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Psychology, Health & Medicine

Nilüfer Ersan, Semanur Dölekoğlu, Erdoğan Fişekçioğlu, Mehmet İlgüy, İnci Oktay
Dental education programs are known to be highly stressful and stress can affect general health. The aims were to identify sources of stress among preclinical students and to evaluate their perceived levels of stress, self-efficacy and effective coping strategies in a private dental school. One hundred preclinical students in a Turkish private dental school were surveyed using dental environment stress (DES), perceived stress (PSS), general self-efficacy (G-SES) and brief coping scales (Brief-COPE). Age, gender, history of psychiatric treatment, factors that affected the choice of dentistry, choice rank of dental school, scholarship and income was recorded...
October 6, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Ting Li, Ting Liu, Jing Han, Mei Zhang, Zhenyun Li, Qina Zhu, Aimin Wang
Research has indicated that clinical serious disease may lead to posttraumatic growth (PTG). However, little is known about PTG among hemodialysis (HD) patients. The study examined the relationship among resilience, rumination and PTG among Chinese HD patients. 196 HD patients were recruited from a tertiary hospital in a Northern city of China between 1 June 2015 and 30 May 2016. Patients were surveyed using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-Chinese version, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Chinese Event Related Rumination Inventory...
October 6, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Elizabeth N Madva, Federico Gomez-Bernal, Rachel A Millstein, Christopher M Celano, Elyse R Park, Carol A Mastromauro, Ariana M Albanese, Eleanor E Beale, Jeff C Huffman
Most mid-life adults have at least one chronic medical condition (CMC) and are at risk for developing additional CMCs. Stressors specific to this life stage may contribute to CMC development by hindering healthy behaviors. The goal of this study was to compare sources and intensity of distress, as they relate to health behaviors, between mid-life and non-mid-life adults with CMCs. We utilized a mixed-methods approach by analyzing quantitative self-report measures of psychiatric symptoms and psychological well-being, with in-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews to identify sources of stress in three cohorts of patients with CMCs (heart failure, type 2 diabetes, and coronary artery disease)...
October 6, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Maija Reblin, Wendy C Birmingham, Wendy Kohlmann, Tyler Graff
The shared social context created in a marriage may be important in motivating engagement in health behaviors, but spousal influence may not be uniformly applied. Our goal was to examine how spouses discuss health behaviors relevant for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk-reduction to better understand how spouses exert or fail to exert influence. In this pilot study, first degree relatives of CRC patients and their spouses completed demographic and self-reported health questionnaires. After a genetic counseling session regarding risk and risk reduction, couples engaged in a semi-structured discussion task to discuss lifestyle choices they currently undertake or could undertake to reduce risk...
October 6, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Heidi von Harscher, Nathaly Desmarais, Robert Dollinger, Seth Grossman, Scarlett Aldana
INTRODUCTION: Research on medical students has shown they are at a higher risk for burnout and that this burnout may become more prevalent as they advance in medical school. The literature, thus far, has not explored the construct of ,emotional empathy and whether this can impact burnout in medical students. Objective: To understand the relationship  between empathy (Empathic Concern [EC] and Personal Distress [PD]) and burnout in medical students. METHOD: Five successive classes of medical students enrolled at a new medical school were given the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Davis' Interpersonal Reactivity Index  over the course of three successive  years (n = 353)...
September 28, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Ting Fu, Haixia Cao, Rulan Yin, Lijuan Zhang, Qiuxiang Zhang, Liren Li, Xingmei Feng, Zhifeng Gu
This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of depression and anxiety and investigate the potential risk factors for depression and anxiety in Chinese gout patients. A self-report survey was administered to 226 gout patients and 232 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals. Patients were asked to complete a set of standardized self-report questionnaires. Univariate and mutiple regression were used to analyze the data. We found 15.0% of gout patients had depression, and 5.3% had anxiety. After adjusted demographic variables, the prevalence of depression was significantly higher than the healthy controls (6...
