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Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214561/on-the-development-of-the-hepatopancreatic-ductal-system
#1
REVIEW
Alethia Villasenor, Didier Y R Stainier
The hepatopancreatic ductal system is the collection of ducts that connect the liver and pancreas to the digestive tract. The formation of this system is necessary for the transport of exocrine secretions, for the correct assembly of the pancreatobiliary ductal system, and for the overall function of the digestive system. Studies on endoderm organ formation have significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern organ induction, organ specification and morphogenesis of the major foregut-derived organs...
February 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189858/mast-cell-secretome-soluble-and-vesicular-components
#2
REVIEW
Krisztina V Vukman, András Försönits, Ádám Oszvald, Eszter Á Tóth, Edit I Buzás
Mast cells are multifunctional master cells implicated in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Their role has been best characterized in allergy and anaphylaxis; however, emerging evidences support their contribution to a wide variety of human diseases. Mast cells, being capable of both degranulation and subsequent recovery, have recently attracted substantial attention as also being rich sources of secreted extracellular vesicles (including exosomes and microvesicles). Along with secreted de novo synthesized soluble molecules and secreted preformed granules, the membrane-enclosed extracellular vesicles represent a previously unexplored part of the mast cell secretome...
February 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161556/morphogenesis-and-maturation-of-the-embryonic-and-postnatal-intestine
#3
REVIEW
Alana M Chin, David R Hill, Megan Aurora, Jason R Spence
The intestine is a vital organ responsible for nutrient absorption, bile and waste excretion, and a major site of host immunity. In order to keep up with daily demands, the intestine has evolved a mechanism to expand the absorptive surface area by undergoing a morphogenetic process to generate finger-like units called villi. These villi house specialized cell types critical for both absorbing nutrients from food, and for protecting the host from commensal and pathogenic microbes present in the adult gut. In this review, we will discuss mechanisms that coordinate intestinal development, growth, and maturation of the small intestine, starting from the formation of the early gut tube, through villus morphogenesis and into early postnatal life when the intestine must adapt to the acquisition of nutrients through food intake, and to interactions with microbes...
February 1, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104520/extracellular-vesicle-docking-at-the-cellular-port-extracellular-vesicle-binding-and-uptake
#4
REVIEW
Kinsley C French, Marc A Antonyak, Richard A Cerione
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), lipid bilayer-enclosed structures that contain a variety of biological molecules shed by cells, are increasingly becoming appreciated as a major form of cell-to-cell communication. Indeed, EVs have been shown to play important roles in several physiological processes, as well as diseases such as cancer. EVs dock on to the surfaces of recipient cells where they transmit signals from the cell surface and/or transfer their contents into cells to elicit functional responses. EV docking and uptake by cells represent critical, but poorly understood processes...
January 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089869/the-molecular-and-morphogenetic-basis-of-pancreas-organogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Hjalte List Larsen, Anne Grapin-Botton
The pancreas is an essential endoderm-derived organ that ensures nutrient metabolism via its endocrine and exocrine functions. Here we review the essential processes governing the embryonic and early postnatal development of the pancreas discussing both the mechanisms and molecules controlling progenitor specification, expansion and differentiation. We elaborate on how these processes are orchestrated in space and coordinated with morphogenesis. We draw mainly from experiments conducted in the mouse model but also from investigations in other model organisms, complementing a recent comprehensive review of human pancreas development (Jennings et al...
