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Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies

Ibrahim H Saleh, Aly A Abdel-Halim
Beryllium-7 is a radionuclide produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic-ray spallation with ions of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. It is one of radionuclides that can be used to trace the fine particulate matter of 2.5-µm diameter (PM2.5 ) and smaller. In this work,7 Be was determined in leaves of 10 plant species collected from streets, parks and open land and in 5 consecutive rains over Alexandria, Egypt.7 Be levels were also measured in soil covered by each type of plant as well as in the nearest uncovered soil to be reference values to determine its intercepted amount and consequently PM2...
March 12, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Fantine Nivet, Laurent Bergonzini, Pierre-Etienne Mathé, Aurélie Noret, Gaël Monvoisin, Amos Majule, David Williamson
Tropical rainfall isotopic composition results from complex processes. The climatological and environmental variability in East Africa increases this complexity. Long rainfall isotope datasets are needed to fill the lack of observations in this region. At Kisiba Masoko, Tanzania, rainfall and rain isotopic composition have been monitored during 6 years. Mean year profiles allow to analyse the seasonal variations. The mean annual rainfall is 2099 mm with a rain-weighted mean composition of -3.2 ‰ for δ18 O and -11...
March 2, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Xing Wang, Harro A J Meijer
The stable isotopes of water are extensively used as tracers in many fields of research. For this use, it is essential to know the isotope fractionation factors connected to various processes, the most important of which being phase changes. Many experimental studies have been performed on phase change fractionation over the last decades. Whereas liquid-vapour fractionation measurements are relatively straightforward, vapour-solid and liquid-solid fractionation measurements are more complicated, as maintaining equilibrium conditions when a solid is involved is difficult...
February 15, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Michael Thoma, Jay Frentress, Massimo Tagliavini, Francesca Scandellari
We used pore water samplers (PWS) to sample for isotope analysis (1) only water, (2) soil under laboratory conditions, and (3) soil in the field comparing the results with cryogenic extraction (CE). In (1) and (2), no significant differences between source and water extracted with PWS were detected with a mean absolute difference (MAD) always lower than 2 ‰ for δ 2 H and 1 ‰ for δ 18 O. In (2), CE water was more enriched than PWS-extracted water, with a MAD respect to source water of roughly 8 ‰ for δ 2 H and 4 ‰ for δ 18 O...
February 15, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Lisa Brase, Tina Sanders, Kirstin Dähnke
Anthropogenic nutrient inputs increase the N-load in many aquatic systems, leading to eutrophication and potential changes of biological N-retention capacity. In this study, nitrate inputs in a small river were investigated along a gradient of anthropogenic influence. We aimed to determine changes in nitrate load and isotope signatures in the water column and to identify the anthropogenic influence on biological nitrogen assimilation and nitrification or denitrification in sediments. In seasonal sampling campaigns, we analysed dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations, and stable isotopes of nitrate...
February 13, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Frédéric Robin, Philippe Delaporte, Pierre Rousseau, Francis Meunier, Pierrick Bocher
Western France is at the crossroads of the migratory routes of two subspecies of black-tailed godwit, Limosa limosa. After leaving Iceland, the godwit L.l. islandica Icelandic black-tailed godwit (IBTG) winters on the coast of western Europe, while the continental black-tailed godwit (CBTG) L.l. limosa can stop in France when migrating between Iberia or Africa and their main breeding grounds in the Netherlands. In this study, we analysed δ15N and δ13C from flight feathers and whole blood throughout the non-breeding period to trace variations in habitat use for both subspecies on the western French coast...
February 7, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Małgorzata Bożek, Magdalena Kamińska, Anna Kasicka-Jonderko, Beata Krusiec-Świdergoł, Karolina Ptaszek, Magdalena Juszczyk, Krzysztof Jonderko
We evaluated the reproducibility of the 13C-phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT). On three separate days, 21 healthy volunteers (11 F and 10 M) underwent 13C-PheBT with 100 mg l-[1-13C]phenylalanine taken orally. Short-term reproducibility was evaluated with paired examinations taken 3 days apart; paired examinations separated by 23 days (median) served for the medium-term reproducibility assessment. Expiratory air was sampled at 19 points throughout 3 h. Determined limited reproducibility of the 13C-PheBT must be taken into consideration while interpreting the results of this diagnostic tool...
February 6, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Michael E Böttcher, Nadja Neubert, Katja von Allmen, Elias Samankassou, Thomas F Nägler
In this study, we present the experimental results for stable barium (Ba) isotope fractionation (137Ba/134Ba) during the transformation of aragonite (CaCO3) and gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) in Ba-bearing aqueous solution to witherite (BaCO3) and barite (BaSO4), respectively. The process was studied at three temperatures between 4 and 60 °C. In all cases, the transformation leads to a relative enrichment of the lighter 134Ba isotope in the solid compared to the aqueous solution, with 137/134Ba enrichment factors between -0...
February 5, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Michael E Böttcher, Ulrich Flenker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Dragana Filipović, Uroš Gašić, Nikola Stevanović, Dragana Dabić Zagorac, Milica Fotirić Akšić, Maja Natić
The carbon stable isotope content of Cornelian cherry stones collected from wild tree stands in Serbia, SE Europe, was measured using elemental analyser-isotope ratio mass spectrometry, with the aim of recording natural carbon isotope composition of the fruit stones and its possible variation. The results show a significant variation in the carbon isotope values; we identified several environmental factors that, along with a number of other possible determinants, likely contributed to this variation. The obtained data are compared with the measurement of carbon isotope content of an archaeological specimen of Cornelian cherry stone discovered at the Neolithic site of Vinča (ca...
