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Experimental Animals

Daniele Masselli Rodrigues, Josélia Cristina de Oliveira Moreira, Marcelo Lancellotti, Rovilson Gilioli, Marcus Alexandre Finzi Corat
Murine norovirus (MNV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus of the Caliciviridae family. MNV has been reported to infect laboratory mice with the ability to cause lethal infections in strains lacking components of the innate immune response. Currently, MNV is considered the most prevalent infectious agent detected in laboratory mouse facilities. In this study, mice in 22 laboratory animal facilities within Brazil were analyzed for MNV infection. Using primers targeting a conserved region of the viral capsid, MNV was detected by RT-PCR in 137 of 359 mice from all 22 facilities...
December 29, 2016: Experimental Animals
Satoshi Yamada, Tomonari Koike, Takayuki Nakagawa, Nobue Kuniyoshi, Yu Ying, Hiroyuki Itabe, Atsushi Yamashita, Yuji Asada, Masashi Shiomi
In order to examine their suitability for studies on coronary atherosclerosis, we evaluated the features of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbits, a spontaneous animal model for coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Coronary segments of the hearts of 187 WHHLMI rabbits (10-29 months old) were sectioned serially and stained histopathologically and immunohistologically. Progression of coronary lesions was prominent in rabbits that had died suddenly...
December 27, 2016: Experimental Animals
Chunhua Yin, Lumei Kang, Cong Lai, Jing Zhou, Bin Shi, Lei Zhang, Hongping Chen
Leptin is secreted predominantly by adipocytes and exerts its role mainly by interaction with the long form of leptin receptor (LEPR_V2). It has been identified that LEPR_V2 is widely distributed in various tissues, including the anterior pituitary. Cross-talk between leptin and estrogens has been indentified. Estrogen is known to modulate the tissue-specific expression of LEPR_V2 and leptin in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, a model of postmenopausal condition. Our previous data showed that 17β-estradiol (E2) up-regulated the expression of LEPR_V2 protein and mRNA in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in an estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-dependent manner...
December 26, 2016: Experimental Animals
Kaname Kawajiri, Yoshiaki Fujii-Kuriyama
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a pivotal chemical sensor that transduces extrinsic and intrinsic signals into cellular responses. AHR was originally thought to be involved in not only drug metabolism but also carcinogenic and toxicological responses against environmental contaminants, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, recent studies demonstrate that the AHR plays multiple intrinsic roles in host defense and homeostasis as well, including immunity, stem cell maintenance, and cell differentiation, upon binding with an increasing number of newly defined dietary, cellular, and microbe-derived ligands...
December 15, 2016: Experimental Animals
Satoki Ichimura, Shun Sasaki, Takuya Murata, Ryutaro Fukumura, Yoichi Gondo, Shiro Ikegawa, Tatsuya Furuichi
Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED) is a rare sclerosing bone disorder in humans with autosomal dominant inheritance. Mutations in the gene (TGFB1) that encodes transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) are causative for CED. TGF-β1 signaling is enhanced by the CED-causing mutations. In this study, we performed Tgfb1 mutation screening in an ENU-mutagenized mouse genomic DNA library. We identified a missense mutation in which cysteine was substituted by serine at position 225 (p.C225S), that corresponded to the CED-causing mutation (p...
December 8, 2016: Experimental Animals
Katsuyoshi Kumagai, Masakatsu Takanashi, Shin-Ichiro Ohno, Masahiko Kuroda, Katsuko Sudo
Targeted mutant mice generated on a C57BL/6 background are powerful tools for analysis of the biological functions of genes, and gene targeting technologies using mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells have been used to generate such mice. Recently, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) recombineering system was established for the construction of targeting vectors. However, gene retrieval from BACs for the generation of gene targeting vectors using this system remains difficult. Even when construction of a gene targeting vector is successful, the efficiency of production of targeted mutant mice from ES cells derived from C57BL/6 mice are poor...
November 25, 2016: Experimental Animals
Yanira Franco-Murillo, Ruth Jaimez
Epidemiological and experimental data have indicated the beneficial and adverse effects of estrogenic replacement therapy. In the present study, we explored the effect of ethinylestradiol (EE) and 17β-estradiol (E2) on screening tests, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), as well as the activity of coagulation factors (FVII, FX, FXI, and FXII) in male Wistar rats. Animals were injected subcutaneously during three consecutive days with EE or E2 (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) and propylene glycol (0...
