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Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548244/primary-histiocytic-sarcoma-presenting-as-diffuse-leptomeningeal-disease-case-description-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Magda Zanelli, Moira Ragazzi, Giovanni Marchetti, Alessandra Bisagni, Massimo Principi, Daniela Fanni, Elisabetta Froio, Silvia Serra, Eleonora Zanetti, Loredana De Marco, Felice Giangaspero, Stefano Ascani
Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm arising most commonly in lymph nodes, intestinal tract, skin and soft tissue. The incidence of primary CNS histiocytic sarcoma is even rarer with a total of just 27 cases reported in the literature so far. Herein we describe the first autopsy case of histiocytic sarcoma presenting as a diffuse leptomeningeal disease in absence of a CNS tumor-forming parenchymal lesion. The clinical, pathological and immunophenotypic features are described and an updated literature review on primary CNS histiocytic sarcoma is included...
May 26, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548216/pathology-of-oligodendroglia-an-overview
#2
Takashi Komori
Oligodendroglia are cells responsible for creating myelin sheaths for axons in the CNS. However, pathologies of oligodendroglia other than demyelination are not well understood due to the lack of adequate methods of characterizing pathological conditions affecting oligodendroglia in human tissue. This review discusses three major topics with the aim of clarifying some of the controversies in the study of oligodendroglia. The oligodendroglioma, a relatively indolent form of diffuse gliomas thought to originate in oligodendrocytes, has never demonstrated myelin formation on electron microscopy nor shown a constant expression of myelin-related proteins...
May 26, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517732/t-cells-and-macrophages-peak-weeks-after-experimental-stroke-spatial-and-temporal-characteristics
#3
Nina Vindegaard, Clara Muñoz-Briones, Henrik H El Ali, Lotte Kellemann Kristensen, Rune Skovgaard Rasmussen, Flemming Fryd Johansen, Henrik Hasseldam
The activities of the central and peripheral immune systems impact neurological outcome after ischemic stroke. However, studies investigating the temporal profile of leukocyte infiltration, especially T-cell recruitment, are sparse. Our aim was to investigate leukocyte infiltration at different time points after experimental stroke in mice. Permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed on 11 weeks old C57BL/6J mice, allowed to survive for 1, 3, 8, 14 or 28 days. In addition to infarct size measurements, detailed immunohistochemical analyses of T-cell and macrophage influx were performed...
May 18, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493390/discrimination-of-a-nerve-fiber-that-is-the-origin-of-a-cauda-equina-tumor-using-acetylcholinesterase-staining
#4
Naosuke Kamei, Nobuhiro Tanaka, Koji Arihiro, Kazuyoshi Nakanishi, Shinji Kotaka, Nobuo Adachi, Mitsuo Ochi
Spinal nerve sheath tumors are well known to typically originate from dorsal sensory nerve roots. However, it is difficult to anatomically identify the origin in the case of cauda equina tumors. In this study, we aimed to ascertain whether a cauda equina nerve root removed with a nerve sheath tumor was a motor nerve using acetylcholinesterase (AchE) staining. Nerve rootlet sections removed with tumors were stained for AchE using the AchE Rapid Staining Kit. Additionally, we performed intraoperative motor-evoked potential (MEP) monitoring following either transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) or electrical stimulation of nerve rootlets...
May 11, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493351/human-zika-and-west-nile-virus-neurological-infections-what-is-the-difference
#5
REVIEW
Clayton A Wiley, Leila Chimelli
The recent epidemic of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in the United States was associated with severe neurological disease in immunocompromised hosts, while the emergence of Zika virus infection in the Americas has been notable for an association with increased microcephaly in the fetuses of infected mothers. Rare autopsies of WNV infected humans have shown multiple organ involvement with a clear neurotropism. We have recently had the opportunity to examine the distribution of Zika virus in autopsies of newborns from infected pregnancies...
May 11, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493345/il-10-expression-in-pyramidal-neurons-after-neuropathogenic-coronaviral-infection
#6
Masatoshi Kakizaki, Rihito Watanabe
The apoptosis of pyramidal neurons in CA2 and CA3 subregions of the hippocampus is induced after infection with Mu-3 virus (Mu-3), a neuropathogenic strain of the JHM virus (JHMV), at 4-5 days post-inoculation (dpi). The viral antigens in the hippocampus are mainly found in the CD11b-positive cells distributed in the stratum oriens located outside the pyramidal layer, and only a few pyramidal neurons are infected. Furthermore, the apoptotic cells, indicated as showing caspase 3 (Cas3) activation, consist of a high number of uninfected cells...
May 11, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419566/perirhinal-accumulation-of-neuronal-alpha-synuclein-in-a-multiple-system-atrophy-patient-with-dementia
#7
Mari Saito, Makoto Hara, Momoko Ebashi, Akihiko Morita, Kyoko Okada, Taku Homma, Masahiko Sugitani, Kentaro Endo, Toshiki Uchihara, Satoshi Kamei
We report the case of a 79-year-old Japanese woman who developed cerebellar ataxia followed by rigidity, dysautonomia and cognitive disorders, and was thus clinically diagnosed as having possible MSA with dementia. Neuropathological findings demonstrated not only olivopontocerebellar and striatonigral degeneration with frequent glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), but also degenerative changes in the parahippocampal region, accentuated in the anterior portion of perirhinal cortex, where neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs) and NFTs were numerous while GCIs were limited...
