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Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies

Alicja Ustrzycka, Natalia Piotrowska, Alicja Bonk, Janusz Filipiak, Wojciech Tylmann
An isotopic monitoring was undertaken in 2012-2014 at Lake Żabińskie (Mazurian Lakeland, NE Poland). The aim was to identify the factors and processes controlling an isotopic composition of the lake water and to explore the mechanism responsible for recording the climatic signal in stable isotope composition of deposited carbonates. δ(18)O and δ(2)H in the precipitation, lake water column, inflows and outflow, δ(18)O and δ(13)C in the carbonate fraction of sediments trapped in the water column were recorded with monthly resolution...
July 17, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Yuliya Vystavna, Dmytro Diadin, Frédéric Huneau
Stable isotopes of hydrogen ((2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) of the water molecule were used to assess the relationship between precipitation, surface water and groundwater in a large Russia/Ukraine trans-boundary river basin. Precipitation was sampled from November 2013 to February 2015, and surface water and groundwater were sampled during high and low flow in 2014. A local meteoric water line was defined for the Ukrainian part of the basin. The isotopic seasonality in precipitation was evident with depletion in heavy isotopes in November-March and an enrichment in April-October, indicating continental and temperature effects...
July 10, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Erkan Ibraim, Eliza Harris, Simon Eyer, Béla Tuzson, Lukas Emmenegger, Johan Six, Joachim Mohn
Understanding and quantifying the biogeochemical cycle of N2O is essential to develop effective N2O emission mitigation strategies. This study presents a novel, fully automated measurement technique that allows simultaneous, high-precision quantification of the four main N2O isotopocules ((14)N(14)N(16)O, (14)N(15)N(16)O, (15)N(14)N(16)O and (14)N(14)N(18)O) in ambient air. The instrumentation consists of a trace gas extractor (TREX) coupled to a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer, designed for autonomous operation at remote measurement sites...
July 6, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Xiaodan Wang, Shijie Li, Cong-Qiang Liu, Khan M G Mostofa, Zhiqi Zhao, Rongqin Luo
This study established the hydrochemistry and stable isotope variations in three lakes, namely brackish Zigetang Co, freshwater Cona and Ranwu lakes located in the central and southeastern Tibetan Plateau of China. Vertical profile fluctuations in the water column, such as temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, displayed significant differences which were linked to the thermocline. The hydrochemistry of the three lakes showed that [Formula: see text] as the dominant anion, whereas Na(+) is the main cation in Zigetang Co and Cona lake and Ca(2+) is the prevailing cation in Ranwu lake...
June 30, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Alexander I Malov
Data on modern radiocarbon activity in the old travertine formations of the Pymvashor hydrothermal system were used, in combination with (230)Th/U dating of the travertine, to estimate the (14)C contents of the total dissolved inorganic carbon in the ancient thermal water at the time of precipitation of the travertine ((14)Ccalc). With the known values of (14)Ccalc and average age of the thermal water, and under the assumption that the residence time of the water in aquifer was constant over the last 13.9 ± 1...
June 26, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Luigi Cocchi, Karolina Kluza, Tamara Zalewska, Anna Apanel, Jerzy Falandysz
Activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were determined in mushrooms of the Boletus species B. aereus, B. reticulatus, B. appendiculatus, B. calopus, B. edulis, B. erythropus, B. fechtneri, B. pinophilus, B. pseudoregius, B. rhodopurpureus, B. rhodoxanthus collected in the Reggio Emilia, Italy, in 1993 and 1994 and in B. edulis collected in Pomerania in northern Poland in the period from 1995-2015. Boletus edulis from the Reggio Emilia showed presence of (137)Cs at 330 ± 220 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1993 and at 370 ± 180 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1994...