November 9, 2016: Experimental Animals
Satoshi Nakanishi, Takashi Kuramoto, Naomi Kashiwazaki, Norihide Yokoi
The Zucker fatty (ZF) rat is an outbred rat and a well-known model of obesity without diabetes, harboring a missense mutation (fatty, abbreviated as fa) in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr). Slc:Zucker (Slc:ZF) outbred rats exhibit obesity while Hos:ZFDM-Lepr(fa) (Hos:ZFDM) outbred rats exhibit obesity and type 2 diabetes. Both outbred rats have been derived from an outbred ZF rat colony maintained at the Tokyo Medical University. So far, genetic profiles of these outbred rats remain unknown. Here, we applied a simple genotyping method using Ampdirect reagents and FTA cards (Amp-FTA) in combination with simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLP) markers to determine genetic profiles of Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM rats...
October 31, 2016: Experimental Animals
Kyoungbong Ha, Haksup Shin, Hyunwoo Ju, Chan-Moon Chung, Inho Choi
Ectothermic animals rely on behavioral thermoregulation due to low capacity of heat production and storage. Previously, lizards were shown to achieve 'fever' during microbial infection by increasing their preferred body temperature (PBT) behaviorally, thereby attaining a relatively high survival rate. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether domesticated lizards pursued 'behavioral hypothermia' induced by a hypometabolic agent 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM). We found that treatment with 8.0 mg/kg T1AM caused a lizard species, the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), to decrease its ventilation and oxygen consumption rates 0...
October 31, 2016: Experimental Animals
Jeng-Rung Chen, Seh Hong Lim, Sin-Cun Chung, Yee-Fun Lee, Yueh-Jan Wang, Guo-Fang Tseng, Tsyr-Jiuan Wan
Behavioral adaptations during motherhood are aimed at increasing reproductive success. Alterations of hormones during motherhood could trigger brain morphological changes to underlie behavioral alterations. Here we investigated whether motherhood changes a rat's sensory perception and spatial memory in conjunction with cortical neuronal structural changes. Female rats of different statuses, including virgin, pregnant, lactating, and primiparous rats were studied. Behavioral test showed that the lactating rats were most sensitive to heat, while rats with motherhood and reproduction experience outperformed virgin rats in a water maze task...
October 25, 2016: Experimental Animals
Shinya Koshinuma, Shoko Murakami, Masaharu Noi, Takuya Murakami, Ken-Ichi Mukaisho, Hiroyuki Sugihara, Gaku Yamamoto
Oral surgical procedures occasionally require removal of the periosteum due to lesions, and these raw bone surfaces are prone not only to infection but also to scar formation during secondary healing. The objective of this study was to identify successful methods for reconstruction using periosteal defect dressings. We created 1-cm(2) defects in the skin and cranial periosteum of 10-week-old male Wistar rats under isoflurane anesthesia. The animals were assigned to three defect treatment groups: (1) polyglycolic acid sheets with fibrin glue dressing (PGA-FG), (2) Spongel® gelatin sponge dressing (GS), and (3) open wound (control)...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Animals
Yoshinori Shimamoto, Kimie Niimi, Hiroshi Kitamura, Sae Tsubakishita, Eiki Takahashi
The common marmoset is a non-human primate that has increasingly employed in the biomedical research including the fields of neuroscience and behavioral studies. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D has been speculated to be involved in psycho-neurologic actions in the human brain. In the present study, to clarify the role of CYP2D in the marmoset brain, we investigated the expression patterns of CYP2D mRNA in the brain using in situ hybridization (ISH). In addition, to identify the gene location of CYP2D19, a well-studied CYP2D isoform in the common marmoset, a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study was performed...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Animals
Motoyo Maruyama, Masahiko Fujisawa, Makoto Yokosuka, Toru R Saito, Shin-Ichi Hayama, Toshio Akimoto, Yoji Hakamata
Several drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes exhibit sexual dimorphism depending on the pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretory patterns. However, the mechanism underlying CYP sexual dimorphism remains unclear. We previously established a transgenic (Alb-DsRed2 Tg) rat that expressed red fluorescent DsRed2 protein, particularly in hepatocytes, to visualize cell differentiation and multiplication and found that hepatic DsRed2 expression exhibited sexual dimorphism that was limited to adult males. In this study, we compared the expression patterns between sexual dimorphic Cyps and DsRed2 in Tg rats after experimentally reversing the GH secretory patterns in males and females...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Animals
Taiki Mori, Yusuke Murasawa, Rina Ikai, Tomoko Hayakawa, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Noboru Ogiso, Shumpei Niida, Ken Watanabe
