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Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612628/radioactive-caesium-134-cs-and-137-cs-in-mushrooms-of-the-genus-boletus-from-the-reggio-emilia-in-italy-and-pomerania-in-poland
#1
Luigi Cocchi, Karolina Kluza, Tamara Zalewska, Anna Apanel, Jerzy Falandysz
Activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were determined in mushrooms of the Boletus species B. aereus, B. reticulatus, B. appendiculatus, B. calopus, B. edulis, B. erythropus, B. fechtneri, B. pinophilus, B. pseudoregius, B. rhodopurpureus, B. rhodoxanthus collected in the Reggio Emilia, Italy, in 1993 and 1994 and in B. edulis collected in Pomerania in northern Poland in the period from 1995-2015. Boletus edulis from the Reggio Emilia showed presence of (137)Cs at 330 ± 220 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1993 and at 370 ± 180 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1994...
June 14, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595462/isotopic-and-multielemental-fingerprinting-of-organically-and-conventionally-grown-potatoes
#2
Dana Alina Magdas, Adriana Dehelean, Ioana Feher, Stelian Radu
Two marker combinations were used for the differentiation of organically produced from conventionally produced potatoes and also for the geographical origin identification. Fifty-seven samples (from Romanian local producers or imported) were analysed from the stable isotopic (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) and elemental profile (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) point of view. In order to assess the best marker combination, both isotopic and elemental experimental results were subject to chemometric analysis...
June 8, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589773/estimating-the-spatial-distribution-of-artificial-groundwater-recharge-using-multiple-tracers
#3
Christian Moeck, Dirk Radny, Adrian Auckenthaler, Michael Berg, Juliane Hollender, Mario Schirmer
Stable isotopes of water, organic micropollutants and hydrochemistry data are powerful tools for identifying different water types in areas where knowledge of the spatial distribution of different groundwater is critical for water resource management. An important question is how the assessments change if only one or a subset of these tracers is used. In this study, we estimate spatial artificial infiltration along an infiltration system with stage-discharge relationships and classify different water types based on the mentioned hydrochemistry data for a drinking water production area in Switzerland...
June 7, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573878/the-effect-of-resistant-starches-on-fat-oxidation-in-healthy-adults-as-measured-by-a-13-co2-breath-test
#4
Klaus D Wutzke, Kerstin V Schmidek
A resistant starch (RS) mixture (MIX) consisting of fibre of potatoes (FP) and wrinkled pea starch (WPS), and high amylose maize starch (HAMS) were supplemented in adults to evaluate their effects on fat oxidation by means of a (13)CO2-breath test. Sixteen subjects received a regular diet either without or with the supplementation of MIX and HAMS in randomised order. After administration of a [U-(13)C]algal lipid mixture, exhaled air was collected over 14 h in 0.5- and 1-h intervals. The (13)C abundances were measured by nondispersive infrared spectroscopy...
June 2, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565921/interpretation-of-environmental-tracer-data-for-conceptual-understanding-of-groundwater-flow-an-application-for-fractured-aquifer-systems-in-the-k%C3%A5-odzko-basin-sudetes-poland
#5
Mariusz Mądrala, Mirosław Wąsik, Piotr Małoszewski
Environmental isotopes and hydrogeological data have been used for the construction of a conceptual model of fresh groundwater flow in the Kłodzko Basin, Sudetes, Poland. The model has allowed the verification of a groundwater circulation scheme resulting from the general morphological assumptions and the recharge role to the surrounding mountains. Combined interpretation of the tritium ages and the isotopic altitude effect allowed determining the volume of water-bearing rock Vr and hydrogeological parameters of systems drained by springs and wells...
May 31, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545330/carbon-isotopic-signature-reveals-the-geographical-trend-in-methane-consumption-and-production-pathways-in-alpine-ecosystems-over-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#6
Tomomichi Kato, Keita Yamada, Yanhong Tang, Naohiro Yoshida, Eitaro Wada
On the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, isotopic signatures in soil-atmosphere CH4 fluxes were investigated in nine grasslands and three wetlands. In the grasslands, the fractionation factor for soil CH4 uptake, αsoil, was much smaller than the usually reported value of 0.9975-1.0095. Stepwise multiple variation analysis indicates that αsoil is higher for higher soil water contents but is lower for higher C/N ratios of soil surface biomass. In the three wetlands, the soil-emitted δ(13)C-CH4 was similar (-55.3 ± 5...
May 25, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545304/tracing-sources-of-nitrate-using-water-chemistry-land-use-and-nitrogen-isotopes-in-the-ganjiang-river-china
#7
Peng Wang, Junzheng Liu, Shuhua Qi, Shiqin Wang, Xiaoling Chen
In this work, we traced sources of nitrate in the Ganjiang River, a major tributary of Yangtze River, China, by analysing the water chemistry, nitrogen isotopes and land use. Water samples from 20 sites in the main stream and tributaries were collected in the dry and wet seasons. The [Formula: see text] ranged from 0.97 to 8.60 ‰, and was significantly higher in the wet season than in the dry season, and significantly higher in tributaries than in the main stream. In the dry season, [Formula: see text] concentrations and [Formula: see text] were significantly negatively correlated with forest and grassland areas, and positively correlated with paddy field and residential area...
