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Experimental Animals

Tadashi Itoh, Mifumi Kawabe, Takahiko Nagase, Tsuneo Koike, Masafumi Miyoshi, Kazuro Miyahara
The body surface area (BSA) of an organism is one of the important parameters for evaluating physiological functions. In drug development, normalization by BSA is an appropriate method for extrapolating doses between species. The BSA of animals has generally been estimated by multiplying the k value by 2/3 of the power of the body weight (BW) (Meeh's formula). In mathematics, if it is assumed that the density and body shape of the animals are essentially constant, the BSA is proportional to BW2/3 . In this study, we measured the BSA and volume (V) of 72 laboratory rabbits (48 males and 24 females of New Zealand White rabbits [NZW]), using a computed tomography scanner...
July 12, 2018: Experimental Animals
Takayuki Mito, Haruna Tani, Michiko Suzuki, Kaori Ishikawa, Kazuto Nakada, Jun-Ichi Hayashi
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutator mice showing accelerated accumulation of mtDNA with somatic mutations are potentially useful models of human aging, whereas mito-miceΔ showing accelerated accumulation of mtDNA with a deletion mutation (ΔmtDNA) are potentially useful models of mitochondrial diseases but not human aging, even though both models express an age-associated decrease in mitochondrial respiration. Because osteoporosis is the only premature aging phenotype observed in mtDNA mutator mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genetic background, our previous study precisely examined its expression spectra and reported that both mtDNA mutator mice and mito-miceΔ, but not aged mice, developed decreased cortical bone thickness...
July 4, 2018: Experimental Animals
Abdulsamad Alsalahi, Mohammed A Alshawsh, Zamri Chik, Zahurin Mohamed
People consume Catha edulis (khat) for its euphoric effect, and type 1 diabetics have claimed that khat could reduce elevated levels of blood sugar. However, khat has been suggested to provoke diabetes mellitus through destruction of pancreatic β-cells. This study investigated the effect of an ethanolic khat extract on pancreatic functions in type 1 diabetes(T1DM)-induced male Sprague-Dawley rats and to assess its in vitro cytotoxicity in rat pancreatic β-cells (RIN-14B). T1DM was induced in a total of 20 rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of 75 mg/kg of streptozotocin...
July 3, 2018: Experimental Animals
Yuji Tanaka, Fuminori Kimura, Luyi Zheng, Shoji Kaku, Akie Takebayashi, Kyoko Kasahara, Shunichiro Tsuji, Takashi Murakami
This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of everolimus, a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, on cisplatin chemotherapy-induced ovarian toxicity. Eighty sexually mature, virgin, female, 7-week-old C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups: control, cisplatin (Cis), everolimus (mTORi), and everolimus plus cisplatin (mTORi+Cis). Mice in the Cis and mTORi+Cis groups were intraperitoneally injected with 2 mg/kg of cisplatin for 15 d. Mice in the mTORi and mTORi+Cis groups were orally administered 2...
June 22, 2018: Experimental Animals
Paula Domingo, Maite Olaciregui, Noelia González, Ignacio DE Blas, Lydia Gil
The purpose of this research was to assess whether the presence of seminal plasma (SP) can improve sperm quality of rabbit spermatozoa stored at 16ºC for 72 hours and moreover evaluate the cryoprotectant effects of glycerol, N-N-Dimethylformamide (DMF), and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Semen samples were pooled and divided in eight fractions. Four of them were diluted with INRA (extender A), INRA with 6% glycerol (extender B), INRA with 6% DMF (extender C), or INRA with 6% NMP (extender D), respectively. The other four fractions were centrifuged, and the supernatant was removed in order to eliminate SP...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Animals
Teruko Fukuda, Eri Asou, Kimiko Nogi, Masahiko Yasuda, Kazuo Goto
Strong evidence for an association between idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection has been reported in humans. Chronic ITP is known to be improved by the eradication of HP. The purpose of this study was to reproduce these events by the experimental infection of several strains of mice with HP. BALB/c, C57BL/6, and DBA/2 mice were untreated or orally inoculated with HP. Two months later, platelet counts were compared in samples from HP-infected and noninfected mice. Platelet counts (mean ± SD, × 104 )/μl) in blood samples from HP-infected BALB/c, C57BL/6, and DBA/2 mice were 102...
