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Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies

Mohammed Hssaisoune, Lhoussaine Bouchaou, Baudelaire N'da, Mouna Malki, Houria Abahous, Alan E Fryar
Groundwater depletion and changes in isotopic and chemical contents constitute the main indicators of overexploitation, recharge, and flow paths in the Souss-Massa aquifer. These indicators highlight processes concerning sustainability of water resources in the aquifer (e.g. surface/groundwater interaction, recharge processes, and marine intrusion). The spatial variation of stable and radioactive isotopic contents indicates a mixing of modern and old water within the system. Recent recharge was observed mainly along the Souss River (the major surface-water drainage in the study area) and in the irrigated areas...
December 5, 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Wen-Bo Rao, Liang-Feng Han, Hong-Bing Tan, Shuai Wang
Soil samples containing water with known stable isotopic compositions were prepared. The soil water was recovered by using vacuum/heat distillation. The experiments were held under different conditions to control rates of water evaporation and water recovery. Recoveries, δ(18)O and δ(2)H values of the soil water were determined. Analyses of the data using a Rayleigh distillation model indicate that under the experimental conditions only loosely bound water is extractable in cases where the recovery is smaller than 100 %...
December 5, 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Mirjam S Studer, Roland Künzli, Reto Maier, Michael W I Schmidt, Rolf T W Siegwolf, Ivan Woodhatch, Samuel Abiven
Plant-soil interactions are recognized to play a crucial role in the ecosystem response to climate change. We developed a facility to disentangle the complex interactions behind the plant-soil C feedback mechanisms. The MICE ('Multi-Isotope labelling in a Controlled Environment') facility consists of two climate chambers with independent control of the atmospheric conditions (light, CO2, temperature, humidity) and the soil environment (temperature, moisture). Each chamber holds 15 plant-soil systems with hermetical separation of the shared above ground (shoots) from the individual belowground compartments (roots, rhizosphere, soil)...
November 15, 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Martina Burnik Šturm, Oyunsaikhan Ganbaatar, Christian C Voigt, Petra Kaczensky
For certain remote areas like Mongolia, field-based precipitation, surface and ground water isotopic data are scarce. So far no such data exist for the Mongolian Gobi desert, which hinders the understanding of isotopic fractionation processes in this extreme, arid region. We collected 26 event-based precipitation samples, 39 Bij river samples, and 75 samples from other water bodies in the Dzungarian Gobi in SW Mongolia over a period of 16 months for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis. δ(2)H and δ(18)O values in precipitation show high seasonal variation and cover an extreme range: 175 ‰ for δ(2)H and 24 ‰ for δ(18)O values...
October 12, 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Raminta Skipitytė, Agnė Mašalaitė, Andrius Garbaras, Rūta Mickienė, Ona Ragažinskienė, Violeta Baliukonienė, Bronius Bakutis, Jūratė Šiugždaitė, Saulius Petkevičius, Audrius Sigitas Maruška, Vidmantas Remeikis
Stable isotope analysis was applied to describe the poultry house environment. The poultry house indoor environment was selected for this study due to the relevant health problems in animals and their caretakers. Air quality parameters including temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, NH3, CO2 and total suspended particles, as well as mean levels of total airborne bacteria and fungi count, were measured. Carbon isotope ratios ((13)C/(12)C) were obtained in size-segregated aerosol particles. The carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) isotope ratios were measured in feed, litter, scrapings from the ventilation system, feathers and eggs...
