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Molecular Vision

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400700/serum-retinol-binding-protein-induced-endothelial-inflammation-is-mediated-through-the-activation-of-toll-like-receptor-4
#1
Mei Du, Ashley Martin, Franklin Hays, Jennifer Johnson, Rafal A Farjo, Krysten M Farjo
PURPOSE: Elevation of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) induces inflammation in primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) via a retinol-independent mechanism; thus, it may play a causative role in the development and progression of vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Since HRECs do not express the classical RBP4 receptor, stimulated by retinoic acid gene 6 (STRA6), this study focuses on identifying the endothelial cell receptor and signaling that mediate RBP4-induced inflammation...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400699/ladd-syndrome-with-glaucoma-is-caused-by-a-novel-gene
#2
Allie Simpson, Armin Avdic, Ben R Roos, Adam DeLuca, Kathy Miller, Michael J Schnieders, Todd E Scheetz, Wallace L M Alward, John H Fingert
PURPOSE: Lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital (LADD) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder displaying variable expression of multiple congenital anomalies including hypoplasia or aplasia of the lacrimal and salivary systems causing abnormal tearing and dry mouth. Mutations in the FGF10, FGFR2, and FGFR3 genes were found to cause some cases of LADD syndrome in prior genetic studies. The goal of this study is to identify the genetic basis of a case of LADD syndrome with glaucoma and thin central corneal thickness (CCT)...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356707/epigenetic-intervention-with-a-bet-inhibitor-ameliorates-acute-retinal-ganglion-cell-death-in-mice
#3
Jun Li, Lei Zhao, Go Urabe, Yingmei Fu, Lian-Wang Guo
PURPOSE: The bromo and extraterminal (BET) epigenetic "reader" family is becoming an appealing new therapeutic target for several common diseases, yet little is known of its role in retinal neurodegeneration. We explored the potential of BET inhibition in the protection of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). METHODS: To test the therapeutic effect of JQ1, an inhibitor highly selective for the BET family of proteins, we used an acute RGC damage model induced by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) excitotoxicity...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356706/a-mutagenesis-derived-lrp5-mouse-mutant-with-abnormal-retinal-vasculature-and-low-bone-mineral-density
#4
Jeremy R Charette, Sarah E Earp, Brent A Bell, Cheryl L Ackert-Bicknell, Dana A Godfrey, Sujata Rao, Bela Anand-Apte, Patsy M Nishina, Neal S Peachey
PURPOSE: Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is caused by mutations in the genes encoding low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP5) or its interacting partners, namely frizzled class receptor 4 (FZD4) and norrin cystine knot growth factor (NDP). Mouse models for Lrp5, Fzd4, and Ndp have proven to be important for understanding the retinal pathophysiology underlying FEVR and systemic abnormalities related to defective Wnt signaling. Here, we report a new mouse mutant, tvrm111B, which was identified by electroretinogram (ERG) screening of mice generated in the Jackson Laboratory Translational Vision Research Models (TVRM) mutagenesis program...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356705/novel-splice-site-mutation-in-ttll5-causes-cone-dystrophy-in-a-consanguineous-family
#5
Miguel de Sousa Dias, Christian P Hamel, Isabelle Meunier, Juliette Varin, Steven Blanchard, Fiona Boyard, José-Alain Sahel, Christina Zeitz
PURPOSE: To report the clinical and genetic findings of one family with autosomal recessive cone dystrophy (CD) and to identify the causative mutation. METHODS: An institutional study of three family members from two generations. The clinical examination included best-corrected Snellen visual acuity measurement, fundoscopy, the Farnsworth D-15 color vision test, a full-field electroretinogram (ERG) that incorporated the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision standards and methodology, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and infrared (IR), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356704/osmotic-regulation-of-nfat5-expression-in-rpe-cells-the-involvement-of-purinergic-receptor-signaling
#6
Margrit Hollborn, Sarah Fischer, Heidrun Kuhrt, Peter Wiedemann, Andreas Bringmann, Leon Kohen
PURPOSE: Systemic hypertension is a risk factor for age-related neovascular retinal diseases. The major condition that induces hypertension is the intake of dietary salt (NaCl) resulting in increased extracellular osmolarity. High extracellular NaCl was has been shown to induce angiogenic factor production in RPE cells, in part via the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor of activated T cell 5 (NFAT5). Here, we determined the signaling pathways that mediate the osmotic expression of the NFAT5 gene in RPE cells...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356703/differential-responses-of-choroidal-melanocytes-and-uveal-melanoma-cells-to-low-oxygen-conditions
#7
Cindy Weidmann, Jade Pomerleau, Laurence Trudel-Vandal, Solange Landreville
PURPOSE: Tissue culture is traditionally performed at atmospheric oxygen concentration (21%), which induces hyperoxic stress, as endogenous physiologic oxygen tension found in tissues varies between 2% and 9%. This discrepancy may lead to misinterpretation of results and may explain why effects observed in vitro cannot always be reproduced in vivo and vice versa. Only a few studies have been conducted in low physiologic oxygen conditions to understand the development and differentiation of cells from the eye...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356702/appropriately-differentiated-arpe-19-cells-regain-phenotype-and-gene-expression-profiles-similar-to-those-of-native-rpe-cells