June 7, 2018: Experimental Animals
Chiemi Ohmori, Yusuke Sakai, Yasuki Matano, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Kazuo Umemura, Nobuo Nagai
It has been observed that an increase in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability (BBBP) is associated with ischemic stroke, and it is thought to trigger neuronal damage and deteriorate ischemic infarction, even though there is no experimental proof. Here, we investigated the effect of increased BBBP on brain damage, using a combination of a photochemically induced thrombotic brain damage (PIT-BD) model, a focal brain ischemic model, and transient bilateral carotid artery occlusion model (CAO, a whole brain ischemic model), in mice...
May 28, 2018: Experimental Animals
Bin Li, Dongnan Li, Yuehua Wang, Xianjun Meng, Xiyun Sun, Jinlong Tian, Lin Shi, Fengming Ma
Schisantherin A (SinA), one of the most abundant active ingredients of Schisandra chinensis, was reported to protect and benefit the liver, however, its effect on alcohol-induced liver injury (ALI) was still not clear. In the present study, an ALI mice model was induced by feeding mice an alcohol-containing liquid diet for four weeks. Then, 100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg SinA was administered to mice every day by gavage for the last two weeks. Histopathological analysis showed that alcohol-induced liver lipid vacuoles were reduced by SinA...
May 25, 2018: Experimental Animals
Bo Li, Yongchun Cui, Dong Zhang, Xiaokang Luo, Fuliang Luo, Bin Li, Yue Tang
The porcine mitral regurgitation (MR) model is a common cardiovascular animal model. Standardized manufacturing processes can improve the uniformity and success rate of the model, and systematic research can evaluate its potential use. In this study, 17 pigs were divided into an experimental group (n=11) and a control group (n=6). We used a homemade retractor to cut the mitral chordae via the left atrial appendage to establish a model of MR; the control group underwent a sham surgery. The model animals were followed for 30 months after the surgery...
May 22, 2018: Experimental Animals
Hyeonhae Choi, Ki-Young Ryu, Jaesook Roh, Jaeman Bae
Thyroid cancer in children, the most common endocrine malignancy, shows aggressive behavior and has a high recurrence rate after surgical ablation. Radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment is the most effective primary modality for medical ablation of juvenile thyroid cancer, and leads to intentional hypothyroidism. Although several negative impacts of hypothyroidism have been reported in children in response to other antithyroid agents, the combined effects of RAI exposure and hypothyroidism, on growing bones specifically, are unknown...
May 22, 2018: Experimental Animals
Rui-Han Wei, Can Zhao, Jia-Sheng Rao, Wen Zhao, Xia Zhou, Peng-Yu Tian, Wei Song, Run Ji, Ai-Feng Zhang, Zhao-Yang Yang, Xiao-Guang Li
After incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), neural circuits may be plastically reconstructed to some degree, resulting in extensive functional locomotor recovery. The present study aimed to observe the post-SCI locomotor recovery of rhesus monkey hindlimbs and compare the recovery degrees of different hindlimb parts, thus revealing the recovery process of locomotor function. Four rhesus monkeys were chosen for thoracic hemisection injury. The hindlimb locomotor performance of these animals was recorded before surgery, as well as 6 and 12 weeks post-lesion...
May 16, 2018: Experimental Animals
Prapawadee Pirintr, Vudhiporn Limprasutr, Nakkawee Saengklub, Parnpradub Pavinadol, Napat Yapao, Natthakarn Limvanicharat, Hathaisiri Kuecharoen, Anusak Kijtawornrat
Degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) is a common cardiac disease in geriatric dogs characterized by the degeneration of the mitral valve, leading to decreased cardiac output and activation of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. This disease results in an increased resting heart rate (HR) and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2 ). A recent publication demonstrated that dogs with asymptomatic DMVD had a significantly higher HR and systemic blood pressure (BP) than age-matched control dogs...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Animals
Mohd Aizat Zain, Elham Rouhollahi, Vijayapandi Pandy, Vasudevan Mani, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed, Won Fen Wong, Zahurin Mohamed
Phencyclidine (PCP) has been used to model cognitive deficits related to schizophrenia in rats and mice. However, the model in mice is not consistent in terms of the PCP effective dose reported. Furthermore, most of the previous studies in mice excluded the presence of drug washout period in the regime. Thus, we aimed to optimize the dose of PCP in producing robust cognitive deficits by implementing it in a PCP regime which incorporates a drug washout period. The regimen used was 7 days' daily injection of PCP or saline for treatment and vehicle groups, respectively; followed by 24 hours drug washout period...
