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Addiction Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239088/quantitative-evaluation-of-cue-induced-reinstatement-model-for-evidence-based-experimental-optimization
#1
Julia Oberhofer, Hamid R Noori
Cue-induced reinstatement is a widely used model for investigating relapse of reward-seeking behavior with high face validity in relation to clinical observations. Yet, face validity is not sufficient to evaluate an animal model, and quantitative, evidence-based analysis is required to estimate the ultimate applicability of this paradigm. Furthermore, such analysis would allow an accurate and reproducible design of future experiments. Here, we conducted meta-analysis and cluster analysis to characterize the impact of cue type (visual, auditory, olfactory or combinations thereof), intensity (e...
December 14, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226617/activation-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-attenuates-cocaine-seeking-in-rats
#2
Nicole S Hernandez, Bernadette O'Donovan, Pavel I Ortinski, Heath D Schmidt
Recent evidence indicates that activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors reduces cocaine-mediated behaviors and cocaine-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, no studies have examined the role of NAc GLP-1 receptors in the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior, an animal model of relapse. Here, we show that systemic infusion of a behaviorally relevant dose of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 penetrated the brain and localized with neurons and astrocytes in the NAc...
December 11, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210146/central-administration-of-galanin-n-terminal-fragment-1-15-decreases-the-voluntary-alcohol-intake-in-rats
#3
Carmelo Millón, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Estela Castilla-Ortega, Belén Gago, María García-Fernandez, Antonia Serrano, Fernando Rodriguez de Fonseca, José Angel Narváez, Kjell Fuxe, Luis Santín, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale
Alcohol consumption is considered a major risk factor for disease and mortality worldwide. In the absence of effective treatments in alcohol use disorders, it is important to find new biological targets that could modulate alcohol consumption. We tested the role of the N-terminal galanin fragment (1-15) [GAL(1-15)] in voluntary ethanol consumption in rats using the two-bottle choice paradigm as well as compare the effects of GAL(1-15) with the whole molecule of GAL. We describe for the first time that GAL(1-15), via central mechanisms, induces a strong reduction in preference and ethanol consumption in rats...
December 6, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210144/adolescent-impulsivity-as-a-sex-dependent-and-subtype-dependent-predictor-of-impulsivity-alcohol-drinking-and-dopamine-d2-receptor-expression-in-adult-rats
#4
Lindsey R Hammerslag, Amogh P Belagodu, Olubankole A Aladesuyi Arogundade, Angela G Karountzos, Qingrou Guo, Roberto Galvez, Brent W Roberts, Joshua M Gulley
Impulsivity is a personality trait associated with a heightened risk for drug use and other psychiatric conditions. Because impulsivity-related disorders typically emerge during adolescence, there has been interest in exploring methods for identifying adolescents that will be at risk to develop substance use disorders in adulthood. Here, we used a rodent model to assess inhibitory control (impulsive action) and impulsive decision making (impulsive choice) during adolescence (43-50 days old) or adulthood (93-100 days old) and then examined the impact of development on these impulsivity traits by re-testing rats 50 days later...
December 5, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193459/neuropeptide-cart-prevents-memory-loss-attributed-to-withdrawal-of-nicotine-following-chronic-treatment-in-mice
#5
Chandrashekhar D Borkar, Sneha Sagarkar, Amul J Sakharkar, Nishikant K Subhedar, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Although chronic nicotine administration does not affect memory, its withdrawal causes massive cognitive deficits. The underlying mechanisms, however, have not been understood. We test the role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), a neuropeptide known for its procognitive properties, in this process. The mice on chronic nicotine treatment/withdrawal were subjected to novel object recognition task. The capability of the animal to discriminate between the novel and familiar objects was tested and represented as discrimination index (DI); reduction in the index suggested amnesia...
November 29, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178664/environmental-enrichment-and-drug-value-a-behavioral-economic-analysis-in-male-rats
#6
Justin R Yates, Michael T Bardo, Joshua S Beckmann
Rats raised in an enriched condition (EC) show decreased stimulant self-administration relative to rats reared in an isolated condition (IC). However, few studies have examined the behavioral mechanisms underlying this environment-induced difference in self-administration. Because economic demand for drugs of abuse predicts addiction-like behavior in both humans and animals, we applied a behavioral economic analysis to cocaine self-administration data in EC and IC rats. During cocaine self-administration, the dose decreased across blocks of trials (0...