#8
William Samuel, Cynthia Jaworski, Olga A Postnikova, R Krishnan Kutty, Todd Duncan, Li Xuan Tan, Eugenia Poliakov, Aparna Lakkaraju, T Michael Redmond
PURPOSE: The RPE cell line ARPE-19 provides a dependable and widely used alternative to native RPE. However, replication of the native RPE phenotype becomes more difficult because these cells lose their specialized phenotype after multiple passages. Compounding this problem is the widespread use of ARPE-19 cells in an undifferentiated state to attempt to model RPE functions. We wished to determine whether suitable culture conditions and differentiation could restore the RPE-appropriate expression of genes and proteins to ARPE-19, along with a functional and morphological phenotype resembling native RPE...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331282/reduced-phosphocreb-in-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-during-retinal-degeneration-in-rd10-mice
#9
Enheng Dong, Amelia Bachleda, Yubin Xiong, Shoji Osawa, Ellen R Weiss
PURPOSE: The mechanisms that trigger retinal degeneration are not well understood, despite the availability of several animal models with different mutations. In the present report, the rd10 mouse, a model for retinitis pigmentosa (RP) that contains a mutation in the gene for PDE6β (Pde6b), is used to evaluate gliosis, as a marker for retinal stress, and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, which may be important early in retinal degeneration. METHODS: Wild-type C57Bl6J and rd10 mice raised under cyclic light were examined for changes in gliosis and CREB phosphorylation for approximately 3 weeks beginning at P14 to P17 using immunocytochemistry...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331281/the-involvement-of-atf4-and-s-opsin-in-retinal-photoreceptor-cell-damage-induced-by-blue-led-light
#10
Emi Ooe, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Yoshiki Kuse, Saori Kobayashi, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
PURPOSE: Blue light is a high-energy emitting light with a short wavelength in the visible light spectrum. Blue light induces photoreceptor apoptosis and causes age-related macular degeneration or retinitis pigmentosa. In the present study, we investigated the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by blue light-emitting diode (LED) light exposure in murine photoreceptor cells. METHODS: The murine photoreceptor cell line was incubated and exposed to blue LED light (464 nm blue LED light, 450 lx, 3 to 24 h)...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275314/ebm-regeneration-and-changes-in-ebm-component-mrna-expression-in-stromal-cells-after-corneal-injury
#11
Abirami Santhanam, Gustavo K Marino, Andre A M Torricelli, Steven E Wilson
PURPOSE: To investigate the production of the epithelial basement membrane (EBM) component mRNAs at time points before lamina lucida and lamina densa regeneration in anterior stromal cells after corneal injury that would heal with and without fibrosis. METHODS: Rabbit corneas were removed from 2 to 19 days after -4.5D or -9.0D photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) with the VISX S4 IR laser. Corneas were evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for full regeneration of the lamina lucida and the lamina densa...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275313/zinc-oxide-tetrapods-inhibit-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-of-cultured-corneas
#12
Neil Duggal, Dinesh Jaishankar, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Satvik Hadigal, Yogendra Kumar Mishra, Rainer Adelung, Deepak Shukla
PURPOSE: Infection of the human cornea by herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) can cause significant vision loss. The purpose of this study was to develop an ex vivo model to visualize viral growth and spread in the cornea. The model was also used to analyze cytokine production and study the antiviral effects of zinc oxide tetrapods. METHODS: A β-galactosidase-expressing recombinant virus, HSV-1(KOS)tk12, was used to demonstrate the ability of the virus to enter and develop blue plaques on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells and corneal tissues...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210099/study-of-polymorphisms-in-the-tp53-and-rb1-genes-in-children-with-retinoblastoma-in-northern-mexico
#13
Edwin J Anaya-Pava, Jesús Nares-Cisneros, Rubén I Cárdenas-Hernández, Yolanda Jaramillo-Rodríguez, Graciela Zambrano-Galván
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency and association of polymorphisms in the TP53 and RB1 genes with clinical characteristics in a group of children with retinoblastoma (RB) in northern Mexico. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal, and analytical study of 11 patients diagnosed with RB was conducted. Endpoint PCR and high-resolution real-time PCR were performed. Chi-square and Student t tests were used to evaluate associations between variables. Allelic frequencies, as well as genotypic and Hardy-Weinberg equilibriums, were evaluated using Guo and Thompson's method...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210098/mertk-gene-expression-and-photoreceptor-outer-segment-phagocytosis-by-cultured-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Rong-Mei Peng, Jing Hong, Ying Jin, Yu-Zhao Sun, Yi-Qian Sun, Pei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are multipotential stem cells that have been used for a broad spectrum of indications. Several investigations have used BM-MSCs to promote photoreceptor survival and suggested that BM-MSCs are a potential source of cell replacement therapy for some forms of retinal degeneration. PURPOSE: To investigate the expression of the MER proto-oncogene, tyrosine kinase (Mertk), involved in the disruption of RPE phagocytosis and the onset of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in rat BM-MSCs and to compare phagocytosis of the photoreceptor outer segment (POS) by BM-MSCs and RPE cells in vitro...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210097/epac1-agonist-decreased-inflammatory-proteins-in-retinal-endothelial-cells-and-loss-of-epac1-increased-inflammatory-proteins-in-the-retinal-vasculature-of-mice
