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Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777401/bantam-regulates-the-axonal-geometry-of-drosophila-larval-brain-by-modulating-actin-regulator-enabled
#1
Animesh Banerjee, Jagat Kumar Roy
During development, axonogenesis, an integral part of neurogenesis, is based on well-concerted events comprising generation, rearrangement, migration, elongation, and adhesion of neurons. Actin, specifically the crosstalk between the guardians of actin polymerization, like enabled, chickadee, capping protein plays an essential role in crafting several events of axonogenesis. Recent evidences reflect multifaceted role of microRNA during axonogenesis. Here, we investigated the role of bantam miRNA, a well-established miRNA in Drosophila, in regulating the actin organization during brain development...
May 18, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700671/flubendiamide-affects-visual-and-locomotory-activities-of-drosophila-melanogaster-for-three-successive-generations-p-f-1-and-f-2
#2
Saurabh Sarkar, Arnab Roy, Sumedha Roy
Flubendiamide is widely used in agricultural fields to exterminate a broad spectrum of pests (lepidopteran insects) by disrupting their muscle function. The main objective of this study was to find the effects of flubendiamide on a non-target organism, Drosophila melanogaster (dipteran insect). In the present study, different sub-lethal concentrations of Flubendiamide caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity and increase in cytochrome P450 activity in adult D. melanogaster...
April 26, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560546/three-dimensional-organization-of-the-brain-and-distribution-of-serotonin-in-the-brain-and-ovary-and-its-effects-on-ovarian-steroidogenesis-in-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#3
Boworn Soonthornsumrith, Jirawat Saetan, Thanapong Kruangkum, Tipsuda Thongbuakaew, Thanyaporn Senarai, Ronnarong Palasoon, Prasert Sobhon, Prapee Sretarugsa
The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important crustacean species which has also been extensively used as a model in neuroscience research. The crustacean central nervous system is a highly complex structure, especially the brain. However, little information is available on the brain structure, especially the three-dimensional organization. In this study, we demonstrated the three-dimensional structure and histology of the brain of M. rosenbergii together with the distribution of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain and ovary as well as its effects on ovarian steroidogenesis...
March 20, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532181/the-presynaptic-machinery-at-the-synapse-of-c-elegans
#4
REVIEW
Fernando Calahorro, Patricia G Izquierdo
Synapses are specialized contact sites that mediate information flow between neurons and their targets. Important physical interactions across the synapse are mediated by synaptic adhesion molecules. These adhesions regulate formation of synapses during development and play a role during mature synaptic function. Importantly, genes regulating synaptogenesis and axon regeneration are conserved across the animal phyla. Genetic screens in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have identified a number of molecules required for synapse patterning and assembly...
March 12, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525854/the-allometry-of-the-arcuate-body-in-the-postembryonic-development-of-the-giant-house-spider-eratigena-atrica
#5
Teresa Napiórkowska, Jarosław Kobak
The brain of arachnids contains a special neuropil area called the arcuate body (AB), whose function has been widely discussed. Its growth and proportion in the brain volume during postembryogenesis have been investigated only in several spider species. Our allometric study is aimed at determining to what extent the development of the AB in Eratigena atrica, a spider with unique biology and behaviour, is similar to the development of this body in other species. We put forward a hypothesis of allometric growth of this body in relation to the volume of the central nervous system (CNS) and its neuropil as well as in relation to the volume of the brain and its neuropil...
March 10, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332202/non-amidated-and-amidated-members-of-the-c-type-allatostatin-ast-c-family-are-differentially-distributed-in-the-stomatogastric-nervous-system-of-the-american-lobster-homarus-americanus
#6
Andrew E Christie, Alexandra Miller, Rebecca Fernandez, Evyn S Dickinson, Audrey Jordan, Jessica Kohn, Mina C Youn, Patsy S Dickinson
The crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) is a well-known model for investigating neuropeptidergic control of rhythmic behavior. Among the peptides known to modulate the STNS are the C-type allatostatins (AST-Cs). In the lobster, Homarus americanus, three AST-Cs are known. Two of these, pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF (AST-C I) and GNGDGRLYWRCYFNAVSCF (AST-C III), have non-amidated C-termini, while the third, SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide (AST-C II), is C-terminally amidated. Here, antibodies were generated against one of the non-amidated peptides (AST-C I) and against the amidated isoform (AST-C II)...
January 13, 2018: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185074/evaluating-the-longevity-of-surgically-extracted-xenopus-laevis-oocytes-for-the-study-of-nematode-ligand-gated-ion-channels
#7
Sarah A Abdelmassih, Everett Cochrane, Sean G Forrester
Xenopus laevis oocytes have been extensively used as a heterologous expression system for the study of ion channels. While used successfully worldwide as tool for expressing and characterizing ion channels from a wide range of species, the limited longevity of oocytes once removed from the animal can pose significant challenges. In this study, we evaluate a simple and useful method that extends the longevity of Xenopus oocytes after removal from the animal and quantitatively assessed the reliability of the electrophysiological date obtained...