September 23, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Yu-Fang Tseng, Kuei-Lan Wang, Ching-Yun Lin, Yi-Ting Lin, Hui-Chen Pan, Chai-Jan Chang
This study aimed to explore the factors predicting the intention to quit smoking and the subsequent behavior 6 months later using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Data were obtained from 145 smokers who attended a smoking cessation clinic in a community hospital. All participants completed a questionnaire which included demographic information, TPB-based items, perceived susceptibility and previous attempts to quit. The actual quitting behavior was obtained by follow-up phone calls 6 months later. The TPB constructs explained 34% of the variance in intention to quit smoking...
September 20, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Kyra Hamilton, Sheina Orbell, Mikaela Bonham, Jeroen Kroon, Ralf Schwarzer
We investigated the role of normative support, behavioural automaticity, and action control in predicting dental flossing behaviour. Between May and October 2015, 629 Australian young adults completed a questionnaire assessing constructs of normative support and automaticity, and a 2-week follow-up of dental flossing behaviour and action control, resulting in n = 241 persons for longitudinal analysis. Findings supported the hypotheses that the effect of normative support on behaviour would be mediated via automaticity, and the effect of automaticity would be moderated by action control...
September 20, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Paul Bowen, Rajen Govender, Peter Edwards, Antony Lake
South Africa has one of the highest HIV prevalences in the world, and compared with other sectors of the national economy, the construction industry is disproportionately adversely affected. Using data collected nationally from more than 57,000 construction workers, HIV infection among South African construction workers was estimated, together with an assessment of the association between worker HIV serostatus and worker characteristics of gender, age, nature of employment, occupation, and HIV testing history...
September 20, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Xiuyun Wen, Qian Wu, Jianhua Liu, Zhenhua Xu, Li Fan, Xiaokai Chen, Qing He, Rui Ma, Yanan Wu, Shuo Jiang, Shujun Xu, Wenbin Fu
The study was aimed to compare the effects of standard and augmented acupuncture on depressive symptoms and sleep disturbances in patients with depression. This is a randomized, single-blind, multicenter trial. 140 subjects with clinical insomnia (score of ≥ 7 on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) were randomized to the standard (LI4, LIV3, EX-HN3, and GV20) or augmented (LI4, LIV3, EX-HN3, GV20, LU7, and KID6, including intradermal needles for sustained treatment) acupuncture groups. Participants received two sessions weekly for six weeks...
September 12, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Arnulfo González-Cantú, Leonor Mireles-Zavala, Anabel Rodríguez-Romo, Elizabeth Olavide-Aguilar, Natalia Eloisa De la Garza-Hernández, Maria Elena Romero-Ibarguengoitia
Depression and anxiety are hightly prevalent among patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), however not commonly related to outcomes, treatment and comorbidities. Eating behaviors could also have an implication. To evaluate the relation between mood and eating behaviors with demographic, physical, treatment, biochemical profiles and chronic comorbidities in T2D we conducted this exploratory cross sectional study in a population from Mexico. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 21 (TFEQ-R21) were correlated with age, gender, blood pressure, treatment and comorbidities (nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy and cardiopathy)...
September 5, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Ling-Ling Huang, Dong-Hui Guo, Meng-Juan Jing, Xiao-Xiao Wang, Nan Liu, Pei-Xi Wang
To investigate the prevalence of fatigue, the relationship between sickness or injury within two weeks, chronic diseases and fatigue among adults aged 18-45 years. Thousand five hundred and seventy nine individuals were included in this cross-sectional study. The Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS) was used to assess fatigue defined as CFS score ≥4. The prevalence of fatigue was 25% in this study. Our results showed that only sickness or injury within two weeks (odds ratio [OR]: 2.440) and chronic diseases (OR: 1...
August 29, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Wu Jeong Hwang, Tae Young Lee, Kyung-Ok Lim, Dahye Bae, Seoyeon Kwak, Hye-Yoon Park, Jun Soo Kwon
The interest in mindfulness meditation interventions has surged due to their beneficial effects in fostering resilience and reducing stress in both clinical and non-clinical populations. However, the relaxation benefits that may occur while practicing mindfulness meditation and long-term benefits of these interventions remain unclear. Fifty-one participants were recruited and randomized into the experimental and control groups, which underwent 4 days of Intensive Meditation (Templestay program, n = 33) and Relaxation (Control, n = 18), respectively...
