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Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology

He Ni, Xiao-Min Fan, Hao-Ning Guo, Jian-Hua Liang, Qing-Rong Li, Liu Yang, Hui Li, Hai-Hang Li
The urban wastewater treatment industry produces a large amount of excess activated sludge which is mainly composed of microbial biomass and costly to be disposed. In this research, a comprehensive utilization of activated sludge was developed by sequentially extracting hydrolytic enzymes and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), and the residue was used to prepare water-retaining organic fertilizer. The sludge was extracted with 4-fold H2O containing 1% Triton X-100 with the yield of 66.7% protease activity. The enzyme solution was precipitated in 80% acetone and vacuum-dried at 40°C at the dried enzyme yield of 2...
February 6, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Géssyca P A Soares, Karla S T Souza, Leonardo F Vilela, Rosane F Schwan, Disney R Dias
Flavor compounds are commonly obtained from chemical synthesis or extracted from plants. These sources have disadvantages, such as racemic mixtures generation, more steps to yield the final product, low yield, and high cost, making the microbial fermentation an alternative and potential way to obtain flavor compounds. The most important lactone for flavor application is γ-decalactone, which has the aroma of peach, and can be obtained by ricinoleic acid biotransformation via yeast peroxisomal β-oxidation. The aim of this work was to use crude glycerol, a residual biodiesel industry, for the production of bioaroma from two different yeasts...
February 2, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Qinghua Tian, Ping Zhang, Zhan Gao, Hengli Li, Zhengli Bai, Shuhua Tan
Fusion expression provides an effective means for the biosynthesis of longer peptides in Escherichia coli. However, the commonly used fusion tags are primarily suitable for laboratory scale applications due to the high cost of the commercial affinity resins. Herein, a novel approach exploiting hirudin as a multipurpose fusion tag in combination with TEV protease cleavage has been developed for the efficient and cost-effective production of a 43-amino acids model peptide lunasin in E. coli at preparative scale...
February 2, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Reena Vishvakarma, Abha Mishra
The production of a protease inhibitor from Agaricus bisporus through solid state fermentation was studied. The purpose was to produce protease inhibitor from natural, cheap and readily available carbon and nitrogen sources. Solid state fermentation enhanced the mycelia growth and also gave a higher yield of the product. Further, fungal growth and other production parameters were statistically optimized. The specificity of the inhibitor was tested and was effective against trypsin. Screening of significant factors (wheat bran, cyanobacterial biomass, initial pH, temperature, incubation period, and moisture content and inoculum size) was done using Plackett-Burman Design...
January 31, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Johan S Hero, José H Pisa, Nora I Perotti, Cintia M Romero, María A Martínez
The behaviour of three isolates retrieved from different cellulolytic consortia, Bacillus sp. AR03, Paenibacillus sp. AR247 and Achromobacter sp. AR476-2, were examined individually and as co-cultures in order evaluate their ability to produce extracellular cellulases and xylanases. Utilizing a peptone-based medium supplemented with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), an increase estimated of 1.30 and 1.50 times was obtained by the co-culture containing the strains AR03 and AR247, with respect to enzyme titles registered by their individual cultivation...
January 20, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
J L Navarrete-Bolaños, G P Téllez-Martínez, R Miranda-López, H Jiménez-Islas
For any fermentation process, the production cost depends on several factors, such as the genetics of the microorganism, the process condition and the culture medium composition. In this work, a guideline for the design of cost-efficient culture media using a sequential approach based on response surface methodology is described. The procedure was applied to analyze and optimize a culture medium of registered trademark and a base culture medium obtained as a results of the screening analysis from different culture media used to grow the same strain according to the literature...
January 19, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Dongsheng Xu, Aini Wan, Lin Peng, Yun Chen, Yang He, Jianfeng Yang, Jian Jin
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent multifunctional cytokine that affects proliferation, migration, and morphogenesis of various cells. HGF is secreted as an inactive single-chain precursor protein and activated by the cleavage of serine proteases to form heterodimers. In our current study, the cleavage site of HGF was blocked by replaced Arg 494 of Glu (R494E) that resulted in the single-chain HGF (R494E) unable to be cleaved by serine proteases. We established Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells overexpressing HGF (R494E), the expression of HGF (R494E) achieved 12 mg/L and was similar to a previously reported study...
