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Psychology, Health & Medicine

Randa Elgendy, Sonya S Deschênes, Rachel J Burns, Norbert Schmitz
Although heavy alcohol consumption is associated with diabetes-related complications, little is known about patterns of alcohol use among people with diabetes. Moreover, heavy drinking is more common among individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) than in the general population, and these disorders are often comorbid with diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that mental disorders moderate the association between diabetes status and alcohol consumption...
November 22, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Yaron Yagil, Shulamit Geller, Sigal Levy, Yael Sidi, Shiri Aharoni
The purpose of the current study was to assess the uniqueness of the condition of kidney transplant recipients in comparison to a sample of matching healthy peers in relation to body-image dissatisfaction and identification, quality of life and psychological distress. Participants were 45 kidney transplant recipients who were under follow-up care at a Transplant Unit of a major Medical Center, and a sample of 45 matching healthy peers. Measures were taken using self-report questionnaires [Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIIQ), Body Identification Questionnaire (BIQ), Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI), and the SF-12]...
November 15, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Fengfeng Gong, Dongdong Zhao, Yuanyuan Zhao, Shanshan Lu, Zhenzhong Qian, Yehuan Sun
Depressive symptoms and empty nest phenomenon of rural elderly people are both important public health issues, which should not be ignored. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and related factors of the empty nest elderly in rural China. We recruited 3182 eligible subjects and gathered data by face-to-face interview. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to explore the related factors of depressive symptoms. The present study showed that the prevalence of depressive symptoms significantly differed between empty nest old adults and non-empty nesters (24...
November 10, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
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November 8, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Chuka Mike Ifeagwazi, Helen Eleh Egberi, JohnBosco Chika Chukwuorji
There is a strong link between emotional reactivity and hypertension, yet little research to date has examined mediators of this relationship. Our study  investigated the mediating role of anxiety on the relationship between emotional reactivity and blood pressure elevations. Participants were 226 hypertensive patients (93 men and 133 women, Mean age = 53.09, SD = 13.88 years), purposively drawn from the General Outpatient Department in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria.  Measures for data collection were Emotional Reactivity Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Mercury Sphygmomanometer...
November 6, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Jinbo He, Fang Huang, Jinjin Yan, Wen Wu, Zhihui Cai, Xitao Fan
Night eating syndrome (NES) has primarily been studied in Western societies, and the prevalence and associated factors of NES in China still remain unknown. This study examined the prevalence, demographic correlates, and association with psychological distress of NES among Chinese college students. By using the Chinese version of Night Eating Questionnaire (C-NEQ), data were collected from 909 university students sampled from three provinces in China. Results showed that the prevalence of NES was 2.8% (2.4% after excluding students with binge eating); the occurrence of NES was correlated with gender ([Formula: see text]) and the higher night eating scores were significantly correlated with higher psychological distress (rs = ...
November 6, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Heidemarie Lex, Sara Weisenbach, Jacob Sloane, Sana Syed, Eva Rasky, Wolfgang Freidl
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory auto-immune disease of the central nervous system. It leads to many impairments including physical, cognitive, psychological, and social challenges. Our study examined gender and cultural associations with quality of life (QoL), personal characteristics, and benefits from having MS among those with MS. The study was conducted in Austria and the United States. The sample included 128 participants, 64 in each country, of whom 78 were women and 50 were men aged between 20 and 57 years...
October 27, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Siu-Man Ng, Xuebing Su
The study investigates the prevalence and correlates of metabolic syndrome (MS) among Hong Kong Chinese adults. Random cluster sampling design and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) MS criteria were adopted. Totally 737 adults participated in questionnaire survey and received waist circumference (WC) measurement. Among them 335 showed central obesity (WC > 80 and 85 cm for women and men respectively). Subsequently 229 accepted blood test. Totally 71 participants met MS criteria, suggesting an overall prevalence of 14...
October 25, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Nurullah Bolat, Mesut Yavuz, Kayı Eliaçık, Adil Zorlu
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between attachment characteristics, alexithymia and problematic internet use (PIU) in adolescents. The study was performed on 444 high school students (66% female and 34% male). Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Short Form of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (s-IPPA) scales were used. The adolescents who scored ≥50 on IAT were considered as the PIU group and <50 were considered as control group. There was a moderate positive relationship between TAS-20 and IAT scores (r = ...
October 25, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Cláudia Ferreira, Ana Laura Mendes, Inês A Trindade
This study tested a model examining the impact that early affiliative memories (both with family and peers) on eating psychopathology, and whether these links are carried by the mechanisms of external shame and body image-related perfectionistic self-presentation, in a sample of 480 female college students. Path analyses' results revealed that this model accounted for 48% of disordered eating's variance and suggests that the lack of early positive emotional memories is associated with higher levels of shame (feelings of inferiority and unattractiveness), and with higher tendency to adopt body image-related perfectionistic strategies, that seem to explain excessive eating concern and rigid control of one's eating behaviors...
October 24, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Cynthia Van Gampelaere, Tine Vervoort, Koen Luyckx, Annick De Paepe, Sara Van Aken, Liesbet Goubert
Parents of children with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) experience high levels of distress, which may negatively impact child functioning. However, little is known about mechanisms that may buffer the adverse impact of parental distress. The current study explored the possible buffering role of maternal adaptive cognitive emotion regulation (CER) for the relationship between maternal distress and child psychological functioning. Forty-three children with T1D (8-15 years) completed measures assessing trait anxiety and depressive symptoms...
