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Experimental Animals

Mohd Aizat Zain, Vijayapandi Pandy, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed, Won Fen Wong, Zahurin Mohamed
Chronic stress has been associated with impairment of memory, learning, and social cognition. In animal studies, chronic stress has been shown to impair rodent sociability behaviour which mimics social withdrawal as observed in depression patients. The effect of chronic stress on social recognition, however, is uncertain. Moreover, with reference to spatial learning and memory, the effect of chronic stress is dependent on the type of behavioural task: an appetitively or aversively motivated tasks. The effect of chronic stress was consistent in impairing spatial learning and memory in the appetitive task; however, the effect was inconsistent in an aversive task like the Morris water maze...
November 5, 2018: Experimental Animals
Shusaku Yamada, Daiki Hirao, Naoki Miura, Tomoko Iwanaga, Takae Kawaguchi, Aritada Yoshimura, Takahiro Oomori, Tomoka Nagasato, Ikuro Maruyama, Ryuji Fukushima
The changes in intra-atrial blood coagulability after development of atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been elucidated in human. In the present study, blood coagulability were examined in the intra-atrial and peripheral regions during the acute phase after development of rapid atrial pacing (RAP) in experimentally created model dog similar to AF, using Total Thrombus-formation Analysis System (T-TAS) that is capable of comprehensively evaluating thrombogenicity in the bloodstream in the microvascular channel...
October 31, 2018: Experimental Animals
Yuki Tsunakawa, Michito Hamada, Yurina Matsunaga, Sayaka Fuseya, Hyojung Jeon, Yuji Wakimoto, Toshiaki Usui, Maho Kanai, Seiya Mizuno, Naoki Morito, Satoru Takahashi
Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis (MCTO) is a condition involving progressive osteolysis of the carpal and tarsal bones that is associated with glomerular sclerosis and renal failure (MCTO nephropathy). Previous work identified an autosomal dominant missense mutation in the transactivation domain of the transcription factor MAFB as the cause of MCTO. Several methods are currently used for MCTO nephropathy treatment, but these methods are invasive and lead to severe side effects, limiting their use. Therefore, the development of alternative treatments for MCTO nephropathy is required; however, the pathogenesis of MCTO in vivo is unclear without access to a mouse model...
October 26, 2018: Experimental Animals
Jiyuan Si, Ranran Meng, Peng Gao, Feifei Hui, Yu Li, Xianhu Liu, Bin Yang
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is main treatment for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, restenosis caused by PCI-induced injury influences the outcome of patients. Linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, has been reported to ameliorate intimal hyperplasia post vascular injury. The underlying mechanisms by which linagliptin protects against balloon injury are unclear and require to be explored. Herein, Wistar rats with carotid artery balloon injury were given 1, 2 or 3 mg/kg/day linagliprin for 6 weeks...
October 23, 2018: Experimental Animals
Tomomichi Ishizaka, Yu Yoshimatsu, Yu Maeda, Katsuyoshi Chiba, Kazuhiko Mori
The present study was conducted to clarify multiple cardiohemodynamic and electrophysiological properties including inotropic/lusitropic effects of nifekalant, a class III antiarrhythmic drug, in an isoflurane-anesthetized monkey. Nifekalant was administered intravenously at the therapeutic dose of 0.3 mg/kg over 10 minutes to male cynomolgus monkeys (n=4), followed by higher dose of 1 (n=3) or 3 mg/kg (n=1) that was limited due to arrythmogenicity. Left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume (PV) analysis revealed that the 0...
October 17, 2018: Experimental Animals
Sadahiko Nakajima
This article presents an experimental preparation for establishing conditioned food aversion (CFA) by voluntary wheel running in rats with laboratory chow and water freely available. In Experiment 1, unfamiliar food (raisins) was avoided by rats when they first encountered it. This neophobic food avoidance was habituated by repeated tests; the rats gradually increased their raisin consumption. However, the consumption remained suppressed in rats that accessed the raisins after wheel running. This finding implies that running yielded CFA, which suppressed consumption of the unfamiliar food rather than increasing it...
October 3, 2018: Experimental Animals
Yuko Maejima, Shoko Yokota, Rie O'Hashi, Masato Aoyama, Kenju Shimomura
Basic research on obesity is becoming more important due to an increasing number of obese people. Experiments using obesity-model animals often require surgical interventions, such as gastric operation, and proper selection of anesthesia is important. Avertin, an agent mainly composed of 2,2,2-Tribromoethanol, has been used as general anesthesia for a long time, without the use of narcotic drugs. In the current study, we found that a single injection of avertin can decrease body weight (BW) in male and female C57BL/6J and ICR mice with high fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity, but not in standard diet-fed nonobese males and females...
