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Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology

Joanna Jędrzejewska-Szmek, Kim T Blackwell
Synaptic plasticity, the activity dependent change in synaptic strength, forms the molecular foundation of learning and memory. Synaptic plasticity includes structural changes, with spines changing their size to accomodate insertion and removal of postynaptic receptors, allowing for functional changes. Of particular relevance for memory storage are the long lasting forms of synaptic plasticity which are protein synthesis dependent. Given the importance of spine structural plasticity and protein synthesis, this review focuses on the signaling pathways that connect synaptic stimulation with regulation of protein synthesis and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton...
January 8, 2019: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Toshiyuki Ohtsuka, Ryoichiro Kageyama
In the developing mammalian neocortex, neural stem cells (NSCs) gradually alter their characteristics as development proceeds. NSCs initially expand the progenitor pool by symmetric proliferative division and then shift to asymmetric neurogenic division to commence neurogenesis. NSCs sequentially give rise to deep layer neurons first and superficial layer neurons later through mid- to late-embryonic stages, followed by shifting to a gliogenic phase at perinatal stages. The precise mechanisms regulating developmental timing of the transition from symmetric to asymmetric division have not been fully elucidated; however, gradual elongation in cell cycle length and concomitant accumulation of determinants that promote neuronal differentiation may function as a biological clock that regulates the onset of asymmetric neurogenic division...
January 8, 2019: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Sven Kappel, Anna Borgström, Paulina Stokłosa, Kathrin Dörr, Christine Peinelt
Precise intracellular calcium signaling is crucial to numerous cellular functions. In non-excitable cells, store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is a key step in the generation of intracellular calcium signals. Tight regulation of SOCE is important, and dysregulation is involved in several pathophysiological cellular malfunctions. The current underlying SOCE, calcium release-activated calcium current (ICRAC ), was first discovered almost three decades ago. Since its discovery, the molecular components of ICRAC , Orai1 and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), have been extensively investigated...
January 7, 2019: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Kim S Friedmann, Monika Bozem, Markus Hoth
Amplitude and kinetics of intracellular Ca2+ signals ([Ca2+ ]int ) determine many immune cell functions. To mimic in vivo changes of [Ca2+ ]int in human immune cells, two approaches may be best suited: 1) Analyze primary human immune cells taken from blood under conditions resembling best physiological or pathophysiological conditions. 2.) Analyze the immune system in vivo or ex vivo in explanted tissue from small vertebrate animals, such as mice. With the help of genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators and intravital microscopy, [Ca2+ ]int have been investigated in murine T lymphocytes (T cells) in vivo during the last five years and in explanted lymph node (LN) during the last 10 years...
January 7, 2019: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Katerina Jerabkova, Izabela Sumara
Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) represent the largest family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that control most if not all cellular processes. In CUL3-based CRLs, the substrate specificity is conferred by the interaction with one of around 183 existing BTB proteins, implying a broad spectrum of possible ubiquitylation signals and possible direct ubiquitylation substrates. Indeed, CUL3-based E3-ligases can catalyze various proteolytic and non-proteolytic ubiquitin signals regulating many physiological and pathophysiological states...
December 23, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Mariana S Vieira, Vânia A M Goulart, Ricardo C Parreira, Onésia Cristina Oliveira-Lima, Talita Glaser, Yahaira Maria Naaldijk, Alejandra Ferrer, Vibha Harindra Savanur, Paola Alicea Reyes, Oleta Sandiford, Pranela Rameshwar, Henning Ulrich, Mauro Cunha Xavier Pinto, Rodrigo R Resende
Neurogenesis is the process by which new neurons are generated in the brain. In this process, neural stem cells (NSCs) are differentiated in neurons, which are integrated into the network. Nowadays, pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells can be artificially differentiated in neurons through several techniques. Specific Transcriptional profiles from NSC during differentiation are frequently used to approach and observe phenotype alteration and functional determination of neurons...
December 19, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Carlos A Niño, Simona Sala, Simona Polo
Cellular plasticity is, by definition, the ability of cells to adapt to a dynamic micro-environment by changing their phenotype. E-cadherin is the key organizer of the epithelial cell barrier, and it is required at the cell surface to preserve epithelial tissue integrity and homeostasis, since it not only organizes the adherens junctions, but also transfers intracellular signals that provide cues to regulate cell survival, morphology and polarity. As such, de-regulation of E-cadherin has deleterious effects on cells and whole tissues...
December 16, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Talita Glaser, Vanessa Fernandes Arnaud Sampaio, Claudiana Lameu, Henning Ulrich
Calcium is the ubiquitous second messenger used by any living cell. The fine-tuning of intracellular free calcium concentration [(Ca2+ )i ] homeostasis and signalling pathways is crucial for the maintenance of the healthy organism. Many alterations in the homeostasis can be compensated by robust mechanisms; however, cells that already present some debility in those mechanisms, or that are over stimulated cannot compensate the stress and die. Many neurological diseases show Ca2+ disbalance as trigger of apoptotic response resulting in massive neuronal loss and the neurodegeneration...
December 12, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Bruno L Marques, Gustavo A Carvalho, Elis M M Freitas, Raphaela Chiareli, Thiago G Barbosa, Armani G P Di Araújo, Yanley L Nogueira, Raul I Ribeiro, Ricardo C Parreira, Mariana S Vieira, Rodrigo R Resende, Renato S Gomez, Onésia C Oliveira-Lima, Mauro C X Pinto
Stroke consists of an abrupt reduction of cerebral blood flow resulting in hypoxia that triggers an excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. After the ischemic process, neural precursor cells present in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus proliferate and migrate towards the lesion, contributing to the brain repair. The neurogenesis is induced by signal transduction pathways, growth factors, attractive factors for neuroblasts, transcription factors, pro and anti-inflammatory mediators and specific neurotransmissions...
