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Psychology, Health & Medicine

Conor J Rothwell, Deirdre Desmond
Exposure to cultural bodily ideals featuring thinness and muscularity can have deleterious effects on body satisfaction. The current study explores the effect of exposure to such imagery on body dissatisfaction and the influence of internalisation of cultural and athletic ideals. 188 (97 male) adults (18-25yrs; M = 20.97) were grouped according to a 2 × 2 × 2 mixed between-within subjects design (male/female; high/low physical activity; intervention/control). Participants were exposed to images of idealised physiques or neutral images...
February 22, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Niall Galbraith, Tim Moss, Victoria Galbraith, Satvinder Purewal
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is widespread despite the controversy over its effectiveness. Although previous reviews have examined the demographics and attitudes of CAM users, there is no existing review on the traits or cognitions which characterise either CAM users or those who believe in CAM effectiveness. The current systematic review set out to address these gaps in the literature by applying a narrative synthesis. A bibliographic search and manual searches were undertaken and key authors were contacted...
February 22, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Sebastiano Costa, Nadia Barberis, Rosalba Larcan, Francesca Cuzzocrea
Researchers have become increasingly interested in investigating the role of the psychological aspects related to the perception of cervical screening barriers. This study investigates the influence of trait EI on perceived cervical screening barriers. Furthermore, this study investigates the incremental validity of trait EI beyond the Big Five, as well as emotion regulation in the perceived barrier towards the Pap test as revealed in a sample of 206 Italian women that were undergoing cervical screening. Results have shown that trait EI is negatively related to cervical screening barriers...
February 13, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Joram Ronel, Andreas Dinkel, Eva Wolf, Birgitt Marten-Mittag, Birgit Mueck, Christoph Mayr, Christian Hoffmann, Martin Karwat, Knud Schewe, Axel Baumgarten, Hans Jaeger
HIV infection has evolved from a fatal to a treatable condition, leading to an increase in the rate of elderly People Living with HIV (PLWH). However, little is known about the psychosocial burden of elderly PLWH. Thus, the aim of this longitudinal multi-center cohort study was to investigate whether elderly PLWH experience more anxiety and depression and reduced health related quality of life (HRQOL) compared to elderly patients with other chronic conditions. PLWH were compared to diabetes patients (DM) and patients with minor health conditions (MHC), e...
February 11, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Pavol Mikula, Iveta Nagyova, Marianna Vitkova, Jarmila Szilasiova
Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) engage in various coping behaviours in order to manage their disease. The aim of this study is to find out if the self-esteem of patients is associated with coping strategies - problem-focused (e.g. making a plan of action when confronted with a problem); emotion focused (e.g. get emotional support from community); and focused on stopping unpleasant emotions and thoughts (e.g. keeping oneself from feeling sad), and if it can enhance or hinder coping efforts in the disease management...
February 7, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Kenchi C K Wong
This study investigated the mediating role of psychological well-being between work support and safety performance of 314 Hong Kong nurses, using self-reported questionnaires. Results showed that psychological well-being mediated the effects of work support on safety performance. The findings illustrate that work support was an important element to improve psychological well-being. This could generate better safety performance of the nurses. Implications and limitations are discussed.
February 6, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Yaru Li, Liyun Zhao, Dongmei Yu, Gangqiang Ding
We aimed to investigate whether exposure to the Chinese famine (1959-1961) in early life was associated with depression in adulthood. We included 17,505 participants from the China health and retirement longitudinal study (CHARLS). Participants were classified into indirect and direct exposure groups. And the directly exposure groups including prenatal, childhood, adolescence/adult exposure groups. Depression was diagnosed by Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-10 (CES-D) score. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to calculate the odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of depression...
February 4, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Fei-Fei Huang, Qing Yang, Juan Zhang, Xuan Ye Han, Jing-Ping Zhang, Man Ye
The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a self-efficacy enhancing intervention designed for pulmonary rehabilitation based on motivational interviewing (MI) for postsurgical non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. This study was a 2-arm pilot randomized controlled trial and was conducted in two cardiothoracic surgery departments, a tertiary hospital in Fuzhou, China. 28 postsurgical NSCLC patients were randomized to a 3 month (6 session) self-efficacy enhancing intervention based on MI or usual care (UC)...
January 31, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Qian Zhao, Haoyang Chen, Hongyan Yan, Yan He, Li Zhu, WenTing Fu, Biyu Shen
This study aimed (i) to complement existing research by focusing on body image disturbance issues in Chinese Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients; (ii) to investigate how Chinese patients make sense of disease diagnosis and perceived cultural influences within the context of their SLE. A total of 118 SLE patients underwent standardized laboratory examinations and completed several questionnaires. Independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-square test, and multivariate analysis using backward stepwise logistic regression model were used to analyze these data...
January 31, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Camilla Matera, Amanda Nerini, Duccio Baroni, Cristina Stefanile
Through a 2 × 2 × 2 quasi experimental design (N = 254), this research investigated if a social campaign eliciting positive emotions and activating moral norms might enhance condom negotiation skills, intended and estimated condom among young women with or without past sexual experience with casual partners. Emotions had a main effect on one of the six condom negotiation strategies we considered; for most of the other variables an interaction effect with moral norms and/or past behaviour emerged. Concerning estimated condom use, positive emotions worked better than negative ones when moral norms were salient...
