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Current Pharmaceutical Design

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345577/probiotics-and-paraprobiotics-in-viral-infection-clinical-application-and-effects-on-the-innate-and-acquired-immune-systems
#1
Osamu Kanauchi, Akira Andoh, Sazaly AbuBakar, Naoki Yamamoto
Recently, the risk of viral infection has dramatically increased owing to changes in human ecology such as global warming and an increased geographical movement of people and goods. However, the efficacy of vaccines and remedies for infectious diseases is limited by the high mutation rates of viruses, especially, RNA viruses. Here, we comprehensively review the effectiveness of several probiotics and paraprobiotics (sterilized probiotics) for the prevention or treatment of virally-induced infectious diseases...
January 16, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336249/mutations-of-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-genomes-as-potential-targets-for-the-treatment-of-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Elena V Galitsyn, Andrey V Zhelankin, Igor A Sobenin, Alexander N Orekhov
In addition to external factors, such as exercise, food and the environment, genetic predisposition makes great contribution to the development of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease. This review is aimed to examine the genetic basis of complex metabolic disorders conventionally described as "metabolic syndrome" (MetS), with the special focus on currently known mutations in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, which are associated both with the individual components of MetS and combinations thereof, and also on the studies of the relationship of MetS phenotype as a binary trait...
January 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336248/immunotheraphy-in-allergic-diseases
#3
Albert Roger, Maria Basagana, Aina Teniente-Serra, Nathalie Depreux, Yanina Jurgens, Clara Padro, Sira Miquel, Carolina Elduque, Eva M Martinez-Caceres
Nowadays, specific immunotherapy is the only successful disease-modifying therapy for IgE-mediated allergic diseases. In this review we analyse different antigen-specific immunotherapies according to administration route, type of antigens and adjuvants, and we address the special case of food allergy.
January 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336247/the-role-of-colchicine-in-the-treatment-of-autoinflammatory-diseases
#4
Georgia Liantinioti, Antonios A Argyris, Athanase D Protogerou, Panayiotis Vlachoyiannopoulos
Colchicine has been longstanding and widely used for the treatment of acute gout flares and prevention of gout relapses. Its use has been extended to a series of autoinflammatory diseases, such as familial Mediterranean fever and more recently to periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis, Behcet's disease and idiopathic recurrent acute pericarditis. In this review, we summarize current indications of colchicine use, discuss its pharmacokinetics and mechanism of action and examine its use in the treatment of autoinflammatory diseases...
January 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336246/the-role-of-colchicine-in-the-prevention-of-cerebrovascular-ischemia
#5
Georgios Tsivgoulis, Aristeidis H Katsanos, Georgios Giannopoulos, Vasiliki Panagopoulou, Dalius Jatuzis, Robin Lemnens, Spyridon Deftereos, Peter J Kelly
INTRODUCTION: Despite the proven efficacy of anti-thrombotic, lipid-lowering, anti-hypertensive therapies and lifestyle modification changes for secondary ischemic stroke prevention, the risk of recurrent stroke, coronary events and vascular death remains substantial even for patients treated with high rates of established secondary preventive medications. METHODS: In the present review, we summarize available literature data on the association between systemic inflammation and symptomatic atherosclerosis including recurrent cerebral ischemia...
January 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336245/the-role-of-colchicine-in-pericardial-syndromes
#6
George Lazaros, Massimo Imazio, Antonio Brucato, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Emilia Lazarou, Dimitrios Vassilopoulos, Dimitris Tousoulis
BACKGROUND: Colchicine is an old drug originally employed for the treatment of inflammatory disorders such as acute gout and familiar Mediterranean fever. METHODS: In the past few decades, colchicine has been at the forefront of the pharmacotherapy of several cardiac diseases, including acute and recurrent pericarditis, coronary artery disease, prevention of atrial fibrillation and heart failure. In this review, we have summarized the current evidence based medicine and guidelines recommendations in the specific context of pericardial syndromes...
