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Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies

Wendell Costa Bila, Reysla Maria da Silveira Mariano, Valmin Ramos Silva, Maria Emília Soares Martins Dos Santos, Joel Alves Lamounier, Eduardo Ferriolli, Alexsandro Sobreira Galdino
The main aim goal of this review was to gather information about recent publications related to deuterium oxide (D2O), and its use as a scientific tool related to human health. Searches were made in electronic databases Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, Medline and Cochrane. Moreover, the following patent databases were consulted: EPO (Espacenet patent search), USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office) and Google Patents, which cover researches worldwide related to innovations using D2O.
February 6, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Josefina T Hamutoko, Heike Wanke, Paul Koeniger, Matthias Beyer, Marcel Gaj
A hydrogeochemical and stable isotope study ((2)H and (18)O) was carried out in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in order to characterize available groundwater and to identify possible recharge mechanisms for the perched aquifers. Data were collected during seven field campaigns between 2013 and 2015 from a total of 24 shallow and deep groundwater hand-dug wells. In the investigated groundwaters, hydrogencarbonate is the dominating anion in both well types, whereas cations vary between calcium and magnesium in deep wells, and sodium and potassium in shallow wells...
January 16, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Ghulam Jeelani, Rajendrakumar D Deshpande, Rouf A Shah, Wasim Hassan
The regional climate of the Himalayas is predominated by the southwest monsoons and the western disturbances. The uplift of the Pir Panjal to its present height is believed to restrict the southwest monsoons from entering into the Kashmir Valley in the western Himalayas. In the present study, monthly precipitation samples were collected across the Kashmir Valley from June 2013 to May 2014 for δ(18)O and δ(2)H analyses to constrain the influence of southwest monsoons in the valley. Except in August, the precipitation is enriched in (18)O and (2)H from June to September and depleted from October to May...
January 12, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Klaus-Peter Götz, Osman Erekul, Klaus Dieter Wutzke, Yakup Onur Koca, Tuğçe Aksu
This study examined the effects of a reduced wheat sowing rate (250 vs. 500 grains m(-2)) on grain yield, uptake of (15)N into grains, and the incorporation into gluten and non-gluten proteins of wheat under field conditions in the Aegean region. A single (15)N application was applied at stem elongation, at flowering, or at both developmental stages. Each (15)N treatment included either additional water supply, or no additional water supply at flowering. Sowing rate (either 250 or 500 grains m(-2)) had no impact on grain yield...
December 26, 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Mohammed Hssaisoune, Lhoussaine Bouchaou, Baudelaire N'da, Mouna Malki, Houria Abahous, Alan E Fryar
Groundwater depletion and changes in isotopic and chemical contents constitute the main indicators of overexploitation, recharge, and flow paths in the Souss-Massa aquifer. These indicators highlight processes concerning sustainability of water resources in the aquifer (e.g. surface/groundwater interaction, recharge processes, and marine intrusion). The spatial variation of stable and radioactive isotopic contents indicates a mixing of modern and old water within the system. Recent recharge was observed mainly along the Souss River (the major surface-water drainage in the study area) and in the irrigated areas...
December 5, 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Wen-Bo Rao, Liang-Feng Han, Hong-Bing Tan, Shuai Wang
Soil samples containing water with known stable isotopic compositions were prepared. The soil water was recovered by using vacuum/heat distillation. The experiments were held under different conditions to control rates of water evaporation and water recovery. Recoveries, δ(18)O and δ(2)H values of the soil water were determined. Analyses of the data using a Rayleigh distillation model indicate that under the experimental conditions only loosely bound water is extractable in cases where the recovery is smaller than 100 %...
December 5, 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Lei Fujiyoshi, Atsuko Sugimoto, Akemi Tsukuura, Asami Kitayama, M Larry Lopez Caceres, Byambasuren Mijidsuren, Ariunaa Saraadanbazar, Maki Tsujimura
The spatial patterns of plant and soil δ(15)N and associated processes in the N cycle were investigated at a forest-grassland boundary in northern Mongolia. Needles of Larix sibirica Ledeb. and soils collected from two study areas were analysed to calculate the differences in δ(15)N between needle and soil (Δδ(15)N). Δδ(15)N showed a clear variation, ranging from -8 ‰ in the forest to -2 ‰ in the grassland boundary, and corresponded to the accumulation of organic layer. In the forest, the separation of available N produced in the soil with (15)N-depleted N uptake by larch and (15)N-enriched N immobilization by microorganisms was proposed to cause large Δδ(15)N, whereas in the grassland boundary, small Δδ(15)N was explained by the transport of the most available N into larch...