January 31, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Abbie Jordan, Paula Smith, Karen Rodham
Loss of a child from a multiple birth pregnancy is not uncommon yet the idiographic experience of parents who have lost a single twin from a multiple birth pregnancy is underexplored. This novel study sought to explore the experiences of mothers bereaved after loss of a twin from a multiple birth pregnancy, focusing on the dual challenges of parenting and grieving. Eighteen mothers at least 12 months post loss were recruited from a private UK based Facebook page dedicated to supporting parents after loss from a multiple birth...
January 31, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
C Keyworth, P A Nelson, C Bundy, S R Pye, C E M Griffiths, L Cordingley
Message framing is important in health communication research to encourage behaviour change. Psoriasis, a long-term inflammatory skin condition, has additional comorbidities including high levels of anxiety and cardiovascular disease (CVD), making message framing particularly important. This experimental study aimed to: (1) identify whether health messages about psoriasis presented as either gain- or loss-framed were more effective for prompting changes in behavioural intentions (BI), (2) examine whether BI were driven by a desire to improve psoriasis or reduce CVD risk; (3) examine emotional reactions to message frame; and (4) examine predictors of BI...
January 30, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Yaoyao Sun, Shumei Wang, Ming Qi, Menglian Wu, Dan Zhang, Yang Yang, Xia Zhao, Jihui Jia, Fenglin Cao, Yonggang Su, Shuhong Zhang
This study aimed to examine the psychological status among Chronic Atrophic Gastritis (CAG) patients and to find the cumulative effects of risk and protective factors. A sample of 101 CAG patients completed the investigation. Hierarchical linear regression was used to find risk and protective factors, and examine the cumulative effects in risk factor index (RFI) and protective factor index (PFI). Results showed that nine symptoms from SCL-90-R were severer among CAG patients than those in adult norm. Risk factors including positive family history of cancer and higher negative life events could predict higher GSI (β = 0...
January 20, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Man-Man Lu, Tao Zhang, Lin-Hai Zhao, Gui-Mei Chen, Dong-Hua Wei, Jun-Qing Zhang, Xiao-Peng Zhang, Xing-Rong Shen, Jing Chai, De-Bin Wang
The aim of investigation is to explore the relationship between demands for lung cancer screening (LCS) and the constructs derived from the health belief model (HBM) in Hefei. The study collected data about socio-demographics, health beliefs in and demands for LCS during early June to later July 2015. By constructing a LCS demands HBM constructs, it calculated indices of demands for LCS (DSI) and HBM constructs, which include perceived risk (PR) and seriousness (PS) of the cancers; and perceived effectiveness (PE), benefits (PB) and difficulties (PD) of the screening...
January 20, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
D Guenzani, M Buoli, G S Carnevali, M Serati, P Messa, S Vettoretti
Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a frequent condition in elderly subjects, and it is associated with psychiatric comorbidity, especially depressive symptoms. Purpose of the present research was to compare patients with different severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in terms of psychiatric symptoms. One hundred CKD subjects were randomly selected among those attending the Department of Nephrology, University of Milan. The patients were evaluated through the following rating scales: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Symptom Checklist (SCL-90), Kidney Disease Quality of Life- Short Form (KDQOL-SF) and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS)...
January 15, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Mengting Gao, Chenchang Xiao, Xuan Zhang, Shiyue Li, Hong Yan
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is frequent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Few studies have investigated social-psychological predictors of PTSD in China. This study aimed to examine relationships between social capital, stigma, resilience and PTSD among PLWHA in China, and to provide effective suggestions for PTSD intervention. A cross-sectional study of 520 PLWHA was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016. Survey data were collected using anonymous self-reported questionnaire. Multivariable analyses were used to examine related factors of PTSD, and causal mediation analyses were conducted to assess whether stigma and resilience were mediators...
January 15, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Nan Deng, Ting Gu, Qian Zhao, Xiaoyi Zhang, Fangfang Zhao, Hong He
The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of disease education or pulmonary rehabilitation programs assisted with telephone support on physical capacity and quality of life (QOL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library was conducted until May 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of telephone-assisted intervention versus a control group on exercise tolerance and QOL in patients with COPD were included...
January 10, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Ying Xu, Yang Yang, Xiao Ma
Risk behavior often seems 'self-defeating' to the observers. Most people understand the basic health-related knowledge, but some of them still choose to continue risk behaviors, especially for the young. This study aimed to examine time perspective, optimism bias and self control correlated with smoking behavior in Chinese college students. A cross-sectional survey enrolling 3016 university students in Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, China. Influence Factors were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses...
January 9, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Rebecca A Franklin, Michael P Butler, Jacob A Bentley
Yoga contains sub-components related to its physical postures (asana), breathing methods (pranayama), and meditation (dhyana). To test the hypothesis that specific yoga practices are associated with reduced psychological distress, 186 adults completed questionnaires assessing life stressors, symptom severity, and experience with each of these aspects of yoga. Each yoga sub-component was found to be negatively correlated with psychological distress indices. However, differing patterns of relationship to psychological distress symptoms were found for each yoga sub-component...
January 8, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
P Naidoo, R Sewpaul, A Nyembezi, P Reddy, K Louw, R Desai, D J Stein
The association between psychosocial factors and disability is less clear. This study investigated the biological and psychosocial (employment and psychological distress) factors associated with level of disability in an adult sample in South Africa. Data were analysed from a cross-sectional survey among adults aged 18-64 (n = 4974). Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the associations of the selected variables with disability. The mean percentage score on the WHODAS scale of disability was 5...
December 27, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
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