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Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN

Anna O Yakimova, Olga M Pugacheva, Elena V Golubkova, Ludmila A Mamon
The Drosophila gene Dm nxf1 (nuclear export factor 1) previously known as small bristles (sbr) controls nuclear export of various mRNA transcripts. We found that Dm NXF1 is present not only in nucleoplasm or at the nuclear rim but also in the cytoplasm. On the spatiotemporal level, anti-SBR antibodies labeled some neuroblasts and their lineages in the brains of Drosophila larvae. The number of Dm NXF1-rich lineages increased during larval development, but Dm NXF1 expression was not evident in all lineages. In all larval stages, Dm NXF1 concentrated in the midline cells of the ventral nerve cord, which reflects a specific status of those cells...
September 2016: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Seçkin Soya, Umut Şahar, Sabire Karaçalı
Glycoconjugates have various functions in differentiation, development, aging and in all aspects of normal functioning of organisms. The reason for increased research on this topic is that glycoconjugates locate mostly on the cell surface and play crucial biological roles in the nervous system including brain development, synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Considering their roles in the nervous system, information about their existence in the insect nervous system is rather sparse. Therefore, in order to detect monosaccharide content of N- and O-glycans, we carried out capLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis to determine the concentration changes of glucose, mannose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose, xylose, arabinose, and ribose monosaccharides in the nervous system of Bombyx mori during development and aging processes...
September 2016: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Adrian J Wolstenholme, Mary J Maclean, Ruby Coates, Ciaran J McCoy, Barbara J Reaves
The macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are one of the few classes of drug used in the control of the human filarial infections, onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis, and the only one used to prevent heartworm disease in dogs and cats. Despite their importance in preventing filarial diseases, the way in which the MLs work against these parasites is unclear. In vitro measurements of nematode motility have revealed a large discrepancy between the maximum plasma concentrations achieved after drug administration and the amounts required to paralyze worms...
September 2016: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Nino Gopi Daisy, Elaiya Raja Subramanian, Jackson Durairaj Selvan Christyraj, Dinesh Kumar Sudalai Mani, Johnson Retnaraj Samuel Selvan Christyraj, Kalidas Ramamoorthy, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami, Sudhakar Sivasubramaniam
Earthworms are segmented invertebrates that belong to the phylum Annelida. The segments can be divided into the anterior, clitellar and posterior parts. If the anterior part of the earthworm, which includes the brain, is amputated, the worm would essentially survive even in the absence of the brain. In these brain amputee-derived worms, the nerve cord serves as the primary control center for neurological function. In this current work, we studied changes in the expression levels of anti-acetylated tubulin and serotonin as the indicators of neuro-regenerative processes...
September 2016: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Damien M O'Halloran
Nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans offer a very effective and tractable system to probe the underlying mechanisms of diverse sensory behaviors. Numerous platforms exist for quantifying nematode behavior and often require separate dependencies or software. Here I describe a novel and simple tool called NemaCount that provides a versatile solution for the quantification of nematode chemotaxis behavior. The ease of installation and user-friendly interface makes NemaCount a practical tool for measuring diverse behaviors and image features of nematodes such as C...
June 2016: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
James Dillon, Lindy Holden-Dye, Vincent O'Connor, Neil A Hopper
Insulin signalling plays a significant role in both developmental programmes and pathways modulating the neuronal signalling that controls adult behaviour. Here, we have investigated insulin signalling in food-associated behaviour in adult C. elegans by scoring locomotion and feeding on and off bacteria, the worm's food. This analysis used mutants (daf-2, daf-18) of the insulin signalling pathway, and we provide evidence for an acute role for insulin signalling in the adult nervous system distinct from its impact on developmental programmes...
June 2016: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Anna Crisford, Lindy Holden-Dye, Robert J Walker
This report summarizes the lectures and posters presented at the International Society for Invertebrate Neurobiology's 13th symposium held 26-30 August 2015, at the Balaton Limnological Institute, MTA Centre for Ecological Research, Tihany, Hungary. The symposium provided an opportunity for scientists working on a range of topics in invertebrate neurobiology to meet and present their research and discuss ways to advance the discipline.
