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Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Charles Mackin, Elizabeth S DeWitt, Katherine J Black, Xiaoqi Tang, Brian D Polizzotti, Sarah J van den Bosch, Mark E Alexander, John N Kheir
INTRODUCTION: Direct comparison of the effects of antiarrhythmic agents on myocardial performance may be useful in choosing between medications in critically ill patients. Studies directly comparing multiple antiarrhythmic medications are lacking. The use of an experimental heart preparation permits examination of myocardial performance under constant loading conditions. METHODS: Hearts of Sprague Dawley rats (n = 35, 402-507 g) were explanted and cannulated in working heart model with fixed preload and afterload...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Shengnan Zhao, Minglu Liang, Yilong Wang, Ji Hu, Yi Zhong, Jia Li, Kai Huang, Yiqing Li
The vascular endothelium is a continuous layer of flat polygonal cells that are in direct contact with the blood and participate in responses to inflammation. Chrysin is a flavonoid compound extracted from plants of the genus Asteraceae with a wide range of pharmacological activities and physiological activities. Here, we studied the effects of chrysin on the regulation of the proadhesion and pro-inflammatory phenotypes of the endothelium both in vitro and in vivo. Our results revealed that chrysin strongly inhibited Tohoku Hospital Pediatrics-1 (THP-1) cell adhesion to primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells and concentration-dependently attenuated interleukin 1β-induced increases in intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin messenger RNA levels and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 protein levels...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jin Cheng, Chuang Sun, Jingyu Zhang, Qing Zou, Qimeng Hao, Yugang Xue
Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is associated with high disability and mortality worldwide. This study was to explore the roles of dioscin in the myocardial IR rats and discover the related molecular mechanisms. Rats were divided into 5 groups: sham, IR, IR + 15 mg/kg dioscin, IR + 30 mg/kg dioscin, and IR + 60 mg/kg dioscin. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were evaluated at 10 minutes before ischemia, immediately after ischemia, and at the beginning, middle, and end of reperfusion...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Hourong Sun, Chuan-Zhen Liu, Chunxiao Liu, Mengmeng Tang, Guangqing Cao, Qiuwang Zhang, Xinghua Gu
Poly (propylene carbonate, PPC) is a new member of the aliphatic polyester family. An outstanding feature of PPC is that it produces mainly water and carbon dioxide when degraded in vivo, causing minimal side effects. This unique property together with excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability makes PPC a promising material for drug delivery. In this study, we explored the effect of the sirolimus (an inhibitor of cell growth)-eluting PPC mesh on graft stenosis and its possible mechanisms in a rat arteriovenous grafting model...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Si Si, Richard Ofori-Asenso, Tom Briffa, Jenni Ilomaki, Frank Sanfilippo, Christopher M Reid, Danny Liew
BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of blood pressure lowering (BPL) agents are being prescribed for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, especially in the older population. The aim of this study is to describe the temporal trends and patterns of BPL dispensing among older Australians (aged ≥65 years). METHODS: We utilized prescription claims data from the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) for a 10% random sample of people aged ≥65 years...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Matt Parriman, Allison Campolo, Amanda P Waller, Véronique A Lacombe
Diabetes is a global epidemic disease, which leads to multiorgan dysfunction, including heart disease. Diabetes results from the limited absorption of glucose into insulin-sensitive tissues. The heart is one of the main organs to utilize glucose as an energy substrate. Glucose uptake into striated muscle is regulated by a family of membrane proteins called glucose transporters (GLUTs). Although calcium channel blockers, including diltiazem, are widely prescribed drugs for cardiovascular diseases, including in patients with diabetes, their pharmacological effects on glucose metabolism are somewhat controversial...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Robert A Kloner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
John G Kingma