January 3, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Sachinkumar Birhade, Mukesh Pednekar, Shilpa Sagwal, Annamma Odaneth, Arvind Lali
Controlled depolymerization of cellulose is essential for the production of valuable cellooligosaccharides and cellobiose from lignocellulosic biomass. However, enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis involves multiple synergistically acting enzymes, making difficult to control the depolymerization process and generate desired product. This work exploits the varying adsorption properties of the cellulase components to the cellulosic substrate and aims to control the enzyme activity. Cellulase adsorption was favored on pretreated cellulosic biomass as compared to synthetic cellulose...
January 3, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Alireza Moosavi Zenooz, Farzin Zokaee Ashtiani, Reza Ranjbar, Fatemeh Nikbakht, Oberon Bolouri
Biodiesel production from microalgae feedstock should be performed after growth and harvesting of the cells and the most feasible method for harvesting and dewatering of microalgae is flocculation. Flocculation modeling can be used for evaluation and prediction of its performance under different affective parameters. However, the modeling of flocculation in microalgae is not simple and has not performed yet, under all experimental conditions, mostly due to different behaviors of microalgae cells during the process under different flocculation conditions...
January 3, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Alenir Naves de Sales, Angélica Cristina de Souza, Rondinele de Oliveira Moutta, Viridiana Santana Ferreira-Leitão, Rosane Freitas Schwan, Disney Ribeiro Dias
Actinobacteria isolates from Brazilian Cerrado soil were evaluated for their ability to produce enzymes of the cellulolytic and xylanolytic complex using lignocellulose residual biomass. Preliminary semiquantitative tests, made in Petri plates containing carboxymethylcellulose and beechwood xylan, indicated 11 potential species producing enzymes, all belonging to the genus Streptomyces. The species were subsequently grown in pure substrates in submerged fermentation and analyzed for the production of enzymes endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, endoxylanase, and β-xylosidase...
January 3, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
V Guru KrishnaKumar, Sharad Gupta
Tau is an intrinsically disordered protein responsible for maintaining the structure and stability of axonal microtubules. However, in certain disease conditions including Alzheimer's disease, tau protein may undergo biochemical and structural changes to form intracellular aggregates. Since tau is a proline- and arginine-rich eukaryotic protein, heterologous expression in Escherichia coli often results in poor yield and has been a major technical challenge. In the current work, we have improved the expressed yield of tau by overcoming codon bias problem and established a simplified protocol for efficient extraction...
January 3, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Juliet Victoria, Annamma Odaneth, Arvind Lali
Depolymerization of lignocellulosic biomass is catalyzed by groups of enzymes whose action is influenced by substrate features and the composition of cellulase preparation. Cellulases contain a mixture of variety of enzymes, whose proportions dictate the saccharification of biomass. In the current study, four cellulase preparation varying in their composition were used to hydrolyze two types of alkali-treated biomass (aqueous ammonia-treated rice straw and sodium hydroxide-treated rice straw) to study the effect on catalytic rate, saccharification yields, and sugar release profile...
January 3, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Ali Saber Abdelhameed, Saima Nusrat, Sanjhi Paliwal, Masihuz Zaman, Nida Zaidi, Rizwan Hasan Khan
Drug and protein interaction provides a structural guideline in the rational drug designing and in the synthesis of new and improved drugs with greater efficacy. We have examined here the binding affinity and mechanism of nintedanib (NTB), an anticancer drug (Tyrosine kinase inhibitor) with bovine serum albumin (BSA), under physiological conditions, by spectroscopic techniques. The decrease in Stern-Volmer quenching constants and binding constant with increase in temperature suggests BSA forms a complex with NTB...
January 3, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Young-Ran Song, Sang-Ho Baik
A gene encoding cinnamoyl esterase (CE), which breaks down chlorogenic acid (ChA) into caffeic and quinic acids, was cloned from Lactobacillus helveticus KCCM 11223. The gene with an open reading frame of 759 nucleotides was expressed in Escherichia coli, which resulted in a 51.6-fold increase in specific activity compared to L. helveticus KCCM 11223. The recombinant CE exists as a monomeric enzyme having a molecular weight of 27.4 kDa. Although the highest activity was observed at pH 7, the enzyme showed stable activity at pH 4...
