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Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies

Suman Som, Gourab Dutta Banik, Abhijit Maity, Chiranjit Ghosh, Sujit Chaudhuri, Manik Pradhan
Helicobacter pylori causes several gastrointestinal diseases and may also contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several studies suggest that there might be a potential link between H. pylori infection and T2D, but it still remains the subject of debate. Here, we first report the cumulative effect of H. pylori infection and T2D by exploiting the excretion kinetics of 13 C/12 C and 18 O/16 O isotope ratios of exhaled breath CO2 in response to an oral dose of 13 C-enriched glucose in individuals with T2D and non-diabetic controls (NDC) harbouring the H...
April 24, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Joseph Asante, David K Kreamer
In the Basin and Range Province of the Southwestern U.S.A., deep carbonate groundwater has been suggested as a significant source to many overlying basin-fill alluvial aquifer systems. Notwithstanding, testing this hypothesis is limited by obtaining data from such considerable depths and complex geology. This study uses δ2 H and δ18 O data from springs, rivers, and wells tapping shallow basin-fill groundwater to test the hydrochemical interpretation of deep regional carbonate groundwater flow into the basin-fill aquifers...
March 20, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Ibrahim H Saleh, Aly A Abdel-Halim
Beryllium-7 is a radionuclide produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic-ray spallation with ions of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. It is one of radionuclides that can be used to trace the fine particulate matter of 2.5-µm diameter (PM2.5 ) and smaller. In this work, 7 Be was determined in leaves of 10 plant species collected from streets, parks and open land and in 5 consecutive rains over Alexandria, Egypt. 7 Be levels were also measured in soil covered by each type of plant as well as in the nearest uncovered soil to be reference values to determine its intercepted amount and consequently PM2...
March 12, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Fantine Nivet, Laurent Bergonzini, Pierre-Etienne Mathé, Aurélie Noret, Gaël Monvoisin, Amos Majule, David Williamson
Tropical rainfall isotopic composition results from complex processes. The climatological and environmental variability in East Africa increases this complexity. Long rainfall isotope datasets are needed to fill the lack of observations in this region. At Kisiba Masoko, Tanzania, rainfall and rain isotopic composition have been monitored during 6 years. Mean year profiles allow to analyse the seasonal variations. The mean annual rainfall is 2099 mm with a rain-weighted mean composition of -3.2 ‰ for δ18 O and -11...
March 2, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Xing Wang, Harro A J Meijer
The stable isotopes of water are extensively used as tracers in many fields of research. For this use, it is essential to know the isotope fractionation factors connected to various processes, the most important of which being phase changes. Many experimental studies have been performed on phase change fractionation over the last decades. Whereas liquid-vapour fractionation measurements are relatively straightforward, vapour-solid and liquid-solid fractionation measurements are more complicated, as maintaining equilibrium conditions when a solid is involved is difficult...
June 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Frédéric Robin, Philippe Delaporte, Pierre Rousseau, Francis Meunier, Pierrick Bocher
Western France is at the crossroads of the migratory routes of two subspecies of black-tailed godwit, Limosa limosa. After leaving Iceland, the godwit L.l. islandica Icelandic black-tailed godwit (IBTG) winters on the coast of western Europe, while the continental black-tailed godwit (CBTG) L.l. limosa can stop in France when migrating between Iberia or Africa and their main breeding grounds in the Netherlands. In this study, we analysed δ15 N and δ13 C from flight feathers and whole blood throughout the non-breeding period to trace variations in habitat use for both subspecies on the western French coast...
June 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Małgorzata Bożek, Magdalena Kamińska, Anna Kasicka-Jonderko, Beata Krusiec-Świdergoł, Karolina Ptaszek, Magdalena Juszczyk, Krzysztof Jonderko
We evaluated the reproducibility of the 13 C-phenylalanine breath test (13 C-PheBT). On three separate days, 21 healthy volunteers (11 F and 10 M) underwent 13 C-PheBT with 100 mg l-[1-13 C]phenylalanine taken orally. Short-term reproducibility was evaluated with paired examinations taken 3 days apart; paired examinations separated by 23 days (median) served for the medium-term reproducibility assessment. Expiratory air was sampled at 19 points throughout 3 h. Determined limited reproducibility of the 13 C-PheBT must be taken into consideration while interpreting the results of this diagnostic tool...
June 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Michael E Böttcher, Nadja Neubert, Katja von Allmen, Elias Samankassou, Thomas F Nägler
In this study, we present the experimental results for stable barium (Ba) isotope fractionation (137 Ba/134 Ba) during the transformation of aragonite (CaCO3 ) and gypsum (CaSO4 ·2H2 O) in Ba-bearing aqueous solution to witherite (BaCO3 ) and barite (BaSO4 ), respectively. The process was studied at three temperatures between 4 and 60 °C. In all cases, the transformation leads to a relative enrichment of the lighter 134 Ba isotope in the solid compared to the aqueous solution, with 137/134 Ba enrichment factors between -0...
June 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Peter Fritz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Lisa Brase, Tina Sanders, Kirstin Dähnke
Anthropogenic nutrient inputs increase the N-load in many aquatic systems, leading to eutrophication and potential changes of biological N-retention capacity. In this study, nitrate inputs in a small river were investigated along a gradient of anthropogenic influence. We aimed to determine changes in nitrate load and isotope signatures in the water column and to identify the anthropogenic influence on biological nitrogen assimilation and nitrification or denitrification in sediments. In seasonal sampling campaigns, we analysed dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations, and stable isotopes of nitrate...