December 11, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Cynthia L Andoniadou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Ricardo J Rodrigues, Joana M Marques, Rodrigo A Cunha
ATP and adenosine are released from cells as a function of their metabolic activity, being important cell-to-cell communication signals. Both purines are also released from neurons in an activity-dependent manner, with several established roles to fine tune brain function in adults, as best heralded by the effects of caffeine, an antagonist of adenosine receptors. Purines are also dynamically released from early neurogenesis and different purine receptors are dynamically expressed throughout development. Accordingly, emerging evidence supports multiple roles for purinergic signalling in the control of different processes of brain development, such as embryonic neurogenesis, migration of principal neurons and interneurons, guidance for neuronal connectivity, synaptogenesis and synaptic stability/elimination...
December 4, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Luz E Farias Altamirano, Carlos L Freites, Elena Vásquez, Estela M Muñoz
The pineal gland (PG) derives from the neural tube, like the rest of the central nervous system (CNS). The PG is specialized in synthesizing and secreting melatonin in a circadian fashion. The nocturnal elevation of melatonin is a highly conserved feature among species which proves its importance in nature. Here, we review a limited set of intrinsic and extrinsic regulatory elements that have been shown or proposed to influence the PG's melatonin production, as well as pineal ontogeny and homeostasis. Intrinsic regulators include the transcription factors CREB, Pax6 and NeuroD1...
November 30, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Ryuji Inoue, Lin-Hai Kurahara, Keizo Hiraishi
It is now widely accepted that advanced fibrosis underlies many chronic inflammatory disorders and is the main cause of morbidity and mortality of the modern world. The pathogenic mechanism of advanced fibrosis involves diverse and intricate interplays between numerous extracellular and intracellular signaling molecules, among which the non-trivial roles of a stress-responsive Ca2+ /Na+ -permeable cation channel superfamily, the transient receptor potential (TRP) protein, are receiving growing attention. Available evidence suggests that several TRP channels such as TRPC3, TRPC6, TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPA1, TRPM6 and TRPM7 may play central roles in the progression and/or prevention of fibroproliferative disorders in vital visceral organs such as lung, heart, liver, kidney, and bowel as well as brain, blood vessels and skin, and may contribute to both acute and chronic inflammatory processes involved therein...
November 17, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Choon Leng So, Jodi M Saunus, Sarah J Roberts-Thomson, Gregory R Monteith
The past two decades have seen the identification of important roles for calcium signalling in many of the hallmarks of cancer. One of the cancer types that has been a particular focus of such studies is breast cancer. The breast is intrinsically linked to the calcium ion due to the importance of milk calcium in neonatal growth and development. Indeed, some of the calcium channels and pumps involved in transporting calcium ions into milk also have altered expression in some breast cancers. However, altered expression is not confined to channels and pumps important in lactation, other calcium channels and pumps may also be modulated and may even be specific to breast cancer molecular subtypes...
November 16, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Ian M Smyth, John F Bertram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Imelda M McGonnell, Sophia E Akbareian
Cranial foramina are holes in the skull through which nerves and blood vessels pass to reach both deep and superficial tissues. They are often overlooked in the literature; however they are complex structures that form within the developing cranial bones during embryogenesis and then remain open throughout life, despite the bone surrounding them undergoing constant remodelling. They are invaluable in assigning phylogeny in the fossil record and their size has been used, by some, to imply function of the nerve and/or blood vessel that they contained...
October 30, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Michael J Harris, Denis Wirtz, Pei-Hsun Wu
Cells are dynamic structures that must respond to complex physical and chemical signals from their surrounding environment. The cytoskeleton is a key mediator of a cell's response to the signals of both the extracellular matrix and other cells present in the local microenvironment and allows it to tune its own mechanical properties in response to these cues. A growing body of evidence suggests that altered cellular viscoelasticity is a strong indicator of disease state; including cancer, laminopathy (genetic disorders of the nuclear lamina), infection, and aging...
October 30, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Kevin Gerard Byrnes, Kieran McDermott, John Calvin Coffey
Mesothelial, neurovascular, lymphatic, adipose and mesenchymal tissues make up the mesentery. These tissues are pathobiologically important for numerous reasons. Collectively, they form a continuous, discrete and substantive organ. Additionally, they maintain abdominal digestive organs in position and in continuity with other systems. Furthermore, as they occupy a central position, they mediate transmission of signals between the abdominal digestive system and the remainder of the body. Despite this physiologic centrality, mesenteric tissue development has received little investigatory focus...
October 25, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Kevin G Byrnes, Kieran W McDermott, J Calvin Coffey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Nerea Osinalde, Anna Duarri, Juanma Ramirez, Rosa Barrio, Guiomar Perez de Nanclares, Ugo Mayor
Rare diseases are classified as such when their prevalence is 1:2,000 or lower, but even if each of them is so infrequent, altogether more than 300 million people in the world suffer one of the ~7,000 diseases considered as rare. Over 1,200 of these disorders are known to affect the brain or other parts of our nervous system, and their symptoms can affect cognition, motor function and/or social interaction of the patients; we refer collectively to them as rare neurological disorders or RNDs. We have focused this review on RNDs known to have compromised protein homeostasis pathways...
October 21, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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