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Psychology, Health & Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161983/prospective-correlates-of-early-30%C3%A2-day-readmissions-on-a-cardiothoracic-surgery-service
#1
Mark W Ketterer, Mansi Chawa, Gaetano Paone
Known to vary widely among hospitals for unclear reasons, early readmissions are associated with higher mortality and are suspected to frequently be due to inadequate discharge preparation/planning. It has been previously documented that the strongest and most consistent predictor of early readmissions in CHF patients is chronic cognitive impairment, and compensatory assistance with adherence on discharge improves early readmission rates. Prospective observational study. The present investigation examined multiple putative perioperative predictors of early readmission in a hospitalized Cardiothoracic Surgery Service...
February 6, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161969/perceived-sources-and-levels-of-stress-general-self-efficacy-and-coping-strategies-in-clinical-dental-students
#2
Nilüfer Ersan, Erdoğan Fişekçioğlu, Semanur Dölekoğlu, İnci Oktay, Dilhan İlgüy
The aims of this study were to identify sources of stress among clinical students and to evaluate the students' perceived levels of stress, general self-efficacy and effective coping strategies in a private dental school environment. The study group consisted of 130 undergraduate clinical dental students in a Turkish private dental school, during the academic year 2014-2015. The students were surveyed using modified version of the dental environment stress (DES) survey, the perceived stress scale, the general self-efficacy scale (G-SES) and the brief coping scale...
February 6, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164723/what-explains-childhood-violence-micro-correlates-from-vacs-surveys
#3
Shamika Ravi, Rahul Ahluwalia
Violence in childhood is a serious health, social and human rights concern globally, there is, however, little understanding about the factors that explain the various forms of violence in childhood. This paper uses data on childhood violence for 10,042 individuals from four countries. We report Odds Ratios from pooled logit regression analysis with country fixed effects model. There is no gender difference in the overall incidence of childhood violence. The data shows that 78% of girls and 79% of boys have suffered some form of violence before the age of 18 years...
February 5, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150500/exploring-opportunities-for-coordinated-responses-to-intimate-partner-violence-and-child-maltreatment-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-scoping-review
#4
Loraine J Bacchus, Manuela Colombini, Manuel Contreras Urbina, Emma Howarth, Frances Gardner, Jeannie Annan, Kim Ashburn, Bernadette Madrid, Ruti Levtov, Charlotte Watts
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM) by a parent or caregiver are prevalent and overlapping issues with damaging consequences for those affected. This scoping review aimed to identify opportunities for greater coordination between IPV and CM programmes in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Nine bibliographic databases were searched and grey literature was identified through the scoping review team. Eligible studies were published in English; described primary prevention programmes in LMIC that addressed IPV and CM, or addressed one form of violence, but reported outcomes for the other; reported IPV and CM outcomes; and evaluated with any study design...
February 2, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142246/everyday-worry-in-adolescents-with-and-without-chronic-pain-a-diary-study
#5
Emma Fisher, Edmund Keogh, Christopher Eccleston
Young people report frequent worry, but we know little about the extent, character, or consequence of worry in adolescence, or individual differences associated with worry. Adolescents with chronic pain are one population that are known to have high levels of anxiety, which is associated with higher levels of disability and depression, impairing function. In this study we report a diary study: adolescents (N = 60; aged 16-18) recorded their worry over seven days. Our first aim was to describe the characteristics of adolescent worry and its consequences in a community sample...
February 1, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140653/effects-of-psychological-interventions-for-patients-with-osteoarthritis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Lijuan Zhang, Ting Fu, Qiuxiang Zhang, Rulan Yin, Li Zhu, Yan He, Wenting Fu, Biyu Shen
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of psychological interventions (e.g. cognitive restructuring, relaxation) on physiological and psychological health in osteoarthritis patients. A systematic literature search was done using PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database through November 2016. Studies were included if they used a randomized controlled trial designed to explore the effects of psychological interventions in osteoarthritis patients...
January 31, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133972/phenotypes-of-sleeplessness-stressing-the-need-for-psychodiagnostics-in-the-assessment-of-insomnia
#7
Merijn van de Laar, Tim Leufkens, Bart Bakker, Dirk Pevernagie, Sebastiaan Overeem
Insomnia is a too general term for various subtypes that might have different etiologies and therefore require different types of treatment. In this explorative study we used cluster analysis to distinguish different phenotypes in 218 patients with insomnia, taking into account several factors including sleep variables and characteristics related to personality and psychiatric comorbidity. Three clusters emerged from the analysis. The 'moderate insomnia with low psychopathology'-cluster was characterized by relatively normal personality traits, as well as normal levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms in the presence of moderate insomnia severity...