November 27, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178570/shared-additive-genetic-variation-for-alcohol-dependence-among-subjects-of-african-and-european-ancestry
#7
Leslie A Brick, Matthew C Keller, Valerie S Knopik, John E McGeary, Rohan H C Palmer
Alcohol dependence (AD) affects individuals from all racial/ethnic groups, and previous research suggests that there is considerable variation in AD risk between and among various ancestrally defined groups in the United States. Although the reasons for these differences are likely due in part to contributions of complex sociocultural factors, limited research has attempted to examine whether similar genetic variation plays a role across ancestral groups. Using a pooled sample of individuals of African and European ancestry (AA/EA) obtained through data shared within the Database for Genotypes and Phenotypes, we estimated the extent to which additive genetic similarity for AD between AA and EAs using common single nucleotide polymorphisms overlapped across the two populations...
November 27, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178411/increased-plasma-oleoylethanolamide-and-palmitoleoylethanolamide-levels-correlate-with-inflammatory-changes-in-alcohol-binge-drinkers-the-case-of-hmgb1-in-women
#8
María Antón, Alicia Rodríguez-González, Inmaculada Concepción Rodríguez-Rojo, Antoni Pastor, Ángeles Correas, Antonia Serrano, Antonio Ballesta, Francisco Alén, Raquel Gómez de Heras, Rafael de la Torre, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Laura Orio
Alcohol binge drinking is a heavy pattern of alcohol consumption increasingly used by young people. In a previous study, we reported that young drinkers with a 2-year history of binge alcohol consumption had an overactivation of the innate immune system and peripheral inflammation when compared with controls. In the present study, we measured several biolipids that are fatty acid derivatives belonging to the acylethanolamide or 2-acylglycerol families in the plasma of the same subjects (n = 42; 20 men and 22 women)...
November 27, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168271/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-co-agonist-availability-affects-behavioral-and-neurochemical-responses-to-cocaine-insights-into-comorbid-schizophrenia-and-substance-abuse
#9
Matthew D Puhl, Rajeev I Desai, Shunsuke Takagi, Kendall T Presti, Michelle R Doyle, Rachel J Donahue, Samantha M Landino, Jack Bergman, William A Carlezon, Joseph T Coyle
Both schizophrenia (SZ) and substance abuse (SA) exhibit significant heritability. Moreover, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of both SZ and SA. We hypothesize that the high prevalence of comorbid SA in SZ is due to dysfunction of NMDARs caused by shared risk genes. We used transgenic mice with a null mutation of the gene encoding serine racemase (SR), the enzyme that synthesizes the NMDAR co-agonist d-serine and an established risk gene for SZ, to recreate the pathology of SZ...
November 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168269/adolescent-ethanol-intake-alters-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-localization-in-astrocytes-of-the-adult-mouse-hippocampus
#10
Itziar Bonilla-Del Rίo, Nagore Puente, Sara Peñasco, Irantzu Rico, Ana Gutiérrez-Rodrίguez, Izaskun Elezgarai, Almudena Ramos, Leire Reguero, Inmaculada Gerrikagoitia, Brian R Christie, Patrick Nahirney, Pedro Grandes
Cannabinoid type-1 (CB1 ) receptors are widely distributed in the brain and play important roles in astrocyte function and the modulation of neuronal synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, it is currently unknown how CB1 receptor expression in astrocytes is affected by long-term exposure to stressors. Here we examined CB1 receptors in astrocytes of ethanol (EtOH)-exposed adolescent mice to determine its effect on CB1 receptor localization and density in adult brain. 4-8-week-old male mice were exposed to 20 percent EtOH over a period of 4 weeks, and receptor localization was examined after 4 weeks in the hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum by pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy...
