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Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals

Abigail E Besemer, You Ming Yang, Joseph J Grudzinski, Lance T Hall, Bryan P Bednarz
This work describes the development and validation of a patient-specific Monte Carlo internal dosimetry platform called RAPID (Radiopharmaceutical Assessment Platform for Internal Dosimetry). RAPID utilizes serial PET/CT or SPECT/CT images to calculate voxelized three-dimensional (3D) internal dose distributions with the Monte Carlo code Geant4. RAPID's dosimetry calculations were benchmarked against previously published S-values and specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) calculated for monoenergetic photon and electron sources within the Zubal phantom and for S-values calculated for a variety of radionuclides within spherical tumor phantoms with sizes ranging from 1 to 1000 g...
April 25, 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Min Yu, Yao Han, Hongyu Zhuo, Shuang Zhang
Pathological angiogenesis can be a significant barrier to effective cancer therapy. Recent evidence suggests that Endostar may induce vascular normalization, thereby improving tumor perfusion and systemic chemotherapy. However, the molecular mechanism by which Endostar makes chemotherapy more effective remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, established 4T1 breast tumor-bearing animals treated with Endostar were evaluated at serial time points for treatment-associated changes in vascular architecture...
April 25, 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Kun Qian, Laiyu Sun, Guoqing Zhou, Haixia Ge, Yue Meng, Jingfen Li, Xiao Li, Xinqiang Fang
Sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB) as a salt of 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) has been reported to be an ammonia scavenger, histone deacetylase inhibitor, and an endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor in various diseases, including neurological diseases, inflammatory disorders, and carcinogenesis. Although phenylbutyrate showed effective antitumor properties in many cancers, its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains further characterized. Thus, the OSCC cell lines CAL27, HSC3, and SCC4 were treated with a series of doses of SPB for different times...
April 16, 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Syed Qaiser Shah, Samia Mahmood
AIM: The aim of the present investigation was to examine the suitability of 99m Tc-N-HYNIC-BZMB as a specific vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeting agent. Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits VEGF. METHODS: N-hydroxysuccinimide-2-hydrazinonicotinic acid (N-HYNIC) was conjugated to BZMB, followed by labeling with 99m Tc using N-[Tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl] glycine (tricine), ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDA), and nicotinic acid as coligands...
March 20, 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Ruiqing Chen, Zeng Wang, Ruilong Lan, Fei Huang, Jinrong Chen, Yuanteng Xu, Hengshan Zhang, Lurong Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is a high incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), malignant head and neck tumors, in southern China. Radioresistance is the main cause affecting the efficacy of NPC treatments. The POLG gene particularly plays an important role in radiation-induced damage repair. In this study, the authors established RNAi CNE-1 and CNE-2 knockdown in two NPC cell lines to observe whether this gene affects the radiosensitivity of NPC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression plasmids targeting POLG gene were constructed and transfected into the NPC cell lines CNE-1 and CNE-2...
May 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Jinyin Yan, Bo Song, Wanning Hu, Ying Meng, Fengling Niu, Xiaochen Han, Yuhui Ge, Ning Li
OBJECTIVE: Doxorubicin (DOX) can be used to treat malignant tumors, but with multiple adverse effects. Graphene oxide-polyethylene glycol (GO-PEG) is a novel nanoscale carrier material and can elevate solubility and biocompatibility of drugs. This study prepared a GO-PEG-DOX complex, whose toxicity and antitumor effects were evaluated on mouse EMT-6 breast cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GO-PEG-DOX complex was prepared for calculating the drug carrier rate of DOX on GO-PEG by MV approach...
May 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Zhonghua Wang, Zhuang Ma, Jianping Cao
BACKGROUND: Suppression of Aurora kinase A (Aurora-A, AURKA) by siRNA of Aurora-A (siAurora-A, siA) has been used in lung tumor treatment. However, the dose and frequency of gene transfection still need to be confirmed further. We imitated multiple administration of solid tumor and attempted to make out the effects of thrice transfection of siAurora-A on cilia generation and apoptosis of SK-MES-1 cells (SK) or A549 cells. METHODS: The Aurora-A mRNA levels of cells cultured with serum for 6 d or without serum for 2, 4, or 6 d were examined with real-time quantitative PCR; Cells were transfected single or repeatedly with siAurora-A or siControl (siC), their Aurora-A mRNA levels were determined with PCR; Their cilia were examined with immunohistochemistry...
April 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Joseph Grudzinski, Ian Marsh, Benjamin Titz, Justin Jeffery, Marc Longino, Kevin Kozak, Kristofer Lange, Jason Larrabee, Ashley Weichmann, Amy Moser, Bryan Bednarz
PURPOSE: Auger electrons emitted by radioisotopes such as 125 I have a high linear energy transfer and short mean-free path in tissue (<10 μm), making them suitable for treating micrometastases while sparing normal tissues. The authors developed and subsequently investigated a cancer cell-selective small molecule phospholipid ether analog to deliver 125 I to triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells in vivo. METHODS: A Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) method to radiolabel 125 I-CLR1404 (CLR 125) with >95% radiochemical purity was established...
April 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Hong Dai, Chunmei Wang, Zhihai Yu, Donglin He, Kun Yu, Yin Liu, Sheng Wang
OBJECTIVE: STAT3 is an important protein in Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway that facilitates B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression. MiR-17 was found to be significantly reduced in prostate cancer tissues and cells, suggesting that it might be a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer tumorigenesis. Bioinformatics analysis showed the complementary binding site between miR-17 and STAT3. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-17 in regulating JAK-STAT signaling pathway, as well as prostate cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis...
