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Experimental Animals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757511/use-of-animal-models-for-the-imaging-and-quantification-of-angiogenesis
#1
Min Liu, Songbo Xie, Jun Zhou
Angiogenesis is the process of developing new blood vessels from the original vascular network; it is necessary for normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development and wound healing. Angiogenesis is also involved in pathological events, including myocardial ischemia and tumor growth. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of this important process, a variety of methods and models are employed. These strategies can also be used to provide insight into the etiology of angiogenesis-related diseases, thereby contributing to the development of new diagnostics and treatments...
July 31, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757517/reproducible-insulin-secretion-from-isolated-rat-pancreas-preparations-using-an-organ-bath
#2
Asuka Morita, Motoshi Ouchi, Misao Terada, Hiroe Kon, Satoko Kishimoto, Keitaro Satoh, Naoyuki Otani, Keitaro Hayashi, Tomoe Fujita, Ken-Ichi Inoue, Naohiko Anzai
Diabetes mellitus is a lifestyle-related disease that is characterized by inappropriate or diminished insulin secretion. Ex vivo pharmacological studies of hypoglycemic agents are often conducted using perfused pancreatic preparations. Pancreas preparations for organ bath experiments do not require cannulation and are therefore less complex than isolated perfused pancreas preparations. However, previous research has generated almost no data on insulin secretion from pancreas preparations using organ bath preparations...
July 28, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747592/investigation-of-spinal-nerve-ligation-mediated-functional-activation-of-the-rat-brain-using-manganese-enhanced-mri
#3
Keun-Yeong Jeong, Ji-Hyuk Kang
To provide clear information on the cerebral regions according to peripheral neuropathy, the functional activation was investigated using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). L5-spinal nerve ligation (SNL) was applied to the rats to induce neuropathic pain. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were measured to confirm neuropathic pain induction following before and after gabapentin (GBP) treatment. The cerebral regions were investigated using a 4.7T MRI system in the sham, SNL, and GBP-treated SNL rats...
July 26, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717054/simple-generation-of-hairless-mice-for-in-vivo-imaging
#4
Yoshikazu Hoshino, Seiya Mizuno, Kanako Kato, Saori Mizuno-Iijima, Yoko Tanimoto, Miyuki Ishida, Noriko Kajiwara, Tomoki Sakasai, Yoshihiro Miwa, Satoru Takahashi, Ken-Ichi Yagami, Fumihiro Sugiyama
The in vivo imaging of mice makes it possible to analyze disease progress non-invasively through reporter gene expression. As the removal of hair improves the accuracy of in vivo imaging, gene-modified mice with a reporter gene are often crossed with Hos:HR-1 mutant mice homozygous for the spontaneous Hr(hr) mutation that exhibit a hair loss phenotype. However, it is time consuming to produce mice carrying both the reporter gene and mutant Hr(hr) gene by mating. In addition, there is a risk that genetic background of the gene-modified mice would be altered by mating...
July 18, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701621/antipsychotic-like-activity-of-scopoletin-and-rutin-against-the-positive-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-in-mouse-models
#5
Vijayapandi Pandy, Kamini Vijeepallam
In an earlier report, we demonstrated an antipsychotic-like activity of a methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn fruit in mouse models and postulated the contribution of its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin. Moreover, the antidopaminergic activities of scopoletin and rutin were reported in isolated vas deferens preparations. In the present study, scopoletin and rutin were assessed for antipsychotic-like activity using apomorphine-induced climbing behavior and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy in mice...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701620/comparative-analysis-of-the-intestinal-flora-in-type-2-diabetes-and-nondiabetic-mice
#6
Masanori Horie, Takamasa Miura, Satomi Hirakata, Akira Hosoyama, Sakiko Sugino, Aya Umeno, Kazutoshi Murotomi, Yasukazu Yoshida, Taisuke Koike
A relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and intestinal flora has been suggested since development of analysis technology for intestinal flora. An animal model of T2DM is important for investigation of T2DM. Although there are some animal models of T2DM, a comparison of the intestinal flora of healthy animals with that of T2DM animals has not yet been reported. The intestinal flora of Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice was compared with that of Tsumura, Suzuki, Non Obesity (TSNO) mice in the present study...
