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Molecular Vision

Xiaohang Wu, Zhenzhen Liu, Dongni Wang, Duoru Lin, Erping Long, Zhuoling Lin, Jingjing Chen, Qianzhong Cao, Yi Zhu, Chuan Chen, Xiaoyan Li, Zhihang Liu, Haotian Lin, Weirong Chen, Yizhi Liu
Purpose: To measure the aqueous humor concentrations of inflammatory factors in patients with congenital cataract and to investigate the relationship between the levels and postoperative inflammatory responses. Methods: Aqueous humor samples were prospectively collected from 65 eyes of children with congenital cataracts from January to June 2015. The levels of 41 inflammation-related cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in aqueous humor were measured using multiplex bead immunoassay...
2018: Molecular Vision
Saadiah Goolam, Nadia Carstens, Mark Ross, David Bentley, Margarida Lopes, John Peden, Zoya Kingsbury, Eleni Tsogka, Robyn Barlow, Trevor R Carmichael, Michèle Ramsay, Susan E Williams
Purpose: To report on a clinical and genetic investigation of a large, multigenerational South African family of mixed ancestry with autosomal dominant congenital cataracts, coloboma, and nystagmus. Methods: Ophthalmic examination was performed in 27 individuals from the same admixed South African family. DNA was sampled from either peripheral blood or buccal swabs in all 27 individuals, and whole genome sequencing was performed in six individuals. Sanger sequencing was used to validate the probable mutation in the remaining family members...
2018: Molecular Vision
Ahmed M Abu El-Asrar, Ghulam Mohammad, Eef Allegaert, Ajmal Ahmad, Mohammad Mairaj Siddiquei, Kaiser Alam, Priscilla W Gikandi, Gert De Hertogh, Ghislain Opdenakker
Purpose: Matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) is a transmembrane MMP that plays a critical role in promoting angiogenesis. We investigated the expression levels of MMP-14 and correlated the levels with clinical disease activity and with the levels of the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and MMP-9 in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). To reinforce the findings at the functional level, we examined the expression of MMP-14 in the retinas of diabetic rats...
2018: Molecular Vision
Jinxian Xu, Xinglou Liu, Juan Mo, Brendan Marshall, Libby Perry, Zheng Dong, Ming Zhang
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the blood-retina barrier is compromised by choroidal murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, using electron microscopy. Methods: BALB/c mice were immunosuppressed with methylprednisolone and monoclonal antibodies to CD4 and CD8. At several time points post-MCMV intraperitoneal inoculation, the eyes were removed and analyzed with western blotting and immunoelectron microscopy for the presence of MCMV early antigen (EA) and the host protein RIP3...
2018: Molecular Vision
Ruojing Huang, Shaomin Liang, Lyujie Fang, Min Wu, Huanhuan Cheng, Xuesong Mi, Yong Ding
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of minocycline (MC) on the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in an ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) injury model of retinal degeneration. Methods: Retinal I/R injury was induced in the left eye of mice for 60 min by maintaining intraocular pressure at 90 mmHg. Low- or high-dose MC (20 or 100 mg/kg, respectively) was administered by intravenous injection at 5 min after the retinal ischemic insult and then administered once daily until the mice were euthanized...
2018: Molecular Vision
Mariana R P Alves, Raquel Boia, Elisa J Campos, João Martins, Sara Nunes, Maria H Madeira, Ana Raquel Santiago, Frederico C Pereira, Flávio Reis, António F Ambrósio, Filipa I Baptista
Purpose: Diabetic retinopathy is a neurovascular disease characterized by increased permeability of the blood-retinal barrier, changes in the neural components of the retina, and low-grade chronic inflammation. Diabetic retinopathy is a major complication of diabetes; however, the impact of a prediabetic state on the retina remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess possible early retinal changes in prediabetic rats, by evaluating changes in the integrity of the blood-retinal barrier, the retinal structure, neural markers, and inflammatory mediators...
2018: Molecular Vision
Yi Zhang, Lin Zhao, Lijun Wang, Xiting Yang, Aiyi Zhou, Jianming Wang
Purpose: To investigate the role of placental growth factor (PGF) in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of ARPE-19 cells under hypoxia, and whether the NF-κB signaling pathway is involved in this process. Methods: ARPE-19 cells were treated in five groups: a control group, hypoxia group, PGF group, hypoxia+PGF group, and NF-κB-blocked group. A chemical hypoxia model was established in the ARPE-19 cells by adding CoCl2 to the culture medium. The morphological changes after treatment were observed...
