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Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089869/the-molecular-and-morphogenetic-basis-of-pancreas-organogenesis
#1
REVIEW
Hjalte List Larsen, Anne Grapin-Botton
The pancreas is an essential endoderm-derived organ that ensures nutrient metabolism via its endocrine and exocrine functions. Here we review the essential processes governing the embryonic and early postnatal development of the pancreas discussing both the mechanisms and molecules controlling progenitor specification, expansion and differentiation. We elaborate on how these processes are orchestrated in space and coordinated with morphogenesis. We draw mainly from experiments conducted in the mouse model but also from investigations in other model organisms, complementing a recent comprehensive review of human pancreas development (Jennings et al...
January 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087321/enteric-nervous-system-development-a-crest-cell-s-journey-from-neural-tube-to-colon
#2
REVIEW
Nandor Nagy, Allan M Goldstein
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is comprised of a network of neurons and glial cells that are responsible for coordinating many aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) function. These cells arise from the neural crest, migrate to the gut, and then continue their journey to colonize the entire length of the GI tract. Our understanding of the molecular and cellular events that regulate these processes has advanced significantly over the past several decades, in large part facilitated by the use of rodents, avians, and zebrafish as model systems to dissect the signals and pathways involved...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087320/poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-activity-and-inhibition-in-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Caleb Dulaney, Samuel Marcrom, Jennifer Stanley, Eddy S Yang
Genomic instability resultant from defective DNA repair mechanisms is a fundamental hallmark of cancer. The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins 1, 2 and 3 catalyze the polymerization of poly(ADP-ribose) and covalent attachment to proteins in a phylogenetically ancient form of protein modification. PARPs play a role in base excision repair, homologous recombination, and non-homologous end joining. The discovery that loss of PARP activity had cytotoxic effects in cells deficient in homologous recombination has sparked a decade of translational research efforts that culminated in the FDA approval of an oral PARP inhibitor for clinical use in patients with ovarian cancer and defective homologous recombination...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077297/exosomes-key-mediators-of-metastasis-and-pre-metastatic-niche-formation
#4
REVIEW
Richard J Lobb, Luize G Lima, Andreas Möller
While tumour cells are classically known to communicate via direct cell-to-cell contact and the secretion of soluble protein-based factors such as cytokines and growth factors, alternative novel mechanisms that promote tumour progression have recently emerged. Now, new critical components of the secretome thought to be involved in tumour progression are exosomes, small vesicles of endocytic origin that carry a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, lipids, RNA, as well as DNA molecules. Cancer cell-derived exosomes have been shown to participate in crucial steps of metastatic spread of a primary tumour, ranging from oncogenic reprogramming of malignant cells to formation of pre-metastatic niches...
January 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077296/extracellular-vesicle-communication-pathways-as-regulatory-targets-of-oncogenic-transformation
#5
REVIEW
Dongsic Choi, Tae Hoon Lee, Cristiana Spinelli, Shilpa Chennakrishnaiah, Esterina D'Asti, Janusz Rak
Pathogenesis of human cancers bridges intracellular oncogenic driver events and their impact on intercellular communication. Among multiple mediators of this 'pathological connectivity' the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their subsets (exosomes, ectosomes, oncosomes) is of particular interest for several reasons. The release of EVs from cancer cells represents a unique mechanism of regulated expulsion of bioactive molecules, a process that also mediates cell-to-cell transfer of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids...
January 8, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065852/gut-development-in-c-elegans
#6
REVIEW
Morris F Maduro
The midgut (intestine) of the nematode, C. elegans, is a tube consisting of 20 cells that arises from a single embryonic precursor. Owing to its comparatively simple anatomy and the advantages inherent to the C. elegans system, the gut has been used as a model for organogenesis for more than 25 years. In this review, the salient features of C. elegans gut development are described from the E progenitor through to the 20-cell intestine. The core gene regulatory network that drives specification of the gut, and other genes with roles in organogenesis, lumen morphogenesis and the cell cycle, are also described...
January 5, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034796/mechanics-and-regulation-of-cytokinesis-in-budding-yeast
#7
REVIEW
Yogini P Bhavsar-Jog, Erfei Bi
Cytokinesis is essential for the survival of all organisms. It requires concerted functions of cell signaling, force production, exocytosis, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Due to the conservation in core components and mechanisms between fungal and animal cells, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as an attractive model for studying this fundamental process. In this review, we discuss the mechanics and regulation of distinct events of cytokinesis in budding yeast, including the assembly, constriction, and disassembly of the actomyosin ring, septum formation, abscission, and their spatiotemporal coordination...