August 29, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Dong-Mei Dou, Ling-Ling Huang, Jin Dou, Xiao-Xiao Wang, Pei-Xi Wang
Our aim was to explore the independent attribution of Post-stroke depression (PSD) to caregiver burden of acute ischemic stroke patients. A cross-sectional survey was performed with 271 acute ischemic stroke patients in the Huai-He Hospital and First People's Hospital of Kaifeng City in China. PSD was assessed by Self-rating Depressive Scale, and caregiver burden was assessed by Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview. Clustered logistic regression was applied to identify the impact of PSD on caregiver burden. As results, female patients, normal muscle strength and PSD were associated with caregiver burden...
August 29, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Hajime Sueki
Many individuals show negative attitudes toward the use of taxes for suicide prevention. Activities that enhance knowledge and awareness of suicide and suicide prevention may increase willingness to pay (WTP) for suicide prevention. WTP is the amount that a consumer will pay for a product or service. The present study examined the influence of educational activities on enhancing knowledge and awareness of suicide and its prevention on WTP. We conducted a quasi-experimental study to examine the influence of lectures on suicide by comparing the amount of change in WTP between two groups over the same period: an intervention group (n = 92) comprising students who participated in the lectures and a control group (n = 128) comprising general university students recruited through an Internet-based survey...
August 29, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Eman J Abdullah, Hanan E Badr
The main objective of this paper was to assess the level and the determinants of quality of life (QOL) amongst patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A cross-sectional study was conducted among a convenience sample of 200 adult MS patients. Inclusion criteria were: MS diagnosis for at least one year, and aged 21+ years. However, exclusion criteria were: having other neurological diseases, serious cardiovascular, orthopedic or other disability precluding participation. Self-administered questionnaire employed MSQOL-54 with two outcomes: Physical Health Composite (PHC) and mental health composite (MHC)...
August 13, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Yanyu Wu, Chaowei Fu, Wei Zhang, Caixia Li, Jie Zhang
The study aims to investigate the quality of life (QOL) and the psychological situation in Chinese patients with rosacea. A total of 196 healthy controls and 201 rosacea patients were involved in the final analysis. The general information, the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were collected. Significantly higher DLQI, anxiety and depression score were observed in the rosacea group compared to the control group (p < .01). Total DLQI score of patients was positively related with anxiety (r = ...
August 10, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Fiona A I Matley, Emma L Davies
Awareness of health risks linked with excessive alcohol consumption appears to have little influence on how much some people drink. Compensatory health beliefs (CHBs), in which the consequences of unhealthy behaviour are considered to be neutralised by additional healthy behaviours, are one way of justifying poor health choices. Currently, the role of CHBs within the context of drinking behaviour is not well understood. This research examined associations between alcohol specific compensatory health beliefs (ACH-Beliefs) and behaviours (ACH-Behaviours), alcohol consumption and alcohol specific self-efficacy (ASE), via an online survey completed by 249 participants, aged 18 + years (63...
August 9, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Dina Guglielmi, Greta Mazzetti, Paola Villano, Gabriela Topa Cantisano
Work environments characterized by inadequate work conditions have been widely recognized as being particularly prone to the occurrence and exacerbation of bullying behavior. Accordingly, this longitudinal study aimed to explore whether the impact of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) on workplace bullying was mediated by a lower perception of organizational justice, and whether the association between ERI and perceptions of justice was moderated by organizational identification. In the current study, a sample of N = 195 Spanish employees from different occupational sectors filled in an online questionnaire at two different times with a time lag of 8 months...
August 9, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Ka-Fai Chung, Wing-Fai Yeung, Yee-Man Yu, Fiona Yan-Yee Ho
There is a paucity of literature examining the longitudinal course of insomnia using standardized diagnostic criteria. This study aims to evaluate the persistence, remission, relapse, and incidence rates of insomnia symptoms and insomnia disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th and 5th edition (DSM-IV and DSM-5). A total of 398 community dwellers were interviewed annually over two years using the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire, a validated questionnaire for deriving insomnia diagnoses...
August 8, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
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