November 28, 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038967/morphology-and-the-central-nervous-system-of-eratigena-atrica-affected-by-a-complex-anomaly-in-the-anterior-part-of-the-prosoma
#8
Teresa Napiórkowska, Julita Templin, Katarzyna Wołczuk
Spider embryogenesis is affected by a range of environmental factors. Any sudden, drastic change in the environment may impair spider development, leading to various body deformities. In the present study, we analyze changes in the morphology and structure of the central nervous system of an Eratigena atrica larva, obtained in a teratological experiment in which embryos were exposed to alternating temperatures of 14 and 32 °C for the first 10 days. The studied larva had three pedipalps on the right side of the prosoma (polymely), two of which were fused along their entire length (total heterosymely)...
October 17, 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988319/the-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-fluoxetine-increases-spontaneous-afferent-firing-but-not-mechanonociceptive-sensitization-in-octopus
#9
Paul V Perez, Hanna M Butler-Struben, Robyn J Crook
Serotonin is a widely studied modulator of neural plasticity. Here we investigate the effect of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on short-term, peripheral nociceptive plasticity in the neurologically complex invertebrate, octopus. After crush injury to isolated mantle (body wall) tissue, application of 10 nM fluoxetine increased spontaneous firing in crushed preparations, but had a minimal effect on mechanosensory sensitization. Effects largely did not persist after washout. We suggest that transiently elevated, endogenous serotonin may help promote initiation of longer-term plasticity of nociceptive afferents and drive immediate and spontaneous behaviors aimed at protecting wounds and escaping dangerous situations...
October 7, 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688004/do-terrestrial-gastropods-use-olfactory-cues-to-locate-and-select-food-actively
#10
REVIEW
Tibor Kiss
Having been investigated for over 40 years, some aspects of the biology of terrestrial gastropod's olfactory system have been challenging and highly contentious, while others still remain unresolved. For example, a number of terrestrial gastropod species can track the odor of food, while others have no strong preferences toward food odor; rather they find it by random encounter. Here, while assessing the most recent findings and comparing them with earlier studies, the aspects of the food selection based on olfactory cues are examined critically to highlight the speculations and controversies that have arisen...
September 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620831/cephalopod-biology-and-care-a-cost-fa1301-cephsinaction-training-school-anaesthesia-and-scientific-procedures
#11
Vanessa M Lopes, Eduardo Sampaio, Katina Roumbedakis, Nobuaki K Tanaka, Lucía Carulla, Guillermo Gambús, Theodosia Woo, Catarina P P Martins, Virginie Penicaud, Colette Gibbings, Jessica Eberle, Perla Tedesco, Isabel Fernández, Tania Rodríguez-González, Pamela Imperadore, Giovanna Ponte, Graziano Fiorito
Cephalopods are the sole invertebrates included in the list of regulated species following the Directive 2010/63/EU. According to the Directive, achieving competence through adequate training is a requisite for people having a role in the different functions (article 23) as such carrying out procedures on animals, designing procedures and projects, taking care of animals, killing animals. Cephalopod Biology and Care Training Program is specifically designed to comply with the requirements of the "working document on the development of a common education and training framework to fulfil the requirements under the Directive 2010/63/EU"...
September 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612144/fast-calcium-transients-translate-the-distribution-and-conduction-of-neural-activity-in-different-regions-of-a-single-sensory-neuron
#12
Nuhan Purali
In the present study, cytosolic calcium concentration changes were recorded in response to various forms of excitations, using the fluorescent calcium indicator dye OG-BAPTA1 together with the current or voltage clamp methods in stretch receptor neurons of crayfish. A single action potential evoked a rise in the resting calcium level in the axon and axonal hillock, whereas an impulse train or a large saturating current injection would be required to evoke an equivalent response in the dendrite region. Under voltage clamp conditions, amplitude differences between axon and dendrite responses vanished completely...
September 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540583/circadian-rhythm-in-melatonin-release-as-a-mechanism-to-reinforce-the-temporal-organization-of-the-circadian-system-in-crayfish
#13
Leonor Mendoza-Vargas, Armida Báez-Saldaña, Ramón Alvarado, Beatriz Fuentes-Pardo, Edgar Flores-Soto, Héctor Solís-Chagoyán
Melatonin (MEL) is a conserved molecule with respect to its synthesis pathway and functions. In crayfish, MEL content in eyestalks (Ey) increases at night under the photoperiod, and this indoleamine synchronizes the circadian rhythm of electroretinogram amplitude, which is expressed by retinas and controlled by the cerebroid ganglion (CG). The aim of this study was to determine whether MEL content in eyestalks and CG or circulating MEL in hemolymph (He) follows a circadian rhythm under a free-running condition; in addition, it was tested whether MEL might directly influence the spontaneous electrical activity of the CG...
