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Psychology, Health & Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697624/evaluating-a-novel-intervention-to-reduce-trauma-symptoms-and-sexual-risk-taking-qualitative-exit-interviews-with-sexual-minority-men-with-childhood-sexual-abuse
#1
S Wade Taylor, Brett M Goshe, Samantha M Marquez, Steven A Safren, Conall O'Cleirigh
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) continues to affect sexual minority men (SMM) at disproportionate levels and contributes to multiple negative health outcomes, including sexual-risk taking and HIV acquisition. This paper presents qualitative evaluative feedback from SMM (N = 9) who participated in a 10-session Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Trauma and Sexual Health (CBT-TSH) intervention to reduce CSA-related posttraumatic stress reaction and distress. The treatment was designed to increase accurate sexual risk appraisals and to improve self-care health behaviors related to HIV/STI acquisition...
July 12, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675053/relationship-between-perceptions-of-ageing-and-frailty-in-english-older-adults
#2
Krystal Warmoth, Mark Tarrant, Charles Abraham, Iain A Lang
Older adults' negative beliefs about ageing are related to their health and functioning, but little is known about how perceptions of ageing (POA) relate to frailty status. This study aimed to explore the relationship between POA and frailty. Secondary analysis of data used were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Waves 2 and 5. A POA score was based on participants' responses to 12 statements using a five-point Likert scale at baseline, and a Frailty Index (FI) score was calculated for each participant for both waves...
July 4, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675045/association-between-quality-of-life-of-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-and-parents-illness-perception-as-evaluated-by-adolescents
#3
Johanna Terrasson, Florence Terrade, Alain Somat, Sylvie Nivot-Adamiak, Marie-Aline Guitteny, Marc de Kerdanet
Children and adolescents account for half of all cases of type 1 diabetes, which is one of the most common pediatric chronic diseases. The disease's effects and the treatment/disease-management protocols patients must follow can lead to a marked deterioration in quality of life, especially for adolescents. Patients' illness perceptions have been shown to impact their quality of life, but do other people's illness perceptions also have an effect? The present study addressed this question by investigating possible links between the quality of life of adolescent patients with type 1 diabetes and illness perceptions, measured in terms of the adolescents' self-perceptions, parents' self-perceptions, and the adolescents' evaluations of their parents' perceptions...
July 4, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661187/burnout-and-occupational-stress-in-the-medical-residents-of-oncology-haematology-and-radiotherapy-a-prevalence-and-predictors-study-in-portugal
#4
Ana Joaquim, Sandra Custódio, Joana Savva-Bordalo, Sérgio Chacim, Inês Carvalhais, Liliana Lombo, Heitor Lopes, António Araújo, Rui Gomes
Burnout is a professional syndrome associated with stress caused by overwork. Our aim was to calculate the prevalence of burnout and stress on medical residents of Oncology, Haematology and Radiotherapy in Portugal, as well as to determine predictors of burnout and stress. An anonymous questionnaire was applied (n = 118). Statistical analysis consisted of a descriptive and inferential analysis. The prevalence of burnout and stress was calculated to be 45.2 and 50%, respectively. The dimensions that generated higher levels of stress were 'dealing with patients' and 'overwork'...
June 29, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651434/body-mass-index-and-functional-impairment-the-explanatory-role-of-anxiety-sensitivity-among-treatment-seeking-smokers
#5
Brooke Y Kauffman, Lorra Garey, Charles Jardin, Michael W Otto, Amanda M Raines, Norman B Schmidt, Michael J Zvolensky
Obesity and smoking are highly prevalent public health concerns in the United States. Data indicate that elevated Body Mass Index (BMI) is related to functional impairment. However, there is limited understanding of mechanisms that may explain their comorbidity among smokers. The current study sought to test whether anxiety sensitivity explained the relation between BMI and functional impairment among 420 (46.9% females; Mage = 38 years, SD = 13.42) treatment-seeking, adult smokers. Results indicated that BMI yielded a significant indirect effect through anxiety sensitivity for functional impairment, b = 0...
June 27, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649868/early-eye-movement-desensitisation-and-reprocessing-emdr-intervention-in-a-disaster-mental-health-care-context
#6
Anna Saltini, Daniela Rebecchi, Chiara Callerame, Isabel Fernandez, Elisa Bergonzini, Fabrizio Starace
'Early psychological intervention' is defined as commencing treatment within three months of the traumatic event, with the aim to prevent or treat posttraumatic stress disorder, ongoing distress or acute stress disorder. In natural disaster situations, specific issues may limit the amount of time available for treatment and the possibility of interventions. Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) can be used without regard to these limits. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of EMDR, Recent Traumatic Episode Protocol (R-TEP) provided within three months of the traumatic event to a large sample of individuals exposed to the earthquake that hit Emilia Romagna Region (Northern Italy) in 2012...
