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Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915768/isotopic-composition-of-bottled-water-in-saudi-arabia
#1
Watheq Al-Basheer, AbdulAziz Al-Jalal, Khaled Gasmi
The (18)O/(16)O and (2)H/(1)H ratios of 18 water brands representing the most popular bottled water brands in the Saudi market were measured using a system based on the latest advancements in tunable off-axis integrated cavity output diode laser spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) in the near-infrared spectral region. Utilizing δ(18)O and the δ(2)H values of locally produced water samples, a meteoric water line (δ(2)H = 7.84 δ(18)O + 2.11) was extracted and found to be consistent with the slope of the global meteoric water line (GMWL) and the geographic location of Saudi Arabia...
September 15, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914091/short-term-carbon-dynamics-in-a-temperate-grassland-and-heathland-ecosystem-exposed-to-104-days-of-drought-followed-by-irrigation
#2
Kavita Srivastava, Anke Jentsch, Juergen Kreyling, Bruno Glaser, Guido L B Wiesenberg
Temperate ecosystems are susceptible to drought events. The effect of a severe drought (104 days) followed by irrigation on the plant C uptake, its assimilation and input of C in soil were examined using a triple (13)CO2 pulse-chase labelling experiment in model grassland and heathland ecosystems. First (13)CO2 pulse at day 0 of the experiment revealed much higher (13)C tracer uptake for shoots, roots and soil compared to the second pulse (day 44), where all plants showed significantly lower (13)C tracer uptake...
September 15, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853311/spatial-and-temporal-variation-of-h-and-o-isotopic-compositions-of-the-xijiang-river-system-southwest-china
#3
Guilin Han, Pin Lv, Yang Tang, Zhaoliang Song
Ratios of stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen ((2)H/(1)H and (18)O/(16)O) in river waters were measured to investigate the hydrological pathway of the Xijiang River, Southwest China. The δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of river waters exhibit significant spatial and temporal variations and the isotopic compositions vary with elevation, temperature and precipitation of the recharge area. Spatially, δ(18)O values of river waters from high mountain areas are lower than those from the lower reaches of the Xijiang River due to lower temperature and higher elevation for the recharge area...
August 30, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819995/the-effect-of-different-fish-feed-compositions-on-%C3%AE-13-c-and-%C3%AE-15-n-signatures-of-sea-bass-and-its-potential-value-for-tracking-mariculture-derived-nutrients
#4
Henrik Kusche, Nicola Hillgruber, Yvonne Rößner, Ulfert Focken
Increasing demand for fish and seafood calls for an expansion of aquaculture production. At the same time, the status of the marine environment must not be jeopardised. Stable isotopes are potential markers for tracking feed-based nutrient flows from aquaculture into marine biota. Here, we demonstrate how four experimental diets (main protein components: fishmeal, soya protein concentrate, wheat gluten, and Jatropha kernel meal) and a commercial diet induce characteristic δ(13)C and δ(15)N signals in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during nine weeks of laboratory feeding under replicate conditions...
August 18, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780887/effect-of-waterlogging-on-carbon-isotope-discrimination-during-photosynthesis-in-larix-gmelinii
#5
Fang Li, Atsuko Sugimoto
Soil moisture is a major factor controlling carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C), which has been demonstrated to decrease under dry conditions in many studies; however, few studies on Δ(13)C under waterlogging condition have been conducted. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted with Larix gmelinii, a major larch species in the east Siberian Taiga, to investigate the effect of waterlogging on Δ(13)C during photosynthesis. Assimilation rate and Δ(13)CRD (instantaneous Δ(13)C calculated with Rayleigh distillation equation) decreased drastically soon after waterlogging, followed by recovery in their values, which was caused by a change in stomatal conductance...
August 6, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756690/continuous-measurements-of-stable-isotopes-of-carbon-dioxide-and-water-vapour-in-an-urban-atmosphere-isotopic-variations-associated-with-meteorological-conditions
#6
Ryuichi Wada, Yutaka Matsumi, Tomoki Nakayama, Tetsuya Hiyama, Yasushi Fujiyoshi, Naoyuki Kurita, Kenichiro Muramoto, Satoru Takanashi, Naomi Kodama, Yoshiyuki Takahashi
Isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and water vapour in the near-surface air were continuously measured for one month in an urban area of the city of Nagoya in central Japan in September 2010 using laser spectroscopic techniques. During the passages of a typhoon and a stationary front in the observation period, remarkable changes in the isotope ratios of CO2 and water vapour were observed. The isotope ratios of both CO2 and water vapour decreased during the typhoon passage. The decreases can be attributed to the air coming from an industrial area and the rainout effects of the typhoon, respectively...
