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Addiction Biology

Yohaan Fernandes, Mindy Rampersad, Emma M Jones, Johann K Eberhart
Prenatal alcohol exposure is the leading cause of birth defects, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In the United States and Canada, 1 in 100 children will be born with FASD. Some of the most commonly debilitating defects of FASD are in social behavior. Zebrafish are highly social animals, and embryonic ethanol exposure from 24 to 26 hours post-fertilization disrupts this social (shoaling) response in adult zebrafish. Recent findings have suggested that social behaviors are present in zebrafish larvae as young as 3 weeks, but how they relate to adult shoaling is unclear...
September 4, 2018: Addiction Biology
Lucia Caffino, Michel M M Verheij, Lin Que, Chao Guo, Judith R Homberg, Fabio Fumagalli
Serotonin (5-HT) and the habenula (Hb) contribute to motivational and emotional states such as depression and drug abuse. The dorsal raphe nucleus, where 5-HT neurons originate, and the Hb are anatomically and reciprocally interconnected. Evidence exists that 5-HT influences Hb glutamatergic transmission. Using serotonin transporter knockout (SERT-/- ) rats, which show depression-like behavior and increased cocaine intake, we investigated the effect of SERT reduction on expression of genes involved in glutamate neurotransmission under both baseline conditions as well as after short-access or long-access cocaine (ShA and LgA, respectively) intake...
August 24, 2018: Addiction Biology
Mustafa al'Absi, Andrine Lemieux, James S Hodges, Sharon Allen
We examined the extent to which orexin measured during smoking and the early phase of abstinence was related to craving, withdrawal, stress hormones, and risk for smoking relapse in men and women. Considering its role in modulating nicotine-related reward, we predicted that a reduction in circulating orexin during withdrawal would be associated with increased craving and risk for smoking relapse. Two hundred and eighty five participants provided biological samples and self-report information to identify predictors of smoking relapse...
August 16, 2018: Addiction Biology
Irantzu Rico-Barrio, Sara Peñasco, Nagore Puente, Almudena Ramos, Christine J Fontaine, Leire Reguero, Maria Elvira Giordano, Ianire Buceta, Itziar Terradillos, Leire Lekunberri, Juan Mendizabal-Zubiaga, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Inmaculada Gerrikagoitia, Izaskun Elezgarai, Pedro Grandes
Binge drinking (BD) is a common pattern of ethanol (EtOH) consumption by adolescents. The brain effects of the acute EtOH exposure are well-studied; however, the long-lasting cognitive and neurobehavioral consequences of BD during adolescence are only beginning to be elucidated. Environmental enrichment (EE) has long been known for its benefits on the brain and may serve as a potential supportive therapy following EtOH exposure. In this study, we hypothesized that EE may have potential benefits on the cognitive deficits associated with BD EtOH consumption...
August 14, 2018: Addiction Biology
Ashley M Blouin, Swathi Pisupati, Colton G Hoffer, Madalyn Hafenbreidel, Sarah E Jamieson, Gavin Rumbaugh, Courtney A Miller
Human studies of substance use disorder show that psychological stress and drug availability interact following rehabilitation, contributing to the high relapse potential. Social stressors trigger particularly strong motivation for drug, but how this affects neuronal function to increase relapse is unknown. Animal models, which allow for the dissection of neural mechanisms, primarily utilize physical stressors to trigger relapse. To recapitulate psychosocial post-rehabilitation challenges in animals, we developed a model of social stress-potentiated methamphetamine (METH) seeking...
August 14, 2018: Addiction Biology
Sara K Blaine, Nisheet Nautiyal, Rachel Hart, J B Guarnaccia, Rajita Sinha
Alcohol use disorders are associated with high craving and disruption of stress biology, but their role in behavioral alcohol motivation is less clear. We examined the effects of craving and cortisol responses on behavioral alcohol motivation to stress, alcohol cue and neutral-relaxing context cues, in addition to discrete alcohol cues, in demographically matched binge/heavy (BH) and moderate (MD) social drinkers. Subjects participated in a 3-day laboratory experiment of provocation by three personalized guided imagery contexts and discrete alcohol cues followed by the 'alcohol taste test' (ATT) to assess behavioral motivation, as measured by ATT intake...
August 9, 2018: Addiction Biology
Mikyung Kim, Raly James Custodio, Chrislean Jun Botanas, June Bryan de la Peña, Leandro Val Sayson, Arvie Abiero, Zae Young Ryoo, Jae Hoon Cheong, Hee Jin Kim
Drug addiction is a chronic and relapsing brain disorder, influenced by complex interactions between endogenous and exogenous factors. Per2, a circadian gene, plays a role in drug addiction. Previous studies using Per2-knockout mice have shown a role for Per2 in cocaine, morphine and alcohol addiction. In the present study, we investigated the role of Per2 in methamphetamine (METH) addiction using Per2-overexpression and knockout mice. We observed locomotor sensitization responses to METH administration, and rewarding effects using a conditioned place preference test...