October 23, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Nilüfer Ersan, Semanur Dölekoğlu, Erdoğan Fişekçioğlu, Mehmet İlgüy, İnci Oktay
Dental education programs are known to be highly stressful and stress can affect general health. The aims were to identify sources of stress among preclinical students and to evaluate their perceived levels of stress, self-efficacy and effective coping strategies in a private dental school. One hundred preclinical students in a Turkish private dental school were surveyed using dental environment stress (DES), perceived stress (PSS), general self-efficacy (G-SES) and brief coping scales (Brief-COPE). Age, gender, history of psychiatric treatment, factors that affected the choice of dentistry, choice rank of dental school, scholarship and income was recorded...
October 6, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Ting Li, Ting Liu, Jing Han, Mei Zhang, Zhenyun Li, Qina Zhu, Aimin Wang
Research has indicated that clinical serious disease may lead to posttraumatic growth (PTG). However, little is known about PTG among hemodialysis (HD) patients. The study examined the relationship among resilience, rumination and PTG among Chinese HD patients. 196 HD patients were recruited from a tertiary hospital in a Northern city of China between 1 June 2015 and 30 May 2016. Patients were surveyed using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-Chinese version, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Chinese Event Related Rumination Inventory...
October 6, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Elizabeth N Madva, Federico Gomez-Bernal, Rachel A Millstein, Christopher M Celano, Elyse R Park, Carol A Mastromauro, Ariana M Albanese, Eleanor E Beale, Jeff C Huffman
Most mid-life adults have at least one chronic medical condition (CMC) and are at risk for developing additional CMCs. Stressors specific to this life stage may contribute to CMC development by hindering healthy behaviors. The goal of this study was to compare sources and intensity of distress, as they relate to health behaviors, between mid-life and non-mid-life adults with CMCs. We utilized a mixed-methods approach by analyzing quantitative self-report measures of psychiatric symptoms and psychological well-being, with in-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews to identify sources of stress in three cohorts of patients with CMCs (heart failure, type 2 diabetes, and coronary artery disease)...
October 6, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Maija Reblin, Wendy C Birmingham, Wendy Kohlmann, Tyler Graff
The shared social context created in a marriage may be important in motivating engagement in health behaviors, but spousal influence may not be uniformly applied. Our goal was to examine how spouses discuss health behaviors relevant for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk-reduction to better understand how spouses exert or fail to exert influence. In this pilot study, first degree relatives of CRC patients and their spouses completed demographic and self-reported health questionnaires. After a genetic counseling session regarding risk and risk reduction, couples engaged in a semi-structured discussion task to discuss lifestyle choices they currently undertake or could undertake to reduce risk...
October 6, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Heidi von Harscher, Nathaly Desmarais, Robert Dollinger, Seth Grossman, Scarlett Aldana
INTRODUCTION: Research on medical students has shown they are at a higher risk for burnout and that this burnout may become more prevalent as they advance in medical school. The literature, thus far, has not explored the construct of ,emotional empathy and whether this can impact burnout in medical students. Objective: To understand the relationship  between empathy (Empathic Concern [EC] and Personal Distress [PD]) and burnout in medical students. METHOD: Five successive classes of medical students enrolled at a new medical school were given the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Davis' Interpersonal Reactivity Index  over the course of three successive  years (n = 353)...
September 28, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Ting Fu, Haixia Cao, Rulan Yin, Lijuan Zhang, Qiuxiang Zhang, Liren Li, Xingmei Feng, Zhifeng Gu
This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of depression and anxiety and investigate the potential risk factors for depression and anxiety in Chinese gout patients. A self-report survey was administered to 226 gout patients and 232 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals. Patients were asked to complete a set of standardized self-report questionnaires. Univariate and mutiple regression were used to analyze the data. We found 15.0% of gout patients had depression, and 5.3% had anxiety. After adjusted demographic variables, the prevalence of depression was significantly higher than the healthy controls (6...
September 23, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Yu-Fang Tseng, Kuei-Lan Wang, Ching-Yun Lin, Yi-Ting Lin, Hui-Chen Pan, Chai-Jan Chang
This study aimed to explore the factors predicting the intention to quit smoking and the subsequent behavior 6 months later using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Data were obtained from 145 smokers who attended a smoking cessation clinic in a community hospital. All participants completed a questionnaire which included demographic information, TPB-based items, perceived susceptibility and previous attempts to quit. The actual quitting behavior was obtained by follow-up phone calls 6 months later. The TPB constructs explained 34% of the variance in intention to quit smoking...
September 20, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Kyra Hamilton, Sheina Orbell, Mikaela Bonham, Jeroen Kroon, Ralf Schwarzer
We investigated the role of normative support, behavioural automaticity, and action control in predicting dental flossing behaviour. Between May and October 2015, 629 Australian young adults completed a questionnaire assessing constructs of normative support and automaticity, and a 2-week follow-up of dental flossing behaviour and action control, resulting in n = 241 persons for longitudinal analysis. Findings supported the hypotheses that the effect of normative support on behaviour would be mediated via automaticity, and the effect of automaticity would be moderated by action control...
September 20, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Paul Bowen, Rajen Govender, Peter Edwards, Antony Lake
South Africa has one of the highest HIV prevalences in the world, and compared with other sectors of the national economy, the construction industry is disproportionately adversely affected. Using data collected nationally from more than 57,000 construction workers, HIV infection among South African construction workers was estimated, together with an assessment of the association between worker HIV serostatus and worker characteristics of gender, age, nature of employment, occupation, and HIV testing history...
September 20, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
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