June 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451884/manganese-tissue-accumulation-and-tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunostaining-response-in-the-neotropical-freshwater-crab-dilocarcinus-pagei-exposed-to-manganese
#14
Silvia Ponzoni
Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal for the development and function of the mammalian brain; however, excess Mn accumulation may cause neurological abnormalities resembling Parkinson's disease due to reductions in brain dopamine levels. Because dopamine also regulates many functions in crustaceans, this study examined the effects of Mn accumulation in Dilocarcinus pagei, a Neotropical freshwater crab. Following a 72-h exposure to graded concentrations of MnCl2 , Mn accumulation was assessed in several tissues...
June 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421370/the-current-state-of-knowledge-on-the-neuroactive-compounds-that-affect-the-development-mating-and-reproduction-of-spiders-araneae-compared-to-insects
#15
REVIEW
Marta Sawadro, Agata Bednarek, Agnieszka Babczyńska
The neuroendocrine system of insects, including the presence of the main neuroactive compounds, and their role in ontogenesis are probably best understood of all the arthropods. Development, metamorphosis, the maturation of the gonads, vitellogenesis and egg production are regulated by hormones (juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids) and neuropeptides. However, knowledge about their presence and functions in spiders is fragmentary. In this paper, we present a summary of the current data about the juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids and neuropeptides in selected groups of arthropods, with particular emphasis on spiders...
June 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324191/planarian-homolog-of-puromycin-sensitive-aminopeptidase-djpsa-is-required-for-brain-regeneration
#16
Suge Wu, Bin Liu, Zuoqing Yuan, Xiufang Zhang, Hong Liu, Qiuxiang Pang, Bosheng Zhao
Puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA) belongs to the M1 zinc metallopeptidase family. PSA is the most abundant aminopeptidase in the brain and plays a role in the metabolism of neuropeptides including those involved in neurodegeneration. A cDNA DjPsa was identified from the planarian Dugesia japonica cDNA library. It contains a 639-bp open reading frame corresponding to a deduced protein of 212 amino acids. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that DjPsa is expressed in the brain and ventral nerve cords of intact and regenerating animals and demonstrates a tissue and stage-specific expression pattern of DjPsa in developing embryos and larvae...
June 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124181/drosophila-dunc-115-mediates-axon-projection-through-actin-binding
#17
Christopher Roblodowski, Qi He
A central step in organizing the central nervous system development is the growth cone of an axon navigating through guidance cues to reach its specific target. While a great deal of this process has been understood especially in identifying the extracellular guidance cues and their membrane receptors, much less is known about how guidance signals are further relayed to the actin filaments that are central to the mobility of the growth cone. The previous results from our laboratory have shown that Drosophila gene dunc-115 regulates axon projection in the eye and the central nervous system...
March 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078622/evidence-that-polycystins-are-involved-in-hydra-cnidocyte-discharge
#18
Susan McLaughlin
Like other cnidarians, the freshwater organism Hydra is characterized by the possession of cnidocytes (stinging cells). Most cnidocytes are located on hydra tentacles, where they are organized along with sensory cells and ganglion cells into battery complexes. The function of the battery complexes is to integrate multiple types of stimuli for the regulation of cnidocyte discharge. The molecular mechanisms controlling the discharge of cnidocytes are not yet fully understood, but it is known that discharge depends on extracellular Ca2+ and that mechanically induced cnidocyte discharge can be enhanced by the presence of prey extracts and other chemicals...
March 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995347/the-cholinomimetic-morantel-as-an-open-channel-blocker-of-the-ascaris-suum-acr-16-nachr
#19
Melanie Abongwa, Katherine E Baber, Richard J Martin, Alan P Robertson
Nematode parasite infections pose a significant threat in human and veterinary medicine. At least a third of the world's population is at risk from nematode parasite infections. These infections not only cause health problems, but also cause loss of livestock production and hence, economic losses. Anthelmintic drugs are the mainstay by which control of nematode parasite infections is achieved. Many of the currently available anthelmintics act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, the detailed mode of action (MOA) of these anthelmintics is not clearly understood...
December 2016: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389771/cytoplasmic-localization-of-sbr-dm-nxf1-protein-and-its-zonal-distribution-in-the-ganglia-of-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae
#20
Anna O Yakimova, Olga M Pugacheva, Elena V Golubkova, Ludmila A Mamon
The Drosophila gene Dm nxf1 (nuclear export factor 1) previously known as small bristles (sbr) controls nuclear export of various mRNA transcripts. We found that Dm NXF1 is present not only in nucleoplasm or at the nuclear rim but also in the cytoplasm. On the spatiotemporal level, anti-SBR antibodies labeled some neuroblasts and their lineages in the brains of Drosophila larvae. The number of Dm NXF1-rich lineages increased during larval development, but Dm NXF1 expression was not evident in all lineages. In all larval stages, Dm NXF1 concentrated in the midline cells of the ventral nerve cord, which reflects a specific status of those cells...
September 2016: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
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