IL-6 is a cytokine that is involved in various physiological and pathological conditions, and approaches using gain-of-function transgenic animals have contributed in elucidating IL-6 function. However, studies of the multiple functions of IL-6 in vivo are very time consuming because they require the generation of transgenic mice that harbor the gene encoding IL-6 under the control of specific promoters to mimic different pathologies. Here, we report the establishment of a conditional human IL-6 transgenic mouse, LGL-IL6, which conditionally expresses human IL-6 by taking advantage of the well-characterized Cre recombinase drivers...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Animals
Tomoyuki Abe, Shota Kono, Takahiro Ohnuki, Shuji Hishikawa, Satoshi Kunita, Yutaka Hanazono
Animal models of thrombocytopenia are indispensable for evaluating the in vivo efficacy of hemostatic agents, cryopreserved platelets, and artificial platelets, but no large animal models are available. In this study, we generated a swine model of acute thrombocytopenia with prolonged bleeding times by administering the chemotherapeutic drug busulfan. First, we tested multiple doses of busulfan (4, 6, and 8 mg/kg) in pigs, and found that 6 mg/kg of busulfan is an optimal dose for producing a safe and moderate thrombocytopenia, with a platelet count of less than 30,000/µl...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Animals
Vijayapandi Pandy, Yasmin Khan
Morinda citrifolia L. commonly known as noni or Indian mulberry belongs to the family Rubiaceae. Noni fruit juice has recently become a very popular remedy for the treatment of several diseases, including psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to investigate the anticraving effect of Tahitian Noni® Juice (TNJ) against ethanol seeking behavior in ICR male mice using the conditioned place preference (CPP) test. The CPP procedure consisted of four phases: preconditioning, conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Animals
Aynur Arslan, Adalet Ozcicek, Bahadir Suleyman, Taha Abdulkadir Coban, Ferda Keskin Cimen, Hatice Sevim Nalkiran, Mehmet Kuzucu, Durdu Altuner, Nihal Cetin, Halis Suleyman
Intestinal mucositis is one of the major problems in the patients receiving cancer treatment. Nimesulide is a drug with antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antiulcer features. We aimed to investigate the effect of nimesulide on the small intestine mucositis induced by methotrexate (MTX) in rats. Experimental animals were divided into the control group, MTX group (MTXG) and nimesulide+MTX administered group (NMTXG) with eight rats per group. The control and MTXG groups were given distilled water by gavage and the NMTXG was given nimesulide 100 mg/kg orally...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Animals
Mayuko Maeda, Tomoaki Murakami, Naeem Muhammad, Yasuo Inoshima, Naotaka Ishiguro
AA amyloidosis is a protein misfolding disease characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid A (AA) fibrils. AA amyloidosis has been identified in food animals, and it has been postulated that AA amyloidosis may be transmissible to different animal species. Since the precursor protein of AA fibrils is serum amyloid A (SAA), which is an inflammatory acute phase protein, AA amyloidosis is considered to be associated with inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Chronic diseases such as autoimmune disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus could be potential factors for AA amyloidosis...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Animals
Tomonari Koike, Shiori Tamura, Ying Yu, Nobue Kuniyoshi, Masashi Shiomi
We examined the relationship between atherosclerosis and the provocation of coronary spasm as well as the influence of coronary spasm on the onset of acute ischemic myocardial disease. Coronary spasm was provoked in anesthetized normal Japanese white (JW) rabbits and myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbits, an animal model for coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction, by injecting ergonovine during the infusion of norepinephrine through a marginal ear vein. A decrease in contrast flow in the left circumflex artery was observed on coronary angiograms...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Animals
Xiande Liu, Shengnan Jiang, Linghua Piao, Feng Yuan
The engineered Salmonella typhimurium ΔppGpp (S.t ΔppGpp) has been studied in terms of its ability to carry imaging probes (bacterial luciferase, Lux) for tumor imaging or carry therapeutic molecules (Cytolysin A) to kill cancer cells. To establish a novel cancer therapy, bacterial therapy was combined with radiotherapy using the attenuated strain S.t ΔppGpp/pBAD-ClyA. Radiotherapy (21Gy) contributed to S. typhimurium colonization in a colon tumor (CT26) model of BALB/c mice. The combination of bacterial therapy and radiotherapy treatments reduced tumor growth compared with only bacterial therapy...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Animals
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