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Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482709/isotope-%C3%AE-13-c-%C3%AE-15-n-%C3%AE-2-h-diet-tissue-discrimination-in-african-grey-parrot-psittacus-erithacus-implications-for-forensic-studies
#1
Craig Symes, Felix Skhosana, Mike Butler, Brett Gardner, Stephan Woodborne
Diet-tissue isotopic relationships established under controlled conditions are informative for determining the dietary sources and geographic provenance of organisms. We analysed δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and non-exchangeable δ(2)H values of captive African grey parrot Psittacus erithacus feathers grown on a fixed mixed-diet and borehole water. Diet-feather Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N discrimination values were +3.8 ± 0.3 ‰ and +6.3 ± 0.7 ‰ respectively; significantly greater than expected. Non-exchangeable δ(2)H feather values (-62...
May 8, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475364/bladder-wrack-fucus-vesiculosus-as-a-multi-isotope-bio-monitor-in-an-urbanized-fjord-of-the-western-baltic-sea
#2
Vera Winde, Michael E Böttcher, Maren Voss, Annika Mahler
The spatial variations in the elemental and stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope composition of bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus) growing along the shore line of the semi-enclosed urbanized Kiel Fjord (western Baltic Sea) was investigated at more than 60 sites. The analyses of the carbon-nitrogen-sulphur (CNS) stoichiometry and C and N stable isotope signature of F. vesiculosus displayed substantial differences between the north-western and the south-eastern parts of the Kiel Fjord. Different size classes displayed in part differences in C:N and C:S ratios, and the carbon isotope composition, reflecting the impact of the boundary conditions during growth...
May 5, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446033/controls-over-spatial-and-seasonal-variations-on-isotopic-composition-of-the-precipitation-along-the-central-and-eastern-portion-of-brazil
#3
Didier Gastmans, Vinícius Santos, Juliana Aparecida Galhardi, João Felipe Gromboni, Ludmila Vianna Batista, Konrad Miotlinski, Hung Kiang Chang, José Silvio Govone
Based on Global Network Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) isotopic data set, a review of the spatial and temporal variability of δ(18)O and δ(2)H in precipitation was conducted throughout central and eastern Brazil, indicating that dynamic interactions between Intertropical and South Atlantic Convergence Zones, Amazon rainforest, and Atlantic Ocean determine the variations on the isotopic composition of precipitation over this area. Despite the seasonality and latitude effects observed, a fair correlation with precipitation amount was found...
April 26, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385072/spatial-and-temporal-variation-in-the-stable-isotope-composition-%C3%AE-18-o-and-%C3%AE-2-h-of-rain-across-the-tropical-island-of-sri-lanka
#4
E A N V Edirisinghe, H M T G A Pitawala, H A Dharmagunawardhane, R L Wijayawardane
Seasonal and spatial variation in δ(18)O and δ(2)H in rainwater was determined in three selected transects across Sri Lanka, the tropical island in the Indian Ocean. Local meteoric water lines (LMWLs) for three distinguished climatic zones; wet, dry and intermediate were constructed. LMWLs show slight variations in their gradients and respective d-excess values, depending on the air moisture origin, circulation and environmental conditions of each climatic zone. The elevation effect and amount effect could be identified but the continental effect is not significantly seen in the isotope composition of rain in the concerned areas...
April 6, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335613/tightly-bound-soil-water-introduces-isotopic-memory-effects-on-mobile-and-extractable-soil-water-pools
#5
Sarah L Newberry, Ulrich E Prechsl, Matthew Pace, Ansgar Kahmen
Cryogenic vacuum extraction is the well-established method of extracting water from soil for isotopic analyses of waters moving through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. We investigate if soils can alter the isotopic composition of water through isotope memory effects, and determined which mechanisms are responsible for it. Soils with differing physicochemical properties were re-wetted with reference water and subsequently extracted by cryogenic water distillation. Results suggest some reference waters bind tightly to the soil and not all of this tightly bound water is removed during cryogenic vacuum extraction...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292192/prediction-of-human-dietary-%C3%AE-15-n-intake-from-standardised-food-records-validity-and-precision-of-single-meal-and-24-h-diet-data
#6
Frank Hülsemann, Karsten Koehler, Jürgen Wittsiepe, Michael Wilhelm, Annett Hilbig, Mathilde Kersting, Hans Braun, Ulrich Flenker, Wilhelm Schänzer
Natural stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N) of humans can be used for nutritional analyses and dietary reconstruction of modern and historic individuals and populations. Information about an individual's metabolic state can be obtained by comparison of tissue and dietary δ(15)N. Different methods have been used to estimate dietary δ(15)N in the past; however, the validity of such predictions has not been compared to experimental values. For a total of 56 meals and 21 samples of 24-h diets, predicted and experimental δ(15)N values were compared...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286974/natural-radioactivity-levels-and-associated-health-hazards-from-the-terrestrial-ecosystem-in-rosetta-branch-of-the-river-nile-egypt
#7
W M Abdellah, H M Diab, S U El-Kameesy, E Salama, S El-Framawy
