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Addiction Biology

Andrea L Gutman, Caitlin V Cosme, Maria F Noterman, Wensday R Worth, John A Wemmie, Ryan T LaLumiere
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are abundantly expressed in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore), a region of the mesolimbocortical system that has an established role in regulating drug-seeking behavior. Previous work shows that a single dose of cocaine reduced the AMPA-to-NMDA ratio in Asic1a-/- mice, an effect observed after withdrawal in wild-type mice, whereas ASIC1A overexpression in the NAcore of rats decreases cocaine self-administration. However, whether ASIC1A overexpression in the NAcore alters measures of drug-seeking behavior after the self-administration period is unknown...
November 6, 2018: Addiction Biology
Giulia Donvito, Pretal P Muldoon, Kia J Jackson, Urslan Ahmad, Nur T Zaveri, J Michael McIntosh, Xiangning Chen, Aron H Lichtman, M Imad Damaj
Cessation from prolonged use of ∆9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary active compound responsible for the cannabimimetic effects of cannabis, results in a mild to moderate withdrawal syndrome in humans and laboratory animals. Whereas manipulations of the endogenous cannabinoid system (eg, cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid regulating enzymes) alter nicotine withdrawal, in this study we asked the reciprocal question. Do nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) modulate THC withdrawal? To assess the role of different nAChR subtypes in THC withdrawal, we used transgenic mouse, preclinical pharmacological, and human genetic correlation approaches...
October 31, 2018: Addiction Biology
Marisa Roberto, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2018: Addiction Biology
Evan S Herrmann, Ziva D Cooper, Gillinder Bedi, Divya Ramesh, Stephanie Collins Reed, Sandra D Comer, Richard W Foltin, Margaret Haney
Tobacco and cannabis co-users (T+CUs) have poor cannabis cessation outcomes, but the mechanisms underlying this are not well understood. This laboratory study examined the effects of (1) the partial nicotinic agonist, varenicline, on tobacco cessation among T+CUs, and (2) varenicline, alone, and when combined with the cannabinoid agonist nabilone, on cannabis withdrawal and a laboratory model of cannabis relapse. Non-treatment-seeking T+CUs were randomized to active-varenicline or placebo-varenicline, and completed a 15-day outpatient phase; varenicline was titrated to 1 mg BID during days 1-8, and participants were instructed to abstain from tobacco during days 9-15...
October 31, 2018: Addiction Biology
Séverine Lannoy, Valérie Dormal, Joël Billieux, Mélanie Brion, Fabien D'Hondt, Pierre Maurage
The dual-process model, describing addictive disorders as resulting from an imbalance between increased automatic approach behaviors towards the substance and reduced abilities to control these behaviors, constitutes a sound theoretical framework to understand alcohol-use disorders. The present study aimed at exploring this imbalance at behavioral and cerebral levels in binge drinking, a pattern of excessive alcohol consumption frequently observed in youth, by assessing both reflective control abilities and automatic processing of alcohol-related stimuli...
October 29, 2018: Addiction Biology
Sarah L Hagerty, Sophie L YorkWilliams, L Cinnamon Bidwell, Barbara J Weiland, Amithrupa Sabbineni, Sara K Blaine, Angela D Bryan, Kent E Hutchison
Chronic exposure to alcohol and other drugs of abuse has been associated with deleterious consequences, including functional connectivity deficits within neural networks associated with executive control. Altered functional connectivity within the executive control network (ECN) might underlie the progressive inability to control consumption of alcohol and other drugs as substance use disorders progress. Genetic and epigenetic factors have been associated with substance use disorders (SUDs). For example, dopamine receptor 2 (DRD2) functioning has been associated with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and related phenotypes, including correlates of executive functioning...
October 29, 2018: Addiction Biology
Piotr Poznanski, Anna Lesniak, Michal Korostynski, Mariusz Sacharczuk
Several preclinical and clinical studies that deal with the neuropathological consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have focused on unraveling its effect on ethanol drinking behavior. Previous reports describe changes in ethanol consumption, both in animal models of mTBI as well as in patients, after concussive brain injury. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still poorly understood. In the present study, we used a unique model of mouse lines divergently selected for high (HA) or low (LA) swim stress-induced analgesia to examine the effect of mTBI on ethanol drinking behavior...
