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Addiction Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194850/cannabidiol-reduces-ethanol-consumption-motivation-and-relapse-in-mice
#1
Adrián Viudez-Martínez, María S García-Gutiérrez, Carmen María Navarrón, María Isabel Morales-Calero, Francisco Navarrete, Ana Isabel Torres-Suárez, Jorge Manzanares
This study evaluated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on ethanol reinforcement, motivation and relapse in C57BL/6 J mice. The effects of CBD (60 mg/kg, i.p.) on blood ethanol concentration, hypothermia and handling-induced convulsions associated to acute ethanol administration were evaluated. The two-bottle choice paradigm was performed to assess the effects of CBD (30, 60 and 120 mg/kg/day, i.p.) on ethanol intake and preference. In addition, an oral ethanol self-administration experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of CBD [a single s...
February 13, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150397/severity-of-alcohol-dependence-is-associated-with-the-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-pro129thr-missense-variant
#2
Matthew E Sloan, Joshua L Gowin, Jia Yan, Melanie L Schwandt, Primavera A Spagnolo, Hui Sun, Colin A Hodgkinson, David Goldman, Vijay A Ramchandani
The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in reward and addiction. One of the two main endocannabinoid neurotransmitters, anandamide, is metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase, an enzyme with a functional genetic polymorphism (FAAH Pro129Thr, rs324420). The Thr129 allele has been linked to problem drug and alcohol use, but the association has not been widely replicated and may be stronger for clinical measures of severity rather than categorical diagnosis. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the Thr129 allele was associated with both alcohol dependence (AD) diagnosis and severity in a sample of 1434 European American and African American individuals, 952 of whom were diagnosed with lifetime AD...
February 1, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150390/gray-matter-relationships-to-diagnostic-and-transdiagnostic-features-of-drug-and-behavioral-addictions
#3
Sarah W Yip, Patrick D Worhunsky, Jiansong Xu, Kristen P Morie, R Todd Constable, Robert T Malison, Kathleen M Carroll, Marc N Potenza
Alterations in neural structure have been reported in both cocaine-use disorder and gambling disorder, separately, suggesting similarities across addiction diagnoses. Individual variation in neural structure has also been associated with impulsivity, a dimensional construct implicated in addictions. This study combines categorical (diagnosis-based) and dimensional (transdiagnostic) approaches to identify neural structural alterations linked to addiction subtypes and trait impulsivity, respectively, across individuals with gambling disorder (n = 35), individuals with cocaine-use disorder (n = 37) and healthy comparison individuals (n = 37)...
February 1, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150369/bidirectional-relationship-between-alcohol-intake-and-sensitivity-to-social-defeat-association-with-tacr1-and-avp-expression
#4
Britta S Nelson, Michelle K Sequeira, Jesse R Schank
While epidemiological studies show that alcohol abuse is often co-morbid with affective disorders, the causal direction of this association is unclear. We examined this relationship using mouse models including social defeat stress (SDS), social interaction (SI) and voluntary alcohol consumption. C57BL6/J mice exposed to SDS segregate into two subpopulations, those that express depressive-like phenotypes ('susceptible') and those that do not ('resilient'). First, we stratified SDS-exposed mice and measured their voluntary alcohol consumption...
February 1, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111843/whole-genome-sequence-study-of-cannabis-dependence-in-two-independent-cohorts
#5
Ian R Gizer, Chris Bizon, David A Gilder, Cindy L Ehlers, Kirk C Wilhelmsen
Recent advances in genome wide sequencing techniques and analytical methods allow for more comprehensive examinations of the genome than microarray-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The present report provides the first application of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to identify low frequency variants involved in cannabis dependence across two independent cohorts. The present study used low-coverage whole genome sequence data to conduct set-based association and enrichment analyses of low frequency variation in protein-coding regions as well as regulatory regions in relation to cannabis dependence...
