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Experimental Animals

Yuko Maejima, Shoko Yokota, Rie O'Hashi, Masato Aoyama, Kenju Shimomura
Basic research on obesity is becoming more important due to an increasing number of obese people. Experiments using obesity-model animals often require surgical interventions, such as gastric operation, and proper selection of anesthesia is important. Avertin, an agent mainly composed of 2,2,2-Tribromoethanol, has been used as general anesthesia for a long time, without the use of narcotic drugs. In the current study, we found that a single injection of avertin can decrease body weight (BW) in male and female C57BL/6J and ICR mice with high fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity, but not in standard diet-fed nonobese males and females...
September 13, 2018: Experimental Animals
Yutaka Yamamuro, Shouichi Ogura
A relationship between coat color and behavioral characteristics has been reported for numerous species. We previously indicated that particular behavioral traits contributing to the genotype at the agouti locus manifest only when possessing a wild-type allele at the albino (i.e., tyrosinase: Tyr) locus. The present study was performed to investigate tyrosinase expression with marked activity in central nervous systems. The whole brain of male B10 and B10-c mice, a B10 congenic strain of the albino locus from BALB/c at 8 to 9 weeks of age, was removed and we obtained several regions of brain, especially catecholaminergic...
August 13, 2018: Experimental Animals
Seiya Oura, Haruhiko Miyata, Taichi Noda, Keisuke Shimada, Takafumi Matsumura, Akane Morohoshi, Ayako Isotani, Masahito Ikawa
The CRISPR/Cas9 system can efficiently introduce biallelic mutations in ES cells (ESCs), and its application with fluorescently-tagged ESCs enables phenotype analysis in chimeric mice. We have utilized ESCs that express EGFP in the cytosol and acrosome [EGR-G101 129S2 x (CAG/Acr-EGFP) B6] in previous studies; however, the EGFP signal in the sperm cytosol is weak and the signal in the acrosome is lost after the acrosome reaction, precluding analysis between wild type and ESC derived spermatozoa. In this study, we established an ESC line from RBGS (Red Body Green Sperm) transgenic mice [B6D2-Tg(CAG/Su9-DsRed2, Acr3-EGFP)RBGS002Osb] whose spermatozoa exhibit green fluorescence in the acrosome and red fluorescence in the mitochondria within the flagellar midpiece that is retained after the acrosome reaction...
August 9, 2018: Experimental Animals
Praopilas Phakdeedindan, Piyathip Setthawong, Narong Tiptanavattana, Sasitorn Rungarunlert, Praewphan Ingrungruanglert, Nipan Israsena, Mongkol Techakumphu, Theerawat Tharasanit
Stem cells are promising cell source for treatment of multiple diseases as well as myocardial infarction. Rabbit model has essentially used for cardiovascular diseases and regeneration but information on establishment of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiation potential is fairly limited. In addition, there is no report of cardiac differentiation from iPSCs in the rabbit model. In this study, we generated rabbit iPSCs by reprogramming rabbit fibroblasts using the 4 transcription factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-Myc)...
August 8, 2018: Experimental Animals
Lia Walcher, Claudia Müller, Nadja Hilger, Anna Kretschmer, Lilly Stahl, Simone Wigge, Jens Rengelshausen, Anne M Müller, Stephan Fricke
Cyclosporine A (CsA) is used in hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT) to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). GvHD is the most severe side effect of HSCT and efficient therapies are lacking. Mouse models are an essential tool for assessing potential new therapeutic strategies. Our aim is to mimic a clinical setting as close as possible using CsA treatment after sublethal irradiation in NSG mice and thereby evaluate the feasibility of this mouse model for GvHD studies. The effect of CsA (7.5 mg/kg body weight) on sublethally X-ray irradiated (2 Gy) and non-irradiated NSG mice was tested...
August 3, 2018: Experimental Animals
Shintaro Nakamura, Atsushi Sakaoka, Eri Ikuno, Ryouhei Asou, Daiki Shimizu, Hitomi Hagiwara
Use of transponders, small electronic identification devices, in experimental swine is expected to be more reliable than the current common use of ear tags. However, it is necessary to determine the optimal implantation site for transponders with high readability, retentionability (i.e. long-term retention in tissues without detachment or loss), and biocompatibility, as this has not yet been investigated. Thus, we aimed to determine the optimal implantation site. Two types of transponders were subcutaneously implanted into four different sites (ear base, ear auricle, ventral neck, and back) in 3 domestic swine each...