June 25, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635315/age-stereotypes-flexible-goal-adjustment-and-well-being-among-chinese-older-adults
#7
Jinfeng Zhang, Yu Nancy Xiaonan, Jianxin Zhang, Mingjie Zhou
Previous studies have examined the independent roles of positive age stereotypes (PAS) and negative age stereotypes (NAS) in successful aging. This study aimed to examine the joint effect of PAS and NAS on the well-being of Chinese older adults, and to further examine whether this effect was moderated by flexible goal adjustment (FGA). Using a cross-sectional design, 279 Chinese older adults (age range 60‒97 years) completed measures related to age stereotypes, FGA, and well-being. The results showed that PAS interacted with NAS to predict well-being...
June 21, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635312/predictors-of-adherence-to-aerobic-exercise-in-rectal-cancer-patients-during-and-after-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy
#8
Andria R Morielli, Normand G Boulé, Nawaid Usmani, Kurian Joseph, Keith Tankel, Diane Severin, Kerry S Courneya
This pilot study explored predictors of adherence to exercise during and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT) in rectal cancer patients. Eighteen rectal cancer patients were prescribed three supervised aerobic exercise sessions/week during NACRT followed by ≥150 min/week of unsupervised aerobic exercise after NACRT. Although not statistically significant, adherence to supervised exercise during NACRT was meaningfully better for patients who were women (d = .82; P = .12), younger (d = -.62; P = ...
June 21, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635311/type-d-personality-but-not-type-a-behavior-pattern-is-associated-with-coronary-plaque-vulnerability
#9
Ping Lin, Ling Li, Yini Wang, Zhenjuan Zhao, Guojie Liu, Wei Chen, Hui Tao, Xueqin Gao
Personality traits are associated with major adverse coronary events (MACE) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the link between personality traits and intravascular morphology in CAD patients is poorly understood. This study investigated the relationship between personality traits, specifically Type A behavior pattern and Type D personality, and plaque vulnerability. After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, multivariable regression analysis showed no association between Type A and optical coherence tomography indices...
June 21, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635309/rheumatoid-arthritis-is-associated-with-negatively-variable-impacts-on-domains-of-female-sexual-function-evidence-from-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Qiuxiang Zhang, Congcong Zhou, Haoyang Chen, Qian Zhao, Lin Li, Yafei Cui, Biyu Shen
To systematically review the literature to identify the impact of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on specific female sexual function domains. A meta-analysis was performed and the related literature were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CNKI, CBM and Web of Science databases, and in reference lists of articles and systematic reviews. Score of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used as the outcome measurement, and mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Five studies were included, including 346 women with RA and 237 healthy female controls...
June 21, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625072/depression-and-anxiety-among-war-widows-of-nepal-a-post-civil-war-cross-sectional-study
#11
Syaron Basnet, Pragya Kandel, Prabhat Lamichhane
Thousands of Nepalese women were widowed as a consequence of a decade (1996-2006) long civil war in Nepal. These women are at grave risk of mental health problems due to both traumatic experiences and violation of natural order of widowhood. The present study explores the depression and anxiety among war-widows. In 2012, a cross-sectional study was designed to interview 358 war-widows using validitated Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory in four districts of Nepal - Bardiya, Surkhet, Sindhupalchowk and Kavrepalanchowk with history of high conflict intensity...
June 19, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621153/depression-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Yafei Cui, Lin Li, Rulan Yin, Qian Zhao, Shengnan Chen, Qiuxiang Zhang, Biyu Shen
There is substantial uncertainty regarding the prevalence of depression in Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). We conducted a systematic review aiming to evaluate the association of pSS with depression. PubMed, Web of Science, VIP, CNKI and Wanfang database were searched to find the published literatures (from these databases established to October 2016). Studies were screened according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and the qualities of included studies were evaluated. The data was analyzed using Revman5...
June 16, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621148/association-between-cognitive-vulnerability-to-depression%C3%A2-%C3%A2-dysfunctional-attitudes-and-glycaemic-control-among-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-a-hospital-in-beijing-a-multivariate-regression-analysis
#13
Yue Ma, Xun Li, Dandan Zhao, Rui Wu, Hongfeng Sun, Shibo Chen, Linyun Wang, Xue Fang, Jin Huang, Xia Li, Ying Zhang, Guangjian Jiang, Dongwei Zhang, Yanyun Pan, Tian An, Yue Shi, Jiacheng Zuo, Na Yu, Sihua Gao
This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and cognitive vulnerability to depression (dysfunctional attitudes) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 245 valid records from June 2016 to December 2016 were collected from a hospital in Beijing. Participants were asked to complete four questionnaires (Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, Zung Self-rating Depression Scale, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Short Form) to assess mental health and quality of life...