Twenty soil and 25 sediment samples were collected from the banks and bottom of the River Nile in the surroundings of biggest cities located close to it. Natural radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K have been evaluated for all samples by means of γ spectrometric analysis. The radioactivity levels of soil and sediment samples fall within the internationally recommended values. Nevertheless, high natural background radiation zones are detected in the Kafr El-Zayat region due to the presence of a fertilizer factory, and in the Rosetta region due to the presence of black sand deposits...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276732/stable-isotope-mass-balances-versus-concentration-differences-of-dissolved-inorganic-carbon-implications-for-tracing-carbon-turnover-in-reservoirs
#8
Johannes A C Barth, Michael Mader, Franziska Nenning, Robert van Geldern, Kurt Friese
The aim of this study was to identify sources of carbon turnover using stable isotope mass balances. For this purpose, two pre-reservoirs in the Harz Mountains (Germany) were investigated for their dissolved and particulate carbon contents (dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic carbon) together with their stable carbon isotope ratios. DIC concentration depth profiles from March 2012 had an average of 0.33 mmol L(-1). Increases in DIC concentrations later on in the year often corresponded with decreases in its carbon isotope composition (δ(13)CDIC) with the most negative value of -18...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276731/deuterium-dilution-technique-for-body-composition-assessment-resolving-methodological-issues-in-children-with-moderate-acute-malnutrition
#9
Christian Fabiansen, Charles W Yaméogo, Sarita Devi, Henrik Friis, Anura Kurpad, Jonathan C Wells
Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work to develop and adapt the deuterium dilution technique...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165769/applications-of-deuterium-oxide-in-human-health
#10
Wendell Costa Bila, Reysla Maria da Silveira Mariano, Valmin Ramos Silva, Maria Emília Soares Martins Dos Santos, Joel Alves Lamounier, Eduardo Ferriolli, Alexsandro Sobreira Galdino
The main aim goal of this review was to gather information about recent publications related to deuterium oxide (D2O), and its use as a scientific tool related to human health. Searches were made in electronic databases Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, Medline and Cochrane. Moreover, the following patent databases were consulted: EPO (Espacenet patent search), USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office) and Google Patents, which cover researches worldwide related to innovations using D2O.
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092980/hydrogeochemical-and-isotope-study-of-perched-aquifers-in-the-cuvelai-etosha-basin-namibia
#11
Josefina T Hamutoko, Heike Wanke, Paul Koeniger, Matthias Beyer, Marcel Gaj
A hydrogeochemical and stable isotope study ((2)H and (18)O) was carried out in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in order to characterize available groundwater and to identify possible recharge mechanisms for the perched aquifers. Data were collected during seven field campaigns between 2013 and 2015 from a total of 24 shallow and deep groundwater hand-dug wells. In the investigated groundwaters, hydrogencarbonate is the dominating anion in both well types, whereas cations vary between calcium and magnesium in deep wells, and sodium and potassium in shallow wells...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076968/influence-of-southwest-monsoons-in-the-kashmir-valley-western-himalayas
#12
Ghulam Jeelani, Rajendrakumar D Deshpande, Rouf A Shah, Wasim Hassan
The regional climate of the Himalayas is predominated by the southwest monsoons and the western disturbances. The uplift of the Pir Panjal to its present height is believed to restrict the southwest monsoons from entering into the Kashmir Valley in the western Himalayas. In the present study, monthly precipitation samples were collected across the Kashmir Valley from June 2013 to May 2014 for δ(18)O and δ(2)H analyses to constrain the influence of southwest monsoons in the valley. Except in August, the precipitation is enriched in (18)O and (2)H from June to September and depleted from October to May...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316254/plant-protein-based-feeds-and-commercial-feed-enable-isotopic-tracking-of-aquaculture-emissions-into-marine-macrozoobenthic-bioindicator-species
#13
Henrik Kusche, Nicola Hillgruber, Yvonne Rößner, Ulfert Focken
Brittle stars (Ophiura spp.) and other benthic macrofauna were collected in a prospective mariculture area in the North Sea to determine if these taxa could be used as indicator species to track nutrients released from future offshore aquaculture sites. We analysed natural carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures in tissues from macrofauna and compared these to six feed ingredients and four experimental diets made thereof, as well as to a commercial feed with and without lipid and carbonate removal. Our data suggest practicability of using isotopic signatures of Ophiura spp...
June 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276733/record-of-nile-seasonality-in-nubian-neonates
#14
Céline Martin, Bruno Maureille, Romain Amiot, Alexandra Touzeau, Aurélien Royer, François Fourel, Gérard Panczer, Jean-Pierre Flandrois, Christophe Lécuyer
The oxygen isotope compositions of bones (n = 11) and teeth (n = 20) from 12 Sudanese individuals buried on Sai Island (Nubia) were analysed to investigate the registration of the evolution of the Nile environment from 3700 to 500 years BP and the potential effects of ontogeny on the oxygen isotope ratios. The isotopic compositions were converted into the composition of drinking water, ultimately originating from the Nile. δ(18)O values decrease during ontogeny; this is mainly related to breastfeeding and physiology...
