Read by QxMD icon Read

Addiction Biology

Benoît Silvestre de Ferron, Catherine Vilpoux, Myriam Kervern, Alexandre Robert, Johan Antol, Mickael Naassila, Olivier Pierrefiche
Low to moderate perinatal ethanol exposure (PEE) may have disastrous consequences for the central nervous system resulting notably in permanent cognitive deficits. Learning and memory are mediated in the hippocampus by long-term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), two forms of synaptic plasticity. PEE decreases LTP but also abnormally facilitates LTD (Kervern et al. ) through a presently unknown mechanism. We studied in rat hippocampus slice, the involvement of the chloride co-transporters NKCC1 and KCC2, in the role of GABAA inhibitions in facilitated LTD after moderate PEE...
October 25, 2016: Addiction Biology
Sophie Laguesse, Nadege Morisot, Khanhky Phamluong, Dorit Ron
We previously reported that the kinase AKT is activated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents in response to excessive consumption of alcohol. One of the important downstream targets of AKT is the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin in Complex 1 (mTORC1), which was also activated by alcohol intake. mTORC1 controls dendritic protein translation, and we showed that the mTORC1-dependent translational machinery is activated in the NAc in response to alcohol intake. Importantly, systemic or intra-NAc inhibition of the AKT/mTORC1 pathway attenuated alcohol-drinking behaviors...
October 20, 2016: Addiction Biology
Jo-Hanna Ivers, Jacqueline Fitzgerald, Christopher Whelan, Brion Sweeney, Eamon Keenan, Andrew Fagan, Jason McMarrow, Jim Meany, Joe Barry, Thomas Frodl
White matter impairment is associated with opioid dependence. However, the specific neuropathology related to opioid dependence is still not fully understood. The main aims of this study were to: (1) assess the association between white matter impairment and duration of dependence; (2) examine whether this impairment correlates with treatment outcome measures in opioid-dependent patients post-detoxification. Fifty-eight opioid-dependent patients participated, 20 females and 38 males, across three groups: less than 10 years use (n = 18), 10-15 years use (n = 26) and 16-25+ years use (n = 14)...
October 13, 2016: Addiction Biology
Inge Mick, Anna C Ramos, Jim Myers, Paul R Stokes, Samantha Chandrasekera, David Erritzoe, Maria A Mendez, Roger N Gunn, Eugenii A Rabiner, Graham E Searle, José C F Galduróz, Adam D Waldman, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Luke Clark, David J Nutt, Anne R Lingford-Hughes
As a behavioural addiction, gambling disorder (GD) provides an opportunity to characterize addictive processes without the potentially confounding effects of chronic excessive drug and alcohol exposure. Impulsivity is an established precursor to such addictive behaviours, and GD is associated with greater impulsivity. There is also evidence of GABAergic dysregulation in substance addiction and in impulsivity. This study therefore investigated GABAA receptor availability in 15 individuals with GD and 19 healthy volunteers (HV) using [(11) C]Ro15-4513, a relatively selective α5 benzodiazepine receptor PET tracer and its relationship with impulsivity...
October 13, 2016: Addiction Biology
Lei Zhang, Lu Huang, Kangrong Lu, Yutong Liu, Genghong Tu, Mengjuan Zhu, Li Ying, Jinlan Zhao, N Liu, Fukun Guo, Lin Zhang, Lu Zhang
Synaptic plasticity plays a critical role in cocaine addiction. The dopamine D1 and D3 receptors differentially regulate the cocaine-induced gene expression, structural remodeling and behavioral response. However, how these two receptors coordinately mediate the ultra-structural changes of synapses after cocaine exposure and whether these changes are behaviorally relevant are still not clear. Here, using quantitative electron microscopy, we show that D1 and D3 receptors have distinct roles in regulating cocaine-induced ultra-structural changes of synapses in the nucleus accumbens and caudoputamen...
October 12, 2016: Addiction Biology
Shi-Xun Ma, Seung-Hwan Kwon, Jee-Yeon Seo, Ji-Young Hwang, Sa-Ik Hong, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seok-Yong Lee, Choon-Gon Jang
Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), the archetypal member of the vanilloid TRP family, was initially identified as the receptor for capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in hot chili peppers. We previously demonstrated that TRPV1 in the dorsal striatum significantly contributes to morphine reward by using the conditioned place preference paradigm in mice; however, it is unknown whether TRPV1 has the same effect in other reward models. In this study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in morphine reward by using a self-administration paradigm in rats...
