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Psychology, Health & Medicine

Matthew J Mimiaga, Elizabeth F Closson, David W Pantalone, Steven A Safren, Jennifer A Mitty
There is a high prevalence of stimulant use among HIV-infected individuals, which is associated with suboptimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, HIV treatment interruptions, detectable HIV viral load, and transmission of HIV via increased sexual risk behavior. Contingency management (CM) is an initially effective treatment for stimulant use. However, the effects of CM are not sustained after the active intervention has ended. One potential contributor to the intractability of existing treatments may be a lack of attention to replacement activities or the role of depressed mood...
September 13, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Alayna P Tackett, Eleanor L S Leavens, Alex Wiedenmann, Megan N Perez, Ashley Baker, Sunnye Mayes, Larry L Mullins, Theodore L Wagener
Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHSe) can compound an already challenging set of health problems for youth with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). Exposure to electronic cigarettes may also impact SCD symptomology and respiratory functioning. This study built on these previous findings by a) utilizing two objective measures of SHSe, salivary cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide and b) examining the association of SHSe with emergency department utilization, physician-reported sickle cell crises, and pulmonary functioning...
September 11, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Yuan-Yuan Wang, Min Dong, Qinge Zhang, Dan-Dan Xu, Jin Zhao, Chee H Ng, Gabor S Ungvari, Fu-Jun Jia, Yu-Tao Xiang
Little is known about suicidality in Chinese men who has sex with men (MSM) infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study investigated suicidality and its clinical correlates in Chinese MSM with HIV infection. Suicidality, demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed in 410 MSM with HIV infection consecutively recruited from a public HIV clinic in China. The prevalence of suicidality was 10.7% in Chinese HIV-infected MSM. Compared with those without suicidality, MSM with suicidality were more likely to be younger, unmarried and unemployed, and have more frequent insomnia, lower CD4 lymphocyte counts, and higher GAD-7 and CSE-D total scores...
September 3, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Hajime Sueki
Previous studies have shown that high income was associated with low risk of death by suicide; however, the extent to which household income reduces suicidal ideation remains unclear. We performed a survey to examine the relationship between annual household income and suicidal ideation and determine the level of annual household income at which suicidal ideation no longer decreased as income increased. In total, 94,131 members of Internet survey panels were recruited as participants by a major Japanese Internet survey company in 2016...
August 31, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Vasudha Gidugu, Marjorie L Jacobs
INTRODUCTION: Lifestyle factors like unhealthy eating habits contribute significantly to high rates of obesity and cardiovascular disease, and premature mortality among individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). Approaches focusing only on nutritional education and portion control do not address underlying challenges, e.g. effects of medication, mood, stress and anxiety on eating behaviors. We developed a program to enhance self-efficacy and self-regulation based on mindful eating...
August 31, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Shanshan He, Jingfen Zhu, Weijie Jiang, Jun Ma, Guohong Li, Yaping He
The study was designed to examine the relationships between sleep disturbance, negative affect and quality of life among patients with maintenance hemodialysis. A total of 118 patients in Shanghai, China, with maintenance hemodialysis (>40 years old) participated in the study. They completed three questionnaires: the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the European Quality of 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D-5L). Results showed that male participants' negative affect scored significantly higher than female participants'...
August 30, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Francesco Tramonti, Luca Bonfiglio, Paolo Bongioanni, Cristina Belviso, Chiara Fanciullacci, Bruno Rossi, Carmelo Chisari, Maria Chiara Carboncini
Aim of this study is to examine caregiver burden and family functioning in different neurological conditions. Forty-two primary caregivers of patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's Disease and other dementia (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD), Acquired Brain Injuries (ABI) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) were administered scales for the evaluation of caregiver burden (CBI) and family functioning (FACES IV). Caregiver burden was overall high, with caregivers of patients with ALS and ABI having exceeded the CBI cut-off score for possible burn-out...
August 24, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Yuanyuan An, Yucheng Zhou, Qi Huang, Kun Jia, Wen Li, Wei Xu
Previous studies suggest that prisoners are more likely to suffer from psychological problems, especially long-term ones. This, in turn, can cause severe behavioral problems such as self-harm and suicide. Previous research demonstrates that mindfulness-based intervention statistically contributes to improved emotional health in general terms. However, little is known about what specific aspects of mental health are improved. The purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of a 6-week mindfulness training program to the mental health of long-term male Chinese prisoners who were imprisoned for serious criminal behaviors and their prison sentences remain at least 10 years...
August 22, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Tsuyoshi Okuhara, Hirono Ishikawa, Eiko Goto, Masahumi Okada, Mio Kato, Takahiro Kiuchi
Processing fluency (the inferred subjective ease with which people process information) has been a topic of increasing research attention in the field of psychology over the past decade. We examined the effect of improving written materials in terms of processing fluency with regard to encouragement for obtaining breast and cervical cancer screening. We randomly assigned 670 women to intervention or control conditions; the 215 who mailed back distributed questionnaires were the study participants. A standard leaflet for cancer screening was mailed to the control group, while the materials mailed to the intervention group were improved in terms of perceptual fluency (e...
August 11, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Philip Chukwuemeka Mefoh, Eze Nsi Ude, JohBosco Chika Chukwuorji
This study examined whether the association between age and the three burnout dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and reduced personal accomplishment) depend on the extent of nursing professionals' use of emotion-focused coping strategy. Participants were 283 nurses (Mage = 35 years, SD = 8.17, Range = 23-66 years) from a tertiary healthcare institution in south-eastern Nigeria. They completed self-report measures of relevant variables in paper and pencil form. Increased age was associated with reduced personal accomplishment for nurses with high emotion-focused coping, but not for those who were low or moderate in use of emotion-focused coping...