September 16, 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Ibraheem Hamdan, Bettina Wiegand, Mathias Toll, Martin Sauter
The Tanour spring is one of the several karst springs located in the northern part of Jordan. Water samples from the Tanour spring and precipitation were collected in the area of Ajloun in NW Jordan for the analysis of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes to evaluate the spring response to precipitation events. Rainwater and snow samples were collected from different elevations during winters of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. In addition, spring samples were collected between December 2014 and March 2015. δ(18)O values in rainwater vary from -3...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Ryuichi Wada, Yutaka Matsumi, Satoru Takanashi, Yuichiro Nakai, Tomoki Nakayama, Mai Ouchi, Tetsuya Hiyama, Yasushi Fujiyoshi, Takashi Nakano, Naoyuki Kurita, Kenichiro Muramoto, Naomi Kodama
We conducted continuous, high time-resolution measurements of CO2 and water vapour isotopologues ((16)O(12)C(16)O, (16)O(13)C(16)O and (18)O(12)C(16)O for CO2, and H2(18)O for water vapour) in a red pine forest at the foot of Mt. Fuji for 9 days from the end of July 2010 using in situ absorption laser spectroscopy. The δ(18)O values in water vapour were estimated using the δ(2)H-δ(18)O relationship. At a scale of several days, the temporal variations in δ(18)O-CO2 and δ(18)O-H2O are similar. The orders of the daily Keeling plots are almost identical...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Alise Babre, Andis Kalvāns, Konrāds Popovs, Inga Retiķe, Aija Dēliņa, Rein Vaikmäe, Tõnu Martma
A new data set of δ(2)H and δ(18)O in the groundwater from the central part of the Baltic Artesian Basin is presented. The hydrogeological section is subdivided into stagnation, slow exchange and active exchange zones. Na-Ca-Cl brine found at the deepest part - the stagnation zone - is characterized by δ(18)O values above -5 ‰ and δ(2)H values approaching -40 ‰ with respect to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water. The slow exchange zone where waters of mostly intermediate salinity reside is characterized by δ(18)O values around -11...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Dana F C Riechelmann, Michael Maus, Willi Dindorf, Oliver Konter, Bernd R Schöne, Jan Esper
δ(13)C and δ(18)O values from sapwood of a single Pinus uncinata tree, from a high elevation site in the Spanish Pyrenees, were determined to evaluate the differences between whole wood and resin-free whole wood. This issue is addressed for the first time with P. uncinata over a 38-year long period. Results are also compared with published isotope values of α-cellulose samples from the same tree. The differences in δ(13)C and δ(18)O between whole wood and resin-free whole wood vary within the analytical uncertainty of 0...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Matthew Lattanzio, Donald Miles
Laboratory experiments are useful for estimating the carbon and nitrogen isotope discrimination factors and turnover rates that are critical for drawing field-based inferences on consumer diets using stable isotopes. Although the utility of these discrimination factors is widely recognized, work in terrestrial systems has largely been limited to studies involving mammals and birds. In contrast, scant attention has been paid to the application of isotopic techniques to reptiles, despite their broad diversity in terms of numbers of species as well as their trophic roles...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Alexander Heuser, Anton Eisenhauer, Katharina E Scholz-Ahrens, Jürgen Schrezenmeir
In order to investigate fractionation of calcium (Ca) isotopes in vertebrates as a diagnostic tool to detect Ca metabolism dysfunction we analyzed the Ca isotopic composition (δ(44/40)Ca = [((44)Ca/(40)Ca)sample/((44)Ca/(40)Ca)reference]-1) of diet, faeces, blood, bones and urine from Göttingen minipigs, an animal model for human physiology. Samples of three groups were investigated: 1. control group (Con), 2. group with glucocorticosteroid induced osteoporosis (GIO) and 3. group with Ca and vitamin D deficiency induced osteomalacia (-CaD)...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
S U El-Kameesy, E Salama, S A El-Fiki, M Ehab, W Rühm
Many archaeological sites in Egypt are unique worldwide, such as ancient tombs and pyramids, because they document fundamental developments in human civilization that took place several thousands of years ago. For this reason, these sites are visited by numerous visitors every year. The present work is devoted to provide a pre-operational radiological baseline needed to quantify occupational radiation exposure at the famous Saqqara region in Cairo, Egypt. A hyperpure Ge detector has been used in the γ-ray spectrometric analysis while the (222)Rn concentration was measured using a portable radon monitor RTM 1688-2, SARAD...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Brian Fry, James F Carter, Ujang Tinggi, Ali Arman, Masud Kamal, Marc Metian, Vajira Ariyaratna Waduge, Rahman Bin Yaccup
