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Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723581/the-structure-and-function-of-cell-membranes-studied-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#1
REVIEW
Yan Shi, Mingjun Cai, Lulu Zhou, Hongda Wang
The cell membrane, involved in almost all communications of cells and surrounding matrix, is one of the most complicated components of cells. Lack of suitable methods for the detection of cell membranes in vivo has sparked debates on the biochemical composition and structure of cell membranes over half a century. The development of single molecule techniques, such as AFM, SMFS, and TREC, provides a versatile platform for imaging and manipulating cell membranes in biological relevant environments. Here, we discuss the latest developments in AFM and the progress made in cell membrane research...
July 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716607/seven-pass-cadherins-celsr1-3
#2
REVIEW
Andre M Goffinet, Fadel Tissir
Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptors 1, 2 and 3 (CELSR1-3) form a family of three atypical cadherins with multiple functions in epithelia and in the nervous system. During the past decade, evidence has accumulated for a key role of CELSR1 in epithelial planar cell polarity (PCP), and for CELSR2 and CELSR3 in ciliogenesis and neural development, especially neuron migration and axon guidance in the central, peripheral and enteric nervous systems. Phenotypes in mutant mice indicate that CELSR proteins work in concert with FZD3 and FZD6, but several questions remain...
July 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716606/dna-protein-interactions-explored-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#3
REVIEW
S Kasas, G Dietler
DNA-protein interactions play an important role in all living organisms on Earth. The advent of atomic force microscopy permitted for the first time to follow and to characterize interaction forces between these two molecular species. After a short description of the AFM and its imaging modes we review, in a chronological order some of the studies that we think importantly contributed to the field.
July 14, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711524/strategic-disruption-of-nuclear-pores-structure-integrity-and-barrier-for-nuclear-apoptosis
#4
REVIEW
Victor Shahin
Apoptosis is a programmed cell death playing key roles in physiology and pathophysiology of multi cellular organisms. Its nuclear manifestation requires transmission of the death signals across the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). In strategic sequential steps apoptotic factors disrupt NPCs structure, integrity and barrier ultimately leading to nuclear breakdown. The present review reflects on these steps.
July 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711523/plant-hak-kup-kt-k-transporters-function-and-regulation
#5
REVIEW
Weihong Li, Guohua Xu, Alli Abdel, Ling Yu
The HAK/KUP/KT family of potassium (K(+)) transporters belongs to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) superfamily of carriers for secondary active transport and have been widely associated with K(+) transport across membranes in bacteria, fungi, and plants. The plant genome contains large number of HAK/KUP/KT transporters, and they show the diverse roles in K(+) uptake and translocation, salt tolerance and osmotic potential regulation, as well as in controlling root morphology and shoot phenotyping...
July 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711522/engaging-with-primary-schools-supporting-the-delivery-of-the-new-curriculum-in-evolution-and-inheritance
#6
REVIEW
Paula X Kover, Emily S Hogge
The official school regulator in England (OFSTED) recently reported that the delivery of science lessons has been significantly diminished in many primary schools. There is concern that the lack of good quality science in school can reduce the recruitment of young scientists, and the level of science literacy among the general public. We believe university scientists and undergraduate students can have a significant impact in the delivery of science in primary schools. However, a relatively small proportion of scientists engage with young children to improve curricular primary school science education...
July 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705659/update-on-amino-acid-transporter-functions-and-on-possible-amino-acid-sensing-mechanisms-in-plants
#7
REVIEW
Kasia Dinkeloo, Shelton Boyd, Guillaume Pilot
Amino acids are essential components of plant metabolism, not only as constituents of proteins, but also as precursors of important secondary metabolites and carriers of organic nitrogen between the organs of the plant. Transport across intracellular membranes and translocation of amino acids within the plant is mediated by membrane amino acid transporters. The past few years have seen the identification of a new family of amino acid transporters in Arabidopsis, the characterization of intracellular amino acid transporters, and the discovery of new roles for already known proteins, for instance in hormone transport...
