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Drug Discovery Today

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158195/understanding-missing-proteins-a-functional-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Longjian Zhou, Limsoon Wong, Wilson Wen Bin Goh
A missing protein (MP) is an unconfirmed genetic sequence for which a protein product is not yet detected. Currently, MPs are tiered based on supporting evidence mainly in the form of protein existence (PE) classification. As we discuss here, this definition is overly restrictive because proteins go missing in day-to-day proteomics as a result of low abundance, lack of sequence specificity, splice variants, and so on. Thus, we propose a broader functional classification of MPs that complements PE classification, discuss major causes, and examine three corresponding solution tiers:...
November 17, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158194/recent-advances-in-bacteriophage-based-methods-for-bacteria-detection
#2
REVIEW
Łukasz Richter, Marta Janczuk-Richter, Joanna Niedziółka-Jönsson, Jan Paczesny, Robert Hołyst
Fast and reliable bacteria detection is crucial for lowering the socioeconomic burden related to bacterial infections (e.g., in healthcare, industry or security). Bacteriophages (i.e., viruses with bacterial hosts) pose advantages such as great specificity, robustness, toughness and cheap preparation, making them popular biorecognition elements in biosensors and other assays for bacteria detection. There are several possible designs of bacteriophage-based biosensors. Here, we focus on developments based on whole virions as recognition agents...
November 17, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155366/applications-of-stimuli-responsive-nanoscale-drug-delivery-systems-in-translational-research
#3
REVIEW
Mengjie Gu, Xin Wang, Tan Boon Toh, Edward Kai-Hua Chow
Nanoscale drug delivery systems or nanocarriers have shown tremendous promise in the target-specific delivery of therapeutics as well as diagnostic agents. Additional properties can be introduced into nanocarriers to enhance the bioavailability and targeting efficiency of the transported drugs at diseased sites. Such nanocarriers are usually incorporated with stimuli-responsive components that can be triggered by specific stimuli (e.g., temperature, pH, or enzymes) and further induced by certain biological responses, such as enzyme hydrolysis and molecular conformational changes, leading to the controlled release of the transported molecules at targeted sites...
November 16, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155026/personalized-nanomedicine-for-cns-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Ajeet Kaushik, Rahul Dev Jayant, Vinay Bhardwaj, Madhavan Nair
Central nervous system (CNS) diseases are rapidly increasing globally. Currently used therapeutic agents to treat CNS diseases exhibit significant efficacy. However, the inability of these drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and invasiveness of the technologies to achieve localized drug delivery in disease-specific parts of the brain have thwarted pain-free and complete treatment of CNS diseases. Therefore, the safe, non-invasive, and targeted delivery of drugs to the brain using nanoparticles (NPs) is currently receiving considerable research attention...
November 15, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154758/the-role-of-fmri-in-drug-development
#5
REVIEW
Owen Carmichael, Adam J Schwarz, Christopher H Chatham, David Scott, Jessica A Turner, Jaymin Upadhyay, Alexandre Coimbra, James A Goodman, Richard Baumgartner, Brett A English, John W Apolzan, Preetham Shankapal, Keely R Hawkins
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been known for over a decade to have the potential to greatly enhance the process of developing novel therapeutic drugs for prevalent health conditions. However, the use of fMRI in drug development continues to be relatively limited because of a variety of technical, biological, and strategic barriers that continue to limit progress. Here, we briefly review the roles that fMRI can have in the drug development process and the requirements it must meet to be useful in this setting...
November 15, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146519/drug-discovery-tomorrow-how-to-catapult-ourselves-into-the-future
#6
EDITORIAL
Chris Molloy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146518/fixed-dose-combinations-a-potential-means-to-boost-drug-development-for-selected-drugs
#7
EDITORIAL
Charles Oo, Sherwin K B Sy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146517/nanomedicine-safety-in-preclinical-and-clinical-development-focus-on-idiosyncratic-injection-infusion-reactions
#8
REVIEW
Seyed Moein Moghimi
Injection/infusion reactions to nanopharmaceuticals (and particulate drug carriers) are idiosyncratic and well documented. The molecular basis of nanoparticle-mediated injection reactions is debatable, with two hypotheses as front-runners. The first is complement-activation-related 'pseudoallergy', where a causal role for nanoparticle-mediated complement activation in injection/infusion reactions is considered. However, the second hypothesis (the rapid phagocytic response hypothesis) states a transitional link from robust clearance of nanoparticles (NPs) from the blood by strategically placed responsive macrophages to adverse hemodynamic and cardiopulmonary reactions, regardless of complement activation...