To assess coastal ecosystem status and pollution baselines, prawns were collected from the commercial catches of eight Asia-Pacific countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand). Samples collected from 21 sites along regional coastlines were analysed for trace metal and stable isotopic compositions of H, C, N, O and S. A combination of simple averaging and multivariate analyses was used to evaluate the data. Sites could be assigned to easily recognise polluted and unpolluted groups based on the prawn results...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Chiara Marchina, Gianluca Bianchini, Kay Knoeller, Claudio Natali, Maddalena Pennisi, Nicolò Colombani
Po is the main Italian river and the δ(18)O and δ(2)H of its water reveal a similarity between the current meteoric fingerprint and that of the past represented by groundwater. As concerns the hydrochemisty, the Ca-HCO3 facies remained constant over the last 50 year, and only nitrate significantly increased from less than 1 mg/L to more than 10 mg/L in the 1980s, and then attenuated to a value of 9 mg/L. Coherently, δ(13)CDIC and δ(34)SSO4 are compatible with the weathering of the lithologies outcropping in the basin, while extremely variable δ(15)NNO3 indicates contribution from pollutants released by urban, agricultural and zootechnical activities...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Imane Mihoub, Jaleh Ghashghaie, Franz W Badeck, Thierry Robert, Marlène Lamothe-Sibold, Fatiha Aid
The goals of the present study were to obtain a first estimate of intraspecific variability of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) in safflower, a thistle-like herbaceous plant, and to determine the statistical relationship between Δ and grain yield as well as its components in a collection of 45 accessions of different origins. Grain yield and aboveground biomass, harvest index, average grain weight, and Δ (measured on the bulk leaf organic matter) were investigated in experimental field conditions. A large variability was noted for all traits but a principal component analysis (PCA) allowed to identify several homogeneous groups of accessions...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Natasha M Kreitals, Keith A Hobson, Brittney M Hoemsen, Adam L Crane, Van Wishingrad, Janelle Sloychuk, Michael S Pollock, Douglas P Chivers, Iain D Phillips
Naturally occurring deuterium ((2)H) in biota can be used to trace movement, migration and geographic origin of a range of organisms. However, to evaluate movements of animals using δ(2)H measurements of tissues, it is necessary to establish the turnover time of (2)H in the tissues and the extent of isotopic discrimination from different environmental (2)H sources to those tissues. We investigated the turnover of (2)H in lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) blood by manipulating both environmental water δ(2)H and diet δ(2)H over a four-month period...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Kristina L Hitzfeld, Matthias Gehre, Hans-Hermann Richnow
In this study conversion conditions for oxygen gas chromatography high temperature conversion (HTC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) are characterised using qualitative mass spectrometry (IonTrap). It is shown that physical and chemical properties of a given reactor design impact HTC and thus the ability to accurately measure oxygen isotope ratios. Commercially available and custom-built tube-in-tube reactors were used to elucidate (i) by-product formation (carbon dioxide, water, small organic molecules), (ii) 2nd sources of oxygen (leakage, metal oxides, ceramic material), and (iii) required reactor conditions (conditioning, reduction, stability)...
August 16, 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Pradeep K Aggarwal, Luis J Araguás, Leonard I Wassenaar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
James R Ehleringer, Janet E Barnette, Yusuf Jameel, Brett J Tipple, Gabriel J Bowen
Isotope hydrology has focused largely on landscapes away from densely inhabited regions. In coming decades, it will become increasingly more important to focus on water supplies and dynamics within urban systems. Stable isotope analyses provide important information to water managers within large cities, particularly in arid regions where evaporative histories of water sources, vulnerabilities, and reliabilities of the water supplies can be major issues. Here the spatial and vertical understanding of water supporting urban systems that comes from stable isotope analyses can serve as a useful management tool...
August 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
W Troy Baisden, Elizabeth D Keller, Robert Van Hale, Russell D Frew, Leonard I Wassenaar
Predictive understanding of precipitation δ(2)H and δ(18)O in New Zealand faces unique challenges, including high spatial variability in precipitation amounts, alternation between subtropical and sub-Antarctic precipitation sources, and a compressed latitudinal range of 34 to 47 °S. To map the precipitation isotope ratios across New Zealand, three years of integrated monthly precipitation samples were acquired from >50 stations. Conventional mean-annual precipitation δ(2)H and δ(18)O maps were produced by regressions using geographic and annual climate variables...
August 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
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