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Psychological Methods

Jolynn Pek, Hao Wu
Current concerns regarding the dependability of psychological findings call for methodological developments to provide additional evidence in support of scientific conclusions. This article highlights the value and importance of two distinct kinds of parameter uncertainty, which are quantified by confidence sets (CSs) and fungible parameter estimates (FPEs; Lee, MacCallum, & Browne, 2017); both provide essential information regarding the defensibility of scientific findings. Using the structural equation model, we introduce a general perturbation framework based on the likelihood function that unifies CSs and FPEs and sheds new light on the conceptual distinctions between them...
January 4, 2018: Psychological Methods
Katherine R Thorson, Tessa V West, Wendy Berry Mendes
Scholars across domains in psychology, physiology, and neuroscience have long been interested in the study of shared physiological experiences between people. Recent technological and analytic advances allow researchers to examine new questions about how shared physiological experiences occur. Yet comprehensive guides that address the theoretical, methodological, and analytic components of studying these processes are lacking. The goal of this article is to provide such a guide. We begin by addressing basic theoretical issues in the study of shared physiological states by presenting five guiding theoretical principles for making psychological inferences from physiological influence-the extent to which one dyad member's physiology predicts the other dyad member's physiology at a future time point...
December 28, 2017: Psychological Methods
Kimberley A Goldsmith, David P MacKinnon, Trudie Chalder, Peter D White, Michael Sharpe, Andrew Pickles
The study of mediation of treatment effects, or how treatments work, is important to understanding and improving psychological and behavioral treatments, but applications often focus on mediators and outcomes measured at a single time point. Such cross-sectional analyses do not respect the implied temporal ordering that mediation suggests. Clinical trials of treatments often provide repeated measures of outcomes and, increasingly, of mediators as well. Repeated measurements allow the application of various types of longitudinal structural equation mediation models...
December 28, 2017: Psychological Methods
Daniel McNeish, Gregory R Hancock
Lance, Beck, Fan, and Carter (2016) recently advanced 6 new fit indices and associated cutoff values for assessing data-model fit in the structural portion of traditional latent variable path models. The authors appropriately argued that, although most researchers' theoretical interest rests with the latent structure, they still rely on indices of global model fit that simultaneously assess both the measurement and structural portions of the model. As such, Lance et al. proposed indices intended to assess the structural portion of the model in isolation of the measurement model...
March 2018: Psychological Methods
Han Du, Fang Liu, Lijuan Wang
Publication bias occurs when the statistical significance or direction of the results between published and unpublished studies differ after controlling for study quality, which threatens the validity of the systematic review and summary of the results on a research topic. Conclusions based on a meta-analysis of published studies without correcting for publication bias are often optimistic and biased toward significance or positivity. We propose a Bayesian fill-in meta-analysis (BALM) method for adjusting publication bias and estimating population effect size that accommodates different assumptions for publication bias...
December 2017: Psychological Methods
Julia M Haaf, Jeffrey N Rouder
Model comparison in Bayesian mixed models is becoming popular in psychological science. Here we develop a set of nested models that account for order restrictions across individuals in psychological tasks. An order-restricted model addresses the question "Does everybody," as in "Does everybody show the usual Stroop effect," or "Does everybody respond more quickly to intense noises than subtle ones?" The crux of the modeling is the instantiation of 10s or 100s of order restrictions simultaneously, one for each participant...
December 2017: Psychological Methods
Lane F Burgette, Susan M Paddock
Alcohol and other drug abuse are frequently treated in a group therapy setting. If participants are allowed to enroll in therapy on a rolling basis, irregular patterns of participant overlap can induce complex correlations of participant outcomes. Previous work has accounted for common session attendance by modeling random effects for each therapy session, which map to participant outcomes via a multiple membership construction when modeling normally distributed outcome measures. We build on this earlier work by extending the models to semicontinuous outcomes, or outcomes that are a mixture of continuous and discrete distributions...
December 2017: Psychological Methods
Junhao Pan, Edward Haksing Ip, Laurette Dubé
As a commonly used tool for operationalizing measurement models, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) requires strong assumptions that can lead to a poor fit of the model to real data. The post hoc modification model approach attempts to improve CFA fit through the use of modification indexes for identifying significant correlated residual error terms. We analyzed a 28-item emotion measure collected for n = 175 participants. The post hoc modification approach indicated that 90 item-pair errors were significantly correlated, which demonstrated the challenge in using a modification index, as the error terms must be individually modified as a sequence...
December 2017: Psychological Methods
Roy Levy
A conceptual distinction is drawn between indicators, which serve to define latent variables, and outcomes, which do not. However, commonly used frequentist and Bayesian estimation procedures do not honor this distinction. They allow the outcomes to influence the latent variables and the measurement model parameters for the indicators, rendering the latent variables subject to interpretational confounding. Modified Bayesian procedures that preclude this are advanced, along with procedures for conducting diagnostic model-data fit analyses...
December 2017: Psychological Methods
Jeffrey R Harring, Daniel M McNeish, Gregory R Hancock
External misspecification, the omission of key variables from a structural model, can fundamentally alter the inferences one makes without such variables present. This article presents 2 strategies for dealing with omitted variables, the first a fixed parameter approach incorporating the omitted variable into the model as a phantom variable where all associated parameter values are fixed, and the other a random parameter approach specifying prior distributions for all of the phantom variable's associated parameter values under a Bayesian framework...