August 9, 2018: Addiction Biology
Matthew Clyde, Andrew Pipe, Robert Reid, Charl Els, Heather Tulloch
Self-efficacy is routinely associated with abstinence in the addictions literature, and is a major component relapse-prevention models. The magnitude of this relationship has been brought into question following equivocal results in studies controlling for concurrent smoking status. The aim of our study was to clarify the relationship between cessation self-efficacy, smoking status, and cessation outcomes in a cohort of treatment-seeking smokers. Smokers participating in the FLEX trial, a randomized trial investigating the efficacy of three pharmacologic treatments for smoking cessation, completed questionnaires assessing cessation self-efficacy at baseline and at weeks 1, 3, 5 and 10 post-target quit date; smoking status was verified using expired carbon monoxide...
August 8, 2018: Addiction Biology
Siti R Yusof, Mahathir Mohd Uzid, Eng-Huat Teh, Nur Aziah Hanapi, Mazlin Mohideen, Ahmad Saifuddin Mohamad Arshad, Mohd Nizam Mordi, Irena Loryan, Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes
Mitragyna speciosa is reported to be beneficial for the management of chronic pain and opioid withdrawal in the evolving opioid epidemic. Data on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, the active compounds of the plant, are still lacking and inconclusive. Here, we present for the first time the rate and the extent of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine transport across the BBB, with an investigation of their post-BBB intra-brain distribution. We utilized an in vitro BBB model to study the rate of BBB permeation of the compounds and their interaction with efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp)...
August 8, 2018: Addiction Biology
Bharath Holla, Rose Dawn Bharath, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Vivek Benegal
Substance-naïve offspring from high-density alcohol use disorder (AUD) families exhibit altered subcortical brain volumes structurally and altered executive-functioning and emotion-processing functionally, compared with their peers. However, there is a dearth of literature exploring alterations of cortical thickness (CTh) in this population. T1-weighted structural brain MRI was acquired in 75 substance-naïve male offspring of treatment-seeking early onset (<25 years) AUD patients with high familial loading of AUDs (≥2 affected relatives) (FHP) and 65 age-matched substance-naïve male controls with negative family history from the community...
July 30, 2018: Addiction Biology
Hideaki Takeuchi, Kosuke Tsurumi, Takuro Murao, Hiroto Mizuta, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
Gambling disorder (GD) is characterized by continual gambling despite negative consequences. Risky decision-making is a hallmark of the disorder. We applied a tool from behavioral economics for assessing probability cognition in both gain and loss domains to GD. We aimed to examine the alteration of probability cognition and its relationship with brain structure in GD. Forty-six GD patients and 52 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) conducted a risky choice task in which subjects should choose between a sure and a risky option in both loss and gain domains...
July 23, 2018: Addiction Biology
Omkar L Patkar, Arnauld Belmer, Joan Y Holgate, Paul M Klenowski, Selena E Bartlett
Repeated cycles of binge-like alcohol consumption and abstinence change the activity of several neurotransmitter systems. Some of these changes are consolidated following prolonged alcohol use and are thought to play an important role in the development of dependence. We have previously shown that systemic administration of the dual beta-adrenergic antagonist and 5-HT1A/1B partial agonist pindolol selectively reduces long-term but not short-term binge-like consumption of ethanol and alters excitatory postsynaptic currents in basolateral amygdala (BLA) principal neurons...
July 18, 2018: Addiction Biology
Sami Ben Hamida, Sophie Laguesse, Nadege Morisot, Jong-Hyun Park, Khanhky Phuamluong, Anthony L Berger, Ki Duk Park, Dorit Ron
Alcohol use disorder is a chronic relapsing disease. Maintaining abstinence represents a major challenge for alcohol-dependent patients. Yet the molecular underpinnings of alcohol relapse remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in relapse to alcohol-seeking behavior by using the reinstatement of a previously extinguished alcohol conditioned place preference (CPP) response as a surrogate relapse paradigm. We found that mTORC1 is activated in the nucleus accumbens shell following alcohol priming-induced reinstatement of alcohol place preference...