June 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024415/-15-n-allocation-into-wheat-grains-triticum-aestivum-l-influenced-by-sowing-rate-and-water-supply-at-flowering-under-a-mediterranean-climate
#15
Klaus-Peter Götz, Osman Erekul, Klaus Dieter Wutzke, Yakup Onur Koca, Tuğçe Aksu
This study examined the effects of a reduced wheat sowing rate (250 vs. 500 grains m(-2)) on grain yield, uptake of (15)N into grains, and the incorporation into gluten and non-gluten proteins of wheat under field conditions in the Aegean region. A single (15)N application was applied at stem elongation, at flowering, or at both developmental stages. Each (15)N treatment included either additional water supply, or no additional water supply at flowering. Sowing rate (either 250 or 500 grains m(-2)) had no impact on grain yield...
June 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919163/isotopes-to-assess-sustainability-of-overexploited-groundwater-in-the-souss-massa-system-morocco
#16
Mohammed Hssaisoune, Lhoussaine Bouchaou, Baudelaire N'da, Mouna Malki, Houria Abahous, Alan E Fryar
Groundwater depletion and changes in isotopic and chemical contents constitute the main indicators of overexploitation, recharge, and flow paths in the Souss-Massa aquifer. These indicators highlight processes concerning sustainability of water resources in the aquifer (e.g. surface/groundwater interaction, recharge processes, and marine intrusion). The spatial variation of stable and radioactive isotopic contents indicates a mixing of modern and old water within the system. Recent recharge was observed mainly along the Souss River (the major surface-water drainage in the study area) and in the irrigated areas...
June 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919162/isotope-fractionation-of-sandy-soil-water-during-evaporation-an-experimental-study
#17
Wen-Bo Rao, Liang-Feng Han, Hong-Bing Tan, Shuai Wang
Soil samples containing water with known stable isotopic compositions were prepared. The soil water was recovered by using vacuum/heat distillation. The experiments were held under different conditions to control rates of water evaporation and water recovery. Recoveries, δ(18)O and δ(2)H values of the soil water were determined. Analyses of the data using a Rayleigh distillation model indicate that under the experimental conditions only loosely bound water is extractable in cases where the recovery is smaller than 100 %...
June 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846728/the-mice-facility-a-new-tool-to-study-plant-soil-c-cycling-with-a-holistic-approach
#18
Mirjam S Studer, Roland Künzli, Reto Maier, Michael W I Schmidt, Rolf T W Siegwolf, Ivan Woodhatch, Samuel Abiven
Plant-soil interactions are recognized to play a crucial role in the ecosystem response to climate change. We developed a facility to disentangle the complex interactions behind the plant-soil C feedback mechanisms. The MICE ('Multi-Isotope labelling in a Controlled Environment') facility consists of two climate chambers with independent control of the atmospheric conditions (light, CO2, temperature, humidity) and the soil environment (temperature, moisture). Each chamber holds 15 plant-soil systems with hermetical separation of the shared above ground (shoots) from the individual belowground compartments (roots, rhizosphere, soil)...
June 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633837/stable-isotope-ratio-method-for-the-characterisation-of-the-poultry-house-environment
#19
Raminta Skipitytė, Agnė Mašalaitė, Andrius Garbaras, Rūta Mickienė, Ona Ragažinskienė, Violeta Baliukonienė, Bronius Bakutis, Jūratė Šiugždaitė, Saulius Petkevičius, Audrius Sigitas Maruška, Vidmantas Remeikis
Stable isotope analysis was applied to describe the poultry house environment. The poultry house indoor environment was selected for this study due to the relevant health problems in animals and their caretakers. Air quality parameters including temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, NH3, CO2 and total suspended particles, as well as mean levels of total airborne bacteria and fungi count, were measured. Carbon isotope ratios ((13)C/(12)C) were obtained in size-segregated aerosol particles. The carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) isotope ratios were measured in feed, litter, scrapings from the ventilation system, feathers and eggs...
June 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733073/first-field-based-observations-of-%C3%AE-2-h-and-%C3%AE-18-o-values-of-event-based-precipitation-rivers-and-other-water-bodies-in-the-dzungarian-gobi-sw-mongolia
#20
Martina Burnik Šturm, Oyunsaikhan Ganbaatar, Christian C Voigt, Petra Kaczensky
For certain remote areas like Mongolia, field-based precipitation, surface and ground water isotopic data are scarce. So far no such data exist for the Mongolian Gobi desert, which hinders the understanding of isotopic fractionation processes in this extreme, arid region. We collected 26 event-based precipitation samples, 39 Bij river samples, and 75 samples from other water bodies in the Dzungarian Gobi in SW Mongolia over a period of 16 months for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis. δ(2)H and δ(18)O values in precipitation show high seasonal variation and cover an extreme range: 175 ‰ for δ(2)H and 24 ‰ for δ(18)O values...
May 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
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