August 10, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Nancy Patricia Caballero-Suárez, María Candela Iglesias, Evelyn Rodríguez Estrada, Gustavo Reyes Terán, Angélica Riveros Rosas
Anxiety and depression in people living with HIV (PLWH) are negatively associated with healthy sexual behaviours. We pilot-tested a Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT)-based intervention to reduce anxiety and depression, aimed to increase serostatus disclosure to sexual partners, quality of sexual life (QoSL) and condom use. The study had a single-case experimental design (AB) with follow-up measures. Eleven PLWH with moderate/severe anxiety/depression received six-module CBT intervention delivered in ten one-hour individual weekly sessions...
August 9, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Alina Dietrich, Peter Taylor, Paul White, Victoria Wilson, Jimmy Uddin, Richard William John Lee, Colin Dayan, Sue Jackson
Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a potentially sight-threatening and cosmetically disfiguring condition arising in 25-50% of patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism. CIRTED is the first study to evaluate the long-term role of radiotherapy and prolonged immunosuppression with azathioprine in treating TED, one aim of which was to validate the use of the English version of GO-QOL in an UK population with TED. In a three stage design over a 48 week period, the GO-QOL was tested and compared to a general measure of quality of life (WHOQOL-Bref)...
August 9, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Amanda Neumann Reyes, Suelen de Lima Bach, Paulinia Leal do Amaral, Karen Jansen, Mariane Ricardo Acosta Lopez Molina, Bárbara Coiro Spessato, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva
The present study aimed to verify the association between maternal depression and emotional and behavioral problems in school children in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, considering that maternal depression increases children's vulnerability for developing psychiatric disorders. This is a cross-sectional study with a school-based sample conducted between August 2015 and November 2016 and it is part of a major project entitled 'Healthy Childhood in Context: A Multidisciplinary Investigation'. Schoolchildren aged between 7 and 8 years and one of their respective parents or a primary caregiver were included in the study...
August 2, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Zumrut Gedik
Lifestyle choices play a major role in health outcomes. Hence, examination of factors associated with a healthy lifestyle is important for health promotion. Self-compassion is related to health behaviors but research on the role of self-compassion facets (self-kindness vs. self-judgment, common humanity vs. isolation, mindfulness vs. over-identification) on health behaviors is scarce. A total of 423 Turkish undergraduates completed Self-Compassion Scale and Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. Health behaviors positively correlated with self-kindness, common humanity, mindfulness, and total self-compassion but not with self-judgment, isolation, and over-identification...
August 2, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Tsz Ho Joe Yip, Wai Shing Tse
The interrelationship between hope, psychological resources and depression needs clarification. The current study aimed to examine the interrelationship using empirical data. A total of 139 Chinese adults living in the community were invited to fill in questionnaires measuring dispositional hope, psychological resources (i.e. optimism, self-efficacy, social support and positive affect) and negative emotion (i.e. negative affect and depression). Structural equation modelling showed that negative emotion is partially mediated between hope and psychological resources...
July 27, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Gaby Bolton, Anton Isaacs
Several women who undergo treatment for breast cancer experience cancer-related cognitive impairment [CRCI] commonly known as 'Chemobrain' or 'Chemofog'. However, many oncologists and other cancer clinicians are unaware of the high prevalence and severity of these symptoms. Few qualitative studies on the topic provide a comprehensive description of this phenomenon. This study provides a detailed description of women's experiences of CRCI, its impact on daily life and care received for it following treatment for breast cancer in Australia...
July 26, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Miriam Green-Armytage, Laura M Simonds, Mary John, Nigel Woodger
The presence of a dermatological condition may deter contact with the affected person because it falsely signals the threat of infection. The current study investigated interpersonal aversion towards individuals with the appearance of acne and psoriasis. Participants (N = 196) either viewed a female face with the appearance of acne, psoriasis, or no visible dermatological condition. Participants rated the attractiveness of the person, and indicated their willingness for social and indirect contact with them...
July 26, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Christi A Patten, Kristin S Vickers, Beth A Lewis, Steven B Finnie, Theresa J Wheeldon, Paul A Decker, Susanna Stevens, Julie C Hathaway, Michael M Reese, Richard J Seime
This pilot study examined feasibility of an unsupervised, facility-based exercise programme for promoting exercise adherence among depressed adult outpatients. The potential effect of adding physical activity counselling on depressive symptoms and physical activity was also explored. Participants were randomly assigned to a 12-week programme comprising an orientation and access to fitness centre resources (control, n = 18) or that programme plus 6 physical activity counselling sessions (intervention, n = 18)...
July 26, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Jennifer E Marceron, Cynthia A Rohrbeck
Although individuals with physical disabilities have special needs regarding preparedness for a natural or human-made disaster, little is known about the factors involved in motivating members of this population to engage in behaviors which reduce the probability of negative health outcomes. This study proposes and empirically tests an integrated theory-based model for individuals with physical disabilities in which perceived self-efficacy for emergency preparedness moderates the relationship between perceived threat and emergency preparedness behaviors...
July 14, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Michiyo Hirai, Laura L Vernon, Serkan Dolma
Latinas/os have been underrepresented in research investigating the role of disgust propensity in phobias. The current study was the first to examine associations between disgust propensity and Blood-Injection-Injury (BII) phobia, when acculturation was controlled for, in Latina/o Americans (n = 376). A structural model was developed with a BII fear latent variable consisting of fears of injection, blood, and sharp objects (causing injuries). The disgust propensity latent variable was formed with three domains of core, animal reminder, and contamination disgust elicitors...
July 12, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
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