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Child Maltreatment

Sonja P Brubacher, Lydia Timms, Martine Powell, Madeleine Bearman
The current study explored children's perceptions of open and closed questions in an interview setting. Children aged 7-12 ( n = 83) years watched a short film and were questioned about it by an interviewer who asked only open questions and an interviewer who asked only closed questions (counterbalanced). A third interviewer subsequently invited perceptions of each interview by asking children to compare the interviews on 10 attributes (e.g., length, perceived interviewer interest). Children's comparisons on each of the 10 attributes were analyzed quantitatively and their responses to the follow-up questions underwent thematic analysis...
January 7, 2019: Child Maltreatment
Kristie L Poole, Harriet L MacMillan, Louis A Schmidt
Relatively little is known about the psychophysiological processes underlying the development of socioemotional vulnerabilities that are common among adolescents exposed to child maltreatment. Using a prospective, longitudinal design, we investigated whether trajectories of resting heart period (HP; a physiological correlate of stress vulnerability) across three visits (separated by 6 months) was associated with shyness (a type of socioemotional vulnerability) in adolescent females exposed to child maltreatment ( N = 55; Mage = 14...
December 30, 2018: Child Maltreatment
Erin Flynn, Julia Roguski, Julie Wolf, Kate Trujillo, Philip Tedeschi, Kevin N Morris
METHOD: Families referred by Child Protective Services ( Mchild age = 6 years ± 4; Mparent age = 32 years ± 8.26) were individually randomized to experimental ( n = 14) or control ( n = 14) intervention. Family functioning outcomes were measured using the North Carolina Family Assessment Scale for Reunification. RESULTS: All four targeted family functioning outcomes were significantly increased for participants who received animal-assisted therapy as an adjunct to intensive family preservation services ( n = 14) with medium to large effect sizes...
December 11, 2018: Child Maltreatment
Elizabeth A Miller, Sandra T Azar
Child maltreatment is a critical concern in rural communities. Fathers perpetrate a substantial proportion of maltreatment cases and are overrepresented as perpetrators of severe physical abuse and fatalities. Despite this heightened risk, little research has examined risk of abuse and neglect among fathers in rural areas. The current study examined the contributions of social information processing (SIP) factors and economic stress to multiple indicators of maltreatment risk in a sample of 61 disadvantaged rural fathers of 2- to 6-year-old children...
December 11, 2018: Child Maltreatment
Codi White, Dianne C Shanley, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck, Kerryann Walsh, Russell Hawkins, Katrina Lines
In this study, the effectiveness of the Observed Protective Behaviors behaviors test, a single-session, disclosure-focused, in situ skills training (IST), was evaluated as a standalone program (IST only) or as a booster to the child protective education program, Learn to be safe with Emmy and friends™ (program + IST). Participants included 281 Year 1 children (5-7 years; 52% male), randomly assigned to IST only, program + IST, program only or waitlist, and followed across 6 months. At each assessment, children completed interviews to assess their intention and confidence to disclose unsafe situations (disclosure intentions and confidence) and their ability to identify unsafe situations (safety identification skills)...
December 9, 2018: Child Maltreatment
John D Fluke, Nicole Harlaar, Brett Brown, Kurt Heisler, Lisa Merkel-Holguin, Adam Darnell
Child protection systems that implement differential response (DR) systems screen to route referrals to an investigation response (IR) or alternative response (AR). AR responses emphasize family engagement, assessment of family needs, and service linkage. Usually, AR state-level policy does not require child welfare staff to make a maltreatment determination. Jurisdictions implement DR systems differently, leading to variations in the proportion of AR cases, risk levels of cases served, and the ways families access and use services...
December 6, 2018: Child Maltreatment
Sonya Negriff, Julie A Cederbaum, Daniel S Lee
The current study examined social support as a mediator between maltreatment experiences (number of victimizations, maltreatment types) and depressive symptoms in adolescence. The data came from the first two time points of a longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development. The enrolled sample were 454 male and females ( n = 303 maltreated, n = 151 comparison) between 9 and 13 years ( Mage = 10.82); Time 2 (T2) occurred approximately 1 year after baseline. Maltreatment data came from case records; participants reported on perceived social support and depressive symptoms...
December 4, 2018: Child Maltreatment
Kristen D Seay
Using a national sample of American families investigated for child maltreatment, this article compares parental self-report on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test measures to caseworker report of problematic alcohol and drug use at investigation. Data in this article are from child welfare caseworkers and a subset of parents surveyed in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II-primary caregivers (most often the biological mother) whose child remained in the home following investigation ( n = 4,009)...
December 4, 2018: Child Maltreatment
Matthew C Morris, Miriam Marco, Kathryn Maguire-Jack, Chrystyna D Kouros, Brooklynn Bailey, Ernesto Ruiz, Wansoo Im
Child maltreatment is a major public health problem. Although maltreatment rates vary over time and are influenced by neighborhood characteristics, the unique effects of crime and disadvantage on risk are not well understood. This study utilized a Bayesian spatiotemporal approach to examine risk factors for substantiated child abuse and neglect over a 9-year period across zip codes in Davidson County, TN. Risk of child sexual and physical abuse decreased from 2008 to 2016. In contrast, risk of child neglect increased from 2011 to 2014, followed by a rapid decrease in risk...