July 12, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679969/incidence-of-spontaneous-lymphomas-in-non-experimental-nod-shi-scid-il-2r%C3%AE-null-nog-mice
#7
Masahiko Yasuda, Tomoyuki Ogura, Takayuki Goto, Mika Yagoto, Yoko Kamai, Chie Shimomura, Nobuhito Hayashimoto, Yukito Kiyokawa, Hideki Shinohara, Riichi Takahashi, Kenji Kawai
Severely immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγ(null) (NOG) mice provide an in vivo model for human cell/tissue transplantation studies. NOG mice were established by combining interleukin-2 receptor-γ chain knockout mice and NOD/Shi-scid mice. They exhibit a high incidence of thymic lymphomas and immunoglobulin (Ig) leakiness. In this study, we assessed the incidence of malignant lymphomas and the occurrence of leakiness in 2,184 non-experimental NOG retired breeder mice aged 16-40 weeks. We established that the total incidence of lymphomas was only 0...
July 6, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679963/transgenic-mice-display-hair-loss-and-regrowth-overexpressing-mutant-hr-gene
#8
Kuicheng Zhu, Cunshuan Xu, Jintao Zhang, Yingying Chen, Mengduan Liu
Mutations in the hairless (Hr) gene in both mice and humans have been implicated in the development of congenital atrichia, but the role of Hr in skin and hair follicle (HF) biology remains unknown. Here, we established transgenic mice (TG) overexpressing mutant Hr to investigate its specific role in the development of HF. Three transgenic lines were successfully constructed, and two of them (TG3 and TG8) displayed a pattern of hair loss and regrowth with alternation in the expression of HR protein. The mutant Hr gene inhibited the expression of the endogenous gene in transgenic individuals, which led to the development of alopecia...
July 5, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674286/evaluation-of-a-tptx-model-induced-by-ischemia
#9
Haoran Yuan, Yongzhao Shi, Yinghua Li, Lin Yang, Yan Tang, Zhiqing Hu, Ran DU, Xueqing Li, Lingbin Gu, Hui Wang, Chenhui Xi, Chenghui Tang
Parathyroidectomy (PTX), especially total parathyroidectomy (TPTX), is often recommended for severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) if other medical treatments fail. Accurate identification and resection of parathyroid gland (PTG) tissue is the cornerstone of PTX. The establishment of a rat TPTX model would be beneficial for several applications but faces the same problems. In this experiment, we studied the mechanisms of ischemia for the accurate identification and excision of PTG tissue to establish TPTX rat models and to analyze the effects of surgical removal of PTG tissue as well as the effects of different types of water intake in rats on clinical indices...
July 3, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674285/a-high-sucrose-and-high-fat-diet-induced-the-development-of-insulin-resistance-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-bama-miniature-pigs-through-the-akt-glut4-pathway
#10
Yaqian Liu, Jifang Yuan, Lei Xiang, Yuqiong Zhao, Miaomiao Niu, Xin Dai, Hua Chen
A high sucrose and high fat (HSHF) diet induces insulin resistance (IR) and increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the underlying mechanisms are poorly characterized. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which the HSHF diet impairs insulin sensitivity in Bama miniature pigs (sus scrofa domesticus). Twelve Bama miniature pigs were randomly assigned to the control diet (CD) group (n=6) or the HSHF group (n=6) for 6 months. Biochemical parameters were measured. Western blot, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry were used to profile the changes of protein expression, mRNA expression and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression in skeletal muscle tissues, respectively...