January 29, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Peter Fritz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Ryuichi Wada, Yutaka Matsumi, Tomoki Nakayama, Tetsuya Hiyama, Yasushi Fujiyoshi, Naoyuki Kurita, Kenichiro Muramoto, Satoru Takanashi, Naomi Kodama, Yoshiyuki Takahashi
Isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and water vapour in the near-surface air were continuously measured for one month in an urban area of the city of Nagoya in central Japan in September 2010 using laser spectroscopic techniques. During the passages of a typhoon and a stationary front in the observation period, remarkable changes in the isotope ratios of CO2 and water vapour were observed. The isotope ratios of both CO2 and water vapour decreased during the typhoon passage. The decreases can be attributed to the air coming from an industrial area and the rainout effects of the typhoon, respectively...
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Luigi Cocchi, Karolina Kluza, Tamara Zalewska, Anna Apanel, Jerzy Falandysz
Activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were determined in mushrooms of the Boletus species B. aereus, B. reticulatus, B. appendiculatus, B. calopus, B. edulis, B. erythropus, B. fechtneri, B. pinophilus, B. pseudoregius, B. rhodopurpureus, B. rhodoxanthus collected in the Reggio Emilia, Italy, in 1993 and 1994 and in B. edulis collected in Pomerania in northern Poland in the period from 1995-2015. Boletus edulis from the Reggio Emilia showed presence of (137)Cs at 330 ± 220 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1993 and at 370 ± 180 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1994...
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Dana Alina Magdas, Adriana Dehelean, Ioana Feher, Stelian Radu
Two marker combinations were used for the differentiation of organically produced from conventionally produced potatoes and also for the geographical origin identification. Fifty-seven samples (from Romanian local producers or imported) were analysed from the stable isotopic (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) and elemental profile (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) point of view. In order to assess the best marker combination, both isotopic and elemental experimental results were subject to chemometric analysis...
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Klaus D Wutzke, Kerstin V Schmidek
A resistant starch (RS) mixture (MIX) consisting of fibre of potatoes (FP) and wrinkled pea starch (WPS), and high amylose maize starch (HAMS) were supplemented in adults to evaluate their effects on fat oxidation by means of a (13)CO2-breath test. Sixteen subjects received a regular diet either without or with the supplementation of MIX and HAMS in randomised order. After administration of a [U-(13)C]algal lipid mixture, exhaled air was collected over 14 h in 0.5- and 1-h intervals. The (13)C abundances were measured by nondispersive infrared spectroscopy...
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Tomomichi Kato, Keita Yamada, Yanhong Tang, Naohiro Yoshida, Eitaro Wada
On the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, isotopic signatures in soil-atmosphere CH4 fluxes were investigated in nine grasslands and three wetlands. In the grasslands, the fractionation factor for soil CH4 uptake, αsoil, was much smaller than the usually reported value of 0.9975-1.0095. Stepwise multiple variation analysis indicates that αsoil is higher for higher soil water contents but is lower for higher C/N ratios of soil surface biomass. In the three wetlands, the soil-emitted δ(13)C-CH4 was similar (-55.3 ± 5...
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Craig Symes, Felix Skhosana, Mike Butler, Brett Gardner, Stephan Woodborne
Diet-tissue isotopic relationships established under controlled conditions are informative for determining the dietary sources and geographic provenance of organisms. We analysed δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and non-exchangeable δ(2)H values of captive African grey parrot Psittacus erithacus feathers grown on a fixed mixed-diet and borehole water. Diet-feather Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N discrimination values were +3.8 ± 0.3 ‰ and +6.3 ± 0.7 ‰ respectively; significantly greater than expected. Non-exchangeable δ(2)H feather values (-62...
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Vera Winde, Michael E Böttcher, Maren Voss, Annika Mahler
The spatial variations in the elemental and stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope composition of bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus) growing along the shore line of the semi-enclosed urbanized Kiel Fjord (western Baltic Sea) was investigated at more than 60 sites. The analyses of the carbon-nitrogen-sulphur (CNS) stoichiometry and C and N stable isotope signature of F. vesiculosus displayed substantial differences between the north-western and the south-eastern parts of the Kiel Fjord. Different size classes displayed in part differences in C:N and C:S ratios, and the carbon isotope composition, reflecting the impact of the boundary conditions during growth...
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
E A N V Edirisinghe, H M T G A Pitawala, H A Dharmagunawardhane, R L Wijayawardane
Seasonal and spatial variation in δ(18)O and δ(2)H in rainwater was determined in three selected transects across Sri Lanka, the tropical island in the Indian Ocean. Local meteoric water lines (LMWLs) for three distinguished climatic zones; wet, dry and intermediate were constructed. LMWLs show slight variations in their gradients and respective d-excess values, depending on the air moisture origin, circulation and environmental conditions of each climatic zone. The elevation effect and amount effect could be identified but the continental effect is not significantly seen in the isotope composition of rain in the concerned areas...
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
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