April 16, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402042/mm1-type-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-with-1-month-total-disease-duration-and-early-pathologic-indicators
#8
Yasushi Iwasaki, Hiroko Kato, Tetsuo Ando, Maya Mimuro, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Mari Yoshida
A 62-year-old man presented with abnormal behavior and cognitive impairment. Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) obtained on MRI showed extensive hyperintense regions in the cerebral cortex and striatum. Myoclonus was recognized, and the patient died 1 month after the onset; his condition did not reach the akinetic mutism state. The brain weighed 1300 g and showed no apparent atrophy. Extensive spongiform changes were observed in the cerebral neocortex, striatum, thalamus and cerebellar cortex, but gliosis was mild or absent...
April 12, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397378/basal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-by-rupture-of-arteriovenous-malformation-at-the-cerebellopontine-angle
#9
Mio Takayama, Masayuki Kashiwagi, Kenji Hara, Aya Matsusue, Brian Waters, Natsuki Ikematsu, Shin-Ichi Kubo
A man in his late forties had lived as a recluse for more than ten years. He was found dead in his room. At autopsy, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was detected at the base of the brain, which weighed 1333 g. The cerebellar tonsil was swollen. The cerebral ventricle was enlarged and filled with blood. A hematoma was observed in the upper part of the left side of the cerebellar hemisphere. The location and size of SAH in this case indicated that the rupture of a cerebral aneurysm (CA) had occurred; however, CA was not detected...
April 10, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387450/severe-demyelination-in-a-patient-with-a-late-infantile-form-of-niemann-pick-disease-type-c
#10
Tsuyoshi Kodachi, Shizuko Matsumoto, Masashi Mizuguchi, Hitoshi Osaka, Nobuyuki Kanai, Eiji Nanba, Kousaku Ohno, Takanori Yamagata
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a cholesterol storage disease caused by defective cellular cholesterol transportation. The onset and progression of NPC are variable, and autopsy findings have mainly been reported for the adult and juvenile forms of this disease. Here we report the clinical and pathological findings from a 9-year-old female patient with the late infantile form of NPC due to NPC1 gene mutation. She had notable splenomegaly at 4 months of age. She lost the ability to speak at 18 months of age...
April 7, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387433/neurosurgical-management-and-pathology-of-lumbosacral-lipomas-with-tethered-cord
#11
REVIEW
Takato Morioka, Nobuya Murakami, Takafumi Shimogawa, Nobutaka Mukae, Kimiakai Hashiguchi, Satoshi O Suzuki, Koji Iihara
Lumbosacral lipomas are the most common form of occult spinal dysraphism. The development of lumbosacral lipomas is from the premature disjunction of the neural tube from the surrounding ectoderm, leaving the neural plate open posteriorly and allowing for the infiltration of mesodermal tissue, including fatty tissue. Since lumbosacral lipomas are a common cause of spinal cord tethering that can lead to progressive neurological deficits, prophylactic neurosurgery for lumbosacral lipomas, including untethering of the spinal cord, is recommended...
April 7, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387066/calcifying-pseudoneoplasm-of-the-neuraxis-in-direct-continuity-with-a-low-grade-glioma-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Nayuta Higa, Hideaki Yokoo, Hirofumi Hirano, Hajime Yonezawa, Tatsuki Oyoshi, Yuko Goto, Kazunori Arita
Calcifying pseudoneoplasms of the neuraxis (CAPNON) are presumed to be a non-neoplastic reactive pathology, based on the frequent finding of granulomatous inflammation. To our knowledge, there are few reports of CAPNON in association with a neoplasm. Here, we report the case of a 62-year-old man presenting with headache, which was caused by CAPNON in the left cingulate gyrus. CT scan revealed a calcified mass exhibiting gradual growth and increasing peritumoral edema. MRI showed an intra-axial hypointense mass on T1- and T2-weighted images...
April 7, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317291/intravascular-t-cell-lymphoma-a-rare-poorly-characterized-entity-with-cytotoxic-phenotype
#13
Tara L Sharma, Gabrielle A Yeaney, Payam Soltanzadeh, Yuebing Li, Claudiu V Cotta
Intravascular T-cell lymphomas are rare, poorly characterized lesions. We discuss the clinical, radiologic and especially the laboratory characteristics of a lesion which presented in a 62-year-old woman with a history of progressive CNS abnormalities. Throughout the course of the disease, radiologic findings consisted mainly of multifocal mixed areas of ischemia and vasogenic edema involving cortical and subcortical regions. A brain biopsy identified an abnormal T-cell population confined to lumens of vessels...