January 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111829/no-association-of-goal-directed-and-habitual-control-with-alcohol-consumption-in-young-adults
#6
Stephan Nebe, Nils B Kroemer, Daniel J Schad, Nadine Bernhardt, Miriam Sebold, Dirk K Müller, Lucie Scholl, Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Andreas Heinz, Michael A Rapp, Quentin J M Huys, Michael N Smolka
Alcohol dependence is a mental disorder that has been associated with an imbalance in behavioral control favoring model-free habitual over model-based goal-directed strategies. It is as yet unknown, however, whether such an imbalance reflects a predisposing vulnerability or results as a consequence of repeated and/or excessive alcohol exposure. We, therefore, examined the association of alcohol consumption with model-based goal-directed and model-free habitual control in 188 18-year-old social drinkers in a two-step sequential decision-making task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging before prolonged alcohol misuse could have led to severe neurobiological adaptations...
January 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105726/biological-stress-indicators-as-risk-markers-for-increased-alcohol-use-following-traumatic-experiences
#7
Sebastian Trautmann, Markus Muehlhan, Clemens Kirschbaum, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Michael Höfler, Tobias Stalder, Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen
Alcohol misuse is a common sequela of traumatic event experiences causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Although biological stress indicators have been identified as useful risk markers for the development of trauma-related disorders, no such biological indicators exist for the risk of increased alcohol use after trauma exposure. This is the first study to prospectively investigate the predictive value of long-term cortisol levels and acute stress reactivity for the risk of increased alcohol use following traumatic events...
January 20, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105707/binge-drinking-differentially-affects-cortical-and-subcortical-microstructure
#8
Laurel S Morris, Nicholas G Dowell, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison, Valerie Voon
Young adult binge drinkers represent a model for endophenotypic risk factors for alcohol misuse and early exposure to repeated binge cycles. Chronic or harmful alcohol use leads to neurochemical, structural and morphological neuroplastic changes, particularly in regions associated with reward processing and motivation. We investigated neural microstructure in 28 binge drinkers compared with 38 matched healthy controls. We used a recently developed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging acquisition and analysis, which uses three-compartment modelling (of intracellular, extracellular and cerebrospinal fluid) to determine brain tissue microstructure features including neurite density and orientation dispersion index (ODI)...
January 20, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074543/low-distress-tolerance-predicts-heightened-drug-seeking-and-taking-after-extended-abstinence-from-cocaine-self-administration
#9
Travis M Moschak, Douglas R Terry, Stacey B Daughters, Regina M Carelli
Distress tolerance (DT), defined as the ability to persist in goal-directed behavior while experiencing psychological distress, is associated with greater frequency of substance use and poor treatment outcomes. To examine a potential causal role substance use may play in DT, we developed a rodent model of DT in which rats had to press a lever within a continuously decreasing time window for reward while receiving negative feedback on failure trials. DT was defined as the time rats continued to seek reward before quitting the task...
January 11, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074533/netrin-g1-its-downregulation-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-cocaine-conditioned-mice-and-genetic-association-in-human-cocaine-dependence
#10
Sabah Kelaï, Nicolas Ramoz, Jean-Marie Moalic, Florence Noble, Naguib Mechawar, Sandrine Imbeaud, Gustavo Turecki, Michel Simonneau, Philip Gorwood, Gilles Maussion
Netrin G1 is a presynaptic ligand involved in axonal projection. Although molecular mechanisms underlying cocaine addiction are still poorly understood, Netrin G1 might have a role as a regulator of anxiety, fear and spatial memory, behavioural traits impaired in the context of cocaine exposure. In this study, the Netrin G1 (Ntng1) expression was investigated in the nucleus accumbens of mice primarily conditioned to cocaine using a place preference paradigm. A genetic association study was then conducted on 146 multiplex families of the Collaborative study on Genetics of Alcoholism, in which seven single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the NTNG1 gene were genotyped...
