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Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies

Maximo Larry Lopez Caceres, Sayako Nakano, Juan Pedro Ferrio, Mika Hayashi, Takeshi Nakatsuka, Masaki Sano, Toshiro Yamanaka, Yoshihiro Nobori
The March 2011 Mega-Tsunami in eastern Japan damaged at different degrees the black pine (Pinus thunbergii) forests along the coast. In order to evaluate the recovery of black pine four years later, tree-ring samples from 9 trees for the period 2002-2014 were analyzed for ring growth and stable isotopes (δ13 C, δ15 N and δ18 O). The results showed that annual tree-ring width decreased approximately 70 % from the year 2011 to 2014 compared to the period previous to the tsunami (2002-2010). The multiple isotopic analyses showed that the reduction in growth was caused by soil salinity that prompted stomatal closure and an abrupt increase of tree-ring δ13 C...
July 12, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Libin Wu, Liqiang Xu, Shengjie Hou, Xueying Wang, Pingqing Fu, Xiaodong Liu
We analyzed 13 C characteristics in samples of bird bones, feathers, eggshell carbonate and membrane from modern specimens of red-footed booby (Sula sula) as well as fish muscle, scales, and bones from its predominant food source, flying fish (Exocoetus volitans), and muscle from its secondary food source squid (Loligo chinensis), as well as in ancient sub-fossil samples of seabird and flying fish at the Xisha Islands, South China Sea. δ13 C is tissue-specific in both seabirds and flying fish due to the variance in turn-over among the tissues and differences in the type and content of amino acids across a diverse range of tissues...
July 5, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Wael M Badawy, Octavian G Duliu, Marina V Frontasyeva, Hussein El Samman, Arnaud Faanhof
The activity concentrations of natural 40 K, 232 Th, and 238 U in 89 soil and 84 sediment samples collected over the entire Egyptian Nile River basin including the Nile delta are reported based on the results of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The average activity concentrations of 40 K, 232 Th, and 238 U equal to 15.3 ± 6.6, 15.6 ± 11.1 and 220 ± 31 Bq/kg, respectively, are significantly lower than those reported for the Upper Continental Crust, World Average Sediments as well as World Average Soils, suggesting the presence of a considerable portion of mafic material, most probably originating from the Ethiopian High Plateau...
June 6, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Habu Tela Abba, Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan, Muneer Aziz Saleh, Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu, Ahmad Termizi Ramli, Hassan Abdulsalam
The Jos Plateau has been reported to have elevated levels of natural background radiation. A few earlier studies have measured the levels of natural radioactivity for specific locations in the area. Our interest is to investigate how geology of the study area influences the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. Thus, the activity concentrations of terrestrial radionuclides in soil samples collected across the geological formations of the Jos Plateau were determined by gamma spectrometry technique...
May 30, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Vasily A Vavilin, Sergey V Rytov, Lyudmila Y Lokshina
We described mathematically the process of peat methanization in a boreal mesotrophic fen. Gaseous and dissolved CH4 and CO2 as well as their δ13 C signatures were considered in the dynamic equations for incubation bottles. In accordance with the model, acetate, H2 , and CO2 were produced during cellulose hydrolysis and acidogenesis. 13 C/12 C in CO2 was a key variable reflecting dynamic changes in the rates of cellulose hydrolysis and acidogenesis, acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. As CO2 is the substrate in hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, δ13 C-CO2 increased from the start till the dissolved hydrogen concentration became very low...
May 29, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Suman Som, Gourab Dutta Banik, Abhijit Maity, Chiranjit Ghosh, Sujit Chaudhuri, Manik Pradhan
Helicobacter pylori causes several gastrointestinal diseases and may also contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several studies suggest that there might be a potential link between H. pylori infection and T2D, but it still remains the subject of debate. Here, we first report the cumulative effect of H. pylori infection and T2D by exploiting the excretion kinetics of 13 C/12 C and 18 O/16 O isotope ratios of exhaled breath CO2 in response to an oral dose of 13 C-enriched glucose in individuals with T2D and non-diabetic controls (NDC) harbouring the H...