June 2016: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Cagil Coskun, Nuhan Purali
Voltage-gated sodium channel genes and associated proteins have been cloned and studied in many mammalian and invertebrate species. However, there is no data available about the sodium channel gene(s) in the crayfish, although the animal has frequently been used as a model to investigate various aspects of neural cellular and circuit function. In the present work, by using RNA extracts from crayfish abdominal ganglia samples, the complete open reading frame of a putative sodium channel gene has firstly been cloned and molecular properties of the associated peptide have been analyzed...
June 2016: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Z El Filali, P A C M de Boer, A W Pieneman, R P J de Lange, R F Jansen, A Ter Maat, R C van der Schors, K W Li, N M van Straalen, J M Koene
Male copulation is a complex behavior that requires coordinated communication between the nervous system and the peripheral reproductive organs involved in mating. In hermaphroditic animals, such as the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis, this complexity increases since the animal can behave both as male and female. The performance of the sexual role as a male is coordinated via a neuronal communication regulated by many peptidergic neurons, clustered in the cerebral and pedal ganglia and dispersed in the pleural and parietal ganglia...
December 2015: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Lindy Holden-Dye, Graziano Fiorito, Giovanna Ponte
Invertebrate neuroscience, and in particular cephalopod research, is well represented in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the recent meeting of the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience in Santa Margherita di Pula, Sardinia (12-15 June 2015) provided an excellent opportunity for invertebrate contributions. Furthermore, the Chair of an EU COST Action for cephalopod research (FA1301; ), Giovanna Ponte, together with Graziano Fiorito from the Stazione Zoologica, Naples, aligned a meeting of research groups working in the field of cephalopod neurophysiology from across Europe to coincide with the neuroscience meeting...
December 2015: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Eman Mostafa, Bob Storey, Adel Mohammed Farghaly, Hany Abd El-Hai Afify, Afaf Abd El-Raouf Taha, Adrian J Wolstenholme
Levamisole is an anthelmintic drug that acts by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the nematode neuromuscular junction and causing paralysis. We measured the in vitro effects of levamisole on the motility of Brugia malayi microfilariae; after 2 h incubation the apparent IC50 was 2.68 mM. Lower drug concentrations, such as 1 mM, caused an immediate total paralysis that lasted for up to 1 h, but was completely reversed by 2 h of incubation. The 'recovered' parasites were still completely susceptible to application of a second nicotinic agonist, pyrantel...
September 2015: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Jacqueline K Morris, Anthony Chomyk, Ping Song, Nate Parker, Sadie Deckard, Bruce D Trapp, Sanjay W Pimplikar, Ranjan Dutta
Oligodendrocytes produce multi-lamellar myelin membranes that surround axons in the central nervous system (CNS). Preservation and generation of myelin are potential therapeutic targets for dysmyelinating and demyelinating diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in oligodendrocyte differentiation and overall CNS development. miR-124 is a well-conserved neuronal miRNA with important roles in neuronal differentiation and function. miR-124 levels increase following loss of myelin in both human and rodent brains...
September 2015: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Toshiki Nagayama, Makoto Araki
Crayfish escape from threatening stimuli by tailflipping. If a stimulus is applied to the rear, crayfish escape up and forwards in a summersault maneuver that is mediated by the activation of lateral giant (LG) interneurons. The occurrence probability of LG-mediated tailflip, however, diminishes and habituates if a stimulus is repeatedly applied. Since crayfish have a relatively simple CNS with many identifiable neurons, crayfish represent a good animal to analyze the cellular basis of habituation. A reduction in the amplitude of the EPSP in the LGs, caused by direct chemical synaptic connection from sensory afferents by repetitive stimulations, is essential to bring about an inactivation of the LGs...
