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Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793824/dual-therapy-deflazacort-doxycyclyne-is-better-than-deflazacort-monotherapy-to-alleviate-cardiomyopathy-in-dystrophin-deficient-mdx-mice
#1
Juliano Alves Pereira, Adriana Fogagnolo Mauricio, Maria Julia Marques, Humberto Santo Neto
Cardiomyopathy related to the absence of dystrophin is an important feature in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and in the mdx mouse. Doxycycline (DOX) could be a potential therapy for mdx skeletal muscles dystrophy. We investigated whether the corticoid deflazacort (DFZ) plus DOX could improve cardiac mdx dystrophy better than DFZ alone, later (17 months) in dystrophy. Mdx mice (8 months old) received DFZ/DOX or DFZ for 9 months. The combined therapy was greater than DFZ in reducing fibrosis (60% decrease with DFZ/DOX and 40% with DFZ alone) in the right ventricle and transforming growth factor β levels (6...
September 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793823/role-of-atp-sensitive-potassium-channels-in-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-induced-tissue-protection
#2
Sapna Aggarwal, Puneet Kaur Randhawa, Nirmal Singh, Amteshwar Singh Jaggi
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is an innovative treatment strategy that alleviates ischemia-reperfusion injury, whereby short episodes of regional ischemia and reperfusion delivered to remote organs including hind limb, kidney and intestine, and so on provide protection to the heart. The RIPC is known to reduce infarct size, serum levels of cardiac enzymes, and myocardial dysfunction in various animal species as well as in patients. There have been a large number of studies suggesting that the ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP channel) play a significant role as a mediator or end effector in RIPC...
September 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793822/dose-response-head-to-head-comparison-of-inodilators-dobutamine-milrinone-and-levosimendan-in-chronic-experimental-pulmonary-hypertension
#3
Marta Tavares-Silva, Mohamed Alaa, Sara Leite, José Oliveira-Pinto, Lucas Lopes, Adelino F Leite-Moreira, André P Lourenço
The choice of inodilator drug in the acute management of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) having right ventricular (RV) failure remains unsettled and challenging. Comprehensive experimental evaluations may provide further insight and fundamental translational research clues to support inodilator selection and clinical trial design. Our aim was to compare acute dose-response hemodynamic effects of inodilators dobutamine (DOB), milrinone (MIL), and levosimendan (LEV) in chronic experimental PH. Seven-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly injected with 60 mg·kg(-1) monocrotaline (MCT) or vehicle (Ctrl, n = 7) and underwent systemic and pulmonary artery (PA) pressure and RV pressure-volume (PV) hemodynamic evaluation under halogenate anesthesia 24 to 30 days after injection...
September 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793821/the-effects-of-lcz696-in-patients-with-hypertension-compared-with-angiotensin-receptor-blockers-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#4
Yang Zhao, Heng Yu, Xu Zhao, Ruixin Ma, Ningyin Li, Jing Yu
LCZ696, a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, has been demonstrated to have greater advantages in the treatment of heart failure compared with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, enalapril, or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). However, studies that compared the efficacy and safety of LCZ696 against valsartan in patients with hypertension are limited. To provide further evidence for the benefits of LCZ696 and to make this assessment, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed...
September 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793820/ischemic-conditioning-attenuates-platelet-mediated-thrombosis-a-tale-of-reverse-translation
#5
Karin Przyklenk, Peter Whittaker
Data obtained in both preclinical models and humans have revealed that the favorable cardiac consequences of ischemic conditioning extend beyond a direct effect on the cardiomyocyte. In the current review, we summarize our as-yet limited understanding of the complex relationships between ischemic conditioning, platelet activation-aggregation, and cardioprotection.
