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Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Duygun Altıntaş Aykan, Ahmet Cağrı Aykan
INTRODUCTION: Dietary herbal products taken together with prescription medicines may have harmful effects. In this study, we evaluated the use of dietary herbal supplements and identified factors that predict the concomitant use of these supplements in patients taking drugs prescribed for chronic cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study with 343 patients with cardiovascular diseases. Data regarding the sociodemographic status, medical condition, number of prescription drugs, and use of herbal supplements were collected using a self-administered questionnaire...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Sang Min Park, Myeong-Ki Hong, Se Hoon Kim, Subin Jung, Bo Kyoung Kim, Donghoon Choi
OBJECTIVE: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common condition that may be life-threatening when it is unrecognized. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of ramipril and carvedilol on limiting AAA expansion in mouse model. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 36 experimental AAA mouse model was induced with the continuous infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II) in 20-week-old male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. They were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups and fed orally for 8 weeks; saline alone, ramipril (2...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Aline Sterque Villacorta, Humberto Villacorta, José Antônio Caldas, Bernardo Campanário Precht, Pilar Barreto Porto, Letícia Ubaldo Rodrigues, Márcio Neves, Analucia Rampazzo Xavier, Salim Kanaan, Cláudio Tinoco Mesquita, Antônio Cláudio Lucas da Nóbrega
BACKGROUND: Heart rate (HR) reduction with ivabradine has been proved to reduce hospitalization and death from heart failure (HF). We sought to investigate whether pyridostigmine would effectively reduce HR in patients with chronic HF as compared with ivabradine. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with HF who were in sinus rhythm with a resting HR over 70 bpm, despite optimal medical treatment, were included in a randomized, double-blind study comparing pyridostigmine versus ivabradine...
September 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Tyler C Lewis, Caitlin Aberle, Diana Altshuler, Greta L Piper, John Papadopoulos
Inotropes are an integral component of the early stabilization of the patient presenting with cardiogenic shock. Despite years of clinical experience with the 2 most commonly used inotropes, dobutamine and milrinone, there remains limited data comparing outcomes between the two. We conducted a retrospective review to compare the effectiveness and safety of milrinone or dobutamine for the initial management of cardiogenic shock. Adult patients with cardiogenic shock regardless of etiology who received initial inotrope therapy with either milrinone (n = 50) or dobutamine (n = 50) and did not receive mechanical circulatory support were included...
September 2, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
In Suck Choi, Ie Byung Park, Kiyoung Lee, Tae Hoon Ahn, Ju Han Kim, Youngkeun Ahn, Sung-Chull Chae, Hyo-Soo Kim, Young Jo Kim, Myeong Chan Cho, Chong Jin Kim, Myung Ho Jeong, Dae Ho Lee
AIM: Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RASIs) are widely used in high-risk cardiovascular (CV) diseases, including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, it is not yet clear which class of RASIs provides specific benefits to patients with AMI. The present study aimed to evaluate whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) had any different effects on long-term CV and all-cause mortality in patients with AMI who received either agent from admission and were discharged alive from the hospital...
August 21, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ricky D Turgeon, Margaret L Ackman, Hazal E Babadagli, Jade E Basaraba, June W Chen, Mohamed Omar, Jian Song Zhou
Despite contemporary management, patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) remain at high risk for thrombotic events. Several randomized controlled trials have evaluated the use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with CAD, including in the setting of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stable CAD, and in patients with concomitant atrial fibrillation. Trials of apixaban and dabigatran in patients with ACS demonstrate no benefit with an increased risk of bleeding. Conversely, rivaroxaban at a reduced dose of 2...