January 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087321/enteric-nervous-system-development-a-crest-cell-s-journey-from-neural-tube-to-colon
#6
REVIEW
Nandor Nagy, Allan M Goldstein
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is comprised of a network of neurons and glial cells that are responsible for coordinating many aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) function. These cells arise from the neural crest, migrate to the gut, and then continue their journey to colonize the entire length of the GI tract. Our understanding of the molecular and cellular events that regulate these processes has advanced significantly over the past several decades, in large part facilitated by the use of rodents, avians, and zebrafish as model systems to dissect the signals and pathways involved...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087320/poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-activity-and-inhibition-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Caleb Dulaney, Samuel Marcrom, Jennifer Stanley, Eddy S Yang
Genomic instability resultant from defective DNA repair mechanisms is a fundamental hallmark of cancer. The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins 1, 2 and 3 catalyze the polymerization of poly(ADP-ribose) and covalent attachment to proteins in a phylogenetically ancient form of protein modification. PARPs play a role in base excision repair, homologous recombination, and non-homologous end joining. The discovery that loss of PARP activity had cytotoxic effects in cells deficient in homologous recombination has sparked a decade of translational research efforts that culminated in the FDA approval of an oral PARP inhibitor for clinical use in patients with ovarian cancer and defective homologous recombination...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077297/exosomes-key-mediators-of-metastasis-and-pre-metastatic-niche-formation
#8
REVIEW
Richard J Lobb, Luize G Lima, Andreas Möller
While tumour cells are classically known to communicate via direct cell-to-cell contact and the secretion of soluble protein-based factors such as cytokines and growth factors, alternative novel mechanisms that promote tumour progression have recently emerged. Now, new critical components of the secretome thought to be involved in tumour progression are exosomes, small vesicles of endocytic origin that carry a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, lipids, RNA, as well as DNA molecules. Cancer cell-derived exosomes have been shown to participate in crucial steps of metastatic spread of a primary tumour, ranging from oncogenic reprogramming of malignant cells to formation of pre-metastatic niches...
January 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077296/extracellular-vesicle-communication-pathways-as-regulatory-targets-of-oncogenic-transformation
#9
REVIEW
Dongsic Choi, Tae Hoon Lee, Cristiana Spinelli, Shilpa Chennakrishnaiah, Esterina D'Asti, Janusz Rak
Pathogenesis of human cancers bridges intracellular oncogenic driver events and their impact on intercellular communication. Among multiple mediators of this 'pathological connectivity' the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their subsets (exosomes, ectosomes, oncosomes) is of particular interest for several reasons. The release of EVs from cancer cells represents a unique mechanism of regulated expulsion of bioactive molecules, a process that also mediates cell-to-cell transfer of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids...
January 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065852/gut-development-in-c-elegans
#10
REVIEW
Morris F Maduro
The midgut (intestine) of the nematode, C. elegans, is a tube consisting of 20 cells that arises from a single embryonic precursor. Owing to its comparatively simple anatomy and the advantages inherent to the C. elegans system, the gut has been used as a model for organogenesis for more than 25 years. In this review, the salient features of C. elegans gut development are described from the E progenitor through to the 20-cell intestine. The core gene regulatory network that drives specification of the gut, and other genes with roles in organogenesis, lumen morphogenesis and the cell cycle, are also described...
January 5, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034796/mechanics-and-regulation-of-cytokinesis-in-budding-yeast
#11
REVIEW
Yogini P Bhavsar-Jog, Erfei Bi
Cytokinesis is essential for the survival of all organisms. It requires concerted functions of cell signaling, force production, exocytosis, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Due to the conservation in core components and mechanisms between fungal and animal cells, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an attractive model for studying this fundamental process. In this review, we discuss the mechanics and regulation of distinct events of cytokinesis in budding yeast, including the assembly, constriction, and disassembly of the actomyosin ring, septum formation, abscission, and their spatiotemporal coordination...
December 26, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013023/metabolic-roles-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerases
#12
REVIEW
András Vida, Judit Márton, Edit Mikó, Péter Bai
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is an evolutionarily conserved reaction that had been associated with numerous cellular processes such as DNA repair, protein turnover, inflammatory regulation, aging or metabolic regulation. The metabolic regulatory tasks of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are complex, it is based on the regulation of metabolic transcription factors (e.g. SIRT1, nuclear receptors, SREBPs) and certain cellular energy sensors. PARP over-activation can cause damage to mitochondrial terminal oxidation, while the inhibition of PARP-1 or PARP-2 can induce mitochondrial oxidation by enhancing the mitotropic tone of gene transcription and signal transduction...