October 11, 2016: Addiction Biology
María Pascual, Jorge Montesinos, Miguel Marcos, Jorge-Luis Torres, Pilar Costa-Alba, Francisco García-García, Francisco-Javier Laso, Consuelo Guerri
Heavy binge drinking in adolescence can cause long-term cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions. Recent experimental evidence indicates the participation of immune system activation in the effects of ethanol in the adolescent brain and suggests gender differences. The present study aims to assess plasma cytokine and chemokine levels in male and female adolescents and young adults during acute alcohol intoxication and to correlate these results with the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) response. The potential role of the TLR4 signaling response was also assessed in plasma and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adolescent wild-type and TLR4-knockout male and female mice with binge ethanol treatment...
October 4, 2016: Addiction Biology
Yifan Wang, Lingdan Wu, Lingxiao Wang, Yifen Zhang, Xiaoxia Du, Guangheng Dong
Although Internet games have been proven to be addictive, only a few game players develop online gaming addiction. A large number of players play online games recreationally without being addicted to it. These individuals are defined as recreational Internet gaming users (RGU). So far, no research has investigated decision-making and impulse control in RGU. In the current study, we used delay discounting (DD) task and probabilistic discounting (PD) task to examine decision-making and impulse control in 20 healthy controls, 20 subjects with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and 23 RGU during fMRI scanning...
September 30, 2016: Addiction Biology
Ze Wang, Jesse Suh, Dingna Duan, Stefanie Darnley, Ying Jing, Jian Zhang, Charles O'Brien, Anna Rose Childress
Drug addiction is a chronic brain disorder with no proven effective cure. Assessing both structural and functional brain alterations by using multi-modal, rather than purely unimodal imaging techniques, may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying addiction, which in turn may facilitate future treatment strategies. However, this type of research remains scarce in the literature. We acquired multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging from 20 cocaine-addicted individuals and 19 age-matched controls...
September 22, 2016: Addiction Biology
Paul S Regier, Zachary A Monge, Teresa R Franklin, Reagan R Wetherill, Anne Teitelman, Kanchana Jagannathan, Jesse J Suh, Ze Wang, Kimberly A Young, Michael Gawrysiak, Daniel D Langleben, Kyle M Kampman, Charles P O'Brien, Anna Rose Childress
Drug-reward cues trigger motivational circuitry, a response linked to drug-seeking in animals and in humans. Adverse life events have been reported to increase sensitivity to drug rewards and to bolster drug reward signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that cocaine-dependent individuals with prior emotional, physical and sexual abuse might have a heightened mesolimbic brain response to cues for drug reward in a new brief-cue probe. Cocaine-dependent human individuals (N = 68) were stabilized in an inpatient setting and then completed an event-related blood-oxygen-level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging task featuring 500-ms evocative (cocaine, sexual, aversive) and comparator (neutral) cues...
September 22, 2016: Addiction Biology
David N Kearns, Jung S Kim, Brendan J Tunstall, Alan Silberberg
This study investigated the relationship between reinforcer value and choice between cocaine and two non-drug alternative reinforcers in rats. The essential value (EV, a behavioral economic measure based on elasticity of demand) of intravenous cocaine and food (Experiment 1) or saccharin (Experiment 2) was determined in the first phase of each experiment. Food had higher EV than cocaine, whereas the EVs of cocaine and saccharin did not differ. In the second phase of each experiment, rats were allowed to make mutually exclusive choices between cocaine and the non-drug alternative reinforcer...
September 14, 2016: Addiction Biology
Tim van Timmeren, Jochem M Jansen, Matthan W A Caan, Anna E Goudriaan, Ruth J van Holst
Pathological gambling (PG) is a behavioral addiction characterized by an inability to stop gambling despite the negative consequences, which may be mediated by cognitive flexibility deficits. Indeed, impaired cognitive flexibility has previously been linked to PG and also to reduced integrity of white matter connections between the basal ganglia and the prefrontal cortex. It remains unclear, however, how white matter integrity problems relate to cognitive inflexibility seen in PG. We used a cognitive switch paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging in pathological gamblers (PGs; n = 26) and healthy controls (HCs; n = 26)...
September 9, 2016: Addiction Biology
Meredith J McHugh, Hong Gu, Yihong Yang, Bryon Adinoff, Elliot A Stein
Cocaine addiction is characterized by notoriously high relapse rates following treatment. Recent efforts to address poor treatment outcomes have turned to potential neural markers of relapse risk. Accordingly, the present study examined resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) within and between three large-scale cortical networks: the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN) and executive control network (ECN). All three have been implicated in relapse-related phenomena including craving, withdrawal and executive control deficits...