June 14, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Dana Alina Magdas, Adriana Dehelean, Ioana Feher, Stelian Radu
Two marker combinations were used for the differentiation of organically produced from conventionally produced potatoes and also for the geographical origin identification. Fifty-seven samples (from Romanian local producers or imported) were analysed from the stable isotopic (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) and elemental profile (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) point of view. In order to assess the best marker combination, both isotopic and elemental experimental results were subject to chemometric analysis...
June 8, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Christian Moeck, Dirk Radny, Adrian Auckenthaler, Michael Berg, Juliane Hollender, Mario Schirmer
Stable isotopes of water, organic micropollutants and hydrochemistry data are powerful tools for identifying different water types in areas where knowledge of the spatial distribution of different groundwater is critical for water resource management. An important question is how the assessments change if only one or a subset of these tracers is used. In this study, we estimate spatial artificial infiltration along an infiltration system with stage-discharge relationships and classify different water types based on the mentioned hydrochemistry data for a drinking water production area in Switzerland...
June 7, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Klaus D Wutzke, Kerstin V Schmidek
A resistant starch (RS) mixture (MIX) consisting of fibre of potatoes (FP) and wrinkled pea starch (WPS), and high amylose maize starch (HAMS) were supplemented in adults to evaluate their effects on fat oxidation by means of a (13)CO2-breath test. Sixteen subjects received a regular diet either without or with the supplementation of MIX and HAMS in randomised order. After administration of a [U-(13)C]algal lipid mixture, exhaled air was collected over 14 h in 0.5- and 1-h intervals. The (13)C abundances were measured by nondispersive infrared spectroscopy...
June 2, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Mariusz Mądrala, Mirosław Wąsik, Piotr Małoszewski
Environmental isotopes and hydrogeological data have been used for the construction of a conceptual model of fresh groundwater flow in the Kłodzko Basin, Sudetes, Poland. The model has allowed the verification of a groundwater circulation scheme resulting from the general morphological assumptions and the recharge role to the surrounding mountains. Combined interpretation of the tritium ages and the isotopic altitude effect allowed determining the volume of water-bearing rock Vr and hydrogeological parameters of systems drained by springs and wells...
May 31, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Tomomichi Kato, Keita Yamada, Yanhong Tang, Naohiro Yoshida, Eitaro Wada
On the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, isotopic signatures in soil-atmosphere CH4 fluxes were investigated in nine grasslands and three wetlands. In the grasslands, the fractionation factor for soil CH4 uptake, αsoil, was much smaller than the usually reported value of 0.9975-1.0095. Stepwise multiple variation analysis indicates that αsoil is higher for higher soil water contents but is lower for higher C/N ratios of soil surface biomass. In the three wetlands, the soil-emitted δ(13)C-CH4 was similar (-55.3 ± 5...
May 25, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Peng Wang, Junzheng Liu, Shuhua Qi, Shiqin Wang, Xiaoling Chen
In this work, we traced sources of nitrate in the Ganjiang River, a major tributary of Yangtze River, China, by analysing the water chemistry, nitrogen isotopes and land use. Water samples from 20 sites in the main stream and tributaries were collected in the dry and wet seasons. The [Formula: see text] ranged from 0.97 to 8.60 ‰, and was significantly higher in the wet season than in the dry season, and significantly higher in tributaries than in the main stream. In the dry season, [Formula: see text] concentrations and [Formula: see text] were significantly negatively correlated with forest and grassland areas, and positively correlated with paddy field and residential area...
May 25, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Corinne Hanlon, Randy Stotler, Shaun Frape, Rhys Gwynne
This study provides the first characterization of the variability of bromine and chlorine stable isotopic composition in evaporites, associated residual brines, and shoreline gases in terrestrial evaporative saline lakes. The lakes investigated here are groundwater discharge locations, and include both potash-rich alkaline lakes and sodic-dominated neutral pH lakes at a variety of salinities and evaporative stages. The chlorine and bromine isotope systems behave consistently different during evaporative salt precipitation, with (37)Cl more enriched in the salt than in the fluid, but (81)Br more enriched in the fluid compared with the precipitated salt...