October 18, 2018: Addiction Biology
Gillinder Bedi, Xuejun Hao, Nicholas T Van Dam, Ziva D Cooper, Eric Rubin, Nehal P Vadhan, Leslie Marino, Margaret Haney
Illicit drug use among aging cohorts is increasing, yet little is known about functional impairments in older drug users. Given the importance of social integration for aging and documented social decrements in cocaine users, we examined social function and its neurocognitive substrates in aging cocaine users relative to carefully matched non-cocaine users. Regular (≥twice/week), long-term (≥15 years) cocaine smokers 50-60 years old (COCs; n = 22; four women) and controls (CTRLs; n = 19; four women) underwent standardized probes of social reward and threat processing during functional magnetic resonance imaging and a behavioral facial affect recognition task...
October 17, 2018: Addiction Biology
A Bifone, A Gozzi, A Cippitelli, A Matzeu, E Domi, H Li, G Scuppa, N Cannella, M Ubaldi, F Weiss, R Ciccocioppo
Alcoholism is often associated with other forms of drug abuse, suggesting that innate predisposing factors may confer vulnerability to addiction to diverse substances. However, the neurobiological bases of these factors remain unknown. Here, we have used a combination of imaging, neurochemistry and behavioral techniques to investigate responses to the psychostimulant amphetamine in Marchigian Sardinian (msP) alcohol-preferring rats, a model of vulnerability to alcoholism. Specifically, we employed pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural circuits engaged by amphetamine challenge, and to relate functional reactivity to neurochemical and behavioral responses...
October 17, 2018: Addiction Biology
Geneviève Lafaye, Christophe Desterke, Laurent Marulaz, Amine Benyamina
Cannabis is often used by consumers for sleep disorders. Studies show that circadian rhythm could be affected by a misuse of cannabis. Recent research has connected the role of microglial cells with psychiatric disorders such as substance abuse. The aim was to show the effect of two major components of cannabis on circadian genes regulation in microglial cells. In BV-2 microglial cells, cannabidiol (CBD) induces a deregulation of circadian genes with (P-value = 0.039) or without (P-value = 0.0015) lipopolisaccharides stimulation...
October 11, 2018: Addiction Biology
Paul Faulkner, Dara G Ghahremani, Rachel F Tyndale, Neil E Paterson, Chelsea Cox, Nathaniel Ginder, Gerhard Hellemann, Edythe D London
Smoking-induced relief of craving and withdrawal promotes continued cigarette use. Understanding how relief is produced and the role of nicotine in this process may facilitate development of new smoking-cessation therapies. As the US Food and Drug Administration considers setting a standard for reduced nicotine content in cigarettes to improve public health, knowledge of how nicotine contributes to relief also can inform policy. We assessed effects of nicotine using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and behavioral assessments of craving and negative affect...
October 11, 2018: Addiction Biology
Markus Muehlhan, Anja Höcker, Robert Miller, Sebastian Trautmann, Klaus Wiedemann, Annett Lotzin, Sven Barnow, Ingo Schäfer
Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a strong risk factor for alcohol dependence (AD) and is associated with a more severe course of the disease. Alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may play an important role in this relationship. The aim of the present study was to systematically investigate potential alterations in HPA functioning associated with AD diagnosis and CM. Four study groups were recruited: AD patients with (n = 29; 10♀) and without (n = 33; 8♀) CM and healthy controls with (n = 30; 20♀) and without (n = 38; 15♀) CM...
October 11, 2018: Addiction Biology
Kelly E Dunn, Elise M Weerts, Andrew S Huhn, Jennifer R Schroeder, David Andrew Tompkins, George E Bigelow, Eric C Strain
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a public health crisis. Differences in opioid withdrawal severity that predict treatment outcome could facilitate the process of matching patients to treatments. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that enrolled treatment seeking heroin-users (N = 89, males = 78) into a residential study. Participants maintained on morphine (30 mg, subcutaneous, four-times daily) underwent a naloxone (0.4 mg, IM = intramuscular) challenge session to precipitate withdrawal...
October 8, 2018: Addiction Biology
Sheng Zhang, Simon Zhornitsky, Gustavo A Angarita, Chiang-Shan R Li
The dopaminergic motive system is compromised in cocaine addiction. Abundant research has examined the roles of the dopaminergic midbrain and ventral striatum (VS) in cue-induced craving and habitual drug consumption. Interconnected with the dopaminergic circuits, the hypothalamus is widely implicated in motivated behavior, including food and drug seeking. However, very few studies have investigated how the hypothalamus responds to drug cues and whether hypothalamic responses are related to clinical features such as craving and addiction severity...
