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Experimental Animals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228618/preventive-effect-of-intravesical-ozone-supplementation-on-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-induced-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-in-male-rats
#1
Kerem Teke, Tayyar A Ozkan, Oguz O Cebeci, Hasan Yilmaz, Muhammed E Keles, Levend Ozkan, Meltem O Dillioglugil, Demir K Yildiz, Ozdal Dillioglugil
Although non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is widely seen in men, most laboratory studies of new intravesical therapies to prevent NMIBC have been conducted on female animals. In addition, ozone (O3) has been shown to be a beneficial agent as an intravesical application in the treatment of various disorders. In the current study, we evaluated the immunohistopathological oxidative-antioxidative effects of intravesical O3 treatment on n-methyl-n-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced NMIBC. Male Wistar-Albino rats (n=51) were divided into four groups: sham (n=6), O3 only (n=15), MNU only (n=15), and MNU+O3 (n=15)...
February 22, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179596/nephron-wilms-tumor-1-wt1-and-synaptopodin-expression-in-developing-podocytes-of-mice
#2
Takashi Kato, Shinya Mizuno
Newborn mouse glomeruli are still immature with a morphological feature of an early capillary loop stage, but infant mice do not manifest proteinuria. Little is known about the molecular mechanism whereby infant mice are resistant to proteinuria. Nephrin and synaptopodin are crucial for slit diaphragm and foot process (FP) formation for avoiding proteinuria. Nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation means a transient biological signaling required for FP repair or extension during nephrotic disease. Using an immunohistochemical technique, we examined the natural course of nephrin, Wilms' tumor-1 (WT1) and synaptopodin at 16...
February 7, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100889/cotransfer-of-regulatory-t-cells-improve-the-therapeutic-effectiveness-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-treating-a-colitis-mouse-model
#3
Yang Yu, Tianyu Zhao, Deqin Yang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a severe inflammatory condition in the colon. To date, clinical solutions for this disease have been limited. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), multipotential cells with immune regulation and anti-inflammatory functions, have been applied to treatment of IBD. However, the therapeutic effectiveness of MSCs still needs to be improved. Here, we were interested in whether regulatory T cells (Tregs) could enhance the immune regulation function of MSCs in treatment of mouse colitis...
January 19, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100888/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-levels-in-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-under-ketone-body-metabolism-in-rats
#4
Xiaomeng Wang, Qi Liu, Jian Zhou, Xiuhua Wu, Qingan Zhu
A high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet (KD) or calorie restriction in the form of every-other-day fasting (EODF) results in ketone body metabolism with an increasing β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) level. Previous studies have supported that a KD and EODF have a neuroprotective effect. However, the βOHB levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) resulting from a KD and EODF remain unknown. The aim of this study was to detect βOHB levels in rats fed a KD, EODF diet, and every-other-day ketogenic diet (EODKD) and to compare the serum βOHB level with the CSF βOHB level...
January 19, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049885/murine-norovirus-infection-in-brazilian-animal-facilities
#5
Daniele Masselli Rodrigues, Josélia Cristina de Oliveira Moreira, Marcelo Lancellotti, Rovilson Gilioli, Marcus Alexandre Finzi Corat
Murine norovirus (MNV) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus of the Caliciviridae family. MNV has been reported to infect laboratory mice with the ability to cause lethal infections in strains lacking components of the innate immune response. Currently, MNV is considered the most prevalent infectious agent detected in laboratory mouse facilities. In this study, mice in 22 laboratory animal facilities within Brazil were analyzed for MNV infection. Using primers targeting a conserved region of the viral capsid, MNV was detected by RT-PCR in 137 of 359 mice from all 22 facilities...
December 29, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025424/morphological-features-of-coronary-plaques-in-whhlmi-rabbits-oryctolagus-cuniculus-an-animal-model-for-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#6
Satoshi Yamada, Tomonari Koike, Takayuki Nakagawa, Nobue Kuniyoshi, Yu Ying, Hiroyuki Itabe, Atsushi Yamashita, Yuji Asada, Masashi Shiomi
In order to examine their suitability for studies on coronary atherosclerosis, we evaluated the features of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbits, a spontaneous animal model for coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Coronary segments of the hearts of 187 WHHLMI rabbits (10-29 months old) were sectioned serially and stained histopathologically and immunohistologically. Progression of coronary lesions was prominent in rabbits that had died suddenly...
December 27, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025412/effects-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-on-leptin-signaling-in-anterior-pituitary-of-ovariectomized-rats
#7
Chunhua Yin, Lumei Kang, Cong Lai, Jing Zhou, Bin Shi, Lei Zhang, Hongping Chen
Leptin is secreted predominantly by adipocytes and exerts its role mainly by interaction with the long form of leptin receptor (LEPR_V2). It has been identified that LEPR_V2 is widely distributed in various tissues, including the anterior pituitary. Cross-talk between leptin and estrogens has been indentified. Estrogen is known to modulate the tissue-specific expression of LEPR_V2 and leptin in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, a model of postmenopausal condition. Our previous data showed that 17β-estradiol (E2) up-regulated the expression of LEPR_V2 protein and mRNA in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in an estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-dependent manner...