August 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Bridget Paravattil, Hazem Elewa
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) carry many advantages over warfarin and are now considered first line or an alternative for mnay thromboembolic disorders. With the emergence of 5 DOAC agents to the market as well as the accumulating evidence gathered from head-to-head comparisons between the agents, we attempt to provide direction for clinicians when selecting the most appropriate DOAC agent. Important aspects such as efficacy, safety, cost effectiveness, approved indications, and other drug-related factors will be addressed to highlight the major similarities and diversities among the DOACs...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Bo Qiu, Yuhong Wang, Congxin Li, Huicai Guo, Yanfang Xu
Drug-induced long QT increases the risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmia known as torsades de pointes (TdP). Many biomarkers have been used to predict TdP. At present, however, there are few biomarkers for arrhythmias induced by QT-shortening drugs. The objective of the present study was to identify the best biomarkers for predicting arrhythmias caused by the 4 potassium channel openers ICA-105574, NS-1643, R-L3, and pinacidil. Our results showed that, at higher concentrations, all 4 potassium channel openers induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts, but not in rabbit hearts...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Daniel A Jones, Peter Whittaker, Krishnaraj S Rathod, Amy J Richards, Mervyn Andiapen, Sotiris Antoniou, Anthony Mathur, Amrita Ahluwalia
OBJECTIVES: In the follow-up of patients in a trial of intracoronary sodium nitrite given during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we found a reduction in the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). Specifically, MACE rates were 5.2% versus 25.0% with placebo at 3 years ( P = .013). Such MACE reductions should also be associated with economic benefit. Thus, we assessed the cost utility of sodium nitrite therapy versus standard primary PCI only...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
E Nana-Leventaki, M Nana, N Poulianitis, D Sampaziotis, D Perrea, D Sanoudou, D Rontogianni, K Malliaras
BACKGROUND: Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) have yielded promising efficacy signals in early-phase clinical trials of ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. The potential efficacy of CDCs in acute myocarditis, an inflammatory cardiomyopathy without effective therapy, remains unexplored. Given that CDCs produce regenerative, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic effects (all of which could be beneficial in acute myocarditis), we investigated the efficacy of intracoronary delivery of CDCs in a rat model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Mohammed Andaleeb Chowdhury, Haden K Sholl, Megan S Sharrett, Steven T Haller, Christopher C Cooper, Rajesh Gupta, Lijun C Liu
Similar to ischemic preconditioning, high-intensity exercise has been shown to decrease infarct size following myocardial infarction. In this article, we review the literature on beneficial effects of exercise, exercise requirements for cardioprotection, common methods utilized in laboratories to study this phenomenon, and discuss possible mechanisms for exercise-mediated cardioprotection.
July 24, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Robert A Kloner, Coleman Gross, Jinwei Yuan, Ansgar Conrad, Pablo E Pergola
INTRODUCTION: Hyperkalemia (potassium >5.0 mEq/L) affects heart failure patients with renal disease regardless of the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi). The open-label TOURMALINE study showed that patiromer, a sodium-free, nonabsorbed potassium binder, lowers serum potassium of hyperkalemic patients similarly when given with or without food; unlike prior studies, patients were not required to be taking RAASi. We conducted post hoc analyses to provide the first report of patiromer in patients not taking RAASi...
November 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Scott M Wasserman, Marc S Sabatine, Michael J Koren, Robert P Giugliano, Jason C Legg, Maurice G Emery, Sameer Doshi, Thomas Liu, Ransi Somaratne, John P Gibbs
BACKGROUND: The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor evolocumab reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and the risk of cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVES: To compare LDL-C reduction using evolocumab 140 mg once every 2 weeks (Q2W) or 420 mg monthly (QM) versus lower doses (70 mg Q2W or 280 mg QM) or placebo. METHODS: Patients received evolocumab 70 or 140 mg Q2W, 280 or 420 mg QM, or placebo Q2W or QM in two 12-week phase 2 studies: one with and one without statins...
September 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Shawn F L Hanson, Michael H Terry, Dafne T Moretta, Gordon G Power, Sean M Wilson, Farzana Alam, Fakhrul Ahsan, Arlin B Blood, Paresh C Giri
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a potentially deadly disease for infants and adults with few existing medical interventions and no cure. In PH, increased blood pressure in the pulmonary artery eventually leads to heart failure. Fasudil, an antagonist of Rho-kinase, causes vasodilation leading to decreased systemic artery pressure and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). This study compared the effects of fasudil administered as either an intravenous infusion or inhaled aerosol in newborn lambs...