March 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Pingping Kang, Shiguo Xu
Underground cut-off walls in coastal regions are mainly used to prevent saltwater intrusion, but their impact on nutrient dynamics in groundwater is not clear. In this study, a combined analysis of multiple isotopes ([Formula: see text]) and nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations is used in order to assess the impact of the underground cut-off walls on the nutrient dynamics in groundwater in the lower Wang River watershed, China. Compared with the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in groundwater downstream of the underground cut-off walls, high [Formula: see text] and total dissolved nitrogen concentrations and similar concentration levels of [Formula: see text] and total dissolved phosphorus are found in groundwater upstream of the underground cut-off walls...
March 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Ricardo Sánchez-Murillo, Germain Esquivel-Hernández, Oscar Sáenz-Rosales, Gilberto Piedra-Marín, Alicia Fonseca-Sánchez, Helga Madrigal-Solís, Franz Ulloa-Chaverri, Luis D Rojas-Jiménez, José A Vargas-Víquez
The linkage between precipitation and recharge is still poorly understood in the Central America region. This study focuses on stable isotopic composition in precipitation and groundwater in the northern mountainous region of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. During the dry season, rainfall samples corresponded to enriched events with high deuterium excess. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone poses over Costa Rica resulting in a depletion of (18)O/(16)O and (2)H/H ratios. A parsimonious four-variable regression model (r(2 )= 0...
March 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Gh Jeelani, Rouf A Shah, Noble Jacob, Rajendrakumar D Deshpande
Snow- and glacier-dominated catchments in the Himalayas are important sources of fresh water to more than one billion people. However, the contribution of snowmelt and glacier melt to stream flow remains largely unquantified in most parts of the Himalayas. We used environmental isotopes and geochemical tracers to determine the source water and flow paths of stream flow draining the snow- and glacier-dominated mountainous catchment of the western Himalaya. The study suggested that the stream flow in the spring season is dominated by the snowmelt released from low altitudes and becomes isotopically depleted as the melt season progressed...
March 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Frolan A Aya, Isao Kudo
Ontogenetic niche shifts in diet are a consequence of changes in body size or resource partitioning between age classes. To better resolve the feeding patterns of the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis, we examined the relative importance of age and size in the diet of this species using stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) from 2006 to 2009. Contribution of food sources was quantified using an isotope mixing model by comparing the muscle tissue isotope ratios to those of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) and their zooplankton prey (e...
March 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Hiroto Kawashima, Takuro Kariya
Some natural plant extract formulations (NPEFs, also referred to as essential oils) used in organic farming have been shown to contain synthetic pesticides. We obtained samples of four NPEFs (Muso, Hekiro, Kensogen-Ten, and Nurse Green) that were contaminated with the synthetic pyrethroid cypermethrin, and we used gas chromatography coupled with combustion, cryofocusing, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry to determine the stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) for the cypermethrin in the four NPEF samples, as well as in ten cypermethrin reagents and two commercial pesticide formulations (Agrothrin emulsion and Agrothrin water-dispersible powder)...
March 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Selcen Uzun Duran, Belgin Kucukomeroglu, Nevzat Damla, Halim Taskin, Necati Celik, Uğur Cevik, Hakan Ersoy
The current study presents the results of the activity of radionuclides in spa waters, and evaluates their radiological influences on the population consuming these waters in the Central and Eastern Black Sea regions of Turkey. Since these waters are used for therapy and consumption purposes unconsciously, their radiological impact on the people was computed by taking into consideration the annual intake through ingestion of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, (137)Cs and (222)Rn. The mean activities were estimated to be 11...