August 3, 2018: Experimental Animals
Osamu Ishikawa, Minoru Tanaka, Kenjiro Konnno, Terumitsu Hasebe, Ayumi Horikawa, Akira Iijima, Nobuhito Saito, Koki Takahashi
The aim of this study was to propose a new animal model evaluating the serial time course of in-stent stenosis by repeated carotid artery catheterization in the same animal. 16 bare-metal stents were implanted in the normal external and internal iliac artery of 8 miniature pigs. Repeated measurements were performed in the same animal every 2 weeks for 12 weeks through carotid artery catheterization. The time course and peak neointimal proliferation were evaluated by intravascular ultrasound. Health of all animals was assessed by clinical and hematological examinations...
August 1, 2018: Experimental Animals
Yi Zheng, Yong Zhang, Yichun Zheng, Nan Zhang
Acute kidney injury, which is caused by renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), occurs in several clinical situations and causes severe renal damage. There is no effective therapeutic agent available for renal IRI at present. In this study, we performed an experiment based on an in vivo murine model of renal IRI to examine the effect of carnosol. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups (10 rats in each group): the sham, IRI, and carnosol groups. Rats in the carnosol group were injected intravenously with 3 mg/kg of carnosol, and those in the sham and IRI groups were injected intravenously with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide 1 h before ischemia...
July 31, 2018: Experimental Animals
Yoshiko Nakagawa, Tetsushi Sakuma, Toru Takeo, Naomi Nakagata, Takashi Yamamoto
Recently, genome editing in mouse zygotes has become convenient and scalable, in association with various technological developments and improvements such as novel nuclease tools, alternative delivery methods, and contemporary reproductive engineering techniques. We have so far demonstrated the applicability of ultra-superovulation, in vitro fertilization (IVF), and vitrification/warming of zygotes in microinjection-mediated mouse genome editing. Moreover, an electroporation-mediated method has rapidly become established for simple gene knockout and small precise modifications including single amino acid substitutions...
July 16, 2018: Experimental Animals
Tadashi Itoh, Mifumi Kawabe, Takahiko Nagase, Tsuneo Koike, Masafumi Miyoshi, Kazuro Miyahara
The body surface area (BSA) of an organism is one of the important parameters for evaluating physiological functions. In drug development, normalization by BSA is an appropriate method for extrapolating doses between species. The BSA of animals has generally been estimated by multiplying the k value by 2/3 of the power of the body weight (BW) (Meeh's formula). In mathematics, if it is assumed that the density and body shape of the animals are essentially constant, the BSA is proportional to BW2/3 . In this study, we measured the BSA and volume (V) of 72 laboratory rabbits (48 males and 24 females of New Zealand White rabbits [NZW]), using a computed tomography scanner...
July 12, 2018: Experimental Animals
Takayuki Mito, Haruna Tani, Michiko Suzuki, Kaori Ishikawa, Kazuto Nakada, Jun-Ichi Hayashi
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutator mice showing accelerated accumulation of mtDNA with somatic mutations are potentially useful models of human aging, whereas mito-miceΔ showing accelerated accumulation of mtDNA with a deletion mutation (ΔmtDNA) are potentially useful models of mitochondrial diseases but not human aging, even though both models express an age-associated decrease in mitochondrial respiration. Because osteoporosis is the only premature aging phenotype observed in mtDNA mutator mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genetic background, our previous study precisely examined its expression spectra and reported that both mtDNA mutator mice and mito-miceΔ, but not aged mice, developed decreased cortical bone thickness...
July 4, 2018: Experimental Animals
Abdulsamad Alsalahi, Mohammed A Alshawsh, Zamri Chik, Zahurin Mohamed
People consume Catha edulis (khat) for its euphoric effect, and type 1 diabetics have claimed that khat could reduce elevated levels of blood sugar. However, khat has been suggested to provoke diabetes mellitus through destruction of pancreatic β-cells. This study investigated the effect of an ethanolic khat extract on pancreatic functions in type 1 diabetes(T1DM)-induced male Sprague-Dawley rats and to assess its in vitro cytotoxicity in rat pancreatic β-cells (RIN-14B). T1DM was induced in a total of 20 rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of 75 mg/kg of streptozotocin...