December 2017: Psychological Methods
Sy-Miin Chow, Herbert Hoijtink
This editorial accompanies the second special issue on Bayesian data analysis published in this journal. The emphases of this issue are on Bayesian estimation and modeling. In this editorial, we outline the basics of current Bayesian estimation techniques and some notable developments in the statistical literature, as well as adaptations and extensions by psychological researchers to better tailor to the modeling applications in psychology. We end with a discussion on future outlooks of Bayesian data analysis in psychology...
December 2017: Psychological Methods
Joyce Lok Yin Kwan, Wai Chan
Mediated moderation (meMO) occurs when the moderation effect of the moderator (W) on the relationship between the independent variable (X) and the dependent variable (Y) is transmitted through a mediator (M). To examine this process empirically, 2 different model specifications (Type I meMO and Type II meMO) have been proposed in the literature. However, both specifications are found to be problematic, either conceptually or statistically. For example, it can be shown that each type of meMO model is statistically equivalent to a particular form of moderated mediation (moME), another process that examines the condition when the indirect effect from X to Y through M varies as a function of W...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Methods
Mark J Lachowicz, Kristopher J Preacher, Ken Kelley
Mediation analysis has become one of the most popular statistical methods in the social sciences. However, many currently available effect size measures for mediation have limitations that restrict their use to specific mediation models. In this article, we develop a measure of effect size that addresses these limitations. We show how modification of a currently existing effect size measure results in a novel effect size measure with many desirable properties. We also derive an expression for the bias of the sample estimator for the proposed effect size measure and propose an adjusted version of the estimator...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Methods
Sara van Erp, Joris Mulder, Daniel L Oberski
Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) has recently gained popularity because it enables researchers to fit complex models and solve some of the issues often encountered in classical maximum likelihood estimation, such as nonconvergence and inadmissible solutions. An important component of any Bayesian analysis is the prior distribution of the unknown model parameters. Often, researchers rely on default priors, which are constructed in an automatic fashion without requiring substantive prior information...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Methods
Oliver Lüdtke, Alexander Robitzsch, Jenny Wagner
The STARTS (Stable Trait, AutoRegressive Trait, and State) model decomposes individual differences in psychological measurement across time into 3 sources of variation: a time-invariant stable component, a time-varying autoregressive component, and an occasion-specific state component. Previous simulation research and applications of the STARTS model have shown that serious estimation problems such as nonconvergence or inadmissible estimates (e.g., negative variances) frequently occur for STARTS model parameters...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Methods
Terrence D Jorgensen, Benjamin A Kite, Po-Yi Chen, Stephen D Short
In multigroup factor analysis, different levels of measurement invariance are accepted as tenable when researchers observe a nonsignificant (Δ)χ2 test after imposing certain equality constraints across groups. Large samples yield high power to detect negligible misspecifications, so many researchers prefer alternative fit indices (AFIs). Fixed cutoffs have been proposed for evaluating the effect of invariance constraints on change in AFIs (e.g., Chen, 2007; Cheung & Rensvold, 2002; Meade, Johnson, & Braddy, 2008)...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Methods
Qian Zhang, Lijuan Wang, C S Bergeman
In the current study, extending from the cross-lagged panel models (CLPMs) in Cole and Maxwell (2003), we proposed the multilevel autoregressive mediation models (MAMMs) by allowing the coefficients to differ across individuals. In addition, Level-2 covariates can be included to explain the interindividual differences of mediation effects. Given the complexity of the proposed models, Bayesian estimation was used. Both a CLPM and an unconditional MAMM were fitted to daily diary data. The 2 models yielded different statistical conclusions regarding the average mediation effect...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Methods
Markus Brauer, John J Curtin
In this article we address a number of important issues that arise in the analysis of nonindependent data. Such data are common in studies in which predictors vary within "units" (e.g., within-subjects, within-classrooms). Most researchers analyze categorical within-unit predictors with repeated-measures ANOVAs, but continuous within-unit predictors with linear mixed-effects models (LMEMs). We show that both types of predictor variables can be analyzed within the LMEM framework. We discuss designs with multiple sources of nonindependence, for example, studies in which the same subjects rate the same set of items or in which students nested in classrooms provide multiple answers...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Methods
Todd E Bodner
Researchers working in the context of randomized trials routinely estimate and test for treatment effects on the study outcomes. This article discusses the merits of assessing differential treatment effects across outcomes and proposes a multivariate approach using standardized outcomes for this purpose. This multivariate approach extends prior approaches to an arbitrary number of treatment groups and outcomes and does not require that the within-group covariance matrix have particular properties (e.g., sphericity)...
November 27, 2017: Psychological Methods
Kenneth A Bollen, Adamantios Diamantopoulos
The current article is a rejoinder to "A Call for Theory to Support the Use of Causal-Formative Indicators: A Commentary on Bollen and Diamantopoulos." Our article comments on the 6 research questions raised by Hardin (2017) in his constructive commentary on our original article (i.e., "In Defense of Causal-Formative Indicators: A Minority Report"). (PsycINFO Database Record
September 2017: Psychological Methods
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