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Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Robert A Kloner, Coleman Gross, Jinwei Yuan, Ansgar Conrad, Pablo E Pergola
INTRODUCTION: Hyperkalemia (potassium >5.0 mEq/L) affects heart failure patients with renal disease regardless of the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi). The open-label TOURMALINE study showed that patiromer, a sodium-free, nonabsorbed potassium binder, lowers serum potassium of hyperkalemic patients similarly when given with or without food; unlike prior studies, patients were not required to be taking RAASi. We conducted post hoc analyses to provide the first report of patiromer in patients not taking RAASi...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Bridget Paravattil, Hazem Elewa
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) carry many advantages over warfarin and are now considered first line or an alternative for mnay thromboembolic disorders. With the emergence of 5 DOAC agents to the market as well as the accumulating evidence gathered from head-to-head comparisons between the agents, we attempt to provide direction for clinicians when selecting the most appropriate DOAC agent. Important aspects such as efficacy, safety, cost effectiveness, approved indications, and other drug-related factors will be addressed to highlight the major similarities and diversities among the DOACs...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Bo Qiu, Yuhong Wang, Congxin Li, Huicai Guo, Yanfang Xu
Drug-induced long QT increases the risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmia known as torsades de pointes (TdP). Many biomarkers have been used to predict TdP. At present, however, there are few biomarkers for arrhythmias induced by QT-shortening drugs. The objective of the present study was to identify the best biomarkers for predicting arrhythmias caused by the 4 potassium channel openers ICA-105574, NS-1643, R-L3, and pinacidil. Our results showed that, at higher concentrations, all 4 potassium channel openers induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts, but not in rabbit hearts...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Daniel A Jones, Peter Whittaker, Krishnaraj S Rathod, Amy J Richards, Mervyn Andiapen, Sotiris Antoniou, Anthony Mathur, Amrita Ahluwalia
OBJECTIVES: In the follow-up of patients in a trial of intracoronary sodium nitrite given during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), we found a reduction in the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). Specifically, MACE rates were 5.2% versus 25.0% with placebo at 3 years ( P = .013). Such MACE reductions should also be associated with economic benefit. Thus, we assessed the cost utility of sodium nitrite therapy versus standard primary PCI only...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
E Nana-Leventaki, M Nana, N Poulianitis, D Sampaziotis, D Perrea, D Sanoudou, D Rontogianni, K Malliaras
BACKGROUND: Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) have yielded promising efficacy signals in early-phase clinical trials of ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. The potential efficacy of CDCs in acute myocarditis, an inflammatory cardiomyopathy without effective therapy, remains unexplored. Given that CDCs produce regenerative, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic effects (all of which could be beneficial in acute myocarditis), we investigated the efficacy of intracoronary delivery of CDCs in a rat model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Mohammed Andaleeb Chowdhury, Haden K Sholl, Megan S Sharrett, Steven T Haller, Christopher C Cooper, Rajesh Gupta, Lijun C Liu
Similar to ischemic preconditioning, high-intensity exercise has been shown to decrease infarct size following myocardial infarction. In this article, we review the literature on beneficial effects of exercise, exercise requirements for cardioprotection, common methods utilized in laboratories to study this phenomenon, and discuss possible mechanisms for exercise-mediated cardioprotection.
July 24, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jacek Borawski, Justyna Zoltko, Barbara Labij-Reduta, Ewa Koc-Zorawska, Beata Naumnik
Sclerostin (Scl) is implicated in vascular calcification and angiogenesis and localizes within vasculature. Its molecule incorporates a heparin-binding site that implies also binding to endothelial glycocalyx. We preliminary tested whether intravenous (IV) low-molecular-weight heparin enoxaparin can stimulate intravascular release of this calcification inhibitor in humans. Sixteen male volunteers were injected with a bolus of 1 mg/kg body weight of enoxaparin. After 10 minutes, plasma immunoreactive Scl levels increased uniformly by a mean of 184% versus baseline level of 0...
July 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Kehinde O Obamiro, Leanne Chalmers, Kenneth Lee, Bonnie J Bereznicki, Luke R Bereznicki
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the proportion of patients who have suboptimal adherence to oral anticoagulant (OAC), identify the predictors of adherence, and determine whether patient-related factors vary across adherence levels in Australia. METHODS: Respondents were recruited for an online survey using Facebook. Survey instruments included the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, the Anticoagulation Knowledge Tool, the Perception of Anticoagulant Treatment Questionnaires, and a modified Cancer Information Overload scale...