July 3, 2018: Experimental Animals
Lei Liu, Lu Xu, Shaoqing Zhang, Dong Wang, Guoxia Dong, Hanwen Chen, Xinjian Li, Chi Shu, Rong Wang
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one of the driving forces of ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced acute renal failure (ARF). STF-083010, an inhibitor of the endonuclease activity of inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1), has the potential to block the initiation of a prolonged unfolded protein response (UPR) that is stimulated by ER stress and alleviates the impairments due to ER stress. In the current study, it was hypothesized that STF-083010 was capable of ameliorating ER stress-related damages in IR-induced ARF...
July 30, 2018: Experimental Animals
Zhanpeng Feng, Yichao Ou, Mingfeng Zhou, Guangsen Wu, Linzi Ma, Yun Bao, Binghui Qiu, Songtao Qi
A stable and reproducible rat injury model is not currently available to study central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and the neurohypophyseal system. In addition, a system is needed to assess the severity of CDI and measure the accompanying neurobiological alterations. In the present study, a 3D-printed lesion knife with a curved head was designed to fit into the stereotaxic instrument. The neuro-anatomical features of the brain injury were determined by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) immunostaining on brain sections...
July 30, 2018: Experimental Animals
Yoko Miyamoto, Hiroaki Kawaguchi, Akihide Tanimoto
The aim of this study is to investigate the changes with age on morphology and sex hormone receptor expression in the mammary glands of male Sprague-Dawley rats, focusing on male-specific cells, "oxyphilic cells", observed after sexual maturity. The mammary glands of male rats at 14, 21, 35, 50, 75 and 100 days old were examined by gross observation, microscopic observation using whole mount specimens, histological and immunohistochemical sections. Grossly, mammary glands showed brown color at 50-100 days old...
July 30, 2018: Experimental Animals
Bingji Jin, Hong Jin
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway have been reported to be associated with the progression of acute lung injury (ALI). Oxymatrine (OMT) alone or combined with other drugs can ameliorate paraquat- or oleic acid-induced lung injury. However, the effect of OMT on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether OMT can attenuate LPS-induced ALI through regulation of the ENaC and MAPK pathway using an ALI mouse model...
July 30, 2018: Experimental Animals
Hao Zhang, Zhong-Li Li, Xiang-Zheng Su, Li Ding, Ji Li, Heng Zhu
Rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important seed cells in regenerative medicine research, particularly in translational research. In the current study, we showed that rabbit subchondral bone is a reliable source of MSCs. First, we harvested subchondral bone (SCB) from the rabbit knee-joint and initiated the MSC culture by cultivating enzyme-treated SCB. Adherent fibroblast-like cells that outgrew from SCB fulfill the common immuno-phenotypic criteria for defining MSCs, but with low contamination of CD45+ hematopoietic cells...
July 30, 2018: Experimental Animals
Takashi Inoue, Yukihito Ishizaka, Emi Sasaki, Jun Lu, Takayuki Mineshige, Mikio Yanase, Erika Sasaki, Masayuki Shimoda
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a nonhuman primate that is used for preclinical research on stem cell transplantation therapies due to its similarity to human beings as well as its small size, enabling researchers to perform experiments without preparing a large number of cells. In this study, we developed a marmoset hepatic fibrosis model for regenerative medicine research. Six female marmosets aged 4-6 years were administered thioacetamide (TAA) at a dose of 2.5-40 mg/kg two or three times a week...
July 30, 2018: Experimental Animals
Atsushi Tsukamoto, Natsuko Niino, Mizuho Sakamoto, Risa Ohtani, Tomo Inomata
To achieve surgical anesthesia in animal experimentation, it is necessary to select the appropriate anesthetic protocol by considering its pharmacological properties and the surgical procedure to be performed. However, few studies have investigated the validity of anesthetic protocols under surgical conditions in small rodents. The present study aimed to clarify the pharmacological properties of 4 anesthetic protocols during the surgical procedure of castration in rats. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were anesthetized with anesthetics, including the combination of ketamine and xylazine (K/X), the combination of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol (M/M/B), isoflurane, and sevoflurane...
July 30, 2018: Experimental Animals
Yoshie Kametani, Takashi Shiina, Ryuji Suzuki, Erika Sasaki, Sonoko Habu
The common marmoset (CM; Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World monkey with a high rate of pregnancy and is maintained in closed colonies as an experimental animal species. Although CMs are used for immunological research, such as studies of autoimmune disease and infectious disease, their immunological characteristics are less defined than those of other nonhuman primates. We and others have analyzed antigen recognition-related molecules, the development of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and the molecules involved in the immune response...
July 30, 2018: Experimental Animals
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