January 3, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Chunqiao Xiao, Xiaoyan Wu, Tingting Liu, Guang Xu, Ruan Chi
Microbial solubilization of rock phosphate is getting more and more attention recently. However, the microorganisms used in previous studies were mostly single or known species, and seldom studies focused on the mixed microorganisms or microbial consortia from natural environments. In this study, a microbial consortium taken from activated sludge was used to solubilize two different mid-low-grade rock phosphates. The results showed that the microbial consortium could effectively solubilize the rock phosphates in National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate growth medium and released soluble phosphorus in the broth...
December 29, 2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Sócrates Palacios-Ponce, Rodolfo Ramos-González, Héctor A Ruiz, Miguel A Aguilar, José L Martínez-Hernández, Elda P Segura-Ceniceros, Cristóbal N Aguilar, Georgina Michelena, Anna Ilyina
In the present study, the interactions between chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (C-MNP) and Trichoderma sp. spores as well as Kluyveromyces marxianus cells were studied. By means of Plackett-Burman design, it was demonstrated that factors which directly influenced on yeast cells immobilization and magnetic separation were: inoculum and C-MNP quantity, stirring speed, interaction time, and volume of medium, while in the case of fungal spores, the temperature also was disclosed as an influencing factor...
December 29, 2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Dario Rafael Olicón-Hernández, Pedro Alberto Vázquez-Landaverde, Ramón Cruz-Camarillo, Luz Irene Rojas-Avelizapa
Bacillus thuringiensis is a nonhuman pathogen bacterium that is used as a fungal and insect biocontrol agent. Because of its environmental interaction, it possesses several extracellular enzymes that are able to degrade chitin and chitosan, two of the most important polymers because of their application in numerous fields. However, in recent years, it has been observed that oligosaccharides from the enzymatic degradation of chitosan have important benefits for human health. Comparison and exploration of the production of chito-oligosaccharides from different sources of chitosan will improve the process parameters and expand the biotechnology based in these molecules...
February 7, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Abdurrahman Adamu Isah, Naji Arafat Mahat, Joazaizulfazli Jamalis, Nursyafreena Attan, Iffah Izzati Zakaria, Fahrul Huyop, Roswanira Abdul Wahab
The chemical route of producing geranyl propionate involves the use of toxic chemicals, liberation of unwanted by-products as well as problematic separation process. In view of such problems, the use of Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML) covalently bound onto activated chitosan-graphene oxide (RML-CS/GO) support is suggested. Following analyses using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetry, properties of the RML-CS/GO were characterized...
February 7, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Xiaoxu Zhang, Yanyun Gao, Ying Yin, Menghao Cai, Xiangshan Zhou, Yuanxing Zhang
Filamentous fungi are capable producers of many bioactive compounds, and real-time intracellular enzyme activity assay is an essential guidance for their bioprocess developments. However, there are many difficulties in preparing homogenate for enzyme activity assay, such as disrupting fungal cell with complicated cellular structure and solid cell wall, removing abundant extracellular metabolites accumulating on mycelia, and so on. Halorosellinia sp. (No. 1403) was a marine-derived filamentous fungus producing a potential antitumor compound 1403C, and the deep red pigments (with main component of 1403C) covering on its mycelia showed strong absorption in a wide range, which critically affected the measurement of many enzyme activities...
February 7, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Keyur Raval, Kartik Gehlot, Prasanna B D
Naringinase bioprocess based on Bacillus methylotrophicus was successfully scaled up based on constant oxygen transfer rate (OTR) as the scale-up criterion from 5-L bioreactor to 20-L bioreactor. OTR was measured in 5 and 20-L bioreactor under various operating conditions using dynamic method. The operating conditions, where complete dispersion was observed were identified. The highest OTR of 0.035 and 0.04 mMol/L/s was observed in 5 and 20-L bioreactor, respectively. Critical dissolved oxygen concentration of novel isolated strain B...
February 7, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
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