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Current Pharmaceutical Design

Maria Luz Fernandez, Minu Sara Thomas, Bruno S Lemos, Diana M DiMarco, Amanda Missimer, Melissa Melough, Ock K Chun, Ana Gabriela Murillo, Hana Alyousef, Isabel Medina-Vera
BACKGROUND: Telomerase Activator 65 (TA-65), a compound extracted from Astragalus membranaceus has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for extending life span. Scarce information exists on the effects of TA-65 on parameters of metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: We recruited 40 patients with MetS to determine the effects of TA-65 on dyslipidemias, hypertension, and oxidative stress in this at-risk population. The study was a double-blind, randomized crossover design in which patients were allocated to consume either 16 mg daily of a TA-65 supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks...
March 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ling Gui Ning, En-Tang Kang, Yun Bing Wang, Xue Feng Hu, Li Qun Xu
Traditional use of antibiotics through injection or oral ingestion has many disadvantages, such as detrimental side effects in the host, less effectiveness, high and repeated doses, and development of drug resistance. For prevention and treatment of implant-associated infections, the continuous local delivery of antibiotics is required. Thus, there is a strong demand for the development of drug carrier systems to control the release of antibiotics in a moderate manner over an appropriate timescale. This review summarizes the carrier platforms used for the loading of antibiotics, and highlights their drug release behaviors as well as in vitro and in vivo antibacterial properties...
March 14, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Eugenia S Mardanova, Nikolai V Ravin
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a widely distributed infection that almost annually causes seasonal epidemics. The current egg-based platforms for influenza vaccine production are facing a number of challenges and are failing to satisfy the global demand in the case of pandemics due to the long production time. Recombinant vaccines are an alternative that can be quickly produced in high quantities in standard expression systems. METHODS: Plants may become a promising biofactory for the large-scale production of recombinant proteins due to low cost, scalability, and safety...
March 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Tengzhou Xu, Zhou Chen, Zhaofeng Chen, Yuxin Fan, Haifeng Mao
Infections caused by microbial proliferation are one of the common issues and serious threats to the medical care, and they usually result in disease spread. Therefore, it is a significant issue for developing the anti-infective biomaterials to control this problem, according to the specific clinical application. Meanwhile, all their properties, the best anti-infective performance, the safe biocompatibility and the appropriate tissue interactions must be conformed to each other. At present, technologies are developing novel biomaterials and surfaces endowed with anti-infective properties, relying either on bactericidal or anti-biofilm activities...
March 7, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Junchao Wei, Jianxun Ding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Andor W J M Glaudemans, Thomas C Kwee, Riemer H J A Slart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ilker Uckay, Francois R Jornayvaz, Dan Lebowitz, Giacomo Gastaldi, Karim Gariani, Benjamin A Lipsky
Factors strongly related to the risk of developing diabetic foot infections include vascular, neuropathic and hyperglycemic complications of long-standing diabetes mellitus. These infections are common and serious, posing a worldwide burden on administrative providers of healthcare, patients and physicians. The most appropriate approach to these infections is with a multidisciplinary team. This subchapter summarizes the current state-of-the-art concerning therapy, and scientific knowledge, for peripheral arterial insufficiency, hyperglycemia, and peripheral neuropathy of the diabetic foot, with an emphasis on the infectious complications...
March 2, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Onno August Mennes, J J van Netten, R H J A Slart, Wiendelt Steenbergen
BACKGROUND: The most severe diabetic foot ulcers are those related with critical ischemia, which is primarily diagnosed with non-invasive diagnostics. However, these diagnostics have several disadvantages. For example, they only provide global indications of the (macro)level of ischemia. A potential solution can be found in novel optical imaging techniques for local assessment of the microcirculation in diabetic foot ulcers. This review provides an overview of these imaging techniques (laser Doppler perfusion imaging, laser speckle contrast imaging; photoacoustic imaging and hyperspectral imaging) and their applicability for the diagnostic assessment of microcirculation in diabetic foot ulcers...
March 2, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Elite Arnon-Sheleg, Zohar Keidar
Osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot can be difficult to diagnose and has serious consequences. Although 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) was traditionally used in oncology, it is emerging as a useful method in inflammatory and infectious entities. In this chapter, original research articles, meta-analyses, and reviews on the performance of FDG PET in diagnosing osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot will be discussed. In addition, PET available data in comparison to different imaging methods, different analysis methods, and impact of other co-existing conditions such as hyperglycemia, and long-term antibiotic treatment on the performance of FDG PET will be reviewed...
February 26, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Alfred O Ankrah, Hans C Klein, Philip H Elsinga
Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are associated with increased morbidity, an economic burden on patients, their families and healthcare systems and increased mortality. Early diagnosis with prompt, appropriate and adequate treatment of the infected diabetic foot is crucial. The determination of DFIs, however, may be quite perplexing and invasive. Imaging is useful in the evaluation of certain cases of DFIs, especially in suspected instances with no overt clinical features, or in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis...
February 26, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Chiara Lauri, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Alberto Signore
BACKGROUND: Diagnosing diabetic foot infection is often difficult, despite several available diagnostic methods. Amongst these, several imaging modalities exist to evaluate the diabetic foot in case of a suspected osteomyelitis. Nuclear Medicine, in particular, offers a variety of radiopharmaceuticals and techniques. Nowadays the gold standard radionuclide procedure, when an osteomyelitis is suspected, is represented by the use of radiolabelled leukocytes with either 99mTc-HMPAO or 111In-oxine...