April 24, 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Biao Jin, Ivonne Nijenhuis, Massimo Rolle
We performed a model-based investigation to simultaneously predict the evolution of concentration, as well as stable carbon and bromine isotope fractionation during 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB, ethylene dibromide) transformation in a closed system. The modelling approach considers bond-cleavage mechanisms during different reactions and allows evaluating dual carbon-bromine isotopic signals for chemical and biotic reactions, including aerobic and anaerobic biological transformation, dibromoelimination by Zn(0) and alkaline hydrolysis...
August 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Xing Wang, Harro A J Meijer
The stable isotopes of water are extensively used as tracers in many fields of research. For this use, it is essential to know the isotope fractionation factors connected to various processes, the most important of which being phase changes. Many experimental studies have been performed on phase change fractionation over the last decades. Whereas liquid-vapour fractionation measurements are relatively straightforward, vapour-solid and liquid-solid fractionation measurements are more complicated, as maintaining equilibrium conditions when a solid is involved is difficult...
June 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Frédéric Robin, Philippe Delaporte, Pierre Rousseau, Francis Meunier, Pierrick Bocher
Western France is at the crossroads of the migratory routes of two subspecies of black-tailed godwit, Limosa limosa. After leaving Iceland, the godwit L.l. islandica Icelandic black-tailed godwit (IBTG) winters on the coast of western Europe, while the continental black-tailed godwit (CBTG) L.l. limosa can stop in France when migrating between Iberia or Africa and their main breeding grounds in the Netherlands. In this study, we analysed δ15 N and δ13 C from flight feathers and whole blood throughout the non-breeding period to trace variations in habitat use for both subspecies on the western French coast...
June 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Małgorzata Bożek, Magdalena Kamińska, Anna Kasicka-Jonderko, Beata Krusiec-Świdergoł, Karolina Ptaszek, Magdalena Juszczyk, Krzysztof Jonderko
We evaluated the reproducibility of the 13 C-phenylalanine breath test (13 C-PheBT). On three separate days, 21 healthy volunteers (11 F and 10 M) underwent 13 C-PheBT with 100 mg l-[1-13 C]phenylalanine taken orally. Short-term reproducibility was evaluated with paired examinations taken 3 days apart; paired examinations separated by 23 days (median) served for the medium-term reproducibility assessment. Expiratory air was sampled at 19 points throughout 3 h. Determined limited reproducibility of the 13 C-PheBT must be taken into consideration while interpreting the results of this diagnostic tool...
June 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Michael E Böttcher, Nadja Neubert, Katja von Allmen, Elias Samankassou, Thomas F Nägler
In this study, we present the experimental results for stable barium (Ba) isotope fractionation (137 Ba/134 Ba) during the transformation of aragonite (CaCO3 ) and gypsum (CaSO4 ·2H2 O) in Ba-bearing aqueous solution to witherite (BaCO3 ) and barite (BaSO4 ), respectively. The process was studied at three temperatures between 4 and 60 °C. In all cases, the transformation leads to a relative enrichment of the lighter 134 Ba isotope in the solid compared to the aqueous solution, with 137/134 Ba enrichment factors between -0...
June 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
İbrahim Türkekul, Cafer Mert Yeşilkanat, Ali Ciriş, Uğur Kölemen, Uğur Çevik
The activity concentration of natural (238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K) and artificial (137 Cs) radionuclides was determined in 50 samples (obtained from the same station) from various species of mushrooms and soil collected from the Middle Black Sea Region (Turkey). The activities of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs were found as 84 ± 16, 45 ± 14, 570 ± 28, and 64 ± 6 Bq kg-1 (dry weight), respectively, in the mushroom samples and as 51 ± 6, 41 ± 6, 201 ± 11, and 44 ± 4 Bq kg-1 , respectively, in the soil samples for the entire area of study...
