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Experimental Animals

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467352/thioacetamide-induced-hepatic-fibrosis-in-the-common-marmoset
#1
Takashi Inoue, Yukihito Ishizaka, Emi Sasaki, Jun Lu, Takayuki Mineshige, Mikio Yanase, Erika Sasaki, Masayuki Shimoda
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a nonhuman primate that is used for preclinical research on stem cell transplantation therapies due to its similarity to human beings as well as its small size, enabling researchers to perform experiments without preparing a large number of cells. In this study, we developed a marmoset hepatic fibrosis model for regenerative medicine research. Six female marmosets aged 4-6 years were administered thioacetamide (TAA) at a dose of 2.5-40 mg/kg two or three times a week...
February 21, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445064/the-validity-of-anesthetic-protocols-for-the-surgical-procedure-of-castration-in-rats
#2
Atsushi Tsukamoto, Natsuko Niino, Mizuho Sakamoto, Risa Ohtani, Tomo Inomata
To achieve surgical anesthesia in animal experimentation, it is necessary to select the appropriate anesthetic protocol by considering its pharmacological properties and the surgical procedure to be performed. However, few studies have investigated the validity of anesthetic protocols under surgical conditions in small rodents. The present study aimed to clarify the pharmacological properties of 4 anesthetic protocols during the surgical procedure of castration in rats. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were anesthetized with anesthetics, including the combination of ketamine and xylazine (K/X), the combination of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol (M/M/B), and isoflurane, and sevoflurane...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415910/comparative-immunity-of-antigen-recognition-differentiation-and-other-functional-molecules-similarities-and-differences-among-common-marmosets-humans-and-mice
#3
Yoshie Kametani, Takashi Shiina, Ryuji Suzuki, Erika Sasaki, Sonoko Habu
The common marmoset (CM; Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World monkey with a high rate of pregnancy and is maintained in closed colonies as an experimental animal species. Although CMs are used for immunological research, such as studies of autoimmune disease and infectious disease, their immunological characteristics are less defined than those of other nonhuman primates. We and others have analyzed antigen recognition-related molecules, the development of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and the molecules involved in the immune response...
February 8, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398669/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-tranexamic-acid-against-trauma-hemorrhagic-shock-induced-acute-lung-injury-in-rats
#4
Yue Teng, Cong Feng, Yunen Liu, Hongxu Jin, Yan Gao, Tanshi Li
It has been demonstrated that tranexamic acid (TXA), a synthetic derivative of lysine, alleviates lung damage in a trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) model. Nevertheless, the mechanism of TXA against acute lung injury (ALI) has not deeply elaborated. In this study, we generated a T/HS rat model based on previous research, and TXA (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) was intravenously injected into these rats prior to or post T/HS. The results revealed that the decreased survival rate and impaired lung permeability of the rats caused by T/HS were improved by TXA pretreatment or posttreatment...
February 2, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353867/factors-controlling-sperm-migration-through-the-oviduct-revealed-by-gene-modified-mouse-models
#5
Yoshitaka Fujihara, Haruhiko Miyata, Masahito Ikawa
Mammalian fertilization is comprised of many steps including sperm survival in the uterus, sperm migration in the female reproductive tract, physiological and morphological changes to the spermatozoa, and sperm-egg interaction in the oviduct. In vitro studies have revealed essential factors for these fertilization steps for over half a century. However, the molecular mechanism of fertilization has recently been revised by the emergence of genetically modified animals. Here, we focus on essential factors for sperm fertilizing ability and describe recent advances in our knowledge of the mechanisms of mammalian fertilization, especially of sperm migration from the uterus into the oviduct...