November 13, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133191/galectin-3-mediator-of-microglia-responses-in-injured-brain
#9
REVIEW
Reza Rahimian, Louis-Charles Béland, Jasna Kriz
Galectin-3 is a pleiotropic protein involved in cell activation, proliferation and migration and plays a pivotal part as an inflammatory mediator in neurodegeneration. Galectin-3 is associated with microglial activation and proliferation after ischemia. Given its putative role as a dynamic fine-tuner of microglia, activation of Galectin-3 provides molecular cues in design of new immunomodulatory strategies for stroke management. This review summarizes recent evidence on the role of Galectin-3 as a mediator of immune responses in damaged brain and mechanisms employed by Galectin-3 to affect microglial function...
November 10, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129805/rare-genetic-diseases-update-on-diagnosis-treatment-and-online-resources
#10
REVIEW
Robert E Pogue, Denise P Cavalcanti, Shreya Shanker, Rosangela V Andrade, Lana R Aguiar, Juliana L de Carvalho, Fabrício F Costa
Rare genetic diseases collectively impact a significant portion of the world's population. For many diseases there is limited information available, and clinicians can find difficulty in differentiating between clinically similar conditions. This leads to problems in genetic counseling and patient treatment. The biomedical market is affected because pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries do not see advantages in addressing rare disease treatments, or because the cost of the treatments is too high. By contrast, technological advances including DNA sequencing and analysis, together with computer-aided tools and online resources, are allowing a more thorough understanding of rare disorders...
November 10, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129804/recent-advances-in-galactose-engineered-nanocarriers-for-the-site-specific-delivery-of-sirna-and-anticancer-drugs
#11
REVIEW
Ashay Jain, Atul Jain, Prahlad Parajuli, Vijay Mishra, Gargi Ghoshal, Bhupinder Singh, Uma Shankar Shivhare, Om Prakash Katare, Prashant Kesharwani
Galactosylated nanocarriers have recently emerged as viable and versatile tools to deliver drugs at an optimal rate specifically to their target tissues or cells, thus maximizing their therapeutic benefits while circumventing off-target effects. The abundance of lectin receptors on cell surfaces makes the galactosylated carriers suitable for the targeted delivery of bioactives. Additionally, tethering of galactose (GAL) to various carriers, including micelles, liposomes, and nanoparticles (NPs), might also be appropriate for drug delivery...
November 10, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128658/mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-a-smart-nanosystem-for-management-of-breast-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Neelam Poonia, Viney Lather, Deepti Pandita
Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of death in women worldwide owing to aggressive metastasis, lack of early diagnosis and poor access to treatment amenities. During the past decade, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have gained ground for the delivery of a wide variety of chemotherapeutic and bioimaging agents owing to their unique characteristics and straightforward fabrication methods. Present research studies based on MSNs have provided various potential insights in their applicability in breast cancer treatment by improving solubility and stability and decreasing the adverse effects of current treatment regimens...
November 8, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101000/what-is-precise-pathophysiology-in-development-of-hypertension-in-pregnancy-precision-medicine-requires-precise-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#13
REVIEW
Qinqin Gao, Jiaqi Tang, Na Li, Bailin Liu, Mengshu Zhang, Miao Sun, Zhice Xu
It is widely accepted that placental ischemia is central in the evolution of hypertension in pregnancy. Many studies and reviews have targeted placental ischemia to explain mechanisms for initiating pregnancy hypertension. The placenta is rich in blood vessels, which are the basis for developing placental ischemia. However, is the physiology of placental vessels the same as that of nonplacental vessels? What is the pathophysiology of placental vessels in development of pregnancy hypertension? This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of special features of placental vascular regulations and the pathophysiological changes linked to preeclamptic conditions...