April 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Martin W Brechbiel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Bita Javan, Majid Shahbazi
BACKGROUND: Nonspecific siRNA expression limits its application in cancer gene therapy. Therefore, a tightly regulated and reversibly inducible RNAi system is required to conditionally control the gene expression. This investigation aims at constructing a hypoxia/colorectal tumor dual-specific bidirectional short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA) promoter designed in two directions. Then, pRNA-bipHRE-CEA vector was constructed by insertion of the vascular endothelial growth factor enhancer between two promoters for hypoxic cancer-specific gene expression...
April 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Meltem Ocak, Wissam Beaino, Alexander White, Dexing Zeng, Zhengxin Cai, Carolyn J Anderson
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this research was to evaluate c(RGDyK) conjugated to phosphonate-based cross-bridged chelators using Cu-free click chemistry in the 4T1 mouse mammary tumor bone metastasis model in comparison with 64 Cu-CB-TE2A-c(RGDyK), which previously showed selective binding to integrin αvβ3 on osteoclasts. EXPERIMENTAL: Two phosphonate-based cross-bridged chelators (CB-TE1A1P and CB-TE1K1P) were conjugated to c(RGDyK) through bio-orthogonal strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition...
March 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Jameel Al-Tamimi, Abdelhabib Semlali, Iftekhar Hassan, Hossam Ebaid, Ibrahim M Alhazza, Syed H Mehdi, Mohammed Al-Khalifa, Mohammad S Alanazi
Samsum ant venom (SAV) is a rich repertoire of natural compounds with tremendous pharmacological properties. The present work explores its antineoplastic activity in different cell lines followed by its confirmation in vivo. The cell lines, HepG2, MCF-7, and LoVo showed the differential dose-dependent antineoplastic effect with an increased level of significant cytokines, including Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 and transcription factor, Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). However, the venom was more effective on HepG2 and MCF-7 cells than LoVo cells...
March 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Merve Karpuz, Mine Silindir-Gunay, Asuman Yekta Ozer
Cancer poses a major health problem, not only due to cancer-related deaths but also because of treatment toxicities. This review discusses early diagnosis and strategies to overcome treatment difficulties, to facilitate recovery, and prevent deaths. Generally, noninvasive techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission computed tomography (PET), and their hybrid systems, including SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI, are used in diagnosis of cancer...
March 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Qinghai Lin, Huige Wang, Xinqiang Lin, Wenrui Zhang, Shuhua Huang, Yandan Zheng
OBJECTIVE: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) shows the leading morbidity in otorhinolaryngological malignant tumor. It is a common malignancy in China with obvious reginal distribution. NPC is a polygenic disease that is affected by numerous factors. Protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 12 (PTPN12) regulates multiple tumor proliferation and development, including breast cancer and colon cancer. However, the role of PTPN12 in NPC occurrence and development has not been elucidated...
March 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
In Sun Kim, Hyeon-Soo Kim, Minjoo Kim, Jeongil Kwon, Eun-Mi Kim, Hyosook Hwang, Phil-Sun Oh, Seok Tae Lim, Myung-Hee Sohn, Dong Hyun Kim, Hwan-Jeong Jeong
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are an important regulator of expression and activity of numerous proteins in terms of epigenetic aberrations. This makes HDACs attractive for antitumor therapy and imaging in certain cancers. The authors report the radiochemical synthesis of 2-[18 F]fluoroethyltriazolesuberohydroxamine acid ([18 F]FETSAHA) as a HDAC-targeted radiolabel probe for positron imaging tomography/computed tomography. The authors also evaluated the in vivo tumor targeting in subcutaneously implanted RR1022 rats...
March 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Guohao Lu, Wanling Shi, Hongyu Zheng
BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinoma is the most popular cancer worldwide. Anoctamin-1 is a calcium-activated channel and highly expressed in various tumors. A previous study indicated that suppressed Anoctamin-1 expression decreased cancer cell proliferation or migration. As a signal transduction and transcription activator, STAT6 is a novel agonist for Anoctamin-1 promoter. However, its role in tumor cell proliferation or migration remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to suppress STAT6 and Anoctamin-1 protein expression in gastric cancer cells to test the inhibitory effects on gastric cancer cell migration or invasion...
February 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Xiao-Ping Zhang, Ying-Dong Li, Lu-Lu Luo, Yong-Qi Liu, Yang Li, Chao Guo, Zhen-Dong Li, Xiao-Rong Xie, Hai-Xia Song, Li-Ping Yang, Shao-Bo Sun, Fang-Yu An
Cancer vaccines mostly aim to induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against tumors. An appropriate adjuvant is of fundamental importance for inducing cellular immune response. Since the antigen in particulate form is substantially more immunogenic than soluble form antigen, it is beneficial to interact with antigen-presenting cells membrane to induce robust CD8+ T cell activation following vaccination. Based on previous research, we designed an adjuvant formulation by combining Astragalus saponins, cholesterol, and liposome to incorporate antigen into a particulate delivery system, so as to enhance cellular immune response...
February 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Martin W Brechbiel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
Lin Wang, Bing Tang, Heng Han, Dan Mao, Jie Chen, Yun Zeng, Min Xiong
OBJECTIVE: Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) plays a positive regulatory role on cell autophagy through inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. miR-155 plays a critical role in osteosarcoma occurrence and chemoresistance. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the targeted binding site between miR-155 and the 3'-UTR (untranslated region) of PTEN mRNA. This study investigated the role of miR-155 in regulating osteosarcoma cell autophagy, chemosensitivity to Adriamycin (ADM), and PTEN-PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway...
February 2018: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
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