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Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909014/sodium-4-phenylbutyrate-attenuates-myocardial-reperfusion-injury-by-reducing-the-unfolded-protein-response
#1
Osamu Takatori, Soichiro Usui, Masaki Okajima, Shuichi Kaneko, Hiroshi Ootsuji, Shin-Ichiro Takashima, Daisuke Kobayashi, Hisayoshi Murai, Hiroshi Furusho, Masayuki Takamura
BACKGROUND: The unfolded protein response (UPR) plays a pivotal role in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in various organs such as heart, brain, and liver. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reportedly acts as a chemical chaperone that reduces UPR. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of PBA on reducing the UPR and protecting against myocardial I/R injury in mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 30-minute myocardial I/R, and were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (as a vehicle) or PBA...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811198/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-edoxaban-for-vte-prophylaxis-post-orthopedic-surgery-a-systematic-review
#2
Lamia AlHajri, Sima Jabbari, Hind AlEmad, Khawla AlMahri, Maryam AlMahri, Noora AlKitbi
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication that manifests during and/or after hospitalization, as well as postsurgeries including orthopedic surgeries. Edoxaban is a new oral direct factor Xa inhibitor that has been recently approved for treating VTE in patients who have already been treated with a parenteral anticoagulant and for the prevention of stroke and non-central nervous system systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of edoxaban for VTE prophylaxis after lower limb orthopedic surgery...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811197/phospholamban-inhibition-by-a-single-dose-of-locked-nucleic-acid-antisense-oligonucleotide-improves-cardiac-contractility-in-pressure-overload-induced-systolic-dysfunction-in-mice
#3
Hirofumi Morihara, Tsuyoshi Yamamoto, Harunori Oiwa, Kota Tonegawa, Daisuke Tsuchiyama, Ikki Kawakatsu, Masanori Obana, Makiko Maeda, Tomomi Mohri, Satoshi Obika, Yasushi Fujio, Hiroyuki Nakayama
BACKGROUND: Phospholamban (PLN) inhibition enhances calcium cycling and is a potential novel therapy for heart failure (HF). Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are a promising tool for unmet medical needs. Nonviral vector use of locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified ASOs (LNA-ASOs), which shows strong binding to target RNAs and is resistant to nuclease, is considered to have a potential for use in novel therapeutics in the next decades. Thus, the efficacy of a single-dose injection of LNA-ASO for cardiac disease needs to be elucidated...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807222/the-emerging-role-of-thioredoxin-interacting-protein-in-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#4
Bing F Wang, Jun Yoshioka
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury represents a major threat to human health and contributes to adverse cardiovascular outcomes worldwide. Despite the identification of numerous molecular mechanisms, understanding of the complex pathophysiology of this clinical syndrome remains incomplete. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) has been of great interest in the past decade since it has been reported to be a critical regulator in human diseases with several important cellular functions. Thioredoxin-interacting protein binds to and inhibits thioredoxin, a redox protein that neutralizes reactive oxygen species (ROS), and through its interaction with thioredoxin, Txnip sensitizes cardiomyocytes to ROS-induced apoptosis...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784799/furosemide-prescription-during-the-dry-state-is-a-predictor-of-long-term-survival-of-stable-optimally-medicated-patients-with-systolic-heart-failure
#5
Luis Sargento, Andre Vicente Simões, Susana Longo, Nuno Lousada, Roberto Palma Dos Reis
BACKGROUND: Furosemide is associated with poor prognosis in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). AIM: To evaluate the association between daily furosemide dose prescribed during the dry state and long-term survival in stable, optimally medicated outpatients with HFrEF. POPULATION AND METHODS: Two hundred sixty-six consecutive outpatients with left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, clinically stable in the dry state and on optimal heart failure therapy, were followed up for 3 years in a heart failure unit...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698079/side-effects-of-cv-medications-following-hospitalization-for-acs-are-associated-with-more-frequent-health-care-contacts
#6
Rachel J Le, Michael W Cullen, Brian D Lahr, R Scott Wright, Stephen L Kopecky
BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized for first acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are frequently discharged on multiple new medications. The short-term tolerability of these medications is unknown. METHODS: This single-center cohort study assessed 30-day health-care utilization and how it may be impacted by medication prescribing trends. We included Olmsted County patients presenting with ACS and previously undiagnosed coronary artery disease in 2008 to 2009. All health-care contacts were reviewed 30 days after index hospital discharge for potential adverse medication effects including documented hypotension or bradycardia, or symptoms likely attributed to the medications...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698078/ivabradine-do-the-benefits-outweigh-the-risks