May 25, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540742/comparison-of-%C3%AE-81-br-and-%C3%AE-37-cl-composition-of-volatiles-salt-precipitates-and-associated-water-in-terrestrial-evaporative-saline-lake-systems
#8
Corinne Hanlon, Randy Stotler, Shaun Frape, Rhys Gwynne
This study provides the first characterization of the variability of bromine and chlorine stable isotopic composition in evaporites, associated residual brines, and shoreline gases in terrestrial evaporative saline lakes. The lakes investigated here are groundwater discharge locations, and include both potash-rich alkaline lakes and sodic-dominated neutral pH lakes at a variety of salinities and evaporative stages. The chlorine and bromine isotope systems behave consistently different during evaporative salt precipitation, with (37)Cl more enriched in the salt than in the fluid, but (81)Br more enriched in the fluid compared with the precipitated salt...
May 25, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482709/isotope-%C3%AE-13-c-%C3%AE-15-n-%C3%AE-2-h-diet-tissue-discrimination-in-african-grey-parrot-psittacus-erithacus-implications-for-forensic-studies
#9
Craig Symes, Felix Skhosana, Mike Butler, Brett Gardner, Stephan Woodborne
Diet-tissue isotopic relationships established under controlled conditions are informative for determining the dietary sources and geographic provenance of organisms. We analysed δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and non-exchangeable δ(2)H values of captive African grey parrot Psittacus erithacus feathers grown on a fixed mixed-diet and borehole water. Diet-feather Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N discrimination values were +3.8 ± 0.3 ‰ and +6.3 ± 0.7 ‰ respectively; significantly greater than expected. Non-exchangeable δ(2)H feather values (-62...
May 8, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475364/bladder-wrack-fucus-vesiculosus-as-a-multi-isotope-bio-monitor-in-an-urbanized-fjord-of-the-western-baltic-sea
#10
Vera Winde, Michael E Böttcher, Maren Voss, Annika Mahler
The spatial variations in the elemental and stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope composition of bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus) growing along the shore line of the semi-enclosed urbanized Kiel Fjord (western Baltic Sea) was investigated at more than 60 sites. The analyses of the carbon-nitrogen-sulphur (CNS) stoichiometry and C and N stable isotope signature of F. vesiculosus displayed substantial differences between the north-western and the south-eastern parts of the Kiel Fjord. Different size classes displayed in part differences in C:N and C:S ratios, and the carbon isotope composition, reflecting the impact of the boundary conditions during growth...
May 5, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446033/controls-over-spatial-and-seasonal-variations-on-isotopic-composition-of-the-precipitation-along-the-central-and-eastern-portion-of-brazil
#11
Didier Gastmans, Vinícius Santos, Juliana Aparecida Galhardi, João Felipe Gromboni, Ludmila Vianna Batista, Konrad Miotlinski, Hung Kiang Chang, José Silvio Govone
Based on Global Network Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) isotopic data set, a review of the spatial and temporal variability of δ(18)O and δ(2)H in precipitation was conducted throughout central and eastern Brazil, indicating that dynamic interactions between Intertropical and South Atlantic Convergence Zones, Amazon rainforest, and Atlantic Ocean determine the variations on the isotopic composition of precipitation over this area. Despite the seasonality and latitude effects observed, a fair correlation with precipitation amount was found...
April 26, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385072/spatial-and-temporal-variation-in-the-stable-isotope-composition-%C3%AE-18-o-and-%C3%AE-2-h-of-rain-across-the-tropical-island-of-sri-lanka
#12
E A N V Edirisinghe, H M T G A Pitawala, H A Dharmagunawardhane, R L Wijayawardane
Seasonal and spatial variation in δ(18)O and δ(2)H in rainwater was determined in three selected transects across Sri Lanka, the tropical island in the Indian Ocean. Local meteoric water lines (LMWLs) for three distinguished climatic zones; wet, dry and intermediate were constructed. LMWLs show slight variations in their gradients and respective d-excess values, depending on the air moisture origin, circulation and environmental conditions of each climatic zone. The elevation effect and amount effect could be identified but the continental effect is not significantly seen in the isotope composition of rain in the concerned areas...
