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Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Daniel Medeiros Moreira, Maria Emilia Lueneberg, Roberto Leo da Silva, Tammuz Fattah, Carlos Antonio Mascia Gottschall
PURPOSE: Methotrexate is an anti-inflammatory drug that has been shown to have anti-ischemic effects. Our aim was to evaluate if methotrexate could reduce infarct size in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with STEMI to receive either methotrexate or placebo. Primary outcome was infarct size determined by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) for creatine kinase (CK) release. Secondary outcomes were AUC of CK MB (CK-MB) and AUC of troponin I; peak CK, peak CK-MB, and troponin I; B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) result, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF); thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count; Killip score; mortality and reinfarction incidence; and incidence of adverse reactions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Nathan J Verlinden, James C Coons, Carlo J Iasella, Sandra L Kane-Gill
BACKGROUND: Triple antithrombotic therapy is used in patients who require systemic anticoagulation and undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) requiring dual antiplatelet therapy. Bleeding with this combination is significant; however, few studies have described outcomes with the use of newer oral P2Y12 inhibitors in this setting. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare outcomes among patients prescribed triple therapy with prasugrel or ticagrelor compared to triple therapy with clopidogrel in patients who underwent PCI and required warfarin...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Mandi Sehgal, Sarah K Wood, Joseph G Ouslander, Charles H Hennekens
In the treatment or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), there is general consensus that the absolute benefits of aspirin far outweigh the absolute risks. Despite evidence from randomized trials and their meta-analyses, older adults, defined as aged 65 years or older, are less likely to be prescribed aspirin than their middle-aged counterparts. In primary prevention, the optimal utilization of aspirin is widely debated. There is insufficient randomized evidence among apparently healthy participants at moderate to high risk of a first CVD event, so general guidelines seem premature...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Yuanyuan Cui, Fuhai Zhao, Jiangang Liu, Xin Wang, Jianpeng Du, Dazhuo Shi, Keji Chen
OBJECTIVE: The effects of zedoary guaiane-type sesquiterpenes (ZGS)-based eluting stent (ZES) in accelerating reendothelialization and inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia were examined in a porcine coronary artery model. METHODS: The ZES was prepared by polymer-free 316L stainless metal stents. Sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and bare metal stents (BMS) with identical platforms were used as controls. Stents with 15 mm in length and 2.0 to 3.5 mm in diameter were implanted in porcine coronary arteries...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Osamu Takatori, Soichiro Usui, Masaki Okajima, Shuichi Kaneko, Hiroshi Ootsuji, Shin-Ichiro Takashima, Daisuke Kobayashi, Hisayoshi Murai, Hiroshi Furusho, Masayuki Takamura
BACKGROUND: The unfolded protein response (UPR) plays a pivotal role in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in various organs such as heart, brain, and liver. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reportedly acts as a chemical chaperone that reduces UPR. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of PBA on reducing the UPR and protecting against myocardial I/R injury in mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 30-minute myocardial I/R, and were treated with phosphate-buffered saline (as a vehicle) or PBA...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Lamia AlHajri, Sima Jabbari, Hind AlEmad, Khawla AlMahri, Maryam AlMahri, Noora AlKitbi
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication that manifests during and/or after hospitalization, as well as postsurgeries including orthopedic surgeries. Edoxaban is a new oral direct factor Xa inhibitor that has been recently approved for treating VTE in patients who have already been treated with a parenteral anticoagulant and for the prevention of stroke and non-central nervous system systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of edoxaban for VTE prophylaxis after lower limb orthopedic surgery...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Hirofumi Morihara, Tsuyoshi Yamamoto, Harunori Oiwa, Kota Tonegawa, Daisuke Tsuchiyama, Ikki Kawakatsu, Masanori Obana, Makiko Maeda, Tomomi Mohri, Satoshi Obika, Yasushi Fujio, Hiroyuki Nakayama
BACKGROUND: Phospholamban (PLN) inhibition enhances calcium cycling and is a potential novel therapy for heart failure (HF). Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are a promising tool for unmet medical needs. Nonviral vector use of locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified ASOs (LNA-ASOs), which shows strong binding to target RNAs and is resistant to nuclease, is considered to have a potential for use in novel therapeutics in the next decades. Thus, the efficacy of a single-dose injection of LNA-ASO for cardiac disease needs to be elucidated...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Bing F Wang, Jun Yoshioka