November 22, 2018: Child Maltreatment
Sharon Dijkstra, Jessica J Asscher, Maja Deković, Geert Jan J M Stams, Hanneke E Creemers
The present study examined the effectiveness of Family Group Conferencing (FGC) in child welfare. Effects were operationalized in terms of child safety (child maltreatment, supervision order, and out-of-home placement), number of professional services used, parental empowerment, and social support in a 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Furthermore, the influence of family characteristics and the level of FGC completion were examined. A total of 328 families were included, randomly assigned to an experimental group ( n = 229) and a care as usual (CAU) group ( n = 99)...
November 21, 2018: Child Maltreatment
Jennifer Price Wolf, Elinam D Dellor
Limited evidence suggests that how much a parent drinks in a particular venue, such as a bar, restaurant, or a friend's home, is associated with use of corporal punishment. However, these relationships could differ depending on their drinking companions (e.g., spouse or friends). In this study, weighted zero-inflated Poisson models were used to examine whether the relationships between venue-specific drinking frequency, heavier drinking, and corporal punishment are moderated by drinking companions in a mixed-mode sample of parents ( n = 1,599)...
November 19, 2018: Child Maltreatment
Valentina Nikulina, Cathy Spatz Widom
Research shows that maltreated children are at elevated risk of arrest as adults and that higher verbal intelligence, reading ability, and executive functioning (abstract reasoning and cognitive flexibility) may be protective against criminal behavior. The current study examines this hypothesis using data from court-substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect and demographically matched controls followed prospectively into middle adulthood ( N = 1,196). At age 29, verbal intelligence was assessed with the Quick Test and reading ability with the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised...
November 18, 2018: Child Maltreatment
Dave S Pasalich, Charles B Fleming, Susan J Spieker, Mary Jane Lohr, Monica L Oxford
To better understand how and for whom parenting intervention may improve family outcomes in child welfare services, we examined whether parents' own history of child abuse moderated the indirect effects of the Promoting First Relationships® (PFR) intervention on toddlers' secure base behavior via parental sensitivity. Parents ( N = 247) and their toddlers (10-24 months) involved with child protective services were randomized to PFR or a control intervention. Results showed that the PFR group demonstrated greater parental sensitivity at postintervention than the control group, which in turn led to higher levels of toddler secure base behavior at 6-month follow-up...
November 14, 2018: Child Maltreatment
Damion J Grasso, Christine Doyle, Ron Koon
The Trauma-Related Symptoms and Impairment Rapid Screen (TSIRS) and the Dimensions of Violence Exposure Rapid Screen (DVERS) are two new tools designed to detect traumatic stress symptoms and high-risk characteristics of trauma exposure. Each screen contains 10 yes-or-no questions and is estimated to take approximately 2 min to complete. The rapid screens were developed to address the demand for efficient, effective, and user-friendly tools for use in settings where universal screening of trauma and related symptoms is recommended, but training and expertise in clinical assessment are generally lacking or absent...
November 12, 2018: Child Maltreatment
Lindsay Zajac, K Lee Raby, Mary Dozier
Children who experience maltreatment are more likely than nonmaltreated children to demonstrate deficits in early receptive language skills that negatively impact their later academic achievement, social competence, and behavioral adjustment. It remains unclear whether placement in foster care affects children's early receptive language skills. In the current study, we examined whether children with Child Protective Services (CPS) involvement who were in foster care ( n = 176) had more advanced receptive vocabulary than children with CPS involvement who resided with their birth parents ( n = 144)...
October 25, 2018: Child Maltreatment
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Child Maltreatment
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Child Maltreatment
Stephen J Cozza, Christin M Ogle, Joscelyn E Fisher, Jing Zhou, Gloria L Whaley, Carol S Fullerton, Robert J Ursano
Recent theory and empirical research suggest that child neglect is a heterogeneous phenomenon characterized by various types. This study examined family risk factors associated with five neglect types including failure to provide physical needs, lack of supervision, emotional neglect, moral-legal neglect, and educational neglect in 390 substantiated cases of neglect in four U.S. Army communities. Family factors associated with elevated risk of each neglect type relative to other types were identified using multivariate regression...
October 11, 2018: Child Maltreatment
M Kay Jankowski, Karen E Schifferdecker, Rebecca L Butcher, Lynn Foster-Johnson, Erin R Barnett
Trauma-informed care (TIC) initiatives in state child welfare agencies are receiving more attention, but little empirical evidence exists as to their efficacy. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in self-reported practices and perceptions of child welfare staff involved in a multifaceted, statewide TIC intervention. Ten child welfare offices were matched and randomized to an early or delayed cohort. Staff were surveyed at Time 1 prior to any intervention, Time 2 postintervention for Cohort 1, and Time 3 postintervention for Cohort 2...
September 10, 2018: Child Maltreatment
Lauren A Hindt, Grace Jhe Bai, Brynn M Huguenel, Anne K Fuller, Scott C Leon
Youth in child welfare often experience emergency shelter care, a type of congregate setting, while a permanent placement is arranged. The present longitudinal study explored the impact of initial emergency shelter placement on long-term externalizing behavior (i.e., aggression, delinquency) and internalizing symptom (i.e., anxiety, depression) trajectories, and whether kinship involvement moderated the effect of shelter placement on behavioral outcomes. The sample consisted of 282 youths (55.3% male) with an average age of 9...
September 9, 2018: Child Maltreatment
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