February 26, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Jorge E Miranda-Calderon, Lilia Gutierrez, Luis Ocampo, Ponciano Garcia-Gutierrez, Graciela Tapia, Hector Sumano
BACKGROUND: There is a concern about the frequent use of ciprofloxacin in veterinary medicine is linked to increased antimicrobial resistance. The corresponding fluoroquinolone for veterinary use is enrofloxacin. A new solvate form of enrofloxacin, as dihydrate-hydrochloride (enro-C) with higher water solubility than the parent compound, was formulated as an ophthalmic solution (pH 5). A multicentre, longitudinal, non-inferiority clinical study in a non-hospital environment was designed to treat 36 dogs affected by tobramycin-unresponsive conjunctivitis with either the experimental 0...
February 26, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Soledad Lorena Saavedra, Lucia Avila, Silvana Laura Giudicessi, Fernando Albericio, Silvia Andrea Camperi, Osvaldo Cascone, Maria Camila Martinez-Ceron
Nowadays, treatment with specific antivenins is considered the only cure for snakebites accidents. However, access to antivenom obstructs the successful implementation of the World Health Organization international guidelines. In the last few years, natural organic compounds, peptides and proteins with the ability to inhibit snake toxins and obtained from different sources such as plant extracts and animal blood have been proposed as antivenoms. In this work, we will focus on the inhibitors of the main venom toxins, phospholipases A2 and metalloproteinases, and their application as novel antivenoms...
February 23, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Agata Wiktorowicz, Pawel Kleczynski, Artur Dziewierz, Tomasz Tokarek, Danuta Sorysz, Maciej Bagienski, Lukasz Rzeszutko, Dariusz Dudek
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an increasingly common treatment of symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis (AS). Thus, it is reasonable to carefully investigate the impact of individual clinical factors on outcomes after TAVI. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the impact of the previous cerebro-vascular events (CVEs) on outcomes of patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI. METHODS: A total of 148 consecutive patients scheduled for TAVI were included and stratified as with and without a history of CVEs (stroke or transient ischemic attack)...
February 19, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Juliana Miguel Vaz, Daniele Pezzoli, Pascale Chevallier, Clayton Souza Campelo, Gabriele Candiani, Diego Mantovani
The risk of bacterial colonization of abiotic surfaces of biomedical devices poses important challenges for the pharmaceutical and biomaterials science fields. In this scenario, antibacterial coatings have been developed, using a number of different molecules and materials. Among them, chitosan is a non-cytotoxic, biocompatible biopolymer with an inherent antimicrobial activity that has been already used in a wide variety of healthcare and industrial applications. Herein, chitosan-based antibacterial coatings are critically surveyed, with a special emphasis on their production methods, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, along with their pros and cons, and finally highlighting the key challenges to be faced and future perspectives in this field...
February 19, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Usha Kadiyala, Nicholas A Kotov, J Scott VanEpps
Metal oxide nanoparticles (MO-NPs) are known to effectively inhibit the growth of a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They have emerged as promising candidates to challenge the rising global issue of antimicrobial resistance. However, a comprehensive understanding of their mechanism of action and identifying the most promising NP materials for future clinical translation remain a major challenge due to variations in NP preparation and testing methods. With various types of MO-NPs being rapidly developed, a robust, standardized, in vitro assessment protocol for evaluating the antibacterial potency and efficiency of these NPs is needed...
February 19, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Xianhua Zhang, Shaobo Ou-Yang, Jiaolong Wang, Lan Liao, Runfa Wu, Junchao Wei
Construction of antibacterial surfaces or films is of great interest in various fields,including biomedicine, food, agriculture and so on. So far, a number of antibacterial agents have been used to construct antibacterial surfaces. Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly is a simple and versatile deposition process for fabricating multilayer thin films with great advantages to control the architecture and composition of the films. In this review, we give a brief introduction of LbL, and different materials used to fabricate antibacterial surfaces with LbL assembly approach are described as well as their drawbacks...
February 19, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Xiwen Wang, Hang Chi, Bo Zhou, Wenliang Li, Zhiping Li, Zhiping Xia
The bacterial luciferase gene cassette (lux) is an ideal bioreporter for real-time monitoring of the dynamics of bacteria because it is a fully autonomous, substrate-free bioluminescent reporter system available in a prokaryotic or eukaryotic host background. The lux operon is emerging as a powerful bioreporter for the study of a wide range of biological processes such as gene function, drug discovery and development, cellular trafficking, protein-protein interactions, and especially tumorigenesis and cancer treatment...
February 13, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Weiguo Xu, Shujun Dong, Yuping Han, Shuqiang Li, Yang Liu
Hydrogels, as a class of materials for tissue engineering and drug delivery, have high water content and solid-like mechanical properties. Currently, hydrogels with an antibacterial function are a research hotspot in biomedical field. Many advanced antibacterial hydrogels have been developed, each possessing unique qualities, namely high water swellability, high oxygen permeability, improved biocompatibility, ease of loading and releasing drugs and structural diversity. In this article, an overview is provided on the preparation and applications of various antibacterial hydrogels...
February 13, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Yidan Gao, Hengtong Fang, Lu Fang, Dawei Liu, Jinsong Liu, Menghan Su, Zhi Fang, Wenzhi Ren, Huping Jiao
The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a group of unique naturally occurring anti-microbial compounds with around 50 amino acids. It represents promising therapeutic agents to the infectious disease without concerning about drug resistance. However, commercial development of these peptides for even the simplest application has been hindered by the limitations of sources, instability, toxicity and bioavailability. To improve the properties of the artificial synthesized AMPs, the modification and design are the hotspots of the AMPs research...
February 13, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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