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury represents a major threat to human health and contributes to adverse cardiovascular outcomes worldwide. Despite the identification of numerous molecular mechanisms, understanding of the complex pathophysiology of this clinical syndrome remains incomplete. Thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip) has been of great interest in the past decade since it has been reported to be a critical regulator in human diseases with several important cellular functions. Thioredoxin-interacting protein binds to and inhibits thioredoxin, a redox protein that neutralizes reactive oxygen species (ROS), and through its interaction with thioredoxin, Txnip sensitizes cardiomyocytes to ROS-induced apoptosis...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ioannis V Ntalas, Kallirroi I Kalantzi, Maria E Tsoumani, Adamantios Bourdakis, Christos Charmpas, Zaharias Christogiannis, Nikolaos Dimoulis, Antonios Draganigos, Ioannis Efthimiadis, Giorgos Giannakoulas, Ioannis Giatrakos, Vassilios Giogiakas, Giorgos Goumas, Giorgos Hatziathanasiou, Evangelos Kazakos, Nikolaos Kipouridis, Spiros Konstantinou, Haralampos Milionis, Dimitrios Nikolopoulos, Leonidas Peltekis, Nikolaos Prokopakis, Ioannis Sinteles, Christos Stroumbis, Kyriafina Terzoudi, Maria Thoma, Karmelos Tsilias, Ioannis Vakalis, Konstantinos Vardakis, Vasileios Vasilakopoulos, Konstantinos Vemmos, Maria Voukelatou, Ioannis Xaraktsis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, John A Goudevenos, Alexandros D Tselepis
BACKGROUND: In the present clinical trial, we compared the efficacy and safety of the generic clopidogrel besylate (CB) with the innovator clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate (CHS) salt in patients eligible to receive clopidogrel. METHODS: A prospective 2-arm, multicenter, open-label, phase 4 clinical trial. Consecutive patients (n = 1864) were screened and 1800 were enrolled in the trial and randomized to CHS or CB. Primary efficacy end point was the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from vascular causes, and primary safety end point was rate of bleeding events as defined by Bleeding Academic Research Consortium criteria...
November 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Muhammad Z Afzal, Melanie Reiter, Courtney Gastonguay, Jered V McGivern, Xuan Guan, Zhi-Dong Ge, David L Mack, Martin K Childers, Allison D Ebert, Jennifer L Strande
BACKGROUND: Dystrophin-deficient cardiomyopathy is a growing clinical problem without targeted treatments. We investigated whether nicorandil promotes cardioprotection in human dystrophin-deficient induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes and the muscular dystrophy mdx mouse heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dystrophin-deficient iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes had decreased levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase. The dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes had increased cell injury and death after 2 hours of stress and recovery...
November 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Luis Sargento, Andre Vicente Simões, Susana Longo, Nuno Lousada, Roberto Palma Dos Reis
BACKGROUND: Furosemide is associated with poor prognosis in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). AIM: To evaluate the association between daily furosemide dose prescribed during the dry state and long-term survival in stable, optimally medicated outpatients with HFrEF. POPULATION AND METHODS: Two hundred sixty-six consecutive outpatients with left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, clinically stable in the dry state and on optimal heart failure therapy, were followed up for 3 years in a heart failure unit...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Rachel J Le, Michael W Cullen, Brian D Lahr, R Scott Wright, Stephen L Kopecky
BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized for first acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are frequently discharged on multiple new medications. The short-term tolerability of these medications is unknown. METHODS: This single-center cohort study assessed 30-day health-care utilization and how it may be impacted by medication prescribing trends. We included Olmsted County patients presenting with ACS and previously undiagnosed coronary artery disease in 2008 to 2009. All health-care contacts were reviewed 30 days after index hospital discharge for potential adverse medication effects including documented hypotension or bradycardia, or symptoms likely attributed to the medications...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Thamir M Alshammari
Ivabradine is a selective I: f current inhibitor that is used to lower the heart rate (HR) of patients with angina and/or heart failure. It is approved for use in several countries, including the United Kingdom, Australia, Saudi Arabia, and the United States. The drug was studied in several clinical trials, and it exhibited beneficial effects on the approved indicators. However, there are some concerns with the safety profile of this drug, especially its effect in reducing HR and causing severe bradycardia...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Linda M Hiebert
Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) endure as important drugs for thromboprophylaxis. Although clinical use relies on the subcutaneous (SC) route, our previous studies show that single-dose orally administered LMWHs have antithrombotic activity. Since thromboprophylaxis requires long-term treatment, we examined antithrombotic effects of subacute oral LMWHs in a rat venous thrombosis model and compared results to SC or single-dose oral administration. We measured LMWH in endothelium and plasma, weight change and complete blood counts (CBC)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Na Li, Murugavel Ponnusamy, Meng-Peng Li, Kun Wang, Pei-Feng Li
Approximately 2% of the human genome consists of protein-coding regions. Therefore, the majority of transcripts are noncoding RNAs, such as microRNA (miRNA) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). In ischemic heart disease, the majority of miRNAs are repressors or destabilizers of target messenger RNAs. The lncRNAs are a second class of noncoding RNAs that have recently gained attention for their roles in heart disease and in regulating the functions of miRNA. In this review, we summarize the role of miRNA in pathological cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial infarction...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jiang-You Wang, Han Chen, Xi Su, You Zhou, Lang Li
BACKGROUND/AIM: In addition to its cholesterol-lowering effect, atorvastatin (ATV) has been thought to have multiple cardiovascular benefits, including anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. The present study was undertaken to determine whether ATV pretreatment could attenuate myocardial apoptosis and inflammation and improve cardiac function in a swine model of coronary microembolization (CME). METHODS: Twenty-four swine were randomly and equally divided into a sham-operated (control) group, CME group, and CME plus ATV group...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Justin R Harris, Genevieve M Hale, Tarun W Dasari, Nicholas C Schwier
Vasospastic angina is a diagnosis of exclusion that manifests with signs and symptoms, which overlap with obstructive coronary artery disease, most often ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The pharmacotherapy that is available to treat vasospastic angina can help ameliorate angina symptoms. However, the etiology of vasospastic angina is ill-defined, making targeted pharmacotherapy difficult. Most patients receive pharmacotherapy that includes calcium channel blockers and/or long-acting nitrates. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of the pharmacotherapy used to treat vasospastic angina...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Sofia Moreira-Silva, Joana Urbano, Luís Nogueira-Silva, Paulo Bettencourt, Joana Pimenta
PURPOSE: There is a lack of knowledge on the effects of nitrates alone in heart failure (HF). We aimed to assess the impact of nitrates use in the occurrence of ischemic events in patients with ischemic HF attending an HF clinic. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 632 patients managed in an HF clinic between January 2000 and December 2011. Patients with ischemic etiology were selected (n = 290). Patients were classified according to chronic nitrates use (n = 83 nitrates users vs n = 194) and followed up for 5 years for the occurrence of fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Lingyun Li, Stephen D Harrison, M Jamie Cope, Craig Park, Lawrence Lee, Faleh Salaymeh, Deidre Madsen, Wade W Benton, Lance Berman, Jerry Buysse
Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition, and patients who have chronic kidney disease, who are diabetic, or who are taking renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors are at increased risk. Therapeutic options for hyperkalemia tend to have limited effectiveness and can be associated with serious side effects. Colonic potassium secretion can increase to compensate when urinary potassium excretion decreases in patients with renal impairment, but this adaptation is insufficient and hyperkalemia still results...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Wenguang Chang, Kun Li, Fengying Guan, Fan Yao, Yang Yu, Ming Zhang, Grant M Hatch, Li Chen
Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that berberine (BBR) improves diabetic complications and reduces mortality of patients with congestive heart failure. The therapeutic effects of BBR have been reported to be mediated by its regulation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We previously reported that BBR protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury via regulating AMPK activity in both ischemic and nonischemic areas of the rat heart. Since diabetic hearts are more sensitive to ischemia-reperfusion injury, we examined whether BBR treatment exhibited cardioprotective effects in the diabetic heart...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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