January 11, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032407/cyp2a6-metabolism-in-the-development-of-smoking-behaviors-in-young-adults
#11
Emily Olfson, Joseph Bloom, Sarah Bertelsen, John P Budde, Naomi Breslau, Andrew Brooks, Robert Culverhouse, Grace Chan, Li-Shiun Chen, David Chorlian, Danielle M Dick, Howard J Edenberg, Sarah Hartz, Dorothy Hatsukami, Victor M Hesselbrock, Eric O Johnson, John R Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, Jacquelyn L Meyers, John Nurnberger, Bernice Porjesz, Nancy L Saccone, Marc A Schuckit, Jerry Stitzel, Jay A Tischfield, John P Rice, Alison Goate, Laura J Bierut
Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) encodes the enzyme responsible for the majority of nicotine metabolism. Previous studies support that slow metabolizers smoke fewer cigarettes once nicotine dependent but provide conflicting results on the role of CYP2A6 in the development of dependence. By focusing on the critical period of young adulthood, this study examines the relationship of CYP2A6 variation and smoking milestones. A total of 1209 European American young adults enrolled in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism were genotyped for CYP2A6 variants to calculate a previously well-validated metric that estimates nicotine metabolism...
December 29, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008690/heavy-alcohol-use-in-adolescence-is-associated-with-altered-cortical-activity-a-combined-tms-eeg-study
#12
Outi Kaarre, Elisa Kallioniemi, Mervi Könönen, Tommi Tolmunen, Virve Kekkonen, Petri Kivimäki, Noora Heikkinen, Florinda Ferreri, Eila Laukkanen, Sara Määttä
Long-term alcohol use affects cognitive and neurophysiological functioning as well as structural brain development. Combining simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) recording with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) enables direct, in vivo exploration of cortical excitability and assessment of effective and functional connectivity. In the central nervous system, the effects of alcohol are particularly mediated by alterations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission, and TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs) N45 and N100 in EEG are known to reflect GABAergic function...
December 23, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957784/d-cycloserine-enhanced-extinction-of-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-is-attenuated-in-serotonin-transporter-knockout-rats
#13
Peter Karel, Francesca Calabrese, Marco Riva, Paola Brivio, Bas Van der Veen, Liesbeth Reneman, Michel Verheij, Judith Homberg
d-Cycloserine (DCS), a partial NMDA receptor agonist, has been proposed as a cognitive enhancer to facilitate the extinction of drug-related memories. However, it is unknown whether there are individual differences in the efficacy of DCS. Here, we set out to investigate the influence of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype on DCS treatment outcome and the underlying neural mechanism. To that end, we first determined the mRNA levels of several NMDA receptor subunits and observed a reduction in NR1/NR2C receptors in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of 5-HTT(-/-) compared with 5-HTT(+/+) rats...
December 12, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943592/smokers-and-ex-smokers-have-shared-differences-in-the-neural-substrates-for-potential-monetary-gains-and-losses
#14
Liam J Nestor, Ella McCabe, Jennifer Jones, Luke Clancy, Hugh Garavan
Despite an increased understanding of nicotine addiction, there is a scarcity of research comparing the neural correlates of non-drug reward between smokers and ex-smokers. Long-term changes in reward-related brain functioning for non-drug incentives may elucidate patterns of functioning that potentially contribute to ongoing smoking behaviour in current smokers. Similarly, examining the effects of previous chronic nicotine exposure during a period of extended abstinence may reveal whether there are neural correlates responsible for non-drug reward processing that are different from current smokers...
December 12, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917569/distinct-intrinsic-functional-brain-network-abnormalities-in-methamphetamine-dependent-patients-with-and-without-a-history-of-psychosis
#15
Jonathan C Ipser, Anne Uhlmann, Paul Taylor, Brian H Harvey, Don Wilson, Dan J Stein
Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with executive functioning deficits that suggest dysfunctional cognitive control networks (CCNs) in the brain. Likewise, abnormal connectivity between intrinsic CCNs and default mode networks (DMNs) has also been associated with poor cognitive function in clinical populations. Accordingly, we tested the extent to which methamphetamine use predicts abnormal connectivity between these networks, and whether, as predicted, these abnormalities are compounded in patients with a history of methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP)...