#15
Li Liu, Youde Jiang, Adam Chahine, Elizabeth Curtiss, Jena J Steinle
PURPOSE: Increased inflammatory mediator levels are reported in diabetic retinopathy. We previously reported that β-adrenergic receptor agonists reduced inflammatory mediators in the diabetic retina; however, these agents cannot be given systemically. Here, we investigated whether Epac1 is key to the protective effects of β-adrenergic receptor agonists. METHODS: We cultured primary human retinal endothelial cells (RECs) in normal (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose and treated them with an Epac1-specific agonist...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050125/somatostatin-protects-photoreceptor-cells-against-high-glucose-induced-apoptosis
#16
Ana I Arroba, Aurora Mazzeo, Daniele Cazzoni, Elena Beltramo, Cristina Hernández, Massimo Porta, Rafael Simó, Ángela M Valverde
PURPOSE: Many cellular and molecular studies in experimental animals and early retinal function tests in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) have shown that retinal neurodegeneration is an early event in the pathogenesis of the disease. Somatostatin (SST) is one of the most important neuroprotective factors synthesized by the retina: SST levels are decreased in parallel to retinal neurodegeneration in early stages of DR. In this study, we characterized the induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in a 661W photoreceptor-like cell line cultured under high glucose (HG) conditions and the effect of SST...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050124/novel-compound-heterozygous-mutations-in-abca4-in-a-chinese-pedigree-with-stargardt-disease
#17
Jianping Zhang, Anhui Qi, Xi Wang, Hong Pan, Haiming Mo, Jiwei Huang, Honghui Li, Zhenwen Chen, Meirong Wei, Binbin Wang
PURPOSE: Stargardt disease (STGD) is a common macular dystrophy in juveniles that is commonly inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Mutations in five genes (ABCA4, PROM1, ELOVL4, BEST1, and PRPH2) have been reported to be associated with STGD. In the present study, we aimed to identify the pathogenic mutations in affected members in a Chinese STGD pedigree. METHODS: One patient was selected for whole-exome sequencing. Variants in five candidate genes were identified initially, followed by several filtering steps against public and private variation databases (1000Genomes, ESP6500si, ExAC, and in-house database), as well as bioinformatic analysis of the putative pathogenic roles...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050123/loss-of-nrf2-exacerbates-the-visual-deficits-and-optic-neuritis-elicited-by-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#18
Chelsea M Larabee, Shruti Desai, Agnieshka Agasing, Constantin Georgescu, Jonathan D Wren, Robert C Axtell, Scott M Plafker
PURPOSE: Optic neuritis, inflammation of the optic nerve, is experienced by most patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and is typically characterized by episodes of acute, monocular vision loss. These episodes of inflammation can lead to damage or degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the axons of which comprise the optic nerve. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established model of MS in which mice are immunized to produce a neuroautoimmunity that recapitulates the cardinal hallmarks of human disease, namely, inflammation, demyelination, and neurodegeneration of the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050122/chondrocyte-derived-extracellular-matrix-suppresses-pathogenesis-of-human-pterygium-epithelial-cells-by-blocking-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#19
Hyesook Lee, Minsup Lee, Yoonjin Lee, Soojin Choi, Jaewook Yang
PURPOSE: We previously have reported that chondrocyte-derived extracellular matrix (CDECM) suppresses the growth of pterygium in athymic nude mice. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effect of CDECM on the pterygium epithelial cells and molecular signaling pathways in human primary pterygium epithelial cells (hPECs). METHODS: Human conjunctival epithelial cells (hConECs) were used for identification of the effect of CDECM on normal conjunctiva. The effects of CDECM on proliferation were measured with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxy-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050121/increased-proliferation-of-late-born-retinal-progenitor-cells-by-gestational-lead-exposure-delays-rod-and-bipolar-cell-differentiation
#20
Shawnta Y Chaney, Shradha Mukherjee, Anand Giddabasappa, Elda M Rueda, W Ryan Hamilton, Jerry E Johnson, Donald A Fox
PURPOSE: Studies of neuronal development in the retina often examine the stages of proliferation, differentiation, and synaptic development, albeit independently. Our goal was to determine if a known neurotoxicant insult to a population of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) would affect their eventual differentiation and synaptic development. To that end, we used our previously published human equivalent murine model of low-level gestational lead exposure (GLE). Children and animals with GLE exhibit increased scotopic electroretinogram a- and b-waves...
2016: Molecular Vision
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