September 7, 2016: Addiction Biology
Liam J Nestor, Anna Murphy, John McGonigle, Csaba Orban, Laurence Reed, Eleanor Taylor, Remy Flechais, Louise M Paterson, Dana Smith, Edward T Bullmore, Karen D Ersche, John Suckling, Roger Tait, Rebecca Elliott, Bill Deakin, Ilan Rabiner, Anne Lingford-Hughes, David J Nutt, Barbara Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
There is a concerted research effort to investigate brain mechanisms underlying addiction processes that may predicate the development of new compounds for treating addiction. One target is the brain's opioid system, because of its role in the reinforcing effects of substances of abuse. Substance-dependent populations have increased numbers of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) in fronto-striatal regions that predict drug relapse, and demonstrate disturbances in these regions during the processing of non-drug rewards...
September 6, 2016: Addiction Biology
Ozlem Korucuoglu, Thomas E Gladwin, Frank Baas, Roel J T Mocking, Henricus G Ruhé, Paul F C Groot, Reinout W Wiers
Genetic variations in the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene have been related to high sensitivity to rewarding effects of alcohol. The current study focuses on the neural circuitry underlying this phenomenon using an alcohol versus water taste-cue reactivity paradigm in a young sample at relatively early stages of alcohol use, thus limiting the confound of variations in duration of alcohol use. Drinkers (17-21 years old) were selected on genotype carrying the AA-(n = 20) or the AG-(n = 16) variant of the A118G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the OPRM1 gene (rs1799971), and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
September 5, 2016: Addiction Biology
Urszula Skupio, Magdalena Sikora, Michal Korostynski, Agnieszka Wawrzczak-Bargiela, Marcin Piechota, Joanna Ficek, Ryszard Przewlocki
Chronic exposure to opioids induces adaptations in brain function that lead to the formation of the behavioral and physiological symptoms of drug dependence and addiction. Animal models commonly used to test these symptoms typically last less than two weeks, which is presumably too short to observe the alterations in the brain that accompany drug addiction. Here, we analyzed the phenotypic and molecular effects of nearly lifelong morphine or saccharin intake in C57BL/6J mice. We used multiple paradigms to evaluate the symptoms of compulsive drug intake: a progressive ratio schedule, intermittent access and a schedule involving a risk of punishment were programmed into an automated IntelliCage system...
August 31, 2016: Addiction Biology
J Tomas-Roig, E Benito, R C Agis-Balboa, F Piscitelli, S Hoyer-Fender, V Di Marzo, U Havemann-Reinecke
Regular use of marijuana during adolescence enhances the risk of long-lasting neurobiological changes in adulthood. The present study was aimed at assessing the effect of long-term administration of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN55212.2 during adolescence in young adult mice. Adolescent mice aged 5 weeks were subjected daily to the pharmacological action of WIN55212.2 for 3 weeks and were then left undisturbed in their home cage for a 5-week period and finally evaluated by behavioral testing. Mice that received the drug during adolescence showed memory impairment in the Morris water maze, as well as a dose-dependent memory impairment in fear conditioning...
August 31, 2016: Addiction Biology
Caitlin V Cosme, Andrea L Gutman, Wensday R Worth, Ryan T LaLumiere
Evidence suggests that the infralimbic cortex (IL), a subregion of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), suppresses cocaine-seeking behavior in a self-administration paradigm, whereas the more anterior vmPFC subregion, the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), has received very little attention in this regard. Despite the established dopaminergic innervation of the vmPFC, whether dopamine receptor blockade in each subregion alters the reinstatement of cocaine seeking is unclear. To address this issue, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 2 weeks of cocaine self-administration, followed by extinction training and reinstatement testing...
August 31, 2016: Addiction Biology
Ashley N Blackburn, Andras Hajnal, Lorenzo Leggio
Obesity represents a major medical and public health problem worldwide. Efforts have been made to develop novel treatments, and among them bariatric surgery is used as an effective treatment to achieve significant, long-term weight loss and alleviate medical problems related to obesity. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is also a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent clinical studies have revealed a concern for bariatric surgery patients developing an increased risk for alcohol consumption, and for AUD...
August 31, 2016: Addiction Biology
Federico Moro, Alessandro Orrù, Claudio Marcello Marzo, Angelo Di Clemente, Luigi Cervo
Chronic self-administration of nicotine induces maladaptive changes in the cortico-accumbal glutamate (Glu) network. Consequently, re-exposure to nicotine-associated cues raises extracellular Glu in the nucleus accumbens reinstating drug-seeking. Restoring basal concentrations of extracellular Glu, thereby increasing tonic activation of the presynaptic group II metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluR2/3) with N-acetylcysteine (N-AC), might offer a valid therapeutic approach for maintaining smoking abstinence. Although N-AC modulates nicotine-seeking behavior by drug-associated stimuli in abstinent rats, it is still unclear whether it occurs through activation of mGluR2/3...
August 24, 2016: Addiction Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"