January 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336254/colchicine-in-neurosurgery
#7
Drosos Evangelos, Giakoumettis Dimitrios, Themistocleous S Marios
BACKGROUND: Colchicine is an ancient drug. Many uses have been reported in medical books and reports through the centuries. Currently the understanding of its mechanism of action has opened new horizons to its use. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to discuss the use of colchicine in various neurosurgical conditions. METHODS: A pubmed database and clinical trials search was performed, using the key words "colchicine", "Neurosurgery", "low back pain", "stroke" and glioma"...
January 14, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336253/colchicine-in-post-operative-atrial-fibrillation-a-review
#8
Dimitrios A Vrachatis, Charalampos Kossyvakis, Christos Angelidis, Vasiliki Panagopoulou, Eleni K Sarri, Sotiria Giotaki, Gerasimos Siasos, Manolis Vavuranakis, Spyridon G Deftereos
Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a frequent entity increasing hospitalization duration, stroke and mortality. In the recent years, a few studies have sought to investigate the potential effect of colchicine in POAF prevention after cardiac surgery or catheter pulmonary vein isolation for AF. In the present review article, we intend to provide a synopsis of clinical practice guidelines, summarize and critically approach current evidence for or against colchicine as a means of POAF prevention.
January 14, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336252/colchicine-in-gout-an-update
#9
Tristan Pascart, Pascal Richette
Despite the fact that colchicine is by far the most ancient treatment for gout, new data are still being gathered. In gout, colchicine's ability to block polymerization of tubulin prevents the activation of the inflammasome. Efficacy of colchicine for the treatment of gout flares has been demonstrated only recently by a randomized-controlled trial, but it still has not been compared to other drugs. Use of colchicine is impaired by the impact of underlying comorbid conditions and drug interactions that can considerably modify its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics...
January 14, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336251/isolating-colchicine-in-19th-century-an-old-drug-revisited
#10
Marianna Karamanou, Gregory Tsoucalas, Konstantinos Pantos, George Androutsos
Colchicine is a tricyclic alkaloid extracted from the herbaceous plant Colchicum autumnale. Known since antiquity for its therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of gout, colchicine was reintroduced in 19th century pharmacopeia, thanks to the work of the French chemists and pharmacists Pierre-Joseph Pelletier (1788-1842) and Joseph Bienaime Caventou (1795-1877) who in 1819, isolated a peculiar substance in the roots of Colchicum autumnale. In 1833, the substance was further analyzed by the German pharmacist and chemist Philipp Lorenz Geiger (1785-1836), who coined the name colchicine...
January 14, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336250/colchicum-genus-in-the-writings-of-ancient-greek-and-byzantine-physicians
#11
Gregory Tsoucalas, Theodoros Papaioannou, George Panayiotakopoulos, Zenia Saridaki, Dimitrios A Vrachatis, Marianna Karamanou
The plants of the Colchicum family were known during the archaic period in Greece for their deleterious properties. Later on, they were used for the treatment of podagra. The treatment was introduced by the ancient Greek physicians and passed on to the Byzantine and Arabian physicians to endure until nowadays. The first plant was most probably named "Medea" from the notorious Colchican witch. As the most common member of the family blossoms in autumn, the plant was named Colchicum autumnale. Various nominations were also used, such as Ephemeron, Hermodactyl, Anima articulorum and Surugen...