November 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114992/working-memory-predicts-methamphetamine-hair-concentration-over-the-course-of-treatment-moderating-effect-of-impulsivity-and-implications-for-dual-systems-model
#11
Adam J Rubenis, Rebecca E Fitzpatrick, Dan I Lubman, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
High impulsivity and poor executive function are characteristic of methamphetamine use disorder. High arousal in the impulsive system has been proposed to compromise the executive system's regulating ability (i.e. the dual-systems model). While interaction between these variables may partly explain poor treatment outcomes associated with methamphetamine use disorder, previous research has tended to examine each factor separately. We investigated whether high impulsivity (measured with an impulsive choice task) and poor executive function (measured with a working memory task) predict methamphetamine use (determined by hair sample) in the 6 weeks following treatment commencement...
November 8, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094432/mu-opioid-receptors-in-gabaergic-neurons-of-the-forebrain-promote-alcohol-reward-and-drinking
#12
Sami Ben Hamida, Laura-Joy Boulos, Michael McNicholas, Pauline Charbogne, Brigitte Lina Kieffer
Mu opioid receptors (MORs) are widely distributed throughout brain reward circuits and their role in drug and social reward is well established. Substantial evidence has implicated MOR and the endogenous opioid system in alcohol reward, but circuit mechanisms of MOR-mediated alcohol reward and intake behavior remain elusive, and have not been investigated by genetic approaches. We recently created conditional knockout (KO) mice targeting the Oprm1 gene in GABAergic forebrain neurons. These mice (Dlx-MOR KO) show a major MOR deletion in the striatum, whereas receptors in midbrain (including the Ventral Tegmental Area or VTA) and hindbrain are intact...
November 2, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082582/problematic-alcohol-use-associates-with-sodium-channel-and-clathrin-linker-1-sclt1-in-trauma-exposed-populations
#13
Lynn M Almli, Adriana Lori, Jacquelyn L Meyers, Jaemin Shin, Negar Fani, Adam X Maihofer, Caroline M Nievergelt, Alicia K Smith, Kristina B Mercer, Kimberly Kerley, Jennifer M Leveille, Hao Feng, Duna Abu-Amara, Janine D Flory, Rachel Yehuda, Charles R Marmar, Dewleen G Baker, Bekh Bradley, Karestan C Koenen, Karen N Conneely, Kerry J Ressler
Excessive alcohol use is extremely prevalent in the United States, particularly among trauma-exposed individuals. While several studies have examined genetic influences on alcohol use and related problems, this has not been studied in the context of trauma-exposed populations. We report results from a genome-wide association study of alcohol consumption and associated problems as measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) in a trauma-exposed cohort. Results indicate a genome-wide significant association between total AUDIT score and rs1433375 [N = 1036, P = 2...
October 30, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071769/inhibition-of-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-in-the-central-amygdala-alleviates-co-morbid-expression-of-innate-anxiety-and-excessive-alcohol-intake
#14
Serena Stopponi, Yannick Fotio, Ana Domi, Anna Maria Borruto, Luis Natividad, Marisa Roberto, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Nazzareno Cannella
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme that prominently degrades the major endocannabinoid N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide). Inhibition of this enzyme leads to increased anandamide levels in brain regions that modulate stress and anxiety. Recently, we found that genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats display hyperactive FAAH in amygdalar regions that was associated with increased stress sensitivity and a hyper-anxious phenotype. Our previous work has also demonstrated that msPs display an innate preference for and excessive consumption of alcohol, potentially reflecting a form of self-medication to gain relief from hyper-anxious states...
October 26, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058377/genome-wide-association-study-of-alcohol-use-disorder-identification-test-audit-scores-in-20%C3%A2-328-research-participants-of-european-ancestry
#15
Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Pierre Fontanillas, Sarah L Elson, Joshua C Gray, Harriet de Wit, Lea K Davis, James MacKillop, Abraham A Palmer
Genetic factors contribute to the risk for developing alcohol use disorder (AUD). In collaboration with the genetics company 23andMe, Inc., we performed a genome-wide association study of the alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT), an instrument designed to screen for alcohol misuse over the past year. Our final sample consisted of 20 328 research participants of European ancestry (55.3% females; mean age = 53.8, SD = 16.1) who reported ever using alcohol. Our results showed that the 'chip-heritability' of AUDIT score, when treated as a continuous phenotype, was 12%...