September 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Robert A Kloner, Paul Goggin, Irwin Goldstein, Geoffrey Hackett, Michael G Kirby, Ian Osterloh, John D Parker, Richard Sadovsky
BACKGROUND: Nitrates and nitrate-containing compounds are vasodilators used for the treatment of angina and heart failure. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction are also vasodilators, and when taken together with nitrates, synergistic effects that enhance hypotensive effects may occur. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are therefore contraindicated in patients taking organic nitrates. METHODS AND RESULTS: A literature review was performed to provide a historical overview of different phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and nitrates and their interaction...
September 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Sandip Chaugai, Lhamo Yangchen Sherpa, Amir Ali Sepehry, Scott Reza Jafarian Kerman, Hisatomi Arima
BACKGROUND: Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are a heterogeneous group of antihypertensive drugs. Long-acting dihydropyridine agent amlodipine is widely used for monotherapy and combination therapy for hypertension in clinical practice, while intermediate-acting dihydropyridine agents have shown inconsistent results in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). METHODS AND RESULTS: A meta-analysis of 18 RCTs enrolling a total of 80,483 patients with hypertension followed for a mean of 51...
September 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Cody N Justice, Mohamed H Derbala, Tesla M Baich, Amber N Kempton, Aaron S Guo, Thai H Ho, Sakima A Smith
Pazopanib is an approved treatment for renal cell carcinoma and a second-line treatment for nonadipocytic soft-tissue sarcoma. However, its clinical efficacy is limited by its cardiovascular side effects. Pazopanib and other vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been associated with the development of hypertension, QT interval prolongation, and other cardiovascular events; however, these mechanisms are largely unknown. Gaining a deeper understanding of these mechanisms is essential for the development of appropriate surveillance strategies and possible diagnostic biomarkers to allow us to monitor patients and modulate therapy prior to significant cardiac insult...
September 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jack L Martin, Habib Esmaeili, Raymond C Manuel, Michaela Petrini, Sabrina Wiebe, Hugo Maas
INTRODUCTION: Dabigatran etexilate is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor. Dabigatran excretion is 80% renal, so exposure increases with severity of renal failure. The US Food and Drug Administration-approved dabigatran etexilate 75 mg twice daily (BID) for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) having severely impaired renal function (creatinine clearance: 15-30 mL/min), based on post hoc pharmacokinetic modeling. We assessed dabigatran exposure at trough and peak levels in patients with NVAF and severely impaired renal function and compared with model predictions...
September 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Mona K Tawfik, Mohamed K El-Kherbetawy, Samy Makary
Hyperlipidemia and hypercoagulability states are linked with the increased risks of myocardial infarction (MI). Levosimendan has vasorelaxant and anti-aggregatory properties. The present study evaluated the anti-aggregatory and cardioprotective effects of levosimendan versus cilostazol in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats subjected to isoproterenol-induced MI. Rats were assigned to normal, HFD, HFD + isoproterenol, HFD + isoproterenol + cilostazol, and HFD + isoproterenol + levosimendan. The present study investigated the anti-aggregatory effect of both levosimendan and cilostazol and revealed that both drugs attenuated the severity of platelet aggregation...
September 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Christine Haddad, Souheil Hallit, Mohammad Salhab, Aline Hajj, Antoine Sarkis, Eliane Nasser Ayoub, Hicham Jabbour, Lydia Rabbaa Khabbaz
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to evaluate treatment adherence to statin and health-related quality of life (QOL) in Lebanese patients with dyslipidemia. Secondary objectives were to examine associations between treatment adherence, QOL, treatment satisfaction, and illness perception. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, conducted in 20 community pharmacies from all districts of Lebanon between August 2016 and April 2017, enrolled 247 adult patients taking any statin...
September 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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