January 30, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132514/what-do-we-know-about-preventing-school-violence-a-systematic-review-of-systematic-reviews
#8
Soraya Lester, Cayleigh Lawrence, Catherine L Ward
Many children across the world are exposed to school violence, which undermines their right to education and adversely affects their development. Studies of interventions for school violence suggest that it can be prevented. However, this evidence base is challenging to navigate. We completed a systematic review of interventions to reduce four types of school violence: (a) peer violence; (b) corporal punishment; (c) student-on-teacher violence and (d) teacher-on-student violence. Reviewers independently searched databases and journals...
January 30, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133982/the-prevention-of-violence-in-childhood-through-parenting-programmes-a-global-review
#9
Charlene Coore Desai, Jody-Ann Reece, Sydonnie Shakespeare-Pellington
Child maltreatment is a global problem affecting both high income (HICs) and low and middle income countries (LMICs). However research has shown that children who live in the world's poorest countries and communities are more likely to suffer from abuse and neglect. There is some evidence that parenting interventions can assist in the prevention of child maltreatment, but most of this research has been conducted in HICs. The main aim of this review was to examine the evidence from previous systematic reviews on the role of parenting programmes in the prevention of violence against children in both HICs and LMICs...
January 29, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133980/the-impact-of-polyvictimisation-on-children-in-lmics-the-case-of-jamaica
#10
Maureen Samms-Vaughan, Michael Lambert
Children who experience polyvictimization in high-income countries (HICs) are at higher risk for mental health-related trauma symptoms. There is limited information on the impact of polyvictimisation on children with high levels of exposure, as occurs in some low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study investigates the impact of poyvictimization on Jamaican children's intellectual functioning, achievement, and disruptive behaviors. Data from a geographical subgroup (n = 1171) of a 1986 population based birth cohort study were utilised...
January 29, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114811/bullying-in-schools-the-state-of-knowledge-and-effective-interventions
#11
Ersilia Menesini, Christina Salmivalli
During the school years, bullying is one of the most common expressions of violence in the peer context. Research on bullying started more than forty years ago, when the phenomenon was defined as 'aggressive, intentional acts carried out by a group or an individual repeatedly and over time against a victim who cannot easily defend him- or herself'. Three criteria are relevant in order to define aggressive behaviour as bullying: (1) repetition, (2) intentionality and (3) an imbalance of power. Given these characteristics, bullying is often defined as systematic abuse of power by peers...
January 24, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114797/associations-of-depression-status-and-hopelessness-with-blood-pressure-a-24-year-follow-up-study
#12
Sarah J Roane, Patrick Pössel, Amanda M Mitchell, William W Eaton
Hypertension is estimated to cause 12.8% of all deaths worldwide. Both literature and well-supported cognitive models indicate that hopelessness predicts depressive symptoms. This study aimed to test whether high levels of hopelessness are associated with increased blood pressure, as well as whether depression acts as a mediator between hopelessness and blood pressure. Data from the original 24-year longitudinal Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study (ECA) were analyzed via linear regression (N = 917; 60...
January 24, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111983/relationships-between-self-determination-theory-and-theory-of-planned-behavior-applied-to-physical-activity-and-exercise-behavior-in-chronic-pain
#13
Jessica M Brooks, Kanako Iwanaga, Chung-Yi Chiu, Brandi Parker Cotton, Jon Deiches, Blaise Morrison, Erin Moser, Fong Chan
This study examined the relationships between self-determination theory (SDT) and theory of planned behavior (TpB) applied to physical activity and exercise behavior (PA&E) in people with chronic pain. Two hundred and eleven adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain (28 males and 183 females, age range 18 to 82 years, mean age 43 years) were recruited from online support groups and clinic networks in the United States. Participants completed SDT measures relevant to PA&E on perceived autonomy support, autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as well as TpB measures relevant to PA&E on intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control...