July 30, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748732/split-root-labelling-to-investigate-15-n-rhizodeposition-by-pinus-sylvestris-and-picea-abies
#7
Liz Veerman, Karsten Kalbitz, Jorien C Schoorl, Albert Tietema
We investigated the transfer of (15)N into the soil via (15)N uptake and release by tree roots, which involves the principles of the split-root technique. One half of the root system received an injection of ((15)NH4)2SO4 and the other half equivalent amounts of (NH4)2SO4 at (15)N natural abundance level. (15)N was transferred from one side of the root system ((15)N side) to the other side ((14)N side) and released into the soil. The method was conducted with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L...
July 27, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745515/hydrology-of-the-north-klondike-river-carbon-export-water-balance-and-inter-annual-climate-influences-within-a-sub-alpine-permafrost-catchment
#8
Anthony Lapp, Ian Clark, Andrew Macumber, Tim Patterson
Arctic and sub-arctic watersheds are undergoing significant changes due to recent climate warming and degrading permafrost, engendering enhanced monitoring of arctic rivers. Smaller catchments provide understanding of discharge, solute flux and groundwater recharge at the process level that contributes to an understanding of how larger arctic watersheds are responding to climate change. The North Klondike River, located in west central Yukon, is a sub-alpine permafrost catchment, which maintains an active hydrological monitoring station with a record of >40 years...
July 26, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715910/isotopic-fingerprints-of-the-lake-%C3%A5-abi%C3%A5-skie-ne-poland-hydrological-system-on-contemporary-carbonates-precipitated-in-the-lake
#9
Alicja Ustrzycka, Natalia Piotrowska, Alicja Bonk, Janusz Filipiak, Wojciech Tylmann
An isotopic monitoring was undertaken in 2012-2014 at Lake Żabińskie (Mazurian Lakeland, NE Poland). The aim was to identify the factors and processes controlling an isotopic composition of the lake water and to explore the mechanism responsible for recording the climatic signal in stable isotope composition of deposited carbonates. δ(18)O and δ(2)H in the precipitation, lake water column, inflows and outflow, δ(18)O and δ(13)C in the carbonate fraction of sediments trapped in the water column were recorded with monthly resolution...
July 17, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691511/defining-a-stable-water-isotope-framework-for-isotope-hydrology-application-in-a-large-trans-boundary-watershed-russian-federation-ukraine
#10
Yuliya Vystavna, Dmytro Diadin, Frédéric Huneau
Stable isotopes of hydrogen ((2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) of the water molecule were used to assess the relationship between precipitation, surface water and groundwater in a large Russia/Ukraine trans-boundary river basin. Precipitation was sampled from November 2013 to February 2015, and surface water and groundwater were sampled during high and low flow in 2014. A local meteoric water line was defined for the Ukrainian part of the basin. The isotopic seasonality in precipitation was evident with depletion in heavy isotopes in November-March and an enrichment in April-October, indicating continental and temperature effects...
July 10, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681639/development-of-a-field-deployable-method-for-simultaneous-real-time-measurements-of-the-four-most-abundant-n2o-isotopocules
#11
Erkan Ibraim, Eliza Harris, Simon Eyer, Béla Tuzson, Lukas Emmenegger, Johan Six, Joachim Mohn
Understanding and quantifying the biogeochemical cycle of N2O is essential to develop effective N2O emission mitigation strategies. This study presents a novel, fully automated measurement technique that allows simultaneous, high-precision quantification of the four main N2O isotopocules ((14)N(14)N(16)O, (14)N(15)N(16)O, (15)N(14)N(16)O and (14)N(14)N(18)O) in ambient air. The instrumentation consists of a trace gas extractor (TREX) coupled to a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer, designed for autonomous operation at remote measurement sites...
July 6, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664761/hydrogeochemistry-and-%C3%AE-13-cdic-and-%C3%AE-18-oh2o-composition-of-three-chinese-tibetan-plateau-lakes
#12
Xiaodan Wang, Shijie Li, Cong-Qiang Liu, Khan M G Mostofa, Zhiqi Zhao, Rongqin Luo
This study established the hydrochemistry and stable isotope variations in three lakes, namely brackish Zigetang Co, freshwater Cona and Ranwu lakes located in the central and southeastern Tibetan Plateau of China. Vertical profile fluctuations in the water column, such as temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, displayed significant differences which were linked to the thermocline. The hydrochemistry of the three lakes showed that [Formula: see text] as the dominant anion, whereas Na(+) is the main cation in Zigetang Co and Cona lake and Ca(2+) is the prevailing cation in Ranwu lake...