July 18, 2018: Addiction Biology
Yann Chye, Valentina Lorenzetti, Chao Suo, Albert Batalla, Janna Cousijn, Anna E Goudriaan, Mark Jenkinson, Rocio Martin-Santos, Sarah Whittle, Murat Yücel, Nadia Solowij
Cannabis use is highly prevalent and often considered to be relatively harmless. Nonetheless, a subset of regular cannabis users may develop dependence, experiencing poorer quality of life and greater mental health problems relative to non-dependent users. The neuroanatomy characterizing cannabis use versus dependence is poorly understood. We aimed to delineate the contributing role of cannabis use and dependence on morphology of the hippocampus, one of the most consistently altered brain regions in cannabis users, in a large multi-site dataset aggregated across four research sites...
July 18, 2018: Addiction Biology
Anne Koopmann, Patrick Bach, Rilana Schuster, Jan Malte Bumb, Sabine Vollstädt-Klein, Iris Reinhard, Marcella Rietschel, Stephanie H Witt, Klaus Wiedemann, Falk Kiefer
Ghrelin has been shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence, affecting alcohol self-administration and craving. However, the mechanism of action in alcohol dependence still has to be determined. We thus investigated whether ghrelin is associated with mesolimbic cue reactivity to alcohol cues and alcohol craving in recently detoxified alcohol-addicted subjects. We included 41 recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to study mesolimbic cue reactivity during the presentation of alcohol-related pictures...
July 9, 2018: Addiction Biology
Shannyn G Genders, Karlene J Scheller, Emily J Jaehne, Bradley J Turner, Andrew J Lawrence, Susanne M Brunner, Barbara Kofler, Maarten van den Buuse, Elvan Djouma
Galanin is a neuropeptide which mediates its effects via three G-protein coupled receptors (GAL1-3 ). Administration of a GAL3 antagonist reduces alcohol self-administration in animal models while allelic variation in the GAL3 gene has been associated with an increased risk of alcohol use disorders in diverse human populations. Based on the association of GAL3 with alcoholism, we sought to characterize drug-seeking behavior in GAL3 -deficient mice for the first time. In the two-bottle free choice paradigm, GAL3 -KO mice consistently showed a significantly increased preference for ethanol over water when compared to wildtype littermates...
July 9, 2018: Addiction Biology
Maria A De Luca, Matthew W Buczynski, Gaetano Di Chiara
Loren (Larry) H. Parsons passed away at the age of 51. In spite of his premature departure, Larry much contributed to the drug abuse field. Since his graduate studies for the Ph.D. in Chemistry in J.B. Justice lab, microdialysis is the tread that links Larry's research topics, namely, the role of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and endocannabinoids (eCBs) in drug reinforcement and dependence. Larry was the first to show that abstinence from chronic cocaine reduces extracellular DA in the NAc, consistent with the so called 'dopamine depletion hypothesis' of cocaine addiction...
June 27, 2018: Addiction Biology
Reagan R Wetherill, Hengyi Rao, Nathan Hager, Jieqiong Wang, Teresa R Franklin, Yong Fan
Cigarette smoking continues to be a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Although the majority of smokers report making a quit attempt in the past year, smoking cessation rates remain modest. Thus, developing accurate, data-driven methods that can classify and characterize the neural features of nicotine use disorder (NUD) would be a powerful clinical tool that could aid in optimizing treatment development and guide treatment modifications. This investigation applied support vector machine-based classification to resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) data from individuals diagnosed with NUD (n = 108; 63 male) and matched nonsmoking controls (n = 108; 63 male) and multi-dimensional scaling to visualize the heterogeneity of NUD in individual smokers based on rsFC measures...
June 27, 2018: Addiction Biology
Amir Ghaderi, Hamid Reza Banafshe, Naghmeh Mirhosseini, Maryam Motmaen, Fatemeh Mehrzad, Fereshteh Bahmani, Esmat Aghadavod, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Russel J Reiter, Mohammad-Amin Karimi, Zatollah Asemi
This investigation was designed to determine the effect of melatonin supplementation on mental health parameters, metabolic and genetic profiles in patients under methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was conducted among 54 patients under MMT. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either 10 mg melatonin (2 melatonin capsules, 5 mg each) (n = 26) or placebo (n = 28) once a day, 1 hour before bedtime for 12 weeks. Melatonin supplementation significantly decreased Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (β -4...
June 27, 2018: Addiction Biology
Scott E Hemby, Scot McIntosh, Francisco Leon, Stephen J Cutler, Christopher R McCurdy
Kratom, derived from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, is receiving increased attention as an alternative to traditional opiates and as a replacement therapy for opiate dependence. Mitragynine (MG) and 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-HMG) are major psychoactive constituents of kratom. While MG and 7-HMG share behavioral and analgesic properties with morphine, their reinforcing effects have not been examined to date. 7-HMG, but not MG, substituted for morphine self-administration in a dose-dependent manner in the rat self-administration paradigm...
June 27, 2018: Addiction Biology
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