Read by QxMD icon Read

Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology

Jennifer Thomson, Mukti Singh, Alexander Eckersley, Stuart A Cain, Michael J Sherratt, Clair Baldock
Fibrillin microfibrils are extensible polymers that endow connective tissues with long-range elasticity and have widespread distributions in both elastic and non-elastic tissues. They act as a template for elastin deposition during elastic fibre formation and are essential for maintaining the integrity of tissues such as blood vessels, lung, skin and ocular ligaments. A reduction in fibrillin is seen in tissues in vascular ageing, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, skin ageing and UV induced skin damage, and age-related vision deterioration...
July 14, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Gayani Batugedara, Karine G Le Roch
The chromosomes within the eukaryotic cell nucleus are highly dynamic and adopt complex hierarchical structures. Understanding how this three-dimensional (3D) nuclear architecture affects gene regulation, cell cycle progression and disease pathogenesis are important biological questions in development and disease. Recently, many genome-wide technologies including chromosome conformation capture (3C) and 3C-based methodologies (4C, 5C, and Hi-C) have been developed to investigate 3D chromatin structure. In this review, we introduce 3D genome methodologies, with a focus on their application for understanding the nuclear architecture of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum...
July 12, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Lianne Beunk, Kari Brown, Iris Nagtegaal, Peter Friedl, Katarina Wolf
Tumor invasion along structural interphases of surrounding tumor-free tissue represents a key process during tumor progression. Much attention has been devoted to mechanisms of tumor cell migration within extracellular matrix (ECM)-rich connective tissue, however a comprehensive understanding of tumor invasion into tissue of higher structural complexity, such as muscle tissue, is lacking. Muscle invasion in cancer patients is often associated with destructive growth and worsened prognosis. Here, we review biochemical, geometrical and mechanical cues of smooth and skeletal muscle tissues and their relevance for guided invasion of cancer cells...
July 12, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Abhijit Chakraborty, Ferhat Ay
Since the advent of the chromosome conformation capture technology, our understanding of the human genome 3D organization has grown rapidly and we now know that human interphase chromosomes are folded into multiple layers of hierarchical structures and each layer can play a critical role in transcriptional regulation. Alterations in any one of these finely-tuned layers can lead to unwanted cascade of molecular events and ultimately drive the manifestation of diseases and phenotypes. Here we discuss, starting from chromosome level organization going down to single nucleotide changes, recent studies linking diseases or phenotypes to changes in the 3D genome architecture...
July 11, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Furong Yan, Xiangdong Wang, Yiming Zeng
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) act as important regulators in cardiovascular diseases, neural degenerative disease, or cancers, by localizing and spreading across chromatins. LcnRNA can regulate the 3D architecture of the enhancer cluster at the target gene locus, relevant to analogous lncRNA-protein coding gene pairs. X inactive specific transcript (Xist) plays a critical role in the process and biological function of lcnRNAs. The lncRNA Jpx, Xist activator, is a nonprotein-coding RNA transcribed from a gene within the X-inactivation center and acts as a numerator element to control X-chromosome number and activate Xist transcription by interacting with CCCTC-binding factor...
July 11, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Iain A Sawyer, Jiri Bartek, Miroslav Dundr
Proteins and RNAs inside the cell nucleus are organized into distinct phases, also known as liquid-liquid phase separated (LLPS) droplet organelles or nuclear bodies. These regions exist within the spaces between chromatin-rich regions, but their function is tightly linked to gene activity. They include major microscopically-observable structures such as the nucleolus, paraspeckle and Cajal body. The biochemical and assembly factors enriched inside these microenvironments regulate chromatin structure, transcription, and RNA processing, amongst others...
July 11, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
William Wang, Linlin Zhang, Xiangdong Wang, Yiming Zeng
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) system is a prokaryotic immune system that used to resist foreign genetic factors. It rapidly becomes the hot technology in life sciences and is applies for genome editing to solve the problem of genome-derived diseases. Using CRISPR/Cas technique, the biological DNA sequence can be repaired, cut, replaced, or added. It can effectively change the human stem cells and is expected to achieve results in the treatment...
July 9, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Jiayun Hou, Xiangdong Wang
Polycomb group proteins (PcG) play important roles in the maintenance of DNA sequencing and multi-dimensional organization of genome. The main PcG complexes are consisted of Polycomb repressive complex1 and 2, of which the diversity is dependent upon target gene sequences and functions. The present review initially explores the mechanism-based relationship and functional roles of PcG proteins in the interplay between epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and chromatin dynamics in lung cancer. PcG proteins regulate the target genes by modifying histone and chromosome conformation and influencing chromatin looping and long-range interactions between topologically associating domains (TADs)...