May 25, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Craig Symes, Felix Skhosana, Mike Butler, Brett Gardner, Stephan Woodborne
Diet-tissue isotopic relationships established under controlled conditions are informative for determining the dietary sources and geographic provenance of organisms. We analysed δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and non-exchangeable δ(2)H values of captive African grey parrot Psittacus erithacus feathers grown on a fixed mixed-diet and borehole water. Diet-feather Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N discrimination values were +3.8 ± 0.3 ‰ and +6.3 ± 0.7 ‰ respectively; significantly greater than expected. Non-exchangeable δ(2)H feather values (-62...
May 8, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Vera Winde, Michael E Böttcher, Maren Voss, Annika Mahler
The spatial variations in the elemental and stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope composition of bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus) growing along the shore line of the semi-enclosed urbanized Kiel Fjord (western Baltic Sea) was investigated at more than 60 sites. The analyses of the carbon-nitrogen-sulphur (CNS) stoichiometry and C and N stable isotope signature of F. vesiculosus displayed substantial differences between the north-western and the south-eastern parts of the Kiel Fjord. Different size classes displayed in part differences in C:N and C:S ratios, and the carbon isotope composition, reflecting the impact of the boundary conditions during growth...
May 5, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Sarah L Newberry, Ulrich E Prechsl, Matthew Pace, Ansgar Kahmen
Cryogenic vacuum extraction is the well-established method of extracting water from soil for isotopic analyses of waters moving through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. We investigate if soils can alter the isotopic composition of water through isotope memory effects, and determined which mechanisms are responsible for it. Soils with differing physicochemical properties were re-wetted with reference water and subsequently extracted by cryogenic water distillation. Results suggest some reference waters bind tightly to the soil and not all of this tightly bound water is removed during cryogenic vacuum extraction...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Frank Hülsemann, Karsten Koehler, Jürgen Wittsiepe, Michael Wilhelm, Annett Hilbig, Mathilde Kersting, Hans Braun, Ulrich Flenker, Wilhelm Schänzer
Natural stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N) of humans can be used for nutritional analyses and dietary reconstruction of modern and historic individuals and populations. Information about an individual's metabolic state can be obtained by comparison of tissue and dietary δ(15)N. Different methods have been used to estimate dietary δ(15)N in the past; however, the validity of such predictions has not been compared to experimental values. For a total of 56 meals and 21 samples of 24-h diets, predicted and experimental δ(15)N values were compared...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
W M Abdellah, H M Diab, S U El-Kameesy, E Salama, S El-Framawy
Twenty soil and 25 sediment samples were collected from the banks and bottom of the River Nile in the surroundings of biggest cities located close to it. Natural radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K have been evaluated for all samples by means of γ spectrometric analysis. The radioactivity levels of soil and sediment samples fall within the internationally recommended values. Nevertheless, high natural background radiation zones are detected in the Kafr El-Zayat region due to the presence of a fertilizer factory, and in the Rosetta region due to the presence of black sand deposits...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Johannes A C Barth, Michael Mader, Franziska Nenning, Robert van Geldern, Kurt Friese
The aim of this study was to identify sources of carbon turnover using stable isotope mass balances. For this purpose, two pre-reservoirs in the Harz Mountains (Germany) were investigated for their dissolved and particulate carbon contents (dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic carbon) together with their stable carbon isotope ratios. DIC concentration depth profiles from March 2012 had an average of 0.33 mmol L(-1). Increases in DIC concentrations later on in the year often corresponded with decreases in its carbon isotope composition (δ(13)CDIC) with the most negative value of -18...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Christian Fabiansen, Charles W Yaméogo, Sarita Devi, Henrik Friis, Anura Kurpad, Jonathan C Wells
Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work to develop and adapt the deuterium dilution technique...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
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