September 13, 2018: Experimental Animals
Yi Zheng, Yong Zhang, Yichun Zheng, Nan Zhang
Acute kidney injury, which is caused by renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), occurs in several clinical situations and causes severe renal damage. There is no effective therapeutic agent available for renal IRI at present. In this study, we performed an experiment based on an in vivo murine model of renal IRI to examine the effect of carnosol. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups (10 rats in each group): the sham, IRI, and carnosol groups. Rats in the carnosol group were injected intravenously with 3 mg/kg of carnosol, and those in the sham and IRI groups were injected intravenously with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide 1 h before ischemia...
November 1, 2018: Experimental Animals
Osamu Ishikawa, Minoru Tanaka, Kenjiro Konno, Terumitsu Hasebe, Ayumi Horikawa, Akira Iijima, Nobuhito Saito, Koki Takahashi
The aim of this study was to propose a new animal model evaluating the serial time course of in-stent stenosis by repeated carotid artery catheterization in the same animal. 16 bare-metal stents were implanted in the normal external and internal iliac artery of 8 miniature pigs. Repeated measurements were performed in the same animal every 2 weeks for 12 weeks through carotid artery catheterization. The time course and peak neointimal proliferation were evaluated by intravascular ultrasound. Health of all animals was assessed by clinical and hematological examinations...
November 1, 2018: Experimental Animals
Yoshiko Nakagawa, Tetsushi Sakuma, Toru Takeo, Naomi Nakagata, Takashi Yamamoto
Recently, genome editing in mouse zygotes has become convenient and scalable, in association with various technological developments and improvements such as novel nuclease tools, alternative delivery methods, and contemporary reproductive engineering techniques. We have so far demonstrated the applicability of ultra-superovulation, in vitro fertilization (IVF), and vitrification/warming of zygotes in microinjection-mediated mouse genome editing. Moreover, an electroporation-mediated method has rapidly become established for simple gene knockout and small precise modifications including single amino acid substitutions...
November 1, 2018: Experimental Animals
Tadashi Itoh, Mifumi Kawabe, Takahiko Nagase, Tsuneo Koike, Masafumi Miyoshi, Kazuro Miyahara
The body surface area (BSA) of an organism is one of the important parameters for evaluating physiological functions. In drug development, normalization by BSA is an appropriate method for extrapolating doses between species. The BSA of animals has generally been estimated by multiplying the k value by 2/3 of the power of the body weight (BW) (Meeh's formula). In mathematics, if it is assumed that the density and body shape of the animals are essentially constant, the BSA is proportional to BW2/3 . In this study, we measured the BSA and volume (V) of 72 laboratory rabbits (48 males and 24 females of New Zealand White rabbits [NZW]), using a computed tomography scanner...
November 1, 2018: Experimental Animals
Abdulsamad Alsalahi, Mohammed A Alshawsh, Zamri Chik, Zahurin Mohamed
People consume Catha edulis (khat) for its euphoric effect, and type 1 diabetics have claimed that khat could reduce elevated levels of blood sugar. However, khat has been suggested to provoke diabetes mellitus through destruction of pancreatic β-cells. This study investigated the effect of an ethanolic khat extract on pancreatic functions in type 1 diabetes (T1DM)-induced male Sprague-Dawley rats and to assess its in vitro cytotoxicity in rat pancreatic β-cells (RIN-14B). T1DM was induced in a total of 20 rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of 75 mg/kg of streptozotocin...
November 1, 2018: Experimental Animals
Takayuki Mito, Haruna Tani, Michiko Suzuki, Kaori Ishikawa, Kazuto Nakada, Jun-Ichi Hayashi
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutator mice showing accelerated accumulation of mtDNA with somatic mutations are potentially useful models of human aging, whereas mito-miceΔ showing accelerated accumulation of mtDNA with a deletion mutation (ΔmtDNA) are potentially useful models of mitochondrial diseases but not human aging, even though both models express an age-associated decrease in mitochondrial respiration. Because osteoporosis is the only premature aging phenotype observed in mtDNA mutator mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genetic background, our previous study precisely examined its expression spectra and reported that both mtDNA mutator mice and mito-miceΔ, but not aged mice, developed decreased cortical bone thickness...
