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Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies

İbrahim Türkekul, Cafer Mert Yeşilkanat, Ali Ciriş, Uğur Kölemen, Uğur Çevik
The activity concentration of natural ((238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K) and artificial ((137)Cs) radionuclides was determined in 50 samples (obtained from the same station) from various species of mushrooms and soil collected from the Middle Black Sea Region (Turkey). The activities of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs were found as 84 ± 16, 45 ± 14, 570 ± 28, and 64 ± 6 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight), respectively, in the mushroom samples and as 51 ± 6, 41 ± 6, 201 ± 11, and 44 ± 4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the soil samples for the entire area of study...
November 24, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Leonard I Wassenaar, Liang-Feng Han, Thomas Schiefer, Gustav Kainz, Luis Araguas-Araguas, Pradeep K Aggarwal
Tritium ((3)H) is an essential tracer of the Earth's water cycle; yet widespread adoption of tritium in hydrologic studies remains a challenge because of analytical barriers to quantification and detection of (3)H by electrolytic pre-concentration. Here, we propose a simple tritium electrolytic enrichment system based on the use of solid polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) that can be used to enrich (3)H in 250-3000 mL environmental water samples to a 10-mL final volume. The IAEA PEM-(3)H system reported here can produce high enrichment factors (>70-fold) and, importantly, removes some of the deterrents to conventional (3)H enrichments methods, including the use of toxic electrolysis and neutralization chemicals, spike standards, a complex electrolysis apparatus that requires extensive cooling and temperature controls, and improves precision by eliminating the need for tracking recovery gravimetrics...
November 22, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Doongar R Chaudhary, Juyoung Seo, Hojeong Kang, Aditya P Rathore, Bhavanath Jha
High and fluctuating salinity is characteristic for coastal salt marshes, which strongly affect the physiology of halophytes consequently resulting in changes in stable isotope distribution. The natural abundance of stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of the halophyte plant Salicornia brachiata and physico-chemical characteristics of soils were analysed in order to investigate the relationship of stable isotope distribution in different populations in a growing period in the coastal area of Gujarat, India...
November 5, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Meagan McCloskey, David J Yurkowski, Christina A D Semeniuk
Stable isotope ecology typically involves sacrificing the animal to obtain tissues. However, with threatened species or in long-term longitudinal studies, non-lethal sampling techniques should be used. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine if caudal fin tissue could be used as a non-lethal proxy to liver and muscle for stable isotope analysis, and (2) assess the effects of ethanol preservation on δ(15)N and δ(13)C in fin tissue of juvenile yellow perch Perca flavescens. The δ(13)C of caudal fin was not significantly different from liver (t23 = -0...
November 1, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Dieter Rank, Stefan Wyhlidal, Katharina Schott, Silvia Weigand, Armin Oblin
The Austrian network of isotopes in rivers comprises about 15 sampling locations and has been operated since 1976. The Danube isotope time series goes back to 1963. The isotopic composition of river water in Central Europe is mainly governed by the isotopic composition of precipitation in the catchment area; evaporation effects play only a minor role. Short-term and long-term isotope signals in precipitation are thus transmitted through the whole catchment. The influence of climatic changes has become observable in the long-term stable isotope time series of precipitation and surface waters...
October 28, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Ryuichi Wada, Yutaka Matsumi, Tomoki Nakayama, Tetsuya Hiyama, Yasushi Fujiyoshi, Naoyuki Kurita, Kenichiro Muramoto, Satoru Takanashi, Naomi Kodama, Yoshiyuki Takahashi
Isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and water vapour in the near-surface air were continuously measured for one month in an urban area of the city of Nagoya in central Japan in September 2010 using laser spectroscopic techniques. During the passages of a typhoon and a stationary front in the observation period, remarkable changes in the isotope ratios of CO2 and water vapour were observed. The isotope ratios of both CO2 and water vapour decreased during the typhoon passage. The decreases can be attributed to the air coming from an industrial area and the rainout effects of the typhoon, respectively...
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Luigi Cocchi, Karolina Kluza, Tamara Zalewska, Anna Apanel, Jerzy Falandysz
Activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were determined in mushrooms of the Boletus species B. aereus, B. reticulatus, B. appendiculatus, B. calopus, B. edulis, B. erythropus, B. fechtneri, B. pinophilus, B. pseudoregius, B. rhodopurpureus, B. rhodoxanthus collected in the Reggio Emilia, Italy, in 1993 and 1994 and in B. edulis collected in Pomerania in northern Poland in the period from 1995-2015. Boletus edulis from the Reggio Emilia showed presence of (137)Cs at 330 ± 220 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1993 and at 370 ± 180 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1994...
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Dana Alina Magdas, Adriana Dehelean, Ioana Feher, Stelian Radu
Two marker combinations were used for the differentiation of organically produced from conventionally produced potatoes and also for the geographical origin identification. Fifty-seven samples (from Romanian local producers or imported) were analysed from the stable isotopic (isotope ratio mass spectrometry) and elemental profile (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) point of view. In order to assess the best marker combination, both isotopic and elemental experimental results were subject to chemometric analysis...