March 20, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317173/extracellular-matrix-in-the-cns-induced-by-neuropathogenic-viral-infection
#14
Rihito Watanabe, Masatoshi Kakizaki
During the early phase of infection with an extremely neurovirulent murine coronavirus, cl-2, the ER-TR7 antigen (ERag)-positive fibers (ERfibs) associated with laminin and collagen III show a rapid increase in expression levels in the meninges, followed by an appearance of the antigens in the ventricle and brain parenchyma. Then, cl-2 invades the ventricle and ventricular wall along the newly assembled ERfibs after infection, using them as a pathway from the meninges, the initial site of infection. In the lymph nodes and spleen, ERag is mainly produced by fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), which play a key role in nursing the ERfibs to form a fibroblastic reticular network (FRN)...
March 20, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295636/t-cell-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-leukemia-within-an-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-and-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-positive-pituitary-adenoma-a-cytohistological-correlation-emphasizing-importance-of-intra-operative-squash-smear
#15
Rakesh K Gupta, Ravindra K Saran, Arvind K Srivastava, Anita Jagetia, Lalit Garg, Mehar C Sharma
We present a rare case of primary pituitary T cell lymphoma/leukemia (T-LBL) in association with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) expressing pituitary adenoma in a 55-year-old woman highlighting the importance of intra-operative squash smears examination. The patient presented with complaints of headache, diminution of vision and recent onset altered sensorium. MRI revealed a mass lesion in the sellar-suprasellar region with non-visualization of pituitary gland separately, extending to involve adjacent structures diagnosed as invasive pituitary macroadenoma...
March 13, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276157/pigmented-intraventricular-tumor-in-a-young-adult
#16
Kirti Gupta, Balan Louis Gaspar, Pravin Salunke, Charan Singh Rayat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276095/a-case-of-symptomatic-granular-cell-tumor-of-the-sellar-region-with-large-calcification
#17
Shun Yamamuro, Taku Homma, Yuya Hanashima, Sodai Yoshimura, Hideki Oshima, Sumie Ohni, Yoshiaki Kusumi, Atsuo Yoshino
We report here a rare case of symptomatic granular cell tumor (GCT) of the sellar region with a large calcification. A 70-year-old woman presented with a sellar mass, accompanied by bitemporal hemianopia. The patient was diagnosed preoperatively as having a craniopharyngioma or a pituitary adenoma, because of the large calcification. The patient underwent surgical tumor resection via endoscopic trans-sphenoidal surgery and was diagnosed pathologically as having GCT. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and her visual field disturbance improved soon after the operation...
March 9, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276094/pathology-of-toxic-leucoencephalopathy-in-drug-abuse-supports-hypoxic-ischemic-pathophysiology-etiology
#18
Murad Alturkustani, Lee-Cyn Ang, David Ramsay
The histopathological features of leucoencephalopathy caused by illicit drugs (such as opioids and cocaine) are well documented in acute cases but not in long-survival cases. There are several hypotheses about the pathogenesis of this disorder, including hypoperfusion, direct drug toxicity resulting from the neurotoxic effects of the drug itself or contaminants in the illicit drug vehicle. We reviewed the post mortem findings in five males (aged 24 to 56 years, with survival intervals ranging from 7 days to 5 months) with a history of illicit drug use and concomitant fatal white matter changes...
March 9, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261874/samp8-mice-as-a-neuropathological-model-of-accelerated-brain-aging-and-dementia-toshio-takeda-s-legacy-and-future-directions
#19
REVIEW
Ichiro Akiguchi, Mercè Pallàs, Herbert Budka, Haruhiko Akiyama, Masaki Ueno, Jingxian Han, Hideo Yagi, Tomohumi Nishikawa, Yoichi Chiba, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Ryoya Takahashi, Keiko Unno, Keiichi Higuchi, Masanori Hosokawa
Senescence accelerated mice P8 (SAMP8) show significant age-related deteriorations in memory and learning ability in accordance with early onset and rapid advancement of senescence. Brains of SAMP8 mice reveal an age-associated increase of PAS-positive granular structures in the hippocampal formation and astrogliosis in the brain stem and hippocampus. A spongy degeneration in the brain stem appears at 1 month of age and reaches a maximum at 4-8 months. In addition, clusters of activated microglia also appear around the vacuoles in the brain stem...
March 6, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261869/intraventricular-gliosarcoma-with-dual-sarcomatous-differentiation-a-unique-case
#20
Rajalakshmi Poyuran, Nandeesh Bn, Yerasi Varun Kumar Reddy, Amey R Savardekar
Gliosarcoma, a variant of isocitrate dehydrogenase-wildtype glioblastoma, is largely a lobar surfacing neoplasm often with dural attachment. In this biphasic neoplasm, the sarcomatous component usually takes the form of fibrosarcoma or malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Heterologous sarcomatous differentiation is a rare phenomenon. Here, we present a case of gliosarcoma with liposarcomatous and myosarcomatous differentiation in a 68-year-old man which was purely intraventricular. This is the first report of such a morphologic pattern in this location...
March 6, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
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