July 3, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674271/pharmacological-properties-of-various-anesthetic-protocols-in-10-day-old-neonatal-rats
#11
Atsushi Tsukamoto, Yui Konishi, Takako Kawakami, Chiharu Koibuchi, Reiichiro Sato, Eiichi Kanai, Tomo Inomata
In general, the anesthesia in neonates involves high risk. Although hypothermic anesthesia is recommended in rats up to the age of 7 days, neonatal anesthesia for later periods has not been standardized. The present study investigated the pharmacological properties of conventional anesthetic protocols in 10-day-old SD rats. The rats were anesthetized with four anesthetics: a combination of ketamine and xylazine (K/X); a combination of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol (M/M/B); isoflurane; and sevoflurane...
June 30, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674270/fate-of-methylated-unmethylated-h19-imprinting-control-region-after-paternal-and-maternal-pronuclear-injection
#12
Asami Oji, Tomojiro Amano, Yasuaki Maeta, Naohiro Hori, Kiyotaka Hatsuzawa, Kenzo Sato, Tomoko Nakanishi
The paternal-allele-specific methylation of the Igf2/H19 imprinting control region (ICR) is established during gametogenesis and maintained throughout development. To elucidate the requirement of the germline passage in the maintenance of the imprinting methylation, we established a system introducing a methylated or unmethylated ICR-containing DNA fragment (ICR-F) into the paternal or maternal genome by microinjecting into the paternal or maternal pronucleus of fertilized eggs, and traced the methylation pattern in the ICR-F...
June 30, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659540/an-alert-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-of-rhesus-macaques-in-a-wild-zoo-in-china
#13
Wenping Gong, Yourong Yang, Yi Luo, Ning Li, Xuejuan Bai, Yinping Liu, Junxian Zhang, Ming Chen, Chenglin Zhang, Xueqiong Wu
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB), is becoming increasingly recognized as an important cause of fatal chronic illnesses in China. In this study, we report an infectious disease among 84 rhesus macaques at a Chinese zoo. Their clinical signs and symptoms were very similar with the manifestations of TB in humans. To determine the potential pathogens of this outbreak, many methods were used. First, tuberculin skin tests showed that none of the monkeys displayed significant skin reactions...
June 29, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637971/esculentoside-a-ameliorates-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in-rats
#14
Guodong Sun, Wei Yang, Yang Zhang, Mingyan Zhao
Esculentoside A (EsA), a saponin isolated from Phytolacca esculenta, can attenuate acute liver and lung injury. However, whether EsA has a protective effect against sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been reported. In this study, EsA (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg) was given to rats with sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). We found that EsA improved the survival of septic rats in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EsA lowered the kidney tubular damage score and decreased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine...
June 22, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626113/effects-of-%C3%AE-estradiol-on-cold-sensitive-receptor-channel-trpm8-in-ovariectomized-rats
#15
Takuro Kubo, Shunichiro Tsuji, Tsukuru Amano, Fumi Yoshino, Yoko Niwa, Kyoko Kasahara, Saori Yoshida, Ken-Ichi Mukaisho, Hiroyuki Sugihara, Sachiko Tanaka, Fuminori Kimura, Kentaro Takahashi, Takashi Murakami
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8) is associated with sensitivity to cold sensation in mammals. A previous study demonstrated that TRPM8 was overexpressed in the skin of ovariectomized (OVX) rats due to the loss of estrogen. In the present study, we investigated whether estrogen replacement restricts overexpression of the TRPM8 channel in the skin of OVX rats. We divided 15 Sprague Dawley rats into three groups: a non-operated group (NON-OPE), an ovariectomy group (OVX), and a group subjected to estrogen replacement during 4 weeks beginning 7 days after ovariectomy (OVX+E2)...