December 26, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027946/how-serpins-transport-hormones-and-regulate-their-release
#8
REVIEW
Robin W Carrell, Randy J Read
The adaptation of the serpin framework and its mechanism to perform diverse functions is epitomised in the hormone carriers of the blood. Thyroxine and the corticosteroids are transported bound in a 1:1 ratio on almost identical sites in the two homologous binding-globulins, TBG and CBG. Recent structural findings show an equilibrated, rather than on-and-off, release of the hormones from the carriers, reflecting small reversible movements of the hinge region of the reactive loop that modify the conformational flexibility of the underlying hormone-binding site...
December 24, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013023/metabolic-roles-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerases
#9
REVIEW
András Vida, Judit Márton, Edit Mikó, Péter Bai
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is an evolutionarily conserved reaction that had been associated with numerous cellular processes such as DNA repair, protein turnover, inflammatory regulation, aging or metabolic regulation. The metabolic regulatory tasks of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are complex, it is based on the regulation of metabolic transcription factors (e.g. SIRT1, nuclear receptors, SREBPs) and certain cellular energy sensors. PARP over-activation can cause damage to mitochondrial terminal oxidation, while the inhibition of PARP-1 or PARP-2 can induce mitochondrial oxidation by enhancing the mitotropic tone of gene transcription and signal transduction...
December 21, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007661/development-and-stem-cells-of-the-esophagus
#10
REVIEW
Yongchun Zhang, Ming Jiang, Eugene Kim, Sijie Lin, Kuancan Liu, Xiaopeng Lan, Jianwen Que
The esophagus is derived from the anterior portion of the developmental intermediate foregut, a structure that also gives rise to other organs including the trachea, lung, and stomach. Genetic studies have shown that multiple signaling pathways (e.g. Bmp) and transcription factors (e.g. SOX2) are required for the separation of the esophagus from the neighboring respiratory system. Notably, some of these signaling pathways and transcription factors continue to play essential roles in the subsequent morphogenesis of the esophageal epithelium which undergoes a simple columnar-to-stratified squamous conversion...
December 19, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979774/gene-regulatory-networks-in-differentiation-and-direct-reprogramming-of-hepatic-cells
#11
REVIEW
Claude Gérard, Janne Tys, Frédéric P Lemaigre
Liver development proceeds by sequential steps during which gene regulatory networks (GRNs) determine differentiation and maturation of hepatic cells. Characterizing the architecture and dynamics of these networks is essential for understanding how cell fate decisions are made during development, and for recapitulating these processes during in vitro production of liver cells for toxicology studies, disease modelling and regenerative therapy. Here we review the GRNs that control key steps of liver development and lead to differentiation of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes in mammals...
December 12, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956165/cancer-derived-exosomic-micrornas-shape-the-immune-system-within-the-tumor-microenvironment-state-of-the-art
#12
REVIEW
Francesca Fanini, Muller Fabbri
In recent years there has been an increasing interest of the scientific community on exosome research, with particular emphasis on the mechanisms by which tumor-derived exosomes can promote tumor growth. Particularly, exosome-mediated immune-escape is under deep investigation and still represents a quite controversial issue. Tumor-derived exosomes are carriers of information able to reprogram functions of immune target cells, influencing their development, maturation, and antitumor activities. They deliver proteins similar to those of the parent cancer cells, but also genetic messages like genomic DNA, mRNA, and microRNAs (miRNAs) that ultimately share the so called "tumor microenvironment" in a pro-tumoral fashion...
December 9, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916565/the-association-of-exosomes-with-lymph-nodes
#13
REVIEW
Joshua L Hood
Cells produce extracellular nanovesicles known as exosomes that transport information between tissue microenvironments. Exosomes can engage and regulate the function of various immune cell types facilitating both normal and pathological processes. It follows that exosomes should also associate with lymph nodes containing immune cells. Herein, data derived from investigations that incorporate experiments pertaining to the trafficking of exosomes to lymph nodes is reviewed. Within lymph nodes, direct evidence demonstrates that exosomes associate with dendritic cells, subcapsular sinus macrophages, B lymphocytes and stromal cells...