December 21, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007661/development-and-stem-cells-of-the-esophagus
#13
REVIEW
Yongchun Zhang, Ming Jiang, Eugene Kim, Sijie Lin, Kuancan Liu, Xiaopeng Lan, Jianwen Que
The esophagus is derived from the anterior portion of the developmental intermediate foregut, a structure that also gives rise to other organs including the trachea, lung, and stomach. Genetic studies have shown that multiple signaling pathways (e.g. Bmp) and transcription factors (e.g. SOX2) are required for the separation of the esophagus from the neighboring respiratory system. Notably, some of these signaling pathways and transcription factors continue to play essential roles in the subsequent morphogenesis of the esophageal epithelium which undergoes a simple columnar-to-stratified squamous conversion...
December 19, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979774/gene-regulatory-networks-in-differentiation-and-direct-reprogramming-of-hepatic-cells
#14
REVIEW
Claude Gérard, Janne Tys, Frédéric P Lemaigre
Liver development proceeds by sequential steps during which gene regulatory networks (GRNs) determine differentiation and maturation of hepatic cells. Characterizing the architecture and dynamics of these networks is essential for understanding how cell fate decisions are made during development, and for recapitulating these processes during in vitro production of liver cells for toxicology studies, disease modelling and regenerative therapy. Here we review the GRNs that control key steps of liver development and lead to differentiation of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes in mammals...
December 12, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956165/cancer-derived-exosomic-micrornas-shape-the-immune-system-within-the-tumor-microenvironment-state-of-the-art
#15
REVIEW
Francesca Fanini, Muller Fabbri
In recent years there has been an increasing interest of the scientific community on exosome research, with particular emphasis on the mechanisms by which tumor-derived exosomes can promote tumor growth. Particularly, exosome-mediated immune-escape is under deep investigation and still represents a quite controversial issue. Tumor-derived exosomes are carriers of information able to reprogram functions of immune target cells, influencing their development, maturation, and antitumor activities. They deliver proteins similar to those of the parent cancer cells, but also genetic messages like genomic DNA, mRNA, and microRNAs (miRNAs) that ultimately share the so called "tumor microenvironment" in a pro-tumoral fashion...
December 9, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916565/the-association-of-exosomes-with-lymph-nodes
#16
REVIEW
Joshua L Hood
Cells produce extracellular nanovesicles known as exosomes that transport information between tissue microenvironments. Exosomes can engage and regulate the function of various immune cell types facilitating both normal and pathological processes. It follows that exosomes should also associate with lymph nodes containing immune cells. Herein, data derived from investigations that incorporate experiments pertaining to the trafficking of exosomes to lymph nodes is reviewed. Within lymph nodes, direct evidence demonstrates that exosomes associate with dendritic cells, subcapsular sinus macrophages, B lymphocytes and stromal cells...
December 2, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916566/extracellular-vesicle-mimetics-novel-alternatives-to-extracellular-vesicle-based-theranostics-drug-delivery-and-vaccines
#17
REVIEW
Oh Youn Kim, Jaewook Lee, Yong Song Gho
Extracellular vesicles are nano-sized spherical bilayered proteolipids encasing various components. Cells of all domains of life actively release these vesicles to the surroundings including various biological fluids. These extracellular vesicles are known to play pivotal roles in numerous pathophysiological functions. Extracellular vesicles have distinct characteristics, like high biocompatibility, safety, and nano-sized diameters that allow efficient drug loading capacity and long blood circulation half-life...
December 1, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215524/editorial
#18
EDITORIAL
Margarethe Geiger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215523/editorial-for-the-special-issue-on-cartilage-biology-and-pathology
#19
EDITORIAL
Véronique Lefebvre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027946/how-serpins-transport-hormones-and-regulate-their-release
#20
REVIEW
Robin W Carrell, Randy J Read
The adaptation of the serpin framework and its mechanism to perform diverse functions is epitomised in the hormone carriers of the blood. Thyroxine and the corticosteroids are transported bound in a 1:1 ratio on almost identical sites in the two homologous binding-globulins, TBG and CBG. Recent structural findings show an equilibrated, rather than on-and-off, release of the hormones from the carriers, reflecting small reversible movements of the hinge region of the reactive loop that modify the conformational flexibility of the underlying hormone-binding site...
February 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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