June 19, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626157/protein-restriction-does-not-affect-body-temperature-pattern-in-female-mice
#16
Goro A Kato, Hiroki Shichijo, Toshihiro Takahashi, Akio Shinohara, Tetsuo Morita, Chihiro Koshimoto
Daily torpor is a physiological adaptation in mammals and birds characterized by a controlled reduction of metabolic rate and body temperature during the resting phase of circadian rhythms. In laboratory mice, daily torpor is induced by dietary caloric restriction. However, it is not known which nutrients are related to daily torpor expression. To determine whether dietary protein is a key factor in inducing daily torpor in mice, we fed mice a protein-restricted (PR) diet that included only one-quarter of the amount of protein but the same caloric level as a control (C) diet...
June 13, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626156/a-method-to-establish-a-mouse-model-of-bone-marrow-microenvironment-injury
#17
Wenzhe Cheng, Quanhu Ge, Longfei Wan, Xiaoyi Wang, Xueling Chen, Xiangwei Wu
A normal bone marrow microenvironment plays a very important role in the normal functioning of hematopoietic stem cells. Once disturbed, this microenvironment can become favorable for the occurrence of blood disorders, cancers, and other diseases. Therefore, further studies on the bone marrow microenvironment should be performed to reveal regulatory and stem cell fate determination mechanisms and promote the development of bone marrow transplantation, tissue repair and regenerative medicine, and other fields...
June 13, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592716/animal-ethics-and-welfare-education-in-wet-lab-training-can-foster-residents-ethical-values-toward-life
#18
Yuko Iki, Takuya Ito, Katsuyoshi Kudo, Masafumi Noda, Masahiko Kanehira, Teruko Sueta, Ichiro Miyoshi, Yutaka Kagaya, Yoshinori Okada, Michiaki Unno
Live animals are used in surgical skills training in wet lab, which has undeniable effectiveness for the development of future surgeons. However, where such training is provided, animal welfare is a major consideration. Increasingly, institutions that offer wet-lab training are incorporating animal ethics and welfare-related content into their training courses, but the effectiveness of such animal ethics education has yet to be evaluated quantitatively. We investigated whether the animal ethics content of a training course affected trainees by measuring increase in ethical awareness using visual analog scale questionnaires before and after training...
June 7, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450692/the-ethyl-acetate-fraction-of-a-methanolic-extract-of-unripe-noni-morinda-citrifolia-linn-fruit-exhibits-a-biphasic-effect-on-the-dopaminergic-system-in-mice
#19
Vijayapandi Pandy, Megala Narasingam, Kamini Vijeepallam, Syam Mohan, Vasudevan Mani, Zahurin Mohamed
In earlier ex vivo studies, we reported the biphasic effect of a methanolic extract of unripe Morinda citrifolia fruit (MMC) on dopamine-induced contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. The present in vivo study was designed and undertaken to further explore our earlier ex vivo findings. This study examined the effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of a methanolic extract of unripe Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (EA-MMC; 5-100 mg/kg, p.o.) on the dopaminergic system using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing time and climbing behavior, methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (sniffing, biting, gnawing, and licking) and haloperidol-induced catalepsy using the bar test...
August 5, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442635/a-novel-missense-mutation-of-mip-causes-semi-dominant-cataracts-in-the-nat-mouse
#20
Gou Takahashi, Sayaka Hasegawa, Yukiko Fukutomi, Chihiro Harada, Masamune Furugori, Yuta Seki, Yoshiaki Kikkawa, Kenta Wada
Major intrinsic protein of lens fiber (MIP) is one of the proteins essential for maintaining lens transparency while also contributing to dominant cataracts in humans. The Nodai cataract (Nat) mice harbor a spontaneous mutation in Mip and develop early-onset nuclear cataracts. The Nat mutation is a c.631G>A mutation (Mip(Nat)), resulting in a glycine-to-arginine substitution (p.Gly211Arg) in the sixth transmembrane domain. The Mip(Nat/Nat) homozygotes exhibit congenital cataracts caused by the degeneration of lens fiber cells...
August 5, 2017: Experimental Animals
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