December 5, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917562/putamen-functional-connectivity-during-inhibitory-control-in-smokers-and-non-smokers
#16
Sophie E A Akkermans, Maartje Luijten, Daan van Rooij, Ingmar H A Franken, Jan K Buitelaar
The putamen has been shown to play a key role in inhibitory control and addiction, and consists of distinct subregions associated with distinct functions. The anterior putamen is thought to be specialized in goal-directed control or response-monitoring in connection with frontal regions, whereas the posterior part is specialized in habitual or automatic responding in connection with sensorimotor regions. The present study is the first to delineate functional networks of the anterior and posterior putamen in a Go-NoGo response inhibition task, and to examine differences between smokers (n = 25) and non-smokers (n = 23) within these networks...
December 5, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910188/comparing-rewarding-and-reinforcing-properties-between-bath-salt-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-cocaine-using-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-rats
#17
Steven J Simmons, Ryan A Gregg, Fionya H Tran, Lili Mo, Eva von Weltin, David J Barker, Taylor A Gentile, Lucas R Watterson, Scott M Rawls, John W Muschamp
Abuse of synthetic psychostimulants like synthetic cathinones has risen in recent years. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is one such synthetic cathinone that demonstrates a mechanism of action similar to cocaine. Compared to cocaine, MDPV is more potent at blocking dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake and is readily self-administered by rodents. The present study compared the rewarding and reinforcing properties of MDPV and cocaine using systemic injection dose-response and self-administration models...
December 1, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894160/cue-induced-nicotine-seeking-behavior-after-withdrawal-with-or-without-extinction-in-rats
#18
Athina Markou, Jie Li, Kearny Tse, Xia Li
Exposure to smoking-associated environmental cues during smoke cessation elicits self-reported urge/craving to smoke, which precipitates relapse even after prolonged abstinence. Incubation of cue-induced cigarettes craving during abstinence has been observed in human smokers recently. The present studies assessed cue-induced nicotine-seeking behavior under different withdrawal conditions in rats with a history of nicotine self-administration. We found that non-reinforced operant responding during cue-induced nicotine seeking after different periods of withdrawal from nicotine exhibited an inverted U-shaped curve, with higher levels of responding after 7-21 days of withdrawal than those after 1-day withdrawal...
November 28, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894158/craving-behavioral-intervention-for-internet-gaming-disorder-remediation-of-functional-connectivity-of-the-ventral-striatum
#19
Jin-Tao Zhang, Shan-Shan Ma, Chiang-Shan R Li, Lu Liu, Cui-Cui Xia, Jing Lan, Ling-Jiao Wang, Ben Liu, Yuan-Wei Yao, Xiao-Yi Fang
Psychobehavioral intervention is an effective treatment of Internet addiction, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, the neural mechanisms underlying its efficacy remain unclear. Cortical-ventral striatum (VS) circuitry is a common target of psychobehavioral interventions in drug addiction, and cortical-VS dysfunction has been reported in IGD; hence, the primary aim of the study was to investigate how the VS circuitry responds to psychobehavioral interventions in IGD. In a cross-sectional study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity of the VS in 74 IGD subjects (IGDs) and 41 healthy controls (HCs)...
November 28, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26515740/pulling-habits-out-of-rats-adenosine-2a-receptor-antagonism-in-dorsomedial-striatum-rescues-meth-amphetamine-induced-deficits-in-goal-directed-action
#20
Teri M Furlong, Alva S A Supit, Laura H Corbit, Simon Killcross, Bernard W Balleine
Addiction is characterized by a persistent loss of behavioral control resulting in insensitivity to negative feedback and abnormal decision-making. Here, we investigated the influence of methamphetamine (METH)-paired contextual cues on decision-making in rats. Choice between goal-directed actions was sensitive to outcome devaluation in a saline-paired context but was impaired in the METH-paired context, a deficit that was also found when negative feedback was provided. Reductions in c-Fos-related immunoreactivity were found in dorsomedial striatum (DMS) but not dorsolateral striatum after exposure to the METH context suggesting this effect reflected a loss specifically in goal-directed control in the METH context...
January 2017: Addiction Biology
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