October 8, 2018: Addiction Biology
Maricruz Reséndiz-Flores, Carolina Escobar
Shift-work and exposure to light at night lead to circadian disruption, which favors the use of alcohol and may be a risk factor for development of addictive behavior. This study evaluated in two experimental models of circadian disruption behavioral indicators of elevated alcohol intake and looked for ΔFosB, which is a transcription factor for neuronal plasticity in corticolimbic structures. Male Wistar rats were exposed to experimental shift-work (AR) or to constant light (LL) and were compared with a control group (LD)...
October 8, 2018: Addiction Biology
Kathleen A McGinnis, Amy C Justice, Janet P Tate, Henry R Kranzler, Hilary A Tindle, William C Becker, John Concato, Joel Gelernter, Boyang Li, Xinyu Zhang, Hongyu Zhao, Kristina Crothers, Ke Xu
A validated, scalable approach to characterizing (phenotyping) smoking status is needed to facilitate genetic discovery. Using established DNA methylation sites from blood samples as a criterion standard for smoking behavior, we compare three candidate electronic medical record (EMR) smoking metrics based on longitudinal EMR text notes. With data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS), we employed a validated algorithm to translate each smoking-related text note into current, past or never categories. We compared three alternative summary characterizations of smoking: most recent, modal and trajectories using descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation coefficients...
October 4, 2018: Addiction Biology
Guan-Ling Lu, Ming Tatt Lee, Lih-Chu Chiou
Orexins (also called hypocretins) are implicated in reward and addiction, but little is known about their role(s) in the association between hippocampal synaptic plasticity and drug preference. Previously, we found that exogenous orexin via OX1 and OX2 receptors can impair low frequency stimulation-induced depotentiation, i.e. restoring potentiation of excitatory synaptic transmission (re-potentiation) in mouse hippocampal slices. Here, we found this re-potentiation in hippocampal slices from mice that had acquired conditioned place preference (CPP) to cocaine...
October 1, 2018: Addiction Biology
Fernando Ezquer, María Elena Quintanilla, Paola Morales, Daniela Santapau, Marcelo Ezquer, Marcelo J Kogan, Edison Salas-Huenuleo, Mario Herrera-Marschitz, Yedy Israel
Chronic ethanol consumption leads to brain oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, conditions known to potentiate and perpetuate each other. Several studies have shown that neuroinflammation results in increases in chronic ethanol consumption. Recent reports showed that the intra-cerebroventricular administration of mesenchymal stem cells to rats consuming alcohol chronically markedly inhibited oxidative-stress, abolished neuroinflammation and greatly reduced chronic alcohol intake and post deprivation relapse-like alcohol intake...
September 21, 2018: Addiction Biology
Christina S Meade, Ryan P Bell, Sheri L Towe, Nan-Kuei Chen, Andrea L Hobkirk, Scott A Huettel
Marijuana use, which is disproportionately prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, can alter activity in fronto-parietal regions during cognitively demanding tasks. While HIV is also associated with altered neural activation, it is not known how marijuana may further affect brain function in this population. Our study examined the independent and additive effects of HIV infection and regular marijuana use on neural activation during a cognitive interference task. The sample included 93 adults who differed on marijuana (MJ) and HIV statuses (20 MJ+/HIV+, 19 MJ+/HIV-, 29 MJ-/HIV+, 25 MJ-/HIV-)...
September 21, 2018: Addiction Biology
Joseph P Schacht, Raymond F Anton, Patrick J McNamara, Yeongbin Im, Andrea C King
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a genetically influenced disease with peak onset in young adulthood. Identification of factors that predict whether AUD symptoms will diminish or persist after young adulthood is a critical public health need. King and colleagues previously reported that acute response to alcohol predicted future AUD symptom trajectory. Genes associated with brain dopamine signaling, which underlies alcohol's rewarding effects, might influence this finding. This study analyzed whether variation at a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in DAT1/SLC6A3, the gene encoding the dopamine transporter, moderated the predictive relationships between acute response to alcohol and future AUD symptoms among participants enrolled in the Chicago Social Drinking Project (first two cohorts)...
September 18, 2018: Addiction Biology
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