July 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698112/slow-aging-in-mammals-lessons-from-african-mole-rats-and-bats
#8
REVIEW
Philip Dammann
Traditionally, the main mammalian models used in aging research have been mice and rats, i.e. short-lived species that obviously lack effective maintenance mechanisms to keep their soma in a functional state for prolonged periods of time. It is doubtful that life-extending mechanisms identified only in such short-lived species adequately reflect the diversity of longevity pathways that have naturally evolved in mammals, or that they have much relevance for long-lived species such as humans. Therefore, some complementary, long-lived mammalian models have been introduced to aging research in the past 15-20 years, particularly naked mole-rats (and to a lesser extent also other mole-rats) and bats...
July 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694112/atomic-force-microscopy-as-a-tool-for-assessing-the-cellular-elasticity-and-adhesiveness-to-identify-cancer-cells-and-tissues
#9
REVIEW
Joanna Zemła, Joanna Danilkiewicz, Barbara Orzechowska, Joanna Pabijan, Sara Seweryn, Małgorzata Lekka
From the first experiments of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) with biological samples, the range of its potential applications grows extensively. One of them is the use of AFM to characterize biophysical fingerprints of cancer progression in search of non-labelled biomarkers of the disease. The technique offers various functionalities, starting from surface imaging to detection of interaction forces, delivering quantitative parameters that can describe changes characteristic for various diseases, including cancer...
July 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694114/epigenetic-dysregulation-of-protocadherins-in-human-disease
#10
REVIEW
Nady El Hajj, Marcus Dittrich, Thomas Haaf
Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are a group of cell-cell adhesion molecules that are highly expressed in the nervous system and have a major function in dendrite development and neural circuit formation. However, the role protocadherins play in human health and disease remains unclear. Several recent studies have associated epigenetic dysregulation of protocadherins with possible implications for disease pathogenesis. In this review, we briefly recap the various epigenetic mechanisms regulating protocadherin genes, particularly the clustered Pcdhs...
July 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694113/pumping-up-the-volume-vacuole-biogenesis-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#11
REVIEW
Falco Krüger, Karin Schumacher
Plant architecture follows the need to collect CO2, solar energy, water and mineral nutrients via large surface areas. It is by the presence of a central vacuole that fills much of the cell volume that plants manage to grow at low metabolic cost. In addition vacuoles buffer the fluctuating supply of essential nutrients and help to detoxify the cytosol when plants are challenged by harmful molecules. Despite their large size and multiple important functions, our knowledge of vacuole biogenesis and the machinery underlying their amazing dynamics is still fragmentary...
July 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688930/probing-the-unseen-structure-and-function-of-liver-cells-through-atomic-force-microscopy
#12
REVIEW
Filip Braet, Douglas J Taatjes, Eddie Wisse
With the arrival of atomic force microscopy (AFM) about thirty years ago this new imaging tool opened up a new area for the exploration of biological samples, ranging from the tissue and cellular level down to the supramolecular scale. Commercial instruments of this new imaging technique began to appear in the five years following its discovery in 1986 by Binnig, Quate & Gerber. From that point onwards the AFM has attracted many liver biologists, and the number of publications describing structure-function relationships on the diverse set of liver cells has grown steadily ever since...
July 5, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688929/plant-glyco-biotechnology
#13
REVIEW
Jennifer Schoberer, Richard Strasser
Glycosylation is an important protein modification in all eukaryotes. Whereas the early asparagine-linked glycosylation (N-glycosylation) and N-glycan processing steps in the endoplasmic reticulum are conserved between mammals and plants, the maturation of complex N-glycans in the Golgi apparatus differs considerably. Due to a restricted number of Golgi-resident N-glycan processing enzymes and the absence of nucleotide sugars such as CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid, plants produce only a limited repertoire of different N-glycan structures...