2018: Molecular Vision
Anna Wawrocka, Anna Skorczyk-Werner, Katarzyna Wicher, Zuzanna Niedziela, Rafal Ploski, Malgorzata Rydzanicz, Maciej Sykulski, Jaroslaw Kociecki, Nicole Weisschuh, Susanne Kohl, Saskia Biskup, Bernd Wissinger, Maciej R Krawczynski
Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the molecular genetic basis of cone-rod dystrophy in 18 unrelated families of Polish origin. Cone-rod dystrophy is one of the inherited retinal dystrophies, which constitute a highly heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by progressive dysfunction of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Methods: The study group was composed of four groups of patients representing different Mendelian inheritance of the disease: autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked recessive (XL), and autosomal recessive or X-linked recessive (AR/XL)...
2018: Molecular Vision
Jingyuan Zhu, Li Chen, Yun Qi, Jing Feng, Li Zhu, Yujing Bai, Huijuan Wu
Purpose: To investigate the neuroprotective effects of scutellarin, an active component of the multifunctional traditional Chinese herb Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) Hand.-Mazz. (EBHM), which has been used as a neuroprotective therapy for cerebrovascular diseases. We performed the experiments using in vitro and in vivo models of retinal neurodegeneration. Methods: In the in vitro experiments, we exposed BV-2 cells to low oxygen levels in an incubator for 24 and 48 h to generate hypoxia models...
2018: Molecular Vision
Ashutosh S Phadte, Puttur Santhoshkumar, K Krishna Sharma
Purpose: The G98R mutant of αA-crystallin is associated with the development of presenile cataracts. In vitro, the recombinant mutant protein exhibits altered structural and functional characteristics, along with the propensity to aggregate by itself and precipitate. Previously, we have reported that the N-terminal aspartate substituted form of the antiaggregation peptide, D71 FVIFLDVKHFSPEDLTVK88 (αA-minichaperone or mini-αA) prevented aggregation of αAG98R. However, the mechanism of stabilization of αAG98R from aggregation is not fully understood...
2018: Molecular Vision
Masmali Am, Fagehi Ra, Ahmad H El-Naggar, Almubrad Tm
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the tear ferning pattern and chemical elements of the tear film of camel tears compared with human tears and Refresh Plus eye lubricant. Refresh Plus was used as a control because it provides a healthy ferning pattern, due to the presence of an optimum ratio of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) sodium and electrolytes. The main research focus is elucidating the viability of camel tear film in the dry, harsh environment of the desert. Methods: The tears were collected from five camels, five male desert workers (20-25 years old) at a small village located 100 km from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and five male subjects (20-25 years old) from Riyadh...
2018: Molecular Vision
Satoshi Katagiri, Katsuhiro Hosono, Takaaki Hayashi, Kentaro Kurata, Kei Mizobuchi, Tomokazu Matsuura, Kazutoshi Yoshitake, Takeshi Iwata, Tadashi Nakano, Yoshihiro Hotta
Purpose: To report genetic and clinical features of two unrelated Japanese patients with early onset flecked retinal dystrophy. Methods: Patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations that included electroretinography (ERG) after 30 min and 24 h of dark adaptation (DA). Disease-causing gene variants were identified with whole exome sequencing (WES), with identified candidates confirmed with direct sequencing. Results: WES identified compound heterozygous RPE65 variants in both patients...
2018: Molecular Vision
Maryo Cenk Kohen, Sinan Tatlipinar, Alev Cumbul, Ünal Uslu
Purpose: To create a model of an ischemic retina with temporary ischemia and reperfusion (IR) and to examine the possible antiapoptotic and neurodegenerative effects of a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antagonist. Methods: Three groups were formed. Rats were subjected to continued ischemia for 45 min, and then reperfusion was allowed for 2 days. For the first group, ischemia was induced, but an anti-VEGF agent was not administered. For the second group, 2 days before ischemia, 0...