January 22, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353822/quantitative-angiographic-anatomy-of-the-renal-arteries-and-adjacent-aorta-in-the-swine-for-preclinical-studies-of-intravascular-catheterization-devices
#6
Atsushi Sakaoka, Masafumi Koshimizu, Shintaro Nakamura, Kiyoshi Matsumura
Swine are the most common animal model in preclinical studies of cardiovascular devices. Because of the recent trend for development of new devices for percutaneous catheterization, especially for the renal arteries (RAs), we examined the quantitative anatomical dimensions of the RAs and adjacent aorta in swine. Angiographic images were analyzed in 66 female Yorkshire/Landrace crossbred swine. The diameter of both the right and left main RA was 5.4 ± 0.6 mm. The length of the right main RA was significantly longer than that of the left (29...
January 19, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343656/crispr-cas9-mediated-generation-of-obese-and-diabetic-mouse-models
#7
Jae-Il Roh, Junghoon Lee, Seong Uk Park, Young-Shin Kang, Jaehoon Lee, Ah-Reum Oh, Dong Joon Choi, Ji-Young Cha, Han-Woong Lee
Mouse models of obesity (ob/ob) and diabetes (db/db) in which the leptin (Lep) and Leptin receptor (Lepr) genes have been mutated, respectively, have contributed to a better understanding of human obesity and type 2 diabetes and to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of these metabolic diseases. In this study, we report the first CRISPR-Cas9-induced Lep and Lepr KO mouse models by co-microinjection of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs that specifically targeted Lep or Lepr in C57BL/6J embryos. Our newly established Lep and Lepr knockout (KO) mouse models showed phenotypic disorders nearly identical to those found in ob/ob and db/db mice, such as an increase in body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332859/grading-fatty-liver-by-ultrasound-time-domain-radiofrequency-signal-analysis-an-in-vivo-study-of-rats
#8
Wenwu Ling, Jierong Quan, Jiangli Lin, Tingting Qiu, Jiawu Li, Qiang Lu, Changli Lu, Yan Luo
This study aimed to assess the severity of fatty liver (FL) by analyzing ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) signals in rats. One hundred and twenty rats (72 in the FL group and 48 in the control group) were used for this purpose. Histological results were the golden standard: 42 cases had normal livers (N), 30 cases had mild FL (L1), 25 cases had moderate FL (L2), 13 cases presented with severe FL (L3), and 10 cases were excluded from the study. Four RF parameters (Mean, Mean/SD ratio [MSR], skewness [SK], and kurtosis [KU] were extracted...
January 12, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332858/the-effect-of-thiamine-and-its-metabolites-on-peripheral-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-cisplatin-in-rats
#9
Didem Onk, Renad Mammadov, Bahadir Suleyman, Ferda Keskin Cimen, Murat Cankaya, Vahdet Gul, Durdu Altuner, Onur Senol, Yucel Kadioglu, Ismail Malkoc, Halis Suleyman
Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is the active metabolite of thiamine. This study aimed to investigate the effects of thiamine and TPP on cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP). Male albino Wistar type Rattus norvegicus were divided into six groups (n=6) that received 2 mg/kg cisplatin (CIS), 25 mg/kg thiamine (TM), 2 mg/kg cisplatin+25 mg/kg thiamine (CTM), 25 mg/kg TPP (TPP), 2 mg/kg cisplatin+25 mg/kg TPP (CTPP), or distilled water (healthy group; HG) for 8 days intraperitoneally. Analgesic effect was measured with a Basile Algesimeter...
January 12, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311442/usefulness-of-simultaneous-and-sequential-monitoring-of-glucose-level-and-electrocardiogram-in-monkeys-treated-with-gatifloxacin-under-conscious-and-nonrestricted-conditions
#10
Yu Yoshimatsu, Tomomichi Ishizaka, Katsuyoshi Chiba, Kazuhiko Mori
Drug-induced cardiac electrophysiological abnormalities accompanied by hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia increase the risk for life-threatening arrhythmia. To assess the drug-induced cardiotoxic potential associated with extraordinary blood glucose (GLU) levels, the effect of gatifloxacin (GFLX) which was frequently associated with GLU abnormality and QT/QTc prolongations in the clinic on blood GLU and electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters was investigated in cynomolgus monkeys (n=4) given GFLX orally in an ascending dose regimen (10, 30, 60 and 100 mg/kg)...