July 5, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688928/transport-from-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-to-the-golgi-in-plants-where-are-we-now
#14
REVIEW
Federica Brandizzi
The biogenesis of about one third of the cellular proteome is initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which exports proteins to the Golgi apparatus for sorting to their final destination. Notwithstanding the close proximity of the ER with other secretory membranes (e.g., endosomes, plasma membrane), the ER is also important for the homeostasis of non-secretory organelles such as mitochondria, peroxisomes, and chloroplasts. While how the plant ER interacts with most of the non-secretory membranes is largely unknown, the knowledge on the mechanisms for ER-to-Golgi transport is relatively more advanced...
July 5, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688927/an-unexpected-friend-ros-in-apoptosis-induced-compensatory-proliferation-implications-for-regeneration-and-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Neha Diwanji, Andreas Bergmann
Apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation (AiP) is a form of compensatory proliferation that is triggered by apoptotic cell death to maintain tissue homeostasis. As such, AiP is essential for many tissue repair processes including regeneration. The apoptotic effectors, termed caspases, not only execute apoptosis, but are also directly involved in the generation of the signals required for AiP. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role for regenerative processes. Recently, it was shown in Drosophila that apoptotic caspases can mediate the generation of ROS for promoting AiP...
July 5, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687239/novel-insights-into-cardiomyocytes-provided-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#16
REVIEW
Daniele Borin, Ilaria Pecorari, Brisa Pena, Orfeo Sbaizero
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death globally, therefore interest in studying aetiology, hallmarks, progress and therapies for these disorders is constantly growing. Over the last decades, the introduction and development of atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique allowed the study of biological samples at the micro- and nanoscopic level, hence revealing noteworthy details and paving the way for investigations on physiological and pathological conditions at cellular scale. The present work is aimed to collect and review the literature on cardiomyocytes (CMs) studied by AFM, in order to emphasise the numerous potentialities of this approach and provide a platform for researchers in the field of cardiovascular diseases...
July 4, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684183/proteomic-approaches-to-decipher-cancer-cell-secretome
#17
REVIEW
Jessica Brandi, Marcello Manfredi, Giulia Speziali, Fabio Gosetti, Emilio Marengo, Daniela Cecconi
In this review, we give an overview of the actual proteomic approaches used in the study of cancer cells secretome. In particular, we describe the proteomic strategies to decipher cancer cell secretome initially focusing on the different aspects of sample preparation. We examine the issues related to the presence of low abundant proteins, the analysis of secreted proteins in the conditioned media with or without the removal of fetal bovine serum and strategies developed to reduce intracellular protein contamination...
July 3, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676425/functional-proteomics-of-cellular-mechanosensing-mechanisms
#18
REVIEW
Anita A Wasik, Herbert B Schiller
Mechanosensing enables cells to coordinate their phenotype with the mechanical properties of their tissue microenvironment. In this process, cells probe their surroundings by applying contractile forces, which produces different amounts of mechanical strain within the cells as a function of the stiffness of their extracellular substrates. Tension within cells can then affect the structure and composition of most cellular organelles, including cell adhesions, the cytoskeleton, the plasma membrane and the nucleus...
July 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676424/nuclear-pore-complex-tethers-to-the-cytoskeleton
#19
REVIEW
Martin W Goldberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676423/functional-interplay-between-secreted-ligands-and-receptors-in-melanoma
#20
REVIEW
Cecilia Herraiz, Celia Jiménez-Cervantes, Berta Sánchez-Laorden, José C García-Borrón
Melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, results from the malignant transformation of melanocytes located in the basement membrane separating the epidermal and dermal skin compartments. Cutaneous melanoma is often initiated by solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced mutations. Melanocytes intimately interact with keratinocytes, which provide growth factors and melanocortin peptides acting as paracrine regulators of proliferation and differentiation. Keratinocyte-derived melanocortins activate melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) to protect melanocytes from the carcinogenic effect of UVR...
July 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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