June 30, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649867/study-of-isotopes-of-carbon-thorium-and-uranium-in-travertine-and-thermal-spring-samples-implications-for-effects-of-changes-in-geochemical-environment-and-processes
#13
Alexander I Malov
Data on modern radiocarbon activity in the old travertine formations of the Pymvashor hydrothermal system were used, in combination with (230)Th/U dating of the travertine, to estimate the (14)C contents of the total dissolved inorganic carbon in the ancient thermal water at the time of precipitation of the travertine ((14)Ccalc). With the known values of (14)Ccalc and average age of the thermal water, and under the assumption that the residence time of the water in aquifer was constant over the last 13.9 ± 1...
June 26, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793842/tribute-to-professor-peter-fritz-on-the-occasion-of-his-80th-birthday
#14
Gerhard Strauch, Peter Krumbiegel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793841/peter-fritz-an-old-friend-and-colleague
#15
Roberto Gonfiantini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335613/tightly-bound-soil-water-introduces-isotopic-memory-effects-on-mobile-and-extractable-soil-water-pools
#16
Sarah L Newberry, Ulrich E Prechsl, Matthew Pace, Ansgar Kahmen
Cryogenic vacuum extraction is the well-established method of extracting water from soil for isotopic analyses of waters moving through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. We investigate if soils can alter the isotopic composition of water through isotope memory effects, and determined which mechanisms are responsible for it. Soils with differing physicochemical properties were re-wetted with reference water and subsequently extracted by cryogenic water distillation. Results suggest some reference waters bind tightly to the soil and not all of this tightly bound water is removed during cryogenic vacuum extraction...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292192/prediction-of-human-dietary-%C3%AE-15-n-intake-from-standardised-food-records-validity-and-precision-of-single-meal-and-24-h-diet-data
#17
Frank Hülsemann, Karsten Koehler, Jürgen Wittsiepe, Michael Wilhelm, Annett Hilbig, Mathilde Kersting, Hans Braun, Ulrich Flenker, Wilhelm Schänzer
Natural stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N) of humans can be used for nutritional analyses and dietary reconstruction of modern and historic individuals and populations. Information about an individual's metabolic state can be obtained by comparison of tissue and dietary δ(15)N. Different methods have been used to estimate dietary δ(15)N in the past; however, the validity of such predictions has not been compared to experimental values. For a total of 56 meals and 21 samples of 24-h diets, predicted and experimental δ(15)N values were compared...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286974/natural-radioactivity-levels-and-associated-health-hazards-from-the-terrestrial-ecosystem-in-rosetta-branch-of-the-river-nile-egypt
#18
W M Abdellah, H M Diab, S U El-Kameesy, E Salama, S El-Framawy
Twenty soil and 25 sediment samples were collected from the banks and bottom of the River Nile in the surroundings of biggest cities located close to it. Natural radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K have been evaluated for all samples by means of γ spectrometric analysis. The radioactivity levels of soil and sediment samples fall within the internationally recommended values. Nevertheless, high natural background radiation zones are detected in the Kafr El-Zayat region due to the presence of a fertilizer factory, and in the Rosetta region due to the presence of black sand deposits...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276732/stable-isotope-mass-balances-versus-concentration-differences-of-dissolved-inorganic-carbon-implications-for-tracing-carbon-turnover-in-reservoirs
#19
Johannes A C Barth, Michael Mader, Franziska Nenning, Robert van Geldern, Kurt Friese
The aim of this study was to identify sources of carbon turnover using stable isotope mass balances. For this purpose, two pre-reservoirs in the Harz Mountains (Germany) were investigated for their dissolved and particulate carbon contents (dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic carbon) together with their stable carbon isotope ratios. DIC concentration depth profiles from March 2012 had an average of 0.33 mmol L(-1). Increases in DIC concentrations later on in the year often corresponded with decreases in its carbon isotope composition (δ(13)CDIC) with the most negative value of -18...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276731/deuterium-dilution-technique-for-body-composition-assessment-resolving-methodological-issues-in-children-with-moderate-acute-malnutrition
#20
Christian Fabiansen, Charles W Yaméogo, Sarita Devi, Henrik Friis, Anura Kurpad, Jonathan C Wells
Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work to develop and adapt the deuterium dilution technique...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
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