November 1, 2018: Experimental Animals
Yuji Tanaka, Fuminori Kimura, Luyi Zheng, Shoji Kaku, Akie Takebayashi, Kyoko Kasahara, Shunichiro Tsuji, Takashi Murakami
This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of everolimus, a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, on cisplatin chemotherapy-induced ovarian toxicity. Eighty sexually mature, virgin, female, 7-week-old C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: control, cisplatin (Cis), everolimus (mTORi), and everolimus plus cisplatin (mTORi+Cis). Mice in the Cis and mTORi+Cis groups were intraperitoneally injected with 2 mg/kg of cisplatin for 15 d. Mice in the mTORi and mTORi+Cis groups were orally administered 2...
November 1, 2018: Experimental Animals
Paula Domingo, Maite Olaciregui, Noelia González, Ignacio De Blas, Lydia Gil
The purpose of this research was to assess whether the presence of seminal plasma (SP) can improve sperm quality of rabbit spermatozoa stored at 16°C for 72 h and moreover evaluate the cryoprotectant effects of glycerol, N-N-Dimethylformamide (DMF), and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Semen samples were pooled and divided in eight fractions. Four of them were diluted with INRA (extender A), INRA with 6% glycerol (extender B), INRA with 6% DMF (extender C), or INRA with 6% NMP (extender D), respectively. The other four fractions were centrifuged, and the supernatant was removed in order to eliminate SP...
November 1, 2018: Experimental Animals
Teruko Fukuda, Eri Asou, Kimiko Nogi, Masahiko Yasuda, Kazuo Goto
Strong evidence for an association between idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection has been reported in humans. Chronic ITP is known to be improved by the eradication of HP. The purpose of this study was to reproduce these events by the experimental infection of several strains of mice with HP. BALB/c, C57BL/6, and DBA/2 mice were untreated or orally inoculated with HP. Two months later, platelet counts were compared in samples from HP-infected and noninfected mice. Platelet counts (mean ± SD, × 104 cells/µl) in blood samples from HP-infected BALB/c, C57BL/6, and DBA/2 mice were 102...
November 1, 2018: Experimental Animals
Bin Li, Dongnan Li, Yuehua Wang, Xianjun Meng, Xiyun Sun, Jinlong Tian, Lin Shi, Fengming Ma
Schisantherin A (SinA), one of the most abundant active ingredients of Schisandra chinensis, was reported to protect and benefit the liver, however, its effect on alcohol-induced liver injury (ALI) was still not clear. In the present study, an ALI mice model was induced by feeding mice an alcohol-containing liquid diet for four weeks. Then, 100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg SinA was administered to mice every day by gavage for the last two weeks. Histopathological analysis showed that alcohol-induced liver lipid vacuoles were reduced by SinA...
November 1, 2018: Experimental Animals
Chiemi Ohmori, Yusuke Sakai, Yasuki Matano, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Kazuo Umemura, Nobuo Nagai
It is observed that the increase in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability (BBBP) is associated with ischemic stroke and thought to trigger neuronal damage and deteriorate ischemic infarction, even though there is no experimental proof. Here, we investigated the effect of BBBP increase on brain damage, using a combination of photochemically-induced thrombotic brain damage (PIT-BD) model, a focal brain ischemic model, and transient bilateral carotid artery occlusion model (CAO, a whole brain ischemic model), in mice...
November 1, 2018: Experimental Animals
Bo Li, Yongchun Cui, Dong Zhang, Xiaokang Luo, Fuliang Luo, Bin Li, Yue Tang
The porcine mitral regurgitation (MR) model is a common cardiovascular animal model. Standardized manufacturing processes can improve the uniformity and success rate of the model, and systematic research can evaluate its potential use. In this study, 17 pigs were divided into an experimental group (n=11) and a control group (n=6). We used a homemade retractor to cut the mitral chordae via the left atrial appendage to establish a model of MR; the control group underwent a sham surgery. The model animals were followed for 30 months after the surgery...
November 1, 2018: Experimental Animals
Hyeonhae Choi, Ki-Young Ryu, Jaesook Roh, Jaeman Bae
Thyroid cancer in children, the most common endocrine malignancy, shows aggressive behavior and has a high recurrence rate after surgical ablation. Radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment is the most effective primary modality for medical ablation of juvenile thyroid cancer, and leads to intentional hypothyroidism. Although several negative impacts of hypothyroidism have been reported in children in response to other antithyroid agents, the combined effects of RAI exposure and hypothyroidism, on growing bones specifically, are unknown...
November 1, 2018: Experimental Animals
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