July 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Selçuk Şen, Meral Demir, Zerrin Yiğit, Ali Yağız Üresin
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of S-amlodipine 2.5 and 5 mg/d in patients with hypertension who were treatment-naive or previously received antihypertensive monotherapy. During the 8-week treatment period, all patients received S-amlodipine 2.5 mg/d for the first 4 weeks, followed by S-amlodipine 5 mg/d for the second 4 weeks. For efficacy assessments, ambulatory and office blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed during the baseline, fourth-week, and eighth-week visits...
July 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
C Michael White
In addition to monoclonal antibodies against proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9), vaccines against PCSK9 and smaller molecule inhibitors as well as RNA inhibitors of PCSK9 production have been created. The monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9 and the PCSK9 RNA inhibitors can reduce low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) by over 50%, non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing HDL. Although effective in several homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patient types, PCSK9 inhibitors does not work in all patient types...
July 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Endalkachew Admassie, Leanne Chalmers, Luke R Bereznicki
BACKGROUND: Although utilization of anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has increased in recent years, contemporary data regarding thromboembolism and mortality incidence rates are limited outside of clinical trials. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) on the clinical outcomes of patients with AF included in the Tasmanian Atrial Fibrillation Study. METHODS: The medical records of all patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis of AF who presented to public hospitals in Tasmania, Australia, between 2011 and 2015, were retrospectively reviewed...
July 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Daryl Ramai, Jonathan Lai, Constantine Monzidelis, Sarath Reddy
After thickening of the cardiac chamber walls during embryogenesis, oxygen and nutrients can no longer be adequately supplied to cardiac cells via passive diffusion; therefore, a primitive vascular network develops to supply these vital structures. This plexus further matures into coronary arteries and veins, which ensures continued development of the heart. Various models have been proposed to account for the growth of the coronary arteries. However, lineage-tracing studies in the last decade have identified 3 major sources, namely, the proepicardium, the sinus venosus, and endocardium...
July 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Firas Younis, Jonathan Leor, Zaid Abassi, Natalie Landa, Lea Rath, Kenneth Hollander, Nili Naftali-Shani, Talma Rosenthal
The effectiveness of empagliflozin (EMPA), a sodium glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor, on the kidney, pancreas, and heart was investigated in the Cohen Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive rat model (CRDH rat). Six-week-old CRDH male rats were fed a sugar diet (SD) and treated with the compound EMPA (group Drug/SD) or respective comparator with vehicle (group Veh/SD). A control group was fed a regular diet without treatment (group Veh/P). Preventive treatment with EMPA was measured during 4 months of follow-up...
July 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Toshiyuki Yano, Koki Abe, Masaya Tanno, Takayuki Miki, Atsushi Kuno, Tetsuji Miura, Charles Steenbergen
p53 is well known as a regulator of apoptosis and autophagy. In addition, a recent study showed that p53 is a modulator of the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), a trigger event of necrosis, but the role of p53 in necrosis induced by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of p53 in acute myocardial I/R injury in perfused mouse hearts. In male C57BL6 mice between 12 and 15 weeks of age, 2 types of p53 inhibitors were used to suppress p53 function during I/R: pifithrin-α, an inhibitor of transcriptional functions of p53, and pifithrin-μ, an inhibitor of p53 translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria...
July 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Hemangi Rawal, Bhoomika M Patel
The World Health Organization suggests that the cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major cause of mortality and account for two-thirds of the deaths all over the world. These diseases kill about 17 million people every year and 3 in every 10 deaths are due to these diseases. The past decade has seen considerable improvements in diagnosis as well as treatment of various heart diseases. Various new therapeutic targets are being identified through in-depth knowledge of the disease mechanisms which has favored the testing of new strategies leading to newer treatment options...
July 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
William B White, Peter Kowey, Ulysses Diva, Mark Sostek, Raj Tummala
BACKGROUND: Naloxegol is a novel selective, peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor antagonist for treating opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in patients with chronic pain syndromes. We analyzed the cardiovascular (CV) safety of naloxegol based on data from its development program prior to approval by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2015. METHODS: Comprehensive CV safety analyses were performed in 4 clinical studies of naloxegol (12.5 and/or 25 mg) in patients with noncancer pain and OIC: two 12-week, double-blind, randomized studies; a 12-week, double-blind, extension study; and a 52-week, randomized, open-label study versus usual care...
July 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Robert A Kloner, Wangde Dai, Sharon L Hale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
J G Kingma
Postischemic accumulation of intracellular Na+ promotes calcium overload and contributes to cellular necrosis. Cardioprotection afforded by pharmacologic blockade of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger subtype 1 (NHE1) is thought to be more remarkable than that obtained by ischemic conditioning (IC). The window of protection provided by IC pretreatment is maintained even when performed up to 48 hours before ischemia. In addition, the perception exists that combined NHE1 inhibition plus IC produces greater than additive protection against ischemic injury...
May 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Steven F Lewis, Charles H Hennekens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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