#7
Thamir M Alshammari
Ivabradine is a selective I: f current inhibitor that is used to lower the heart rate (HR) of patients with angina and/or heart failure. It is approved for use in several countries, including the United Kingdom, Australia, Saudi Arabia, and the United States. The drug was studied in several clinical trials, and it exhibited beneficial effects on the approved indicators. However, there are some concerns with the safety profile of this drug, especially its effect in reducing HR and causing severe bradycardia...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653610/repeated-oral-or-subcutaneous-lmwh-has-similar-antithrombotic-activity-in-a-rat-venous-thrombosis-model-antithrombotic-activity-correlates-with-heparin-on-endothelium-when-orally-administered
#8
Linda M Hiebert
Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) endure as important drugs for thromboprophylaxis. Although clinical use relies on the subcutaneous (SC) route, our previous studies show that single-dose orally administered LMWHs have antithrombotic activity. Since thromboprophylaxis requires long-term treatment, we examined antithrombotic effects of subacute oral LMWHs in a rat venous thrombosis model and compared results to SC or single-dose oral administration. We measured LMWH in endothelium and plasma, weight change and complete blood counts (CBC)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635038/the-role-of-microrna-and-lncrna-microrna-interactions-in-regulating-ischemic-heart-disease
#9
Na Li, Murugavel Ponnusamy, Meng-Peng Li, Kun Wang, Pei-Feng Li
Approximately 2% of the human genome consists of protein-coding regions. Therefore, the majority of transcripts are noncoding RNAs, such as microRNA (miRNA) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). In ischemic heart disease, the majority of miRNAs are repressors or destabilizers of target messenger RNAs. The lncRNAs are a second class of noncoding RNAs that have recently gained attention for their roles in heart disease and in regulating the functions of miRNA. In this review, we summarize the role of miRNA in pathological cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial infarction...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940570/nicorandil-a-nitric-oxide-donor-and-atp-sensitive-potassium-channel-opener-protects-against-dystrophin-deficient-cardiomyopathy
#10
Muhammad Z Afzal, Melanie Reiter, Courtney Gastonguay, Jered V McGivern, Xuan Guan, Zhi-Dong Ge, David L Mack, Martin K Childers, Allison D Ebert, Jennifer L Strande
BACKGROUND: Dystrophin-deficient cardiomyopathy is a growing clinical problem without targeted treatments. We investigated whether nicorandil promotes cardioprotection in human dystrophin-deficient induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes and the muscular dystrophy mdx mouse heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dystrophin-deficient iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes had decreased levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase. The dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes had increased cell injury and death after 2 hours of stress and recovery...
November 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587240/atorvastatin-pretreatment-inhibits-myocardial-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-swine-after-coronary-microembolization
#11
Jiang-You Wang, Han Chen, Xi Su, You Zhou, Lang Li
BACKGROUND/AIM: In addition to its cholesterol-lowering effect, atorvastatin (ATV) has been thought to have multiple cardiovascular benefits, including anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. The present study was undertaken to determine whether ATV pretreatment could attenuate myocardial apoptosis and inflammation and improve cardiac function in a swine model of coronary microembolization (CME). METHODS: Twenty-four swine were randomly and equally divided into a sham-operated (control) group, CME group, and CME plus ATV group...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081186/pharmacotherapy-of-vasospastic-angina
#12
Justin R Harris, Genevieve M Hale, Tarun W Dasari, Nicholas C Schwier
Vasospastic angina is a diagnosis of exclusion that manifests with signs and symptoms, which overlap with obstructive coronary artery disease, most often ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The pharmacotherapy that is available to treat vasospastic angina can help ameliorate angina symptoms. However, the etiology of vasospastic angina is ill-defined, making targeted pharmacotherapy difficult. Most patients receive pharmacotherapy that includes calcium channel blockers and/or long-acting nitrates. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of the pharmacotherapy used to treat vasospastic angina...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26940569/impact-of-chronic-nitrate-therapy-in-patients-with-ischemic-heart-failure
#13
Sofia Moreira-Silva, Joana Urbano, Luís Nogueira-Silva, Paulo Bettencourt, Joana Pimenta
PURPOSE: There is a lack of knowledge on the effects of nitrates alone in heart failure (HF). We aimed to assess the impact of nitrates use in the occurrence of ischemic events in patients with ischemic HF attending an HF clinic. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 632 patients managed in an HF clinic between January 2000 and December 2011. Patients with ischemic etiology were selected (n = 290). Patients were classified according to chronic nitrates use (n = 83 nitrates users vs n = 194) and followed up for 5 years for the occurrence of fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26856345/mechanism-of-action-and-pharmacology-of-patiromer-a-nonabsorbed-cross-linked-polymer-that-lowers-serum-potassium-concentration-in-patients-with-hyperkalemia