December 26, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980293/the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-a-multifunctional-chemical-sensor-for-host-defense-and-homeostatic-maintenance
#8
Kaname Kawajiri, Yoshiaki Fujii-Kuriyama
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a pivotal chemical sensor that transduces extrinsic and intrinsic signals into cellular responses. AHR was originally thought to be involved in not only drug metabolism but also carcinogenic and toxicological responses against environmental contaminants, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, recent studies demonstrate that the AHR plays multiple intrinsic roles in host defense and homeostasis as well, including immunity, stem cell maintenance, and cell differentiation, upon binding with an increasing number of newly defined dietary, cellular, and microbe-derived ligands...
December 15, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928112/an-enu-induced-p-c225s-missense-mutation-in-the-mouse-tgfb1-gene-does-not-cause-camurati-engelmann-disease-like-skeletal-phenotypes
#9
Satoki Ichimura, Shun Sasaki, Takuya Murata, Ryutaro Fukumura, Yoichi Gondo, Shiro Ikegawa, Tatsuya Furuichi
Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED) is a rare sclerosing bone disorder in humans with autosomal dominant inheritance. Mutations in the gene (TGFB1) that encodes transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) are causative for CED. TGF-β1 signaling is enhanced by the CED-causing mutations. In this study, we performed Tgfb1 mutation screening in an ENU-mutagenized mouse genomic DNA library. We identified a missense mutation in which cysteine was substituted by serine at position 225 (p.C225S), that corresponded to the CED-causing mutation (p...
December 8, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784858/reproductive-experience-modified-dendritic-spines-on-cortical-pyramidal-neurons-to-enhance-sensory-perception-and-spatial-learning-in-rats
#10
Jeng-Rung Chen, Seh Hong Lim, Sin-Cun Chung, Yee-Fun Lee, Yueh-Jan Wang, Guo-Fang Tseng, Tsyr-Jiuan Wang
Behavioral adaptations during motherhood are aimed at increasing reproductive success. Alterations of hormones during motherhood could trigger brain morphological changes to underlie behavioral alterations. Here we investigated whether motherhood changes a rat's sensory perception and spatial memory in conjunction with cortical neuronal structural changes. Female rats of different statuses, including virgin, pregnant, lactating, and primiparous rats were studied. Behavioral test showed that the lactating rats were most sensitive to heat, while rats with motherhood and reproduction experience outperformed virgin rats in a water maze task...
January 27, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760894/development-of-reproductive-engineering-techniques-at-the-riken-bioresource-center
#11
Atsuo Ogura
Reproductive engineering techniques are essential for assisted reproduction of animals and generation of genetically modified animals. They may also provide invaluable research models for understanding the mechanisms involved in the developmental and reproductive processes. At the RIKEN BioResource Center (BRC), I have sought to develop new reproductive engineering techniques, especially those related to cryopreservation, microinsemination (sperm injection), nuclear transfer, and generation of new stem cell lines and animals, hoping that they will support the present and future projects at BRC...
January 27, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760892/investigation-of-sleep-wake-rhythm-in-non-human-primates-without-restraint-during-data-collection
#12
Akiyoshi Ishikawa, Keita Sakai, Takehiro Maki, Yuri Mizuno, Kimie Niimi, Yasuhiro Oda, Eiki Takahashi
To understand sleep mechanisms and develop treatments for sleep disorders, investigations using animal models are essential. The sleep architecture of rodents differs from that of diurnal mammals including humans and non-human primates. Sleep studies have been conducted in non-human primates; however, these sleep assessments were performed on animals placed in a restraint chair connected via the umbilical area to the recording apparatus. To avoid restraints, cables, and other stressful apparatuses and manipulations, telemetry systems have been developed...
January 27, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725374/rnai-mediated-knockdown-of-mouse-melanocortin-4-receptor-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-using-an-sirna-expression-construct-based-on-the-mir-187-precursor
#13
Minoru Kato, Yi-Ying Huang, Mina Matsuo, Yoko Takashina, Kazuyo Sasaki, Yasushi Horai, Aya Juni, Shin-Ichi Kamijo, Kaoru Saigo, Kumiko Ui-Tei, Hajime Tei
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for the study of gene function in mammalian systems, including transgenic mice. Here, we report a gene knockdown system based on the human mir-187 precursor. We introduced small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequences against the mouse melanocortin-4 receptor (mMc4r) to alter the targeting of miR-187. The siRNA-expressing cassette was placed under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) early enhancer/chicken β-actin promoter. In vitro, the construct efficiently knocked down the gene expression of a co-transfected mMc4r-expression vector in cultured mammalian cells...
January 27, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665862/dose-and-time-related-effects-of-caffeine-on-the-testis-in-immature-male-rats
#14
Jaeman Bae, Hyeonhae Choi, Yuri Choi, Jaesook Roh
We previously showed that prepubertal chronic caffeine exposure adversely affected the development of the testes in male rats. Here we investigated dose- and time-related effects of caffeine consumption on the testis throughout sexual maturation in prepubertal rats. A total of 80 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: controls and rats fed 20, 60, or 120 mg caffeine/kg/day, respectively, via gavage for 10, 20, 30, or 40 days. Preputial separation was monitored daily before the rats were sacrificed...