September 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585859/evaluation-of-the-potential-for-drug-interactions-with-patiromer-in-healthy-volunteers
#6
Lawrence J Lesko, Elliot Offman, Christine Taylor Brew, Dahlia Garza, Wade Benton, Martha R Mayo, Alain Romero, Charles Du Mond, Matthew R Weir
INTRODUCTION: Patiromer is a potassium-binding polymer that is not systemically absorbed; however, it may bind coadministered oral drugs in the gastrointestinal tract, potentially reducing their absorption. METHODS: Twelve randomized, open-label, 3-period, 3-sequence crossover studies were conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effect of patiromer (perpetrator drug) on absorption and single-dose pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs (victims) that might be commonly used with patiromer...
September 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421834/long-term-testosterone-therapy-improves-cardiometabolic-function-and-reduces-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-men-with-hypogonadism-a-real-life-observational-registry-study-setting-comparing-treated-and-untreated-control-groups
#7
Abdulmaged M Traish, Ahmad Haider, Karim Sultan Haider, Gheorghe Doros, Farid Saad
OBJECTIVES: In the absence of large, prospective, placebo-controlled studies of longer duration, substantial evidence regarding the safety and risk of testosterone (T) therapy (TTh) with regard to cardiovascular (CV) outcomes can only be gleaned from observational studies. To date, there are limited studies comparing the effects of long-term TTh in men with hypogonadism who were treated or remained untreated with T, for obvious reasons. We have established a registry to assess the long-term effectiveness and safety of T in men in a urological setting...
September 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587584/strategies-to-optimize-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-after-coronary-artery-stenting-in-acute-coronary-syndrome
#8
Bridget Paravattil, Hazem Elewa
The use of aspirin and a P2Y12 receptor antagonist as dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) has become the treatment of choice in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and percutaneous coronary intervention to prevent recurrent thrombotic events. Although DAPT is beneficial for most patients, few patients still experience recurrent thrombotic events and increased bleeding episodes. This article reviews current literature to identify various approaches that may enhance the DAPT benefit-risk ratio in patients with ACS...
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587583/angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibition
#9
Ofer Havakuk, Uri Elkayam
The novel combination sacubitril/valsartan represents a new therapeutic approach in the management of heart failure. With the simultaneous blockage of the enzyme neprilysin (by sacubitril) and angiotensin II receptors (by valsartan), this combination reduces the degradation of natriuretic peptides and other counterregulatory peptide systems while avoiding the deleterious effect of angiotensin II receptors activation and thereby encompasses a beneficial impact of 2 important neurohormonal pathways activated in heart failure...
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587582/the-effect-of-clopidogrel-on-the-response-to-ischemia-reperfusion
#10
Wilson Kwong, John D Parker
Reperfusion in the setting of acute ischemia is essential in limiting tissue necrosis. However, reperfusion itself is associated with significant adverse effects. There is animal evidence that platelets play a role in the adverse effects of ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury. We examined whether clopidogrel would have favorable effects on endothelial dysfunction induced by an episode of IR. Using a parallel design, we administered clopidogrel 600 mg or matching placebo to normal volunteers (n = 20) 24 hours before an episode of IR...
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587581/ace-phenotyping-as-a-guide-toward-personalized-therapy-with-ace-inhibitors
#11
Sergei M Danilov, Stan I Tovsky, David E Schwartz, Randal O Dull
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEI) are widely used in the management of cardiovascular diseases but with significant interindividual variability in the patient's response. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether interindividual variability in the response to ACE inhibitors is explained by the "ACE phenotype"-for example, variability in plasma ACE concentration, activity, and conformation and/or the degree of ACE inhibition in each individual...
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587580/remote-ischemic-conditioning-in-cardiovascular-surgery
#12
Gerd Heusch
The existing clinical studies on remote ischemic preconditioning in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery are critically reviewed, with a focus on infarct size reduction and clinical outcome as end points. Confounders, notably the use of propofol anesthesia are identified. The need for better designed trials with a more targeted approach is emphasized.
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587579/metabolic-syndrome
#13
Dawn Harris Sherling, Parvathi Perumareddi, Charles H Hennekens
The United States is experiencing its greatest life expectancy ever. Nonetheless, the general health of the US population is far from at an all-time high. An important contributor to the pandemic of cardiovascular disease is that overweight and obesity are also the major determinants of metabolic syndrome, an all too common and all too serious clinical and public health challenge. Clinicians have traditionally evaluated each of the major risk factors contributing to metabolic syndrome on an individual basis...