2018: Molecular Vision
Zhenzhen Zhang, Xiaoli Hu, Xia Qi, Guohu Di, Yangyang Zhang, Qian Wang, Qingjun Zhou
Purpose: To investigate the effect and mechanism of proresolving lipid mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1) on the corneal epithelium and the restoration of mechanical sensation in diabetic mice. Methods: Type 1 diabetes was induced in mice with intraperitoneal streptozocin injections. The healthy and diabetic mice underwent removal of the central corneal epithelium, and then 100 ng/ml RvD1 or its formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) antagonist WRW4 was used to treat the diabetic mice...
2018: Molecular Vision
Emmanuelle Souzeau, Adam K Rudkin, Andrew Dubowsky, Robert J Casson, James S Muecke, Erica Mancel, Mark Whiting, Richard A D Mills, Kathryn P Burdon, Jamie E Craig
Purpose: Aniridia is a congenital disorder caused by variants in the PAX6 gene. In this study, we assessed the involvement of PAX6 in patients with aniridia from Australasia and Southeast Asia. Methods: Twenty-nine individuals with aniridia from 18 families originating from Australia, New Caledonia, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, and Bhutan were included. The PAX6 gene was investigated for sequence variants and analyzed for deletions with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification...
2018: Molecular Vision
Nannan Ding, Shasha Luo, Jinjin Yu, Ying Zhou, Zhifeng Wu
Purpose: This study aims to quantify the concentration of apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) and retinol binding protein (RBP4) expressed in the vitreous humors of patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated with choroidal detachment (RRDCD), rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), and idiopathic epimacular membrane (IEM). This study also aims to investigate the potential role of APOA1 and RBP4 as biomarkers of RRDCD. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were used to obtain levels of APOA1 and RBP4 from the vitreous humor samples of 76 primary patients...
2018: Molecular Vision
Ha Hai Nguyen, Hoa Thi Thanh Nguyen, Nhung Phuong Vu, Quynh Thuy Le, Chau Minh Pham, Thuong Thi Huyen, Hung Manh, Hang Le Bich Pham, Ton Dang Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu Le, Hai Van Nong
Purpose: Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a rare and unique eye cancer that usually develops in the retinas of children less than 5 years old due to mutations in the RB1 gene. About 40% of affected individuals have the heritable form making genetics testing of the RB1 gene important for disease management. This study aims to identify germline mutations in RB1 in a cohort of patients with Rb from northern Vietnam. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 34 patients with Rb (nine unilateral and 25 bilateral cases) and their available parents...
2018: Molecular Vision
Reafa A Hossain, Nicholas R Dunham, Raymond A Enke, Christopher E Berndsen
Purpose: DNA methylation is a well-characterized epigenetic repressor of mRNA transcription in many plant and vertebrate systems. However, the mechanism of this repression is not fully understood. The process of transcription is controlled by proteins that regulate recruitment and activity of RNA polymerase by binding to specific cis-regulatory sequences. Cone-rod homeobox (CRX) is a well-characterized mammalian transcription factor that controls photoreceptor cell-specific gene expression...
2018: Molecular Vision
Riccardo Natoli, Nilisha Fernando, Tess Dahlenburg, Haihan Jiao, Riemke Aggio-Bruce, Nigel L Barnett, Juan Manuel Chao de la Barca, Guillaume Tcherkez, Pascal Reynier, Johnny Fang, Joshua A Chu-Tan, Krisztina Valter, Jan Provis, Matt Rutar
Purpose: Systemic increases in reactive oxygen species, and their association with inflammation, have been proposed as an underlying mechanism linking obesity and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Studies have found increased levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines in obese individuals; however, the correlation between obesity and retinal inflammation has yet to be assessed. We used the leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mouse to further our understanding of the contribution of obesity to retinal oxidative stress and inflammation...
2018: Molecular Vision
Jing Zhong, Lulu Peng, Bowen Wang, Henan Zhang, Saiqun Li, Ruhui Yang, Yuqing Deng, Haixiang Huang, Jin Yuan
Purpose: To investigate the expression and roles of type I and II interferons (IFNs) in fungal keratitis, as well as the therapeutic effects of tacrolimus (FK506) and voriconazole on this condition. Methods: The mRNA and protein expression levels of type I (IFN-α/β) and II (IFN-γ) IFNs, as well as of related downstream inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-17), were detected in macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and corneal epithelial cells (A6(1) cells) stimulated with zymosan (10 mg/ml) for 8 or 24 h...
2018: Molecular Vision
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