January 27, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523096/effects-of-agmatine-on-chlorpromazine-toxicity-in-the-liver-of-wistar-rats-the-possible-role-of-oxidant-antioxidant-imbalance
#15
Dejanovic Bratislav, Lavrnja Irena, Ninkovic Milica, Stojanovic Ivana, Djuric Ana, Dilber Sanda, Stevanovic Ivana
Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is a member of a widely used class of antipsychotic agents. The metabolic pathways of CPZ toxicity were examined by monitoring oxidative/nitrosative stress markers. The aim of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that agmatine (AGM) prevents oxidative stress in the liver of Wistar rats 48 h after administration of CPZ. All tested compounds were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) in one single dose. The animals were divided into control (C, 0.9% saline solution), CPZ (CPZ, 38.7 mg/kg b...
January 27, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890869/an-improved-red-et-recombineering-system-and-mouse-es-cells-culture-conditions-for-the-generation-of-targeted-mutant-mice
#16
Katsuyoshi Kumagai, Masakatsu Takanashi, Shin-Ichiro Ohno, Masahiko Kuroda, Katsuko Sudo
Targeted mutant mice generated on a C57BL/6 background are powerful tools for analysis of the biological functions of genes, and gene targeting technologies using mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells have been used to generate such mice. Recently, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) recombineering system was established for the construction of targeting vectors. However, gene retrieval from BACs for the generation of gene targeting vectors using this system remains difficult. Even when construction of a gene targeting vector is successful, the efficiency of production of targeted mutant mice from ES cells derived from C57BL/6 mice are poor...
November 25, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829580/inhibitory-effect-of-ethinylestradiol-on-coagulation-factors-in-rats
#17
Yanira Franco-Murillo, Ruth Jaimez
Epidemiological and experimental data have indicated the beneficial and adverse effects of estrogenic replacement therapy. In the present study, we explored the effect of ethinylestradiol (EE) and 17β-estradiol (E2) on screening tests, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), as well as the activity of coagulation factors (FVII, FX, FXI, and FXII) in male Wistar rats. Animals were injected subcutaneously during three consecutive days with EE or E2 (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) and propylene glycol (0...
November 9, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384972/comparison-of-the-wound-healing-efficacy-of-polyglycolic-acid-sheets-with-fibrin-glue-and-gelatin-sponge-dressings-in-a-rat-cranial-periosteal-defect-model
#18
Shinya Koshinuma, Shoko Murakami, Masaharu Noi, Takuya Murakami, Ken-Ichi Mukaisho, Hiroyuki Sugihara, Gaku Yamamoto
Oral surgical procedures occasionally require removal of the periosteum due to lesions, and these raw bone surfaces are prone not only to infection but also to scar formation during secondary healing. The objective of this study was to identify successful methods for reconstruction using periosteal defect dressings. We created 1-cm(2) defects in the skin and cranial periosteum of 10-week-old male Wistar rats under isoflurane anesthesia. The animals were assigned to three defect treatment groups: (1) polyglycolic acid sheets with fibrin glue dressing (PGA-FG), (2) Spongel® gelatin sponge dressing (GS), and (3) open wound (control)...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356856/in-situ-hybridization-study-of-cyp2d-mrna-in-the-common-marmoset-brain
#19
Yoshinori Shimamoto, Kimie Niimi, Hiroshi Kitamura, Sae Tsubakishita, Eiki Takahashi
The common marmoset is a non-human primate that has increasingly employed in the biomedical research including the fields of neuroscience and behavioral studies. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D has been speculated to be involved in psycho-neurologic actions in the human brain. In the present study, to clarify the role of CYP2D in the marmoset brain, we investigated the expression patterns of CYP2D mRNA in the brain using in situ hybridization (ISH). In addition, to identify the gene location of CYP2D19, a well-studied CYP2D isoform in the common marmoset, a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study was performed...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356855/a-new-in-vivo-analysis-model-to-detect-sexually-dimorphic-rat-liver-cytochrome-p450-gene-expression-dependent-on-growth-hormone-secretory-patterns
#20
Motoyo Maruyama, Masahiko Fujisawa, Makoto Yokosuka, Toru R Saito, Shin-Ichi Hayama, Toshio Akimoto, Yoji Hakamata
Several drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes exhibit sexual dimorphism depending on the pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretory patterns. However, the mechanism underlying CYP sexual dimorphism remains unclear. We previously established a transgenic (Alb-DsRed2 Tg) rat that expressed red fluorescent DsRed2 protein, particularly in hepatocytes, to visualize cell differentiation and multiplication and found that hepatic DsRed2 expression exhibited sexual dimorphism that was limited to adult males. In this study, we compared the expression patterns between sexual dimorphic Cyps and DsRed2 in Tg rats after experimentally reversing the GH secretory patterns in males and females...
November 1, 2016: Experimental Animals
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