March 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Michal Bonczyk, Boguslaw Michalik, Izabela Chmielewska
The radioactive lead isotope (210)Pb occurs in waste originating from metal smelting and refining industry, gas and oil extraction and sometimes from underground coal mines, which are deposited in natural environment very often. Radiation risk assessment requires accurate knowledge about the concentration of (210)Pb in such materials. Laboratory measurements seem to be the only reliable method applicable in environmental (210)Pb monitoring. One of the methods is gamma-ray spectrometry, which is a very fast and cost-effective method to determine (210)Pb concentration...
March 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Ibraheem Hamdan, Bettina Wiegand, Mathias Toll, Martin Sauter
The Tanour spring is one of the several karst springs located in the northern part of Jordan. Water samples from the Tanour spring and precipitation were collected in the area of Ajloun in NW Jordan for the analysis of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes to evaluate the spring response to precipitation events. Rainwater and snow samples were collected from different elevations during winters of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. In addition, spring samples were collected between December 2014 and March 2015. δ(18)O values in rainwater vary from -3...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Ryuichi Wada, Yutaka Matsumi, Satoru Takanashi, Yuichiro Nakai, Tomoki Nakayama, Mai Ouchi, Tetsuya Hiyama, Yasushi Fujiyoshi, Takashi Nakano, Naoyuki Kurita, Kenichiro Muramoto, Naomi Kodama
We conducted continuous, high time-resolution measurements of CO2 and water vapour isotopologues ((16)O(12)C(16)O, (16)O(13)C(16)O and (18)O(12)C(16)O for CO2, and H2(18)O for water vapour) in a red pine forest at the foot of Mt. Fuji for 9 days from the end of July 2010 using in situ absorption laser spectroscopy. The δ(18)O values in water vapour were estimated using the δ(2)H-δ(18)O relationship. At a scale of several days, the temporal variations in δ(18)O-CO2 and δ(18)O-H2O are similar. The orders of the daily Keeling plots are almost identical...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Alise Babre, Andis Kalvāns, Konrāds Popovs, Inga Retiķe, Aija Dēliņa, Rein Vaikmäe, Tõnu Martma
A new data set of δ(2)H and δ(18)O in the groundwater from the central part of the Baltic Artesian Basin is presented. The hydrogeological section is subdivided into stagnation, slow exchange and active exchange zones. Na-Ca-Cl brine found at the deepest part - the stagnation zone - is characterized by δ(18)O values above -5 ‰ and δ(2)H values approaching -40 ‰ with respect to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water. The slow exchange zone where waters of mostly intermediate salinity reside is characterized by δ(18)O values around -11...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Dana F C Riechelmann, Michael Maus, Willi Dindorf, Oliver Konter, Bernd R Schöne, Jan Esper
δ(13)C and δ(18)O values from sapwood of a single Pinus uncinata tree, from a high elevation site in the Spanish Pyrenees, were determined to evaluate the differences between whole wood and resin-free whole wood. This issue is addressed for the first time with P. uncinata over a 38-year long period. Results are also compared with published isotope values of α-cellulose samples from the same tree. The differences in δ(13)C and δ(18)O between whole wood and resin-free whole wood vary within the analytical uncertainty of 0...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Matthew Lattanzio, Donald Miles
Laboratory experiments are useful for estimating the carbon and nitrogen isotope discrimination factors and turnover rates that are critical for drawing field-based inferences on consumer diets using stable isotopes. Although the utility of these discrimination factors is widely recognized, work in terrestrial systems has largely been limited to studies involving mammals and birds. In contrast, scant attention has been paid to the application of isotopic techniques to reptiles, despite their broad diversity in terms of numbers of species as well as their trophic roles...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Alexander Heuser, Anton Eisenhauer, Katharina E Scholz-Ahrens, Jürgen Schrezenmeir
In order to investigate fractionation of calcium (Ca) isotopes in vertebrates as a diagnostic tool to detect Ca metabolism dysfunction we analyzed the Ca isotopic composition (δ(44/40)Ca = [((44)Ca/(40)Ca)sample/((44)Ca/(40)Ca)reference]-1) of diet, faeces, blood, bones and urine from Göttingen minipigs, an animal model for human physiology. Samples of three groups were investigated: 1. control group (Con), 2. group with glucocorticosteroid induced osteoporosis (GIO) and 3. group with Ca and vitamin D deficiency induced osteomalacia (-CaD)...
December 2016: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
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