May 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Doongar R Chaudhary, Juyoung Seo, Hojeong Kang, Aditya P Rathore, Bhavanath Jha
High and fluctuating salinity is characteristic for coastal salt marshes, which strongly affect the physiology of halophytes consequently resulting in changes in stable isotope distribution. The natural abundance of stable isotopes (δ13 C and δ15 N) of the halophyte plant Salicornia brachiata and physico-chemical characteristics of soils were analysed in order to investigate the relationship of stable isotope distribution in different populations in a growing period in the coastal area of Gujarat, India. Aboveground and belowground biomass of S...
May 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Meagan McCloskey, David J Yurkowski, Christina A D Semeniuk
Stable isotope ecology typically involves sacrificing the animal to obtain tissues. However, with threatened species or in long-term longitudinal studies, non-lethal sampling techniques should be used. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine if caudal fin tissue could be used as a non-lethal proxy to liver and muscle for stable isotope analysis, and (2) assess the effects of ethanol preservation on δ15 N and δ13 C in fin tissue of juvenile yellow perch Perca flavescens. The δ13 C of caudal fin was not significantly different from liver (t23  = -0...
May 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Dieter Rank, Stefan Wyhlidal, Katharina Schott, Silvia Weigand, Armin Oblin
The Austrian network of isotopes in rivers comprises about 15 sampling locations and has been operated since 1976. The Danube isotope time series goes back to 1963. The isotopic composition of river water in Central Europe is mainly governed by the isotopic composition of precipitation in the catchment area; evaporation effects play only a minor role. Short-term and long-term isotope signals in precipitation are thus transmitted through the whole catchment. The influence of climatic changes has become observable in the long-term stable isotope time series of precipitation and surface waters...
May 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Caio T Inácio, Alberto M T Magalhães, Paulo O Souza, Phillip M Chalk, Segundo Urquiaga
Variations in the relative isotopic abundance of C and N (δ13 C and δ15 N) were measured during the composting of different agricultural wastes using bench-scale bioreactors. Different mixtures of agricultural wastes (horse bedding manure + legume residues; dairy manure + jatropha mill cake; dairy manure + sugarcane residues; dairy manure alone) were used for aerobic-thermophilic composting. No significant differences were found between the δ13 C values of the feedstock and the final compost, except for dairy manure + sugarcane residues (from initial ratio of -13...
May 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Guilin Han, Pin Lv, Yang Tang, Zhaoliang Song
Ratios of stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen (2 H/1 H and 18 O/16 O) in river waters were measured to investigate the hydrological pathway of the Xijiang River, Southwest China. The δ2 H and δ18 O values of river waters exhibit significant spatial and temporal variations and the isotopic compositions vary with elevation, temperature and precipitation of the recharge area. Spatially, δ18 O values of river waters from high mountain areas are lower than those from the lower reaches of the Xijiang River due to lower temperature and higher elevation for the recharge area...
May 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Yuliya Vystavna, Dmytro Diadin, Frédéric Huneau
Stable isotopes of hydrogen (2 H) and oxygen (18 O) of the water molecule were used to assess the relationship between precipitation, surface water and groundwater in a large Russia/Ukraine trans-boundary river basin. Precipitation was sampled from November 2013 to February 2015, and surface water and groundwater were sampled during high and low flow in 2014. A local meteoric water line was defined for the Ukrainian part of the basin. The isotopic seasonality in precipitation was evident with depletion in heavy isotopes in November-March and an enrichment in April-October, indicating continental and temperature effects...
May 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Watheq Al-Basheer, AbdulAziz Al-Jalal, Khaled Gasmi
The 18 O/16 O and 2 H/1 H ratios of 18 water brands representing the most popular bottled water brands in the Saudi market were measured using a system based on the latest advancements in tunable off-axis integrated cavity output diode laser spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) in the near-infrared spectral region. Utilizing δ18 O and the δ2 H values of locally produced water samples, a meteoric water line (δ2 H = 7.84 δ18 O + 2.11) was extracted and found to be consistent with the slope of the global meteoric water line (GMWL) and the geographic location of Saudi Arabia...
March 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Kavita Srivastava, Anke Jentsch, Juergen Kreyling, Bruno Glaser, Guido L B Wiesenberg
Temperate ecosystems are susceptible to drought events. The effect of a severe drought (104 days) followed by irrigation on the plant C uptake, its assimilation and input of C in soil were examined using a triple 13 CO2 pulse-chase labelling experiment in model grassland and heathland ecosystems. First 13 CO2 pulse at day 0 of the experiment revealed much higher 13 C tracer uptake for shoots, roots and soil compared to the second pulse (day 44), where all plants showed significantly lower 13 C tracer uptake...
March 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Henrik Kusche, Nicola Hillgruber, Yvonne Rößner, Ulfert Focken
Increasing demand for fish and seafood calls for an expansion of aquaculture production. At the same time, the status of the marine environment must not be jeopardised. Stable isotopes are potential markers for tracking feed-based nutrient flows from aquaculture into marine biota. Here, we demonstrate how four experimental diets (main protein components: fishmeal, soya protein concentrate, wheat gluten, and Jatropha kernel meal) and a commercial diet induce characteristic δ13 C and δ15 N signals in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during nine weeks of laboratory feeding under replicate conditions...
March 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Fang Li, Atsuko Sugimoto
Soil moisture is a major factor controlling carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13 C), which has been demonstrated to decrease under dry conditions in many studies; however, few studies on Δ13 C under waterlogging condition have been conducted. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted with Larix gmelinii, a major larch species in the east Siberian Taiga, to investigate the effect of waterlogging on Δ13 C during photosynthesis. Assimilation rate and Δ13 CRD (instantaneous Δ13 C calculated with Rayleigh distillation equation) decreased drastically soon after waterlogging, followed by recovery in their values, which was caused by a change in stomatal conductance...
March 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
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