October 31, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097277/interfering-peptides-targeting-protein-protein-interactions-the-next-generation-of-drugs
#14
REVIEW
Heriberto Bruzzoni-Giovanelli, Valerie Alezra, Nicolas Wolff, Chang-Zhi Dong, Pierre Tuffery, Angelita Rebollo
Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are well recognized as promising therapeutic targets. Consequently, interfering peptides (IPs) - natural or synthetic peptides capable of interfering with PPIs - are receiving increasing attention. Given their physicochemical characteristics, IPs seem better suited than small molecules to interfere with the large surfaces implicated in PPIs. Progress on peptide administration, stability, biodelivery and safety are also encouraging the interest in peptide drug development...
October 31, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081356/fishing-anti-lymph-angiogenic-drugs-with-zebrafish
#15
REVIEW
Melissa García-Caballero, Ana R Quesada, Miguel A Medina, Manuel Marí-Beffa
Zebrafish, an amenable small teleost fish with a complex mammal-like circulatory system, is being increasingly used for drug screening and toxicity studies. It combines the biological complexity of in vivo models with a higher-throughput screening capability compared with other available animal models. Externally growing, transparent embryos, displaying well-defined blood and lymphatic vessels, allow the inexpensive, rapid, and automatable evaluation of drug candidates that are able to inhibit neovascularisation...
October 31, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107765/ncp7-targeting-a-multitasking-protein-for-next-generation-anti-hiv-drug-development-covalent-inhibitors
#16
REVIEW
Luca Sancineto, Nunzio Iraci, Oriana Tabarrini, Claudio Santi
The major internal component of the HIV virion core is the nucleocapsid protein 7 (NCp7), a small, highly basic protein that is essential for multiple stages of the viral replicative cycle, and whose structure is preserved in all viral strains, including clinical isolates from therapy-experienced patients. This key protein is recognised as a potential target for an effective next-generation antiretroviral therapy, because it could offer the possibility to develop broad-spectrum agents that are less prone to select for resistant strains...
October 28, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107764/current-attempts-to-implement-microrna-based-diagnostics-and-therapy-in-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-disease-a-promising-future
#17
Punniyakoti V Thanikachalam, Srinivasan Ramamurthy, Zheng W Wong, Koo B Jin, Wong J Ying, Mohd F B Abdullah, Chin Y Haur, Chia C Hou, Tan J Yi, Neo W Ting, Tan B Sen, Khan W Fang, Prashant Kesharwani
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs regulating gene expression at the post-translational level. miRNA-based therapeutic agents are important because of the functionality of miRNAs in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism and their role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity, where dysregulation leads to disease; they are also important in angiogenesis. miRNAs additionally serve as biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognosis and risk assessment of disease and in monitoring the response to treatment...
October 28, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111179/alternative-fluorophores-designed-for-advanced-molecular-imaging
#18
REVIEW
Lara G Freidus, Priyamvada Pradeep, Pradeep Kumar, Yahya E Choonara, Viness Pillay
Fluorescent molecular imaging has advanced drastically over the past decade. With the development of high-resolution microscopy techniques and the ability to visualize intracellular molecular events, there is a growing need for new fluorophores to accompany these fast-developing techniques. Therefore, there has been substantial development of alternative fluorophores for single-molecule detection and molecular imaging. These rationally designed fluorophores have infinite possibilities and novel fluorophores are constantly being produced for different applications...
October 27, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081355/the-ambivalent-place-of-ethics-in-european-regulatory-documents
#19
EDITORIAL
R D L C Bernabe, G J M W van Thiel, C C Gispen, N S Breekveldt, J J M van Delden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107095/anticancer-activity-of-seaweeds
#20
REVIEW
Anllely G Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Claudia Juárez-Portilla, Tatiana Olivares-Bañuelos, Rossana C Zepeda
Cancer is a major health problem worldwide and still lacks fully effective treatments. Therefore, alternative therapies, using natural products, have been proposed. Marine algae are an important component of the marine environment, with high biodiversity, and contain a huge number of functional compounds, including terpenes, polyphenols, phlorotannins, and polysaccharides, among others. These compounds have complex structures that have shown several biological activities, including anticancer activity, in several in vitro and in vivo models...
October 26, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
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