January 22, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111972/the-association-of-antidepressant-and-statin-use-with-death-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-varies-by-depression-severity
#14
Heidi T May, Tami L Bair, Brenda Reiss-Brennan, Stacey Knight, Jeffrey L Anderson, Benjamin D Horne, Kimberly D Brunisholz, Joseph B Muhlestein
Depression has been reported to be associated with a greater risk of death and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the impact of antidepressants (ADM) on CVD risk remains controversial. Statin use is known to decrease CVD risk. Whether the use of these medications together affects CVD risk has not been studied. Patients (N = 26,828) completing the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9), ≥40 years of age, without prior CVD, and no prior ADM use were studied. Depressive severity was categorized as none-mild (PHQ-9 score ≤14, n = 21,517) and moderate-severe (PHQ-9 score ≥15, n = 5311)...
January 22, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103706/disclosure-of-physical-emotional-and-sexual-child-abuse-help-seeking-and-access-to-abuse-response-services-in-two-south-african-provinces
#15
Franziska Meinck, Lucie Cluver, Heidi Loening-Voysey, Rachel Bray, Jenny Doubt, Marisa Casale, Lorraine Sherr
Physical, emotional and sexual child abuse are major problems in South Africa. This study investigates whether children know about post-abuse services, if they disclose and seek services, and what the outcomes of help-seeking behaviour are. It examines factors associated with request and receipt of services. Confidential self-report questionnaires were completed by adolescents aged 10-17 (n = 3515) in South Africa. Prevalence of frequent (>weekly) physical abuse was 7.4%, frequent emotional abuse 12.4%, and lifetime contact sexual abuse 9...
January 19, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103704/quality-of-life-after-quitting-smoking-and-initiating-aerobic-exercise
#16
Erika Litvin Bloom, Haruka Minami, Richard A Brown, David R Strong, Deborah Riebe, Ana M Abrantes
Quitting smoking and aerobic exercise each improve health. Although smokers may be concerned that quitting smoking will reduce their quality of life (QOL), recent research has shown that cessation is associated with QOL benefits. Elements of smoking cessation interventions, such as exercise, may contribute to changes in QOL. However, it is unknown whether initiating exercise in the context of smoking cessation is associated with greater or different effects on QOL than smoking cessation alone. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial (n = 61) of an exercise intervention for smoking cessation...
January 19, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103702/illness-perception-clusters-and-relationship-quality-are-associated-with-diabetes-distress-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#17
Emma Berry, Mark Davies, Martin Dempster
This report aims to augment what is already known about emotional distress in Type 2 diabetes, by assessing the predictive value of illness perception clusters and relationship quality on four subcategories of Diabetes Distress.162 individuals with Type 2 diabetes responded to a postal questionnaire assessing demographics, depression, diabetes distress, illness perceptions and relationship quality. Long-term blood glucose was retrieved from participants' General Practitioner. Three illness perception clusters emerged from the data, capturing three subgroups of participants sharing similar illness perception schemas...
January 19, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103700/the-effects-of-mindfulness-based-interventions-for-health-and-social-care-undergraduate-students-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#18
Michelle O'Driscoll, Stephen Byrne, Aoife Mc Gillicuddy, Sharon Lambert, Laura J Sahm
Health and social care undergraduate students experience stress due to high workloads and pressure to perform. Consequences include depression and burnout. Mindfulness may be a suitable way to reduce stress in health and social care degree courses. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and critically appraise the literature on the effects of Mindfulness-Based Interventions for health and social care undergraduate students. PubMed, EMBASE, Psych Info, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library and Academic Search Complete were searched from inception to 21st November 2016...
January 19, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102087/relationship-quality-of-persons-with-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-syndrome
#19
Francesco Tramonti, Michelangelo Maestri, Luca Carnicelli, Giulia Fava, Valentina Lombardi, Martina Rossi, Monica Fabbrini, Elisa Di Coscio, Elena Iacopini, Enrica Bonanni
In the field of sleep disorders, the quality of couple relationship is arousing increasing attention, given its implications for quality of life and treatment adherence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship quality in a sample of treated or untreated patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome. Eighty-seven patients were recruited in a hospital-based Centre for Sleep Medicine. Subjects were administered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) to evaluate relationship quality, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)...
January 19, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100073/depression-in-hiv-and-hcv-co-infected-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Renata Fialho, Marco Pereira, Jennifer Rusted, Richard Whale
The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review and meta-analysis of the differences in the prevalence of depression and presence of depressive symptoms between HIV/HCV co-infection, HIV mono-infection, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infection. A systematic electronic search of bibliographic databases was performed to locate articles published from the earliest available online until December 2014. Outcomes of depression were based on clinical interviews and validated self-reported measures of depression/depressive symptoms...
January 19, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
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