June 2015: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Elizabeth Hahn, Brian Burrell
This study examined the capacity of a known pro-epileptic drug, pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), to elicit seizure-like activity in the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. During in vivo experiments, PTZ elicited increased motor activity in a concentration-dependent manner with the highest concentration (10 mM) eliciting episodes of highly uncoordinated exploratory and swimming behavior. Co-application of the anti-epileptic drug, phenytoin, failed to reduce the absolute amount of PTZ-induced motor behavior, but was able to prevent expression of abnormal exploratory and swimming behaviors...
2015: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Nicholas J D Wright, Lynda J Sides, Kerry Walling
The generation of the novel messenger molecule nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated in many tissues across phyla including nervous systems. It is produced on demand by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase often stimulated by intracellular calcium and typically affecting guanylate cyclase thought to be its principal target in an auto and/or paracrine fashion. This results in the generation of the secondary messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Nitric oxide synthase has been demonstrated in various mollusk brains and manipulation of NO levels has been shown to affect behavior in mollusks...
2015: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Andrej M Khaitin, Mikhail V Rudkovskii, Anatoly B Uzdensky
The crayfish stretch receptor consisting of the single mechanoreceptor neurons enveloped by satellite glial cells is the simplest functioning neuroglial preparation. However, during isolation, its axons are usually transected that eliminates afferent regulation and induces complex axotomy-related signaling responses in neurons and satellite glia. We developed new microsurgical method of crayfish stretch receptor isolation, which preserves connections of sensory neurons to the ventral nerve cord ganglion. The stretch receptor may either remain on the abdominal carapace, or be completely isolated...
2015: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Fernando Calahorro
Neuroligins are cell-adhesion proteins that interact with neurexins at the synapse. This interaction may contribute to differentiation, plasticity and specificity of synapses. In humans, single mutations in neuroligin-encoding genes are implicated in autism spectrum disorder and/or mental retardation. Moreover, some copy number variations and point mutations in neurexin-encoding genes have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders including autism. Neurexins are subject to extensive alternative splicing, highly regulated in mammals, with a great physiological importance...
September 2014: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Alberto Moura Mendes Lopes, Renato Assis de Carvalho, Ana Maria Lima de Azeredo-Espin
The New World screwworm (NWS) Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is one of the major myiasis-causing flies that injures livestock and leads to losses of ~US$ 2.7 billions/year in the Neotropics. Ivermectin (IVM), a macrocyclic lactone (ML), is the most used preventive insecticide for this parasite and targets the glutamate-gated chloride (GLUCLα) channels. Several authors have associated altered GluClα homologues to MLs resistance in invertebrates, although studies about resistance in NWS are limited to other genes...
September 2014: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
László Hernádi, Tibor Kiss, Nóra Krajcs, Thomas Teyke
Three flexor muscles of the posterior tentacles of the snail Helix pomatia have recently been described. Here, we identify their local motor neurons by following the retrograde transport of neurobiotin injected into these muscles. The mostly unipolar motor neurons (15-35 µm) are confined to the tentacle digits and send motor axons to the M2 and M3 muscles. Electron microscopy revealed small dark neurons (5-7 µm diameter) and light neurons with 12-18 (T1 type) and 18-30 µm diameters (T2 type) in the digits...
September 2014: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
Carlos A Díaz-Balzac, Lionel D Vázquez-Figueroa, José E García-Arrarás
Echinoderms occupy a key position in the evolution of deuterostomes. As such, the study of their nervous system can shed important information on the evolution of the vertebrate nervous system. However, the study of the echinoderm nervous system has lagged behind when compared to that of other invertebrates due to the lack of tools available. In this study, we tested three commercially available antibodies as markers of neural components in holothurians. Immunohistological experiments with antibodies made against the mammalian transcription factors Pax6 and Nurr1, and against phosphorylated histone H3 showed that these markers identified cells and fibers within the nervous system of Holothuria glaberrima...
September 2014: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
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