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513214/the-future-of-remote-ischemic-conditioning
#14
Karin Przyklenk, Peter Whittaker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443376/remote-ischemic-conditioning-and-renal-protection
#15
Georgios Giannopoulos, Dimitrios A Vrachatis, Vasiliki Panagopoulou, Manolis Vavuranakis, Michael W Cleman, Spyridon Deftereos
Over the course of the last 2 decades, the concept of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) has attracted considerable research interest, because RIC, in most of its embodiments offers an inexpensive way of protecting tissues against ischemic damage inflicted by a number of medical conditions or procedures. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common side effect in the context of various medical procedures, and RIC has been suggested as a means of reducing its incidence. Outcomes regarding kidney function have been reported in numerous studies that evaluated the effects of RIC in a variety of settings (eg, cardiac surgery, interventions requiring intravenous administration of contrast media)...
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395520/ischemic-conditioning-in-kidney-transplantation
#16
Kristin Veighey, Raymond MacAllister
Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a composite of the injury sustained during a period of reduced or absent blood flow to a tissue or organ and the additional insult sustained on reperfusion, which limits the amount of tissue that can be salvaged. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the predominant insult during kidney transplantation, contributing to graft dysfunction, increased rates of acute rejection, and reduced rejection-free graft survival. In this review, we discuss the potential therapeutic benefits of a cost-effective and low-risk intervention, ischemic preconditioning, and its potential for improving kidney function following transplantation...
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381115/remote-ischemic-conditioning-for-patients-with-stemi
#17
Michael Rahbek Schmidt, Mathis Ersted Rasmussen, Hans Erik Bøtker
ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains a leading cause of death and morbidity, despite declining incidence and improved short-term outcome in many countries. Although mortality declines in developed countries with easy and fast access to optimized treatment, development of heart failure often remains a challenge in survivors and still approaches 10% at 1 year. Rapid admission and acute interventional treatment combined with modern antithrombotic pharmacologic therapy frequently establish complete reperfusion and acutely stabilize the patient, but the reperfusion itself adds further to the damage in the myocardium compromising the long-term outcome...
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381098/remote-preconditioning-and-vascular-surgery
#18
Donagh A Healy, Stewart R Walsh
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a theoretically attractive strategy for organ protection; and phase 2 studies in a variety of settings have yielded promising results. In this article, we review the existing clinical studies on RIPC in vascular surgery. We examine aspects of design that may potentially be optimized in future vascular surgery studies and we highlight some challenges that have emerged since the publication of the Remote Ischaemic Preconditioning for Heart Surgery (RIPHeart) trial and the Effect of Remote Ischaemic Preconditioning on Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (ERICCA) trial...
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376665/thinking-outside-the-box
#19
Judith Ingles, Chandrashekara N Kyathanahalli, Pancharatnam Jeyasuria, Jennifer C Condon
A broad definition of preconditioning is "the preparation for a subsequent action." Mounting evidence demonstrates that novel remote preconditioning paradigms, in which protective stimuli experienced locally can capacitate systemic tolerance and enhanced cell viability upon exposure to ensuing cellular insults, have been largely successful in the field of cardiovascular ischemia/reperfusion injury. To ensure successful protective preconditioning, some models (including the uterus) have been demonstrated to activate the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is a cellular stress response controlled at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum...
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376636/remote-ischemic-conditioning-in-elective-pci
#20
Joel P Giblett, Stephen P Hoole
This review examines the rationale for using remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) in elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to prevent procedure-related ischemia-reperfusion injury and justifies the importance of periprocedural biomarker elevation following elective PCI as a valid target for RIC. We review the evidence for the use of RIC as a treatment in this setting and document the salutary rules that must be followed to successfully translate RIC for clinical benefit.
July 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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