October 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058369/association-of-the-alcohol-dehydrogenase-gene-polymorphism-rs1789891-with-gray-matter-brain-volume-alcohol-consumption-alcohol-craving-and-relapse-risk
#16
Patrick Bach, Vagelis Zois, Sabine Vollstädt-Klein, Martina Kirsch, Sabine Hoffmann, Anne Jorde, Josef Frank, Katrin Charlet, Jens Treutlein, Anne Beck, Andreas Heinz, Henrik Walter, Marcella Rietschel, Falk Kiefer
Alcohol metabolizing enzymes, such as the alcohol dehydrogenases and the aldehyde dehydrogenases, regulate the levels of acetaldehyde in the blood and play an important role in the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction. Recent genome-wide systematic searches found associations between a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1789891, risk allele: A, protective allele: C) in the alcohol dehydrogenase gene cluster and the risk of alcohol dependence. The current study investigated the effect of this single nucleotide polymorphism on alcohol consumption, craving for alcohol, relapse risk and brain gray matter volume...
October 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057579/orbitofrontal-gray-matter-deficits-as-marker-of-internet-gaming-disorder-converging-evidence-from-a-cross-sectional-and-prospective-longitudinal-design
#17
Feng Zhou, Christian Montag, Rayna Sariyska, Bernd Lachmann, Martin Reuter, Bernd Weber, Peter Trautner, Keith M Kendrick, Sebastian Markett, Benjamin Becker
Internet gaming disorder represents a growing health issue. Core symptoms include unsuccessful attempts to control the addictive patterns of behavior and continued use despite negative consequences indicating a loss of regulatory control. Previous studies revealed brain structural deficits in prefrontal regions subserving regulatory control in individuals with excessive Internet use. However, because of the cross-sectional nature of these studies, it remains unknown whether the observed brain structural deficits preceded the onset of excessive Internet use...
October 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044937/selective-inhibition-of-m5-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-attenuates-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#18
Barak W Gunter, Robert W Gould, Michael Bubser, Kevin M McGowan, Craig W Lindsley, Carrie K Jones
Cocaine use disorder (CUD) remains a debilitating health problem in the United States for which there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment options. Accumulating anatomical and electrophysiological evidence indicates that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype 5 (M5 ) plays a critical role in the regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuitry, a major site of action for cocaine and other psychostimulants. In addition, M5 knockout mice exhibit reduced cocaine self-administration behaviors with no differences in sugar pellet-maintained responding relative to wild-type mice...
October 18, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044813/activated-mesenchymal-stem-cell-administration-inhibits-chronic-alcohol-drinking-and-suppresses-relapse-like-drinking-in-high-alcohol-drinker-rats
#19
Fernando Ezquer, María Elena Quintanilla, Paola Morales, Marcelo Ezquer, Carolyne Lespay-Rebolledo, Mario Herrera-Marschitz, Yedy Israel
Neuroinflammation has been reported to follow chronic ethanol intake and may perpetuate alcohol consumption. Present studies determined the effect of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), known for their anti-inflammatory action, on chronic ethanol intake and relapse-like ethanol intake in a post-deprivation condition. Rats were allowed 12-17 weeks of chronic voluntary ethanol (10% and 20% v/v) intake, after which a single dose of activated hMSCs (5 × 10(5) ) was injected into a brain lateral ventricle...
October 18, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971565/hypocretin-receptor-1-knockdown-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-attenuates-mesolimbic-dopamine-signaling-and-reduces-motivation-for-cocaine
#20
David L Bernstein, Preeti S Badve, Jessica R Barson, Caroline E Bass, Rodrigo A España
The hypocretin receptor 1 (HCRTr1) is a critical participant in the regulation of motivated behavior. Previous observations demonstrate that acute pharmacological blockade of HCRTr1 disrupts dopamine (DA) signaling and the motivation for cocaine when delivered systemically or directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA). To further examine the involvement of HCRTr1 in regulating reward and reinforcement processing, we employed an adeno-associated virus to express a short hairpin RNA designed to knock down HCRTr1...
October 2, 2017: Addiction Biology
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