Platelet activation and aggregation during ischemia influence reperfusion-related myocyte necrosis, myocardial perfusion at the microvascular level, and thereby eventual recovery of cardiac performance. Inhibition of platelet activity therefore represents a worthwhile target to reduce cellular injury. The current study examined the effects of MK383 (tirofiban), a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation, on infarct size and myocardial perfusion in canine subjects to either reocclusion (ie, 120-minute + 60-minute ischemia with intervening reperfusion) or prolonged occlusion (ie, 3 hours) followed by reperfusion (180 minutes)...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Babikir Kheiri, Mohammed Osman, Ahmed Abdalla, Adam Chahine, Sahar Ahmed, Khansa Osman, Ghassan Bachuwa, Mustafa Hassan, Deepak L Bhatt
AIMS: Patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are recommended to be placed on potent P2Y12 blockade. However, the long-term bleeding risk is high. Therefore, despite no definitive evidence, switching to clopidogrel beyond the acute phase is common. We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of antiplatelet de-escalation compared with continuation in patients treated with PCI. METHODS: We searched databases for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the safety and efficacy of antiplatelet de-escalation compared with continuation in patients treated with PCI...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Duygun Altıntaş Aykan, Ahmet Cağrı Aykan
INTRODUCTION: Dietary herbal products taken together with prescription medicines may have harmful effects. In this study, we evaluated the use of dietary herbal supplements and identified factors that predict the concomitant use of these supplements in patients taking drugs prescribed for chronic cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study with 343 patients with cardiovascular diseases. Data regarding the sociodemographic status, medical condition, number of prescription drugs, and use of herbal supplements were collected using a self-administered questionnaire...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Robert A Kloner, Coleman Gross, Jinwei Yuan, Ansgar Conrad, Pablo E Pergola
INTRODUCTION: Hyperkalemia (potassium >5.0 mEq/L) affects heart failure patients with renal disease regardless of the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi). The open-label TOURMALINE study showed that patiromer, a sodium-free, nonabsorbed potassium binder, lowers serum potassium of hyperkalemic patients similarly when given with or without food; unlike prior studies, patients were not required to be taking RAASi. We conducted post hoc analyses to provide the first report of patiromer in patients not taking RAASi...
November 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Marina Navarro-Peñalver, M Teresa Perez-Martinez, Manuel Gómez-Bueno, Pablo García-Pavía, Josep Lupón-Rosés, Eulalia Roig-Minguell, Josep Comin-Colet, Antoni Bayes-Genis, Jose A Noguera, Domingo A Pascual-Figal
BACKGROUND: Testosterone deficiency is associated with heart failure (HF) progression and poor prognosis. Testosterone therapy has been shown to improve exercise capacity in patients with chronic HF, but no trial has evaluated the impact of replacement in patients with demonstrated testosterone deficiency. METHODS: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-group trial comparing testosterone replacement with placebo in males with chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and testosterone deficiency (NCT01813201)...
November 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Sang Min Park, Myeong-Ki Hong, Se Hoon Kim, Subin Jung, Bo Kyoung Kim, Donghoon Choi
OBJECTIVE: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common condition that may be life-threatening when it is unrecognized. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of ramipril and carvedilol on limiting AAA expansion in mouse model. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 36 experimental AAA mouse model was induced with the continuous infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II) in 20-week-old male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. They were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups and fed orally for 8 weeks; saline alone, ramipril (2...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Aline Sterque Villacorta, Humberto Villacorta, José Antônio Caldas, Bernardo Campanário Precht, Pilar Barreto Porto, Letícia Ubaldo Rodrigues, Márcio Neves, Analucia Rampazzo Xavier, Salim Kanaan, Cláudio Tinoco Mesquita, Antônio Cláudio Lucas da Nóbrega
BACKGROUND: Heart rate (HR) reduction with ivabradine has been proved to reduce hospitalization and death from heart failure (HF). We sought to investigate whether pyridostigmine would effectively reduce HR in patients with chronic HF as compared with ivabradine. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with HF who were in sinus rhythm with a resting HR over 70 bpm, despite optimal medical treatment, were included in a randomized, double-blind study comparing pyridostigmine versus ivabradine...