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Klaus D Wutzke, Kerstin V Schmidek
A resistant starch (RS) mixture (MIX) consisting of fibre of potatoes (FP) and wrinkled pea starch (WPS), and high amylose maize starch (HAMS) were supplemented in adults to evaluate their effects on fat oxidation by means of a (13)CO2-breath test. Sixteen subjects received a regular diet either without or with the supplementation of MIX and HAMS in randomised order. After administration of a [U-(13)C]algal lipid mixture, exhaled air was collected over 14 h in 0.5- and 1-h intervals. The (13)C abundances were measured by nondispersive infrared spectroscopy...
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Tomomichi Kato, Keita Yamada, Yanhong Tang, Naohiro Yoshida, Eitaro Wada
On the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, isotopic signatures in soil-atmosphere CH4 fluxes were investigated in nine grasslands and three wetlands. In the grasslands, the fractionation factor for soil CH4 uptake, αsoil, was much smaller than the usually reported value of 0.9975-1.0095. Stepwise multiple variation analysis indicates that αsoil is higher for higher soil water contents but is lower for higher C/N ratios of soil surface biomass. In the three wetlands, the soil-emitted δ(13)C-CH4 was similar (-55.3 ± 5...
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Craig Symes, Felix Skhosana, Mike Butler, Brett Gardner, Stephan Woodborne
Diet-tissue isotopic relationships established under controlled conditions are informative for determining the dietary sources and geographic provenance of organisms. We analysed δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and non-exchangeable δ(2)H values of captive African grey parrot Psittacus erithacus feathers grown on a fixed mixed-diet and borehole water. Diet-feather Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N discrimination values were +3.8 ± 0.3 ‰ and +6.3 ± 0.7 ‰ respectively; significantly greater than expected. Non-exchangeable δ(2)H feather values (-62...
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Vera Winde, Michael E Böttcher, Maren Voss, Annika Mahler
The spatial variations in the elemental and stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope composition of bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus) growing along the shore line of the semi-enclosed urbanized Kiel Fjord (western Baltic Sea) was investigated at more than 60 sites. The analyses of the carbon-nitrogen-sulphur (CNS) stoichiometry and C and N stable isotope signature of F. vesiculosus displayed substantial differences between the north-western and the south-eastern parts of the Kiel Fjord. Different size classes displayed in part differences in C:N and C:S ratios, and the carbon isotope composition, reflecting the impact of the boundary conditions during growth...
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
E A N V Edirisinghe, H M T G A Pitawala, H A Dharmagunawardhane, R L Wijayawardane
Seasonal and spatial variation in δ(18)O and δ(2)H in rainwater was determined in three selected transects across Sri Lanka, the tropical island in the Indian Ocean. Local meteoric water lines (LMWLs) for three distinguished climatic zones; wet, dry and intermediate were constructed. LMWLs show slight variations in their gradients and respective d-excess values, depending on the air moisture origin, circulation and environmental conditions of each climatic zone. The elevation effect and amount effect could be identified but the continental effect is not significantly seen in the isotope composition of rain in the concerned areas...
December 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Gerhard Strauch, Peter Krumbiegel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Roberto Gonfiantini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
E A N V Edirisinghe, H Manthrithilake, H M T G A Pitawala, H A Dharmagunawardhane, R L Wijayawardane
Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) is the main health issue in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Despite many studies carried out, causative factors have not been identified yet clearly. According to the multidisciplinary researches carried out so far, potable water is considered as the main causative factor for CKDu. Hence, the present study was carried out with combined isotopic and chemical methods to understand possible relationships between groundwater; the main drinking water source, and CKDu in four endemic areas in the dry zone...
September 26, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Caio T Inácio, Alberto M T Magalhães, Paulo O Souza, Phillip M Chalk, Segundo Urquiaga
Variations in the relative isotopic abundance of C and N (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) were measured during the composting of different agricultural wastes using bench-scale bioreactors. Different mixtures of agricultural wastes (horse bedding manure + legume residues; dairy manure + jatropha mill cake; dairy manure + sugarcane residues; dairy manure alone) were used for aerobic-thermophilic composting. No significant differences were found between the δ(13)C values of the feedstock and the final compost, except for dairy manure + sugarcane residues (from initial ratio of -13...
September 25, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Watheq Al-Basheer, AbdulAziz Al-Jalal, Khaled Gasmi
The (18)O/(16)O and (2)H/(1)H ratios of 18 water brands representing the most popular bottled water brands in the Saudi market were measured using a system based on the latest advancements in tunable off-axis integrated cavity output diode laser spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) in the near-infrared spectral region. Utilizing δ(18)O and the δ(2)H values of locally produced water samples, a meteoric water line (δ(2)H = 7.84 δ(18)O + 2.11) was extracted and found to be consistent with the slope of the global meteoric water line (GMWL) and the geographic location of Saudi Arabia...
September 15, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Kavita Srivastava, Anke Jentsch, Juergen Kreyling, Bruno Glaser, Guido L B Wiesenberg
Temperate ecosystems are susceptible to drought events. The effect of a severe drought (104 days) followed by irrigation on the plant C uptake, its assimilation and input of C in soil were examined using a triple (13)CO2 pulse-chase labelling experiment in model grassland and heathland ecosystems. First (13)CO2 pulse at day 0 of the experiment revealed much higher (13)C tracer uptake for shoots, roots and soil compared to the second pulse (day 44), where all plants showed significantly lower (13)C tracer uptake...
September 15, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
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