#14
Lingyun Li, Stephen D Harrison, M Jamie Cope, Craig Park, Lawrence Lee, Faleh Salaymeh, Deidre Madsen, Wade W Benton, Lance Berman, Jerry Buysse
Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition, and patients who have chronic kidney disease, who are diabetic, or who are taking renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors are at increased risk. Therapeutic options for hyperkalemia tend to have limited effectiveness and can be associated with serious side effects. Colonic potassium secretion can increase to compensate when urinary potassium excretion decreases in patients with renal impairment, but this adaptation is insufficient and hyperkalemia still results...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26846272/berberine-pretreatment-confers-cardioprotection-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#15
Wenguang Chang, Kun Li, Fengying Guan, Fan Yao, Yang Yu, Ming Zhang, Grant M Hatch, Li Chen
Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that berberine (BBR) improves diabetic complications and reduces mortality of patients with congestive heart failure. The therapeutic effects of BBR have been reported to be mediated by its regulation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We previously reported that BBR protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury via regulating AMPK activity in both ischemic and nonischemic areas of the rat heart. Since diabetic hearts are more sensitive to ischemia-reperfusion injury, we examined whether BBR treatment exhibited cardioprotective effects in the diabetic heart...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26846271/the-pten-akt-signaling-pathway-mediates-myocardial-apoptosis-in-swine-after-coronary-microembolization
#16
Jiangyou Wang, Han Chen, Qiang Su, You Zhou, Tao Liu, Lang Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Phosphatase and the tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) has been recognized as a promoter of apoptosis in various tissues and has been shown to be upregulated in circumstances of coronary microembolization (CME). We hypothesized that the upregulation of PTEN correlates with CME-induced myocardial apoptosis. METHODS: Swine CME was induced by an intracoronary injection of inert plastic microspheres (diameter of 42 μm) into the left anterior descending coronary, with or without pretreatment of the PTEN small-interfering RNA (siRNA)...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26837238/effects-of-combined-milrinone-and-levosimendan-treatment-on-systolic-and-diastolic-function-during-postischemic-myocardial-dysfunction-in-a-porcine-model
#17
Birger Axelsson, Sören Häggmark, Staffan Svenmarker, Göran Johansson, Anil Gupta, Hans Tydén, Patrick Wouters, Michael Haney
It is not known whether there are positive or negative interactions on ventricular function when a calcium-sensitizing inotrope is added to a phosphodiesterase inhibitor in the clinical setting of acute left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We hypothesized that when levosimendan is added to milrinone treatment, there will be synergetic inotropic and lusitropic effects. This was tested in an anesthetized porcine postischemic global LV injury model, where ventricular pressures and volumes (conductance volumetry) were measured...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26801372/cardiovascular-effects-of-marijuana
#18
EDITORIAL
Shereif Rezkalla, Rachel Stankowski, Robert A Kloner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26746429/nebivolol-acts-as-a-s-nitrosoglutathione-reductase-inhibitor-a-new-mechanism-of-action
#19
Hong Jiang, David J Polhemus, Kazi N Islam, Ashley C Torregrossa, Zhen Li, Amy Potts, David J Lefer, Nathan S Bryan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Published data on nebivolol reveal selective β1 adrenergic selectively along with novel nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilatory properties. However, the exact molecular mechanism is unknown. Protein S-nitrosylation constitutes a large part of the ubiquitous influence of NO on cellular signal transduction and is involved in a number of human diseases. More recently, protein denitrosylation has been shown to play a major role in controlling cellular S-nitrosylation (SNO)...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512081/cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-inhibitors-trials-and-tribulations
#20
Julian Hardy McLain, Andrew Jacob Alsterda, Rohit R Arora
The cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a plasma protein that plays an important role in the transfer of lipids between plasma lipoproteins. The CETP inhibitors have been widely studied as a pharmacologic therapy to target plasma cholesterol in order to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease . Using CETP inhibitors as cholesterol modifiers was based on the genetic research that found correlations between CETP activity and cholesterol levels. Although CETP inhibitors are successful at altering targeted cholesterol markers, recent phase 3 outcome trials have shown limited benefit on cardiovascular outcomes when combined with the current standard of care...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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