January 3, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311503/a-rat-model-of-knee-osteoarthritis-suitable-for-electroacupuncture-study
#11
Yongyuan Ma, Haiyun Guo, Fuhai Bai, Ming Zhang, Liu Yang, Jiao Deng, Lize Xiong
Acupuncture is widely used for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) treatment in clinical practice. In the present study, we aimed to set a standard KOA animal model for electroacupuncture (EA) study and provide an acupuncture recipe for further KOA studies. Rats intra-articularly administered monosodium iodoacetate (MIA, 0.3, 1 or 3 mg respectively, n=12 each) were evaluated for pain-like behavior: paw withdrawal mechanical threshold, weight bearing deficit, and joint pathological changes (OARSI score) until 28 days after injury...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311502/a-novel-hamster-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-model-induced-by-a-high-fat-and-high-cholesterol-diet
#12
Yuta Miyaoka, Denan Jin, Keitaro Tashiro, Shinsuke Masubuchi, Maiko Ozeki, Fumitoshi Hirokawa, Michihiro Hayashi, Shinji Takai, Kazuhisa Uchiyama
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), in which there is steatosis and fibrosis in the liver, is linked to metabolic syndrome and progresses to hepatic cirrhosis. In this study, a novel hamster NASH model derived from metabolic syndrome was made using hamsters. Hamsters were fed a normal or a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet for 12 weeks. Body weight and the ratio of liver weight to body weight were significantly greater in HFC diet-fed hamsters than in normal diet-fed hamsters. Triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose levels in blood were significantly increased in HFC diet-fed hamsters, and blood pressure also tended to be high, suggesting that the HFC diet-fed hamsters developed metabolic syndrome...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276215/deletion-of-both-p62-and-nrf2-spontaneously-results-in-the-development-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#13
Kentaro Akiyama, Eiji Warabi, Kosuke Okada, Toru Yanagawa, Tetsuro Ishii, Katsumi Kose, Katsutoshi Tokushige, Kazunori Ishige, Yuji Mizokami, Kenji Yamagata, Kojiro Onizawa, Shun-Ichi Ariizumi, Masakazu Yamamoto, Junichi Shoda
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. However, details of pathogenetic mechanisms remain unknown. Deletion of both p62/Sqstm1 and Nrf2 genes spontaneously led to the development of NASH in mice fed a normal chow and was associated with liver tumorigenesis. The pathogenetic mechanism(s) underlying the NASH development was investigated in p62:Nrf2 double-knockout (DKO) mice. DKO mice showed massive hepatomegaly and steatohepatitis with fat accumulation and had hyperphagia-induced obesity coupled with insulin resistance and adipokine imbalance...
December 25, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269611/effects-of-triclosan-on-acute-toxicity-genetic-toxicity-and-oxidative-stress-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#14
Fan Wang, Ruijie Xu, Fangfang Zheng, Haifang Liu
Triclosan (TCS) is used as an antimicrobial agent and has been widely dispersed and detected in the aquatic environment. However, it remains uncertain whether TCS is genotoxic or not. In this study, the acute toxicity of TCS in goldfish (Carassius auratus) was studied. Then, based on the results for acute toxicity, other goldfish were exposed to various concentrations of TCS (control, DMSO control, and 1/4, 1/2, and 1/8 LC50) for 14 days, and the effects on genetic toxicity were evaluated using micronucleus (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) frequencies in peripheral blood and the comet assay in the liver of the goldfish...
December 20, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225304/investigation-of-the-synergistic-effects-of-haloperidol-combined-with-calculus-bovis-sativus-in-treating-mk-801-induced-schizophrenia-in-rats
#15
Kai Lei, Guo-Fang He, Cheng-Liang Zhang, Ya-Nan Liu, Juan Li, Guang-Zhao He, Xi-Ping Li, Xiu-Hua Ren, Dong Liu
Clinical studies that focused on treating schizophrenia showed that Calculus Bovis Sativus (CBS), a substitute of Calculus Bovis, when used in combination with haloperidol could significantly lower the dosage of haloperidol compared with treatment with haloperidol alone, whereas efficacy was maintained. The aim of this study was to investigate the synergetic anti-schizophrenia effects in rats using CBS in combination with haloperidol. An open field test was conducted to verify the pharmacodynamic effects of a combination treatment of CBS and haloperidol on MK-801-induced schizophrenic rats...