January 14, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332573/torsades-de-pointes-in-patients-with-polymyalgia-rheumatica
#12
Pietro Enea Lazzerini, Iacopo Bertolozzi, Maurizio Acampa, Rosella Fulceri, Franco Laghi-Pasini, Pier Leopoldo Capecchi
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) represents the most common inflammatory rheumatic disease of the elderly. It is characterized by synovitis of proximal joints and extra-articular synovial structures, along with chronic high-grade systemic inflammation. PMR is closely related to giant cell arteritis (GCA), a large-vessel vasculitis that involves the major branches of the aorta, particularly the extracranial branches of carotid artery including temporal arteries. It is currently believed that PMR and GCA may represent different manifestations of the same disease process...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332572/lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-and-coronary-heart-disease
#13
Areti Sofogianni, Stelina Alkagiet, Konstantinos Tziomalos
In the last decades, the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has been the topic of intense research. Several markers of inflammation have shown predictive value for first and recurrent coronary events in patients without and with established coronary heart disease (CHD). Among these markers, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has recently received considerable attention. In the present review, the potential role of Lp-PLA2 as a marker of CHD risk and as a therapeutic target is discussed...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332571/role-of-heart-rate-reduction-in-the-management-of-myocarditis
#14
Chen Guang-Yi, Ge Li-Sha, Li Yue-Chun
The morbidity of myocarditis demonstrates an upward tendency by years, is commonly defined as the inflammation of myocytes and is caused by multiple factors. With the development of the molecular biological technique, great breakthroughs in the diagnosis and understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of myocarditis have recently been achieved. Several questions remain unresolved, however, including standard treatment approaches to myocarditis, which remain controversial and ambiguous. Heart rate, as an independent risk factor, has been shown to be related to cardiac disease...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332570/proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-inhibition-in-cardiovascular-prevention
#15
Ali Ali, Pierluigi Costanzo, Angela Hoye
Elevated levels of Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are directly associated with increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Statins have been used to control serum LDL-C and this has translated into reduction in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. However, despite high dose statin therapy, LDL-C control may remain inadequate in some patients, particularly those with familial hypercholesterolemia. A new therapeutic approach has emerged in recent years with proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318964/potential-role-of-inflammation-in-associations-between-particulate-matter-and-heart-failure
#16
Xiaotong Ji, Yingying Zhang, Guangke Li, Nan Sang
Recently, numerous studies have found that particulate matter (PM) exposure is correlated with increased hospitalization and mortality from heart failure (HF). In addition to problems with circulation, HF patients often display high expression of cytokines in the failing heart. Thus, as a recurring heart problem, HF is thought to be a disorder characterized in part by the inflammatory response. In this review, we intend to discuss the relationship between PM exposure and HF that is based on inflammatory mechanism and to provide a comprehensive, updated evaluation of the related studies...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318963/nanodiagnostics-and-nanodelivery-applications-in-genetic-alterations
#17
Maria Sofia Falzarano, Cristina Flesia, Roberta Cavalli, Caterina Guiot, Alessandra Ferlini
Background Genetic alterations cause hereditary diseases (HDs) with a wide range of incidences. Some, like cystic fibrosi, occur frequently (1/1,000 newborns), whilst others, such as Pompe disease and other metabolic disorders are very rare (1/100,000 newborns). They are well under the threshold of 1/3,000, denoted by the European Community as rare diseases (RDs). Genetic alterations are also associated with multifactorial disorders like diabetes, and underline both somatic and germline mutations in cancer...
January 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318966/chronic-inflammatory-diseases-and-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-innocent-bystanders-or-partners-in-crime
#18
Peter Riis Hansen
Inflammation plays a significant role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases are at increased risk of CVD, but it is debated whether this association is causal or dependent on shared risk factors, other exposures, genes, and/or inflammatory pathways. The current review summarizes epidemiological, clinical, and experimental data supporting the role of shared inflammatory mechanisms between atherosclerotic CVD and rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and periodontitis, respectively, and provides insights to future prospects in this area of research...
January 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318965/current-status-of-molecular-imaging-in-infections
#19
Martina Sollini, Chiara Lauri, Roberto Boni, Elena Lazzeri, Paola Anna Erba, Alberto Signore
There is an increased need to find non-invasive tools for early diagnosis and follow-up of infections. Nuclear medicine techniques may be used to diagnose, localize and evaluate the severity and the extent of infections before the occurrence of anatomical abnormalities. This review focuses on different approaches based on radiolabelled cells, peptides and antibodies or [18F]FDG to image infective diseases in agreement with what is being jointly evaluated by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM)...
January 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318962/is-statin-therapy-safe-and-effective-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Venkatesh K Raman, Eleni Geladari, Vasilios Papademetriou
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular risk. This elevated risk for cardiovascular events exists even in the largest subpopulation with milder stages of CKD, prior to the development of significant reductions in renal excretory function. Statin therapy is a critical component of primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention efforts for at-risk patients. Efficacy in the CKD population, however, has appeared less robust across the spectrum of CKD, particularly in hemodialysis patients...
January 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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