, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Alethia Villasenor, Didier Y R Stainier
The hepatopancreatic ductal system is the collection of ducts that connect the liver and pancreas to the digestive tract. The formation of this system is necessary for the transport of exocrine secretions, for the correct assembly of the pancreatobiliary ductal system, and for the overall function of the digestive system. Studies on endoderm organ formation have significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern organ induction, organ specification and morphogenesis of the major foregut-derived organs...
February 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Krisztina V Vukman, András Försönits, Ádám Oszvald, Eszter Á Tóth, Edit I Buzás
Mast cells are multifunctional master cells implicated in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Their role has been best characterized in allergy and anaphylaxis; however, emerging evidences support their contribution to a wide variety of human diseases. Mast cells, being capable of both degranulation and subsequent recovery, have recently attracted substantial attention as also being rich sources of secreted extracellular vesicles (including exosomes and microvesicles). Along with secreted de novo synthesized soluble molecules and secreted preformed granules, the membrane-enclosed extracellular vesicles represent a previously unexplored part of the mast cell secretome...
February 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Alana M Chin, David R Hill, Megan Aurora, Jason R Spence
The intestine is a vital organ responsible for nutrient absorption, bile and waste excretion, and a major site of host immunity. In order to keep up with daily demands, the intestine has evolved a mechanism to expand the absorptive surface area by undergoing a morphogenetic process to generate finger-like units called villi. These villi house specialized cell types critical for both absorbing nutrients from food, and for protecting the host from commensal and pathogenic microbes present in the adult gut. In this review, we will discuss mechanisms that coordinate intestinal development, growth, and maturation of the small intestine, starting from the formation of the early gut tube, through villus morphogenesis and into early postnatal life when the intestine must adapt to the acquisition of nutrients through food intake, and to interactions with microbes...
February 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Ana Ferreiro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Duojiao Wu, Leying Zhuo, Xiangdong Wang
Tumor metabolism is characterized with up-regulated glucose uptake and glycolytic rate of tumor cells as the source of ATP and tumors growth, and regulated by a poorly defined combination of cell-intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Metabolic heterogeneity of human tumors is dependent upon the mutational status of specific oncogenes and influenced by tumor microenvironment. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) adapt in a dynamic manner to the metabolic needs of cancer cells, associated with tumorigenesis and resistance to treatments...
April 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
James P B O'Connor
There is interest in identifying and quantifying tumor heterogeneity at the genomic, tissue pathology and clinical imaging scales, as this may help better understand tumor biology and may yield useful biomarkers for guiding therapy-based decision making. This review focuses on the role and value of using x-ray, CT, MRI and PET based imaging methods that identify, measure and map tumor heterogeneity. In particular we highlight the potential value of these techniques and the key challenges required to validate and qualify these biomarkers for clinical use...
April 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Mengjia Qian, Bijun Zhu, Xiangdong Wang, Michael Liebman
Patients are diagnosed as anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive, i.e. exhibiting the ALK rearrangement, and comprise 3-7% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases. Three generations of ALK inhibitors have been developed and used in targeted therapy, although there are still improving spaces of drug resistance at the initiation of each treatment. The current review discusses the pathophysiology of ALK-positive NSCLC and the role of three generations of ALK target inhibitors including crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib and lorlatinib, as well as the mechanisms of the secondary resistance...
April 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Antonio L Serrano, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most devastating neuromuscular genetic diseases caused by the absence of dystrophin. The continuous episodes of muscle degeneration and regeneration in dystrophic muscle are accompanied by chronic inflammation and fibrosis deposition, which exacerbate disease progression. Thus, in addition of investigating strategies to cure the primary defect by gene/cell therapeutic strategies, increasing efforts are being placed on identifying the causes of the substitution of muscle by non-functional fibrotic tissue in DMD, aiming to attenuate its severity...
April 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Krzysztof Jagla, Benoit Kalman, Thomas Boudou, Sylvie Hénon, Sabrina Batonnet-Pichon
The use of the adapted models to decipher patho-physiological mechanisms of human diseases is always a great challenge. This is of particular importance for early-onset myopathies, in which pathological mutations often impact not only on muscle structure and function but also on developmental processes. Mice are currently the main animal model used to study neuromuscular disorders including the early-onset myopathies. However strategies based on simple animal models and on transdisciplinary approaches exploring mechanical muscle cell properties emerge as attractive, non-exclusive alternatives...
April 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Lingyan Wang, Bijun Zhu, Miaomiao Zhang, Xiangdong Wang
Lung cancer development is a complex and dynamic progression with cancer cell mutations itself and its' orchestrate with the tumor microenvironment. Targeted therapies have been stated to heterogeneous lung cancer mutations while have a modest consequence. The tumor immune microenvironment influences lung cancer outcome by balancing the suppressive versus cytotoxic responses. The immune microenvironment heterogeneity may play an important role in lung cancer heterogeneity. In this review, we summarized the immune cells, its related cytokines and partial immune genes diversity in tumor microenvironment and its targeted potential mono and combined therapies...
April 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Mengjia Qian, Diane C Wang, Hao Chen, Yunfeng Cheng
Single cell heterogeneity has already been highlighted in cancer classification, diagnosis, and treatment. Recent advanced technologies have gained more ability to reveal the heterogeneity on single cell level. In this review, we listed various detection targets applied in single cell study, including tumor tissue cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), disseminated tumor cells (DTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), cell-free DNA (cfDNA), and cancer stem cells (CSCs). We further discussed and compared detection methods using these detection targets in different fields to reveal single cell heterogeneity in cancer...
April 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
James J Hsieh, Brandon J Manley, Nabeela Khan, JianJiong Gao, Maria I Carlo, Emily H Cheng
Tumor heterogeneity, encompassing genetic, epigenetic, and microenvironmental variables, is extremely complex and presents challenges to cancer diagnosis and therapy. Genomic efforts on genetic intratumor heterogeneity (G-ITH) confirm branched evolution, support the trunk-branch cancer model, and present a seemingly insurmountable obstacle to conquering cancers. G-ITH is conspicuous in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), where its presence complicates identification and validation of biomarkers and thwarts efforts in advancing precision cancer therapeutics...
April 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Jiayun Hou, Yong Zhang, Zhitu Zhu
Colorectal cancer (CRC) as a heterogeneous disease, is one of the most common and serious cancers with high metastases and mortality. Lung is one of the most common sites of CRC metastases with high heterogeneity between cells, pathways, or molecules. The present review will focus on potential roles of gene heterogeneity in KRAS pathway in the development of CRC metastasis to lung and clinical therapies, which would lead to better understanding of the metastatic control and benefit to the treatment of metastases...
April 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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