September 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Tyler C Lewis, Caitlin Aberle, Diana Altshuler, Greta L Piper, John Papadopoulos
Inotropes are an integral component of the early stabilization of the patient presenting with cardiogenic shock. Despite years of clinical experience with the 2 most commonly used inotropes, dobutamine and milrinone, there remains limited data comparing outcomes between the two. We conducted a retrospective review to compare the effectiveness and safety of milrinone or dobutamine for the initial management of cardiogenic shock. Adult patients with cardiogenic shock regardless of etiology who received initial inotrope therapy with either milrinone (n = 50) or dobutamine (n = 50) and did not receive mechanical circulatory support were included...
September 2, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Scott M Wasserman, Marc S Sabatine, Michael J Koren, Robert P Giugliano, Jason C Legg, Maurice G Emery, Sameer Doshi, Thomas Liu, Ransi Somaratne, John P Gibbs
BACKGROUND: The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor evolocumab reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and the risk of cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVES: To compare LDL-C reduction using evolocumab 140 mg once every 2 weeks (Q2W) or 420 mg monthly (QM) versus lower doses (70 mg Q2W or 280 mg QM) or placebo. METHODS: Patients received evolocumab 70 or 140 mg Q2W, 280 or 420 mg QM, or placebo Q2W or QM in two 12-week phase 2 studies: one with and one without statins...
September 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Shawn F L Hanson, Michael H Terry, Dafne T Moretta, Gordon G Power, Sean M Wilson, Farzana Alam, Fakhrul Ahsan, Arlin B Blood, Paresh C Giri
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a potentially deadly disease for infants and adults with few existing medical interventions and no cure. In PH, increased blood pressure in the pulmonary artery eventually leads to heart failure. Fasudil, an antagonist of Rho-kinase, causes vasodilation leading to decreased systemic artery pressure and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). This study compared the effects of fasudil administered as either an intravenous infusion or inhaled aerosol in newborn lambs...
September 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Robert A Kloner, Paul Goggin, Irwin Goldstein, Geoffrey Hackett, Michael G Kirby, Ian Osterloh, John D Parker, Richard Sadovsky
BACKGROUND: Nitrates and nitrate-containing compounds are vasodilators used for the treatment of angina and heart failure. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction are also vasodilators, and when taken together with nitrates, synergistic effects that enhance hypotensive effects may occur. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are therefore contraindicated in patients taking organic nitrates. METHODS AND RESULTS: A literature review was performed to provide a historical overview of different phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and nitrates and their interaction...
September 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Sandip Chaugai, Lhamo Yangchen Sherpa, Amir Ali Sepehry, Scott Reza Jafarian Kerman, Hisatomi Arima
BACKGROUND: Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are a heterogeneous group of antihypertensive drugs. Long-acting dihydropyridine agent amlodipine is widely used for monotherapy and combination therapy for hypertension in clinical practice, while intermediate-acting dihydropyridine agents have shown inconsistent results in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). METHODS AND RESULTS: A meta-analysis of 18 RCTs enrolling a total of 80,483 patients with hypertension followed for a mean of 51...
September 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Cody N Justice, Mohamed H Derbala, Tesla M Baich, Amber N Kempton, Aaron S Guo, Thai H Ho, Sakima A Smith
Pazopanib is an approved treatment for renal cell carcinoma and a second-line treatment for nonadipocytic soft-tissue sarcoma. However, its clinical efficacy is limited by its cardiovascular side effects. Pazopanib and other vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been associated with the development of hypertension, QT interval prolongation, and other cardiovascular events; however, these mechanisms are largely unknown. Gaining a deeper understanding of these mechanisms is essential for the development of appropriate surveillance strategies and possible diagnostic biomarkers to allow us to monitor patients and modulate therapy prior to significant cardiac insult...
September 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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