December 8, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187700/sevoflurane-preconditioning-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#16
Maiko Satomoto, Zhongliang Sun, Yushi U Adachi, Hiroyuki Kinoshita, Koshi Makita
Systemic inflammation induces brain neuronal inflammation, in turn causing acute cognitive disorders. Furthermore, neuronal inflammation is one cause of postoperative cognitive disorder (POCD) and delirium. However, no sufficiently established pharmacological treatment is available for neurocognitive inflammation. This study evaluated the possible neuroprotective effects of preconditioning with sevoflurane anesthesia on cognition and neuroinflammatory changes in an animal model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation...
November 29, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187699/establishment-of-an-alzheimer-s-disease-model-with-latent-herpesvirus-infection-using-ps2-and-tg2576-double-transgenic-mice
#17
Seiichi Tanaka, Hiroshi Nagashima
A relationship between Alzheimer's disease and herpes simplex virus infection has been pointed out. We established a model of Alzheimer's disease with a latent herpesvirus infection using a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (PS2Tg2576) and examined the changes in amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain. We crossbred female PS2 mice with male Tg2576 hemi mice and chose PS2Tg2576 mice. After priming 5-week-old male mice with anti-pseudorabies virus swine serum, we challenged the mouse with 100 LD50 of YS-81, a wild-type strain of pseudorabies virus...
November 29, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176298/smaller-effect-of-propofol-than-sevoflurane-anesthesia-on-dopamine-turnover-induced-by-methamphetamine-and-nomifensine-in-the-rat-striatum-an-in-vivo-microdialysis-study
#18
Saori Taharabaru, Maiko Satomoto, Takahiro Tamura, Yushi U Adachi
Volatile anesthetics accelerate dopamine turnover in the brain, especially when used in conjunction with psychotropic agents such as methamphetamine and nomifensine. The effect of intravenous propofol anesthesia on the extracellular dopamine concentrations is unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two anesthetics on the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and metabolites using an in vivo microdialysis model. Male Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with a microdialysis probe into the right striatum...
November 23, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162767/an-increasing-electromechanical-window-is-a-predictive-marker-of-ventricular-fibrillation-in-anesthetized-rabbit-with-ischemic-heart
#19
Vudhiporn Limprasutr, Prapawadee Pirintr, Anusak Kijtawornrat, Robert L Hamlin
The QTc interval is widely used in Safety Pharmacological studies to predict arrhythmia risk, and the electromechanical window (EMW) and short-term variability of QT intervals (STVQT) have been studied as new biomarkers for drug-induced Torsades de Pointes (TdP). However, the use of EMW and STVQT to predict ventricular fibrillation (VF) has not been elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate EMW and STVQT to predict VF in anesthetized rabbit model of VF. VF was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending and a descending branch of the left circumflex coronary arteries in a sample population of rabbits (n=18)...
November 21, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162766/production-and-rearing-of-germ-free-x-scid-pigs
#20
Hiromasa Hara, Hiroaki Shibata, Kazuaki Nakano, Tomoyuki Abe, Hideki Uosaki, Takahiro Ohnuki, Shuji Hishikawa, Satoshi Kunita, Masahito Watanabe, Osamu Nureki, Hiroshi Nagashima, Yutaka Hanazono
Pigs with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) caused by a mutation of the interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain gene (IL2RG) are of value for a wide range of studies. However, they do not survive longer than 8 weeks because of their susceptibility to infections. To allow longer survival of X-SCID pigs, the animals must be born and reared under germ-free conditions. Here, we established an efficient system for piglet derivation by hysterectomy and used it to obtain and maintain a germ-free X-SCID pig...
November 21, 2017: Experimental Animals
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