June 16, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612624/prototypes-reflect-normative-perceptions-implications-for-the-development-of-reasoned-action-theory
#14
Michael Hennessy, Amy Bleakley, Morgan Ellithorpe
The reasoned action approach is one of the most successful behavioral theories in the history of social psychology. This study outlines the theoretical principles of reasoned action and considers when it is appropriate to augment it with a new variable. To demonstrate, we use survey data collected from a 4 to 17 year old U.S. adolescents to test how the 'prototype' variables fit into reasoned action approach. Through confirmatory factor analysis, we find that the prototype measures are normative pressure measures and when treated as a separate theoretical construct, prototype identity is not completely mediated by the proximal predictors of behavioral intention...
June 14, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610454/genetic-polymorphisms-of-alcohol-metabolizing-enzymes-and-their-association-with-alcoholism-risk-personality-and-anthropometric-traits-among-malaysian-university-students
#15
Hing-Huat Ong, Foong-Vai Khor, Kausalyah Balasupramaniam, Yee-How Say
Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alcohol-metabolizing genes - ADH1B (Arg47His), ADH1C (Ile350Val) and ALDH2 (Glu504Lys) have been extensively associated with flush reaction and alcoholism. Therefore, we investigated the association of these three SNPs with alcohol-induced reactions (AIRs), alcoholism risk, personality and anthropometric traits among Malaysian university students. AIRs, Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol (SRE) and Ten-Item Personality were surveyed, anthropometric measurements and DNA samples were taken...
June 14, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610449/diabetes-distress-illness-perceptions-and-glycaemic-control-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
Kelly Martinez, Sam Lockhart, Mark Davies, John R Lindsay, Martin Dempster
The emotional distress associated with adjusting to and living with diabetes has been termed diabetes distress. Diabetes distress is associated with glycaemic control but interventions to reduce diabetes distress have failed to consistently improve diabetes control. Various illness perceptions have previously been linked with both diabetes distress and glycaemic control but interrelationships between these features have not been previously investigated. We hypothesised that illness perceptions mediate the relationship between diabetes distress and glycaemia...
June 14, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609120/understanding-supplement-use-an-application-of-temporal-self-regulation-theory
#17
Vanessa Allom, Barbara Mullan, Allison Clifford, Amanda Rebar
Vitamin and mineral supplement use is increasing worldwide. As evidence of the effects of these practices are equivocal at best, it is important to determine why individuals engage in vitamin and mineral supplement use through the application of a theoretical framework. The aim of this study was to employ temporal self-regulation theory (TST) to establish the determinants of supplement use. A cross-sectional design was used with a sample of 121 individuals who consume vitamins or minerals as dietary supplements...
June 13, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592138/the-effects-of-perceived-social-norms-on-handwashing-behaviour-in-students
#18
Rachel Dickie, Susan Rasmussen, Rachel Cain, Lynn Williams, William MacKay
Handwashing is widely considered the most effective method of preventing the spread of infectious illness. Exploring the determinants of handwashing is vital to the development of interventions to increase this behaviour. A survey based on Social Norms Theory assessed handwashing frequency and perceptions of peer handwashing in 255 university students. Participants reported their own handwashing frequency, and how often they thought their peers washed their hands in particular circumstances, to determine whether misperceptions around handwashing exist, and whether these influence the behaviour of individuals...
June 7, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554229/positive-factors-associated-with-quality-of-life-among-chinese-patients-with-renal-carcinoma-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Jiao Liu, Da-Xin Gong, Yu Zeng, Zhen-Hua Li, Chui-Ze Kong
Quality of life and positive psychological variables has become a focus of concern in patients with renal carcinoma. However, the integrative effects of positive psychological variables on the illness have seldom been reported. The aims of this study were to evaluate the quality of life and the integrative effects of hope, resilience and optimism on the quality of life among Chinese renal carcinoma patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the First Hospital of China Medical University. 284 participants completed questionnaires consisting of demographic and clinical characteristics, EORTC QLQ-C30, Adult Hope Scale, Resilience Scale-14 and Life Orientation Scale-Revised from July 2013 to July 2014...
May 29, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552007/the-experience-of-male-spouses-in-the-context-of-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#20
Vanina Barbosa Lopes, Ana Paula Antero Lobo, Geraldo Bezerra Da Silva Junior, Anna Karynne Melo, Carminda Goersch Lamboglia, Carlos Antonio Bruno da Silva
The purpose of this systematic review is to look into how the experience of husbands of women treated for breast cancer is approached in the literature. Between July and August 2015, the databases of PubMed, SciELO and BIREME were searched for papers published in the period January 2005-July 2015; a final sample of 23 papers was defined. The studies listed several negative and positive aspects of the experience, such as financial difficulties, psychological distress, lack of coping skills among family members, social recognition of the role of caregiver, acquisition of new responsibilities and the maturing of family members...
May 27, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
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