December 2, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916566/extracellular-vesicle-mimetics-novel-alternatives-to-extracellular-vesicle-based-theranostics-drug-delivery-and-vaccines
#14
REVIEW
Oh Youn Kim, Jaewook Lee, Yong Song Gho
Extracellular vesicles are nano-sized spherical bilayered proteolipids encasing various components. Cells of all domains of life actively release these vesicles to the surroundings including various biological fluids. These extracellular vesicles are known to play pivotal roles in numerous pathophysiological functions. Extracellular vesicles have distinct characteristics, like high biocompatibility, safety, and nano-sized diameters that allow efficient drug loading capacity and long blood circulation half-life...
December 1, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908606/parp1-orchestrates-epigenetic-events-setting-up-chromatin-domains
#15
REVIEW
Fabio Ciccarone, Michele Zampieri, Paola Caiafa
Epigenetic events include reversible modifications of DNA and histone tails driving chromatin organization and thus transcription. The epigenetic regulation is a highly integrated process underlying the plasticity of the genomic information both in the context of complex physiological and pathological processes. The global regulatory aspects of epigenetic events are largely unknown. PARylation and PARP1 are recently emerging as multi-level regulatory effectors that modulate the topology of chromatin by orchestrating very different processes...
November 28, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871993/msc-exosome-as-a-cell-free-msc-therapy-for-cartilage-regeneration-implications-for-osteoarthritis-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Wei Seong Toh, Ruenn Chai Lai, James Hoi Po Hui, Sai Kiang Lim
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies have demonstrated efficacy in cartilage repair in animal and clinical studies. The efficacy of MSC-based therapies which was previously predicated on the chondrogenic potential of MSC is increasingly attributed to the paracrine secretion, particularly exosomes. Exosomes are thought to function primarily as intercellular communication vehicles to transfer bioactive lipids, nucleic acids (mRNAs and microRNAs) and proteins between cells to elicit biological responses in recipient cells...
November 18, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867042/poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-hyperactivation-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-the-death-knell-tolls-for-neurons
#17
REVIEW
Parimala Narne, Vimal Pandey, Praveen Kumar Simhadri, Prakash Babu Phanithi
Neurodegeneration is a salient feature of chronic refractory brain disorders like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, amyotropic lateral sclerosis and acute conditions like cerebral ischemia/reperfusion etc. The pathological protein aggregates, mitochondrial mutations or ischemic insults typifying these disease conditions collude with and intensify existing oxidative stress and attendant mitochondrial dysfunction. Interlocking these mechanisms is poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) hyperactivation that invokes a distinct form of neuronal cell death viz...
November 17, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864084/development-and-regeneration-of-vestibular-hair-cells-in-mammals
#18
REVIEW
Joseph C Burns, Jennifer S Stone
Vestibular sensation is essential for gaze stabilization, balance, and perception of gravity. The vestibular receptors in mammals, Type I and Type II hair cells, are located in five small organs in the inner ear. Damage to hair cells and their innervating neurons can cause crippling symptoms such as vertigo, visual field oscillation, and imbalance. In adult rodents, some Type II hair cells are regenerated and become re-innervated after damage, presenting opportunities for restoring vestibular function after hair cell damage...
November 15, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838364/biology-of-hsp47-serpin-h1-a-collagen-specific-molecular-chaperone
#19
REVIEW
Shinya Ito, Kazuhiro Nagata
Hsp47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone that localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is indispensable for molecular maturation of collagen. Hsp47, which is encoded by the SERPINH1 gene, belongs to the serpin family and has the serpin fold; however, it has no serine protease inhibitory activity. Hsp47 transiently binds to procollagen in the ER, dissociates in the cis-Golgi or ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) in a pH-dependent manner, and is then transported back to the ER via its RDEL retention sequence...
November 9, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836639/insights-into-inner-ear-specific-gene-regulation-epigenetics-and-non-coding-rnas-in-inner-ear-development-and-regeneration
#20
REVIEW
Angelika Doetzlhofer, Karen B Avraham
The vertebrate inner ear houses highly specialized sensory organs, tuned to detect and encode sound, head motion and gravity. Gene expression programs under the control of transcription factors orchestrate the formation and specialization of the non-sensory inner ear labyrinth and its sensory constituents. More recently, epigenetic factors and non-coding RNAs emerged as an additional layer of gene regulation, both in inner ear development and disease. In this review, we provide an overview on how epigenetic modifications and non-coding RNAs, in particular microRNAs (miRNAs), influence gene expression and summarize recent discoveries that highlight their critical role in the proper formation of the inner ear labyrinth and its sensory organs...
November 9, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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