April 6, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335613/tightly-bound-soil-water-introduces-isotopic-memory-effects-on-mobile-and-extractable-soil-water-pools
#13
Sarah L Newberry, Ulrich E Prechsl, Matthew Pace, Ansgar Kahmen
Cryogenic vacuum extraction is the well-established method of extracting water from soil for isotopic analyses of waters moving through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. We investigate if soils can alter the isotopic composition of water through isotope memory effects, and determined which mechanisms are responsible for it. Soils with differing physicochemical properties were re-wetted with reference water and subsequently extracted by cryogenic water distillation. Results suggest some reference waters bind tightly to the soil and not all of this tightly bound water is removed during cryogenic vacuum extraction...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292192/prediction-of-human-dietary-%C3%AE-15-n-intake-from-standardised-food-records-validity-and-precision-of-single-meal-and-24-h-diet-data
#14
Frank Hülsemann, Karsten Koehler, Jürgen Wittsiepe, Michael Wilhelm, Annett Hilbig, Mathilde Kersting, Hans Braun, Ulrich Flenker, Wilhelm Schänzer
Natural stable isotope ratios (δ(15)N) of humans can be used for nutritional analyses and dietary reconstruction of modern and historic individuals and populations. Information about an individual's metabolic state can be obtained by comparison of tissue and dietary δ(15)N. Different methods have been used to estimate dietary δ(15)N in the past; however, the validity of such predictions has not been compared to experimental values. For a total of 56 meals and 21 samples of 24-h diets, predicted and experimental δ(15)N values were compared...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286974/natural-radioactivity-levels-and-associated-health-hazards-from-the-terrestrial-ecosystem-in-rosetta-branch-of-the-river-nile-egypt
#15
W M Abdellah, H M Diab, S U El-Kameesy, E Salama, S El-Framawy
Twenty soil and 25 sediment samples were collected from the banks and bottom of the River Nile in the surroundings of biggest cities located close to it. Natural radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K have been evaluated for all samples by means of γ spectrometric analysis. The radioactivity levels of soil and sediment samples fall within the internationally recommended values. Nevertheless, high natural background radiation zones are detected in the Kafr El-Zayat region due to the presence of a fertilizer factory, and in the Rosetta region due to the presence of black sand deposits...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276732/stable-isotope-mass-balances-versus-concentration-differences-of-dissolved-inorganic-carbon-implications-for-tracing-carbon-turnover-in-reservoirs
#16
Johannes A C Barth, Michael Mader, Franziska Nenning, Robert van Geldern, Kurt Friese
The aim of this study was to identify sources of carbon turnover using stable isotope mass balances. For this purpose, two pre-reservoirs in the Harz Mountains (Germany) were investigated for their dissolved and particulate carbon contents (dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic carbon) together with their stable carbon isotope ratios. DIC concentration depth profiles from March 2012 had an average of 0.33 mmol L(-1). Increases in DIC concentrations later on in the year often corresponded with decreases in its carbon isotope composition (δ(13)CDIC) with the most negative value of -18...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276731/deuterium-dilution-technique-for-body-composition-assessment-resolving-methodological-issues-in-children-with-moderate-acute-malnutrition
#17
Christian Fabiansen, Charles W Yaméogo, Sarita Devi, Henrik Friis, Anura Kurpad, Jonathan C Wells
Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work to develop and adapt the deuterium dilution technique...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165769/applications-of-deuterium-oxide-in-human-health
#18
Wendell Costa Bila, Reysla Maria da Silveira Mariano, Valmin Ramos Silva, Maria Emília Soares Martins Dos Santos, Joel Alves Lamounier, Eduardo Ferriolli, Alexsandro Sobreira Galdino
The main aim goal of this review was to gather information about recent publications related to deuterium oxide (D2O), and its use as a scientific tool related to human health. Searches were made in electronic databases Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, Medline and Cochrane. Moreover, the following patent databases were consulted: EPO (Espacenet patent search), USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office) and Google Patents, which cover researches worldwide related to innovations using D2O.
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092980/hydrogeochemical-and-isotope-study-of-perched-aquifers-in-the-cuvelai-etosha-basin-namibia
#19
Josefina T Hamutoko, Heike Wanke, Paul Koeniger, Matthias Beyer, Marcel Gaj
A hydrogeochemical and stable isotope study ((2)H and (18)O) was carried out in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in order to characterize available groundwater and to identify possible recharge mechanisms for the perched aquifers. Data were collected during seven field campaigns between 2013 and 2015 from a total of 24 shallow and deep groundwater hand-dug wells. In the investigated groundwaters, hydrogencarbonate is the dominating anion in both well types, whereas cations vary between calcium and magnesium in deep wells, and sodium and potassium in shallow wells...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076968/influence-of-southwest-monsoons-in-the-kashmir-valley-western-himalayas
#20
Ghulam Jeelani, Rajendrakumar D Deshpande, Rouf A Shah, Wasim Hassan
The regional climate of the Himalayas is predominated by the southwest monsoons and the western disturbances. The uplift of the Pir Panjal to its present height is believed to restrict the southwest monsoons from entering into the Kashmir Valley in the western Himalayas. In the present study, monthly precipitation samples were collected across the Kashmir Valley from June 2013 to May 2014 for δ(18)O and δ(2)H analyses to constrain the influence of southwest monsoons in the valley. Except in August, the precipitation is enriched in (18)O and (2)H from June to September and depleted from October to May...
August 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
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