July 9, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Anton Krumm, Zhijun Duan
Recent burst of new technologies that allow for quantitatively delineating chromatin structure has greatly expanded our understanding of how the genome is organized in the three-dimensional (3D) space of the nucleus. It is now clear that the hierarchical organization of the eukaryotic genome critically impacts nuclear activities such as transcription, replication, as well as cellular and developmental events such as cell cycle, cell fate decision and embryonic development. In this review, we discuss new insights into how the structural features of the 3D genome hierarchy are established and maintained, how this hierarchy undergoes dynamic rearrangement during normal development and how its perturbation will lead to human disease, highlighting the accumulating evidence that links the diverse 3D genome architecture components to a multitude of human diseases and the emerging mechanisms by which 3D genome derangement causes disease phenotypes...
July 7, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Mengjia Qian, Yunfeng Cheng, Xiangdong Wang
Multiple dimensions of genome organization play critical roles in the regulation of non-coding regions in gene expression in cell/organ development and pathogenesis. Precise measurements of multi-dimensional genome structure ensure data quality and fully depend upon the study design. We here overview the number of methodologies used in the detection and analysis of genome structure and compare advantages and disadvantages of 3C-based, PCR amplification-based, and sequencing-based measurements. We discuss about the optimization of various techniques according to targeted genomic sites, the required resolution, and possible technique biases...
July 5, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Linlin Zhang, Dongli Song, Bijun Zhu, Xiangdong Wang
The complexity of higher eukaryote genomes is far from being explained by linear information. There is a need to understand roles of genome regulation at the organism level through defining a comprehensive profile of chromosomal organization. Chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based studies reveal that higher-order of chromatin include not only long-range chromatin loops, but also compartments and topologically associating domains as the basis of genome structure and functions. However, the molecular machinery how the genome is spatially organized is still inadequate...
July 4, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Alexandra M Socovich, Alexandra Naba
Tumor progression and dissemination critically depend on support from the tumor microenvironment, the ensemble of cellular and acellular components surrounding and interacting with tumor cells. The extracellular matrix (ECM), the complex scaffolding of hundreds of proteins surrounding and organizing cells in tissues, is a major component of the tumor microenvironment. It orchestrates cellular processes including proliferation, migration, and invasion, that are highly dysregulated during cancer progression. Alterations in ECM abundance, integrity, and mechanical properties have been correlated with poorer prognosis for cancer patients...
June 28, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Guy B Blanchard, Alexander G Fletcher, Linus J Schumacher
Heterogeneity within cell populations can be an important aspect affecting their collective movement and tissue-mechanical properties, determining for example their effective viscoelasticity. Differences in cell-level properties and behaviour within a group of moving cells can give rise to unexpected and non-intuitive behaviours at the tissue level. Such emergent phenomena often manifest themselves through spatiotemporal patterns at an intermediate 'mesoscale' between cell and tissue scales, typically involving tens of cells...
June 22, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Gordon D Brown, Duncan Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Miquel Sureda-Gomez, Teresa Adell
An organizer is defined as a group of cells that secrete specific factors and can change the fate of adjacent cells and instruct a specific pattern. Spemann and Mangold were the first to use the term, when in 1938 they discovered that the dorsal blastopore lip of a salamander embryo induced a secondary axis after transplantation. Since then, several such regions have been identified in the embryos of many animal species. However, little is known about the presence of organizers at the adult stage, although some organizing activity must be required during regenerative processes to pattern the new tissue...
June 21, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Richard L Karpel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Srikar Krishna, Dasaradhi Palakodeti, Jordi Solana
Planarians are known for their immense regenerative abilities. A pluripotent stem cell population provides the cellular source for this process, as well as for the homeostatic cell turnover of the animals. These stem cells, known as neoblasts, present striking similarities at the morphological and molecular level to germ cells, but however, give rise to somatic tissue. Many RNA binding proteins known to be important for germ cell biology are also required for neoblast function, highlighting the importance of post-transcriptional regulation for stem cell control...
June 8, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Jessica F Briffa, Mary E Wlodek, Karen M Moritz
Exposure to a sub-optimal environment in the womb can result in poor fetal growth and impair the normal development of organs. The kidney, specifically the process of nephrogenesis, has been shown to be impacted by many common pregnancy exposures including an inadequate diet, poor placental function, maternal stress as well as maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. This can result in offspring being born with a reduced nephron endowment, which places these individuals at increased risk of hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
June 7, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Jeremy Draghi
The costs and benefits of random phenotypic heterogeneity in microbes have been vigorously debated and experimental tested for decades; yet, this conversation is largely independent from discussion of phenotypic robustness in other disciplines. In this review I connect microbial examples of stochasticity with studies on the ecological and population-genetic consequences of phenotypic variability. These topics illustrate the complexity of selection pressures on phenotypic robustness and provide inspiration that this complexity can be parsed with theoretical advances and the experimental power of microbial systems...
June 7, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Tahagod Mohamed, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez
The kidney vasculature has a unique and complex architecture that is central for the kidney to exert its multiple and essential physiological functions with the ultimate goal of maintaining homeostasis. An appropriate development and coordinated assembly of the different vascular cell types and their association with the corresponding nephrons is crucial for the generation of a functioning kidney. In this review we provide an overview of the renal vascular anatomy, histology, and current knowledge of the embryological origin and molecular pathways involved in its development...
June 5, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"