May 4, 2018: Experimental Animals
Burak Dik, Gonca Sonmez, Hatice Eser Faki, Emre Bahcivan
The aim of this study, was to determine the effect of sulfasalazine for different periods of time reduces disseminated intravascular coagulation, inflammation and organ damages by inhibiting the nuclear factor kappa beta pathway. The study was performed with 30 Wistar albino rats and the groups were established as Control group, LPS group; endotoxemia was induced with LPS, SL5 group: sulfasalazine (300 mg/kg, single dose daily) was administered for 5 days before the LPS-induced endotoxemia, and LS group: sulfasalazine (300 mg/kg, single dose) was administered similtenously with LPS...
May 2, 2018: Experimental Animals
Lei Liu, Lu Xu, Shaoqing Zhang, Dong Wang, Guoxia Dong, Hanwen Chen, Xinjian Li, Chi Shu, Rong Wang
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is one of the driving forces of ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced acute renal failure (ARF). STF-083010, an inhibitor of the endonuclease activity of inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1), has the potential to block the initiation of a prolonged unfolded protein response (UPR) that is stimulated by ER stress and alleviates the impairments due to ER stress. In the current study, it was hypothesized that STF-083010 was capable of ameliorating ER stress-related damages in IR-induced ARF...
April 25, 2018: Experimental Animals
Zhanpeng Feng, Yichao Ou, Mingfeng Zhou, Guangsen Wu, Linzi Ma, Yun Bao, Binghui Qiu, Songtao Qi
A stable and reproducible rat injury model is not currently available to study central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and the neurohypophyseal system. In addition, a system is needed to assess the severity of CDI and measure the accompanying neurobiological alterations. In the present study, a 3D-printed lesion knife with a curved head was designed to fit into the stereotaxic instrument. The neuro-anatomical features of the brain injury were determined by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) immunostaining on brain sections...
April 20, 2018: Experimental Animals
Yoshitaka Fujihara, Haruhiko Miyata, Masahito Ikawa
Mammalian fertilization is comprised of many steps including sperm survival in the uterus, sperm migration in the female reproductive tract, physiological and morphological changes to the spermatozoa, and sperm-egg interaction in the oviduct. In vitro studies have revealed essential factors for these fertilization steps for over half a century. However, the molecular mechanism of fertilization has recently been revised by the emergence of genetically modified animals. Here, we focus on essential factors for sperm fertilizing ability and describe recent advances in our knowledge of the mechanisms of mammalian fertilization, especially of sperm migration from the uterus into the oviduct...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Animals
Atsushi Sakaoka, Masafumi Koshimizu, Shintaro Nakamura, Kiyoshi Matsumura
Swine are the most common animal model in preclinical studies of cardiovascular devices. Because of the recent trend for development of new devices for percutaneous catheterization, especially for the renal arteries (RAs), we examined the quantitative anatomical dimensions of the RAs and adjacent aorta in swine. Angiographic images were analyzed in 66 female Yorkshire/Landrace crossbred swine. The diameter of both the right and left main RA was 5.4 ± 0.6 mm. The length of the right main RA was significantly longer than that of the left (29...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Animals
Jae-Il Roh, Junghoon Lee, Seong Uk Park, Young-Shin Kang, Jaehoon Lee, Ah-Reum Oh, Dong Joon Choi, Ji-Young Cha, Han-Woong Lee
Mouse models of obesity (ob/ob) and diabetes (db/db) in which the leptin (Lep) and leptin receptor (Lepr) genes have been mutated, respectively, have contributed to a better understanding of human obesity and type 2 diabetes and to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of these metabolic diseases. In this study, we report the first CRISPR-Cas9-induced Lep and Lepr knockout (KO) mouse models by co-microinjection of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs that specifically targeted Lep or Lepr in C57BL/6J embryos. Our newly established Lep and Lepr KO mouse models showed phenotypic disorders nearly identical to those found in ob/ob and db/db mice, such as an increase in body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Animals
Wenwu Ling, Jierong Quan, Jiangli Lin, Tingting Qiu, Jiawu Li, Qiang Lu, Changli Lu, Yan Luo
This study aimed to assess the severity of fatty liver (FL) by analyzing ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) signals in rats. One hundred and twenty rats (72 in the FL group and 48 in the control group) were used for this purpose. Histological results were the golden standard: 42 cases had normal livers (N), 30 cases had mild FL (L1), 25 cases had moderate FL (L2), 13 cases presented with severe FL (L3), and 10 cases were excluded from the study. Four RF parameters (Mean, Mean/SD ratio [MSR], skewness [SK], and kurtosis [KU] were extracted...
May 10, 2018: Experimental Animals
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