June 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Leonard I Wassenaar, Liang-Feng Han, Thomas Schiefer, Gustav Kainz, Luis Araguas-Araguas, Pradeep K Aggarwal
Tritium (3 H) is an essential tracer of the Earth's water cycle; yet widespread adoption of tritium in hydrologic studies remains a challenge because of analytical barriers to quantification and detection of 3 H by electrolytic pre-concentration. Here, we propose a simple tritium electrolytic enrichment system based on the use of solid polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) that can be used to enrich 3 H in 250-3000 mL environmental water samples to a 10-mL final volume. The IAEA PEM-3 H system reported here can produce high enrichment factors (>70-fold) and, importantly, removes some of the deterrents to conventional 3 H enrichments methods, including the use of toxic electrolysis and neutralization chemicals, spike standards, a complex electrolysis apparatus that requires extensive cooling and temperature controls, and improves precision by eliminating the need for tracking recovery gravimetrics...
June 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
E A N V Edirisinghe, H Manthrithilake, H M T G A Pitawala, H A Dharmagunawardhane, R L Wijayawardane
Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) is the main health issue in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Despite many studies carried out, causative factors have not been identified yet clearly. According to the multidisciplinary researches carried out so far, potable water is considered as the main causative factor for CKDu. Hence, the present study was carried out with combined isotopic and chemical methods to understand possible relationships between groundwater; the main drinking water source, and CKDu in four endemic areas in the dry zone...
June 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Alicja Ustrzycka, Natalia Piotrowska, Alicja Bonk, Janusz Filipiak, Wojciech Tylmann
An isotopic monitoring was undertaken in 2012-2014 at Lake Żabińskie (Mazurian Lakeland, NE Poland). The aim was to identify the factors and processes controlling an isotopic composition of the lake water and to explore the mechanism responsible for recording the climatic signal in stable isotope composition of deposited carbonates. δ18 O and δ2 H in the precipitation, lake water column, inflows and outflow, δ18 O and δ13 C in the carbonate fraction of sediments trapped in the water column were recorded with monthly resolution...
June 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Peter Fritz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Lisa Brase, Tina Sanders, Kirstin Dähnke
Anthropogenic nutrient inputs increase the N-load in many aquatic systems, leading to eutrophication and potential changes of biological N-retention capacity. In this study, nitrate inputs in a small river were investigated along a gradient of anthropogenic influence. We aimed to determine changes in nitrate load and isotope signatures in the water column and to identify the anthropogenic influence on biological nitrogen assimilation and nitrification or denitrification in sediments. In seasonal sampling campaigns, we analysed dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations, and stable isotopes of nitrate...
May 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Doongar R Chaudhary, Juyoung Seo, Hojeong Kang, Aditya P Rathore, Bhavanath Jha
High and fluctuating salinity is characteristic for coastal salt marshes, which strongly affect the physiology of halophytes consequently resulting in changes in stable isotope distribution. The natural abundance of stable isotopes (δ13 C and δ15 N) of the halophyte plant Salicornia brachiata and physico-chemical characteristics of soils were analysed in order to investigate the relationship of stable isotope distribution in different populations in a growing period in the coastal area of Gujarat, India. Aboveground and belowground biomass of S...
May 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Meagan McCloskey, David J Yurkowski, Christina A D Semeniuk
Stable isotope ecology typically involves sacrificing the animal to obtain tissues. However, with threatened species or in long-term longitudinal studies, non-lethal sampling techniques should be used. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine if caudal fin tissue could be used as a non-lethal proxy to liver and muscle for stable isotope analysis, and (2) assess the effects of ethanol preservation on δ15 N and δ13 C in fin tissue of juvenile yellow perch Perca flavescens. The δ13 C of caudal fin was not significantly different from liver (t23  = -0...
May 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Dieter Rank, Stefan Wyhlidal, Katharina Schott, Silvia Weigand, Armin Oblin
The Austrian network of isotopes in rivers comprises about 15 sampling locations and has been operated since 1976. The Danube isotope time series goes back to 1963. The isotopic composition of river water in Central Europe is mainly governed by the isotopic composition of precipitation in the catchment area; evaporation effects play only a minor role. Short-term and long-term isotope signals in precipitation are thus transmitted through the whole catchment. The influence of climatic changes has become observable in the long-term stable isotope time series of precipitation and surface waters...
May 2018: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
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