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Current Pharmaceutical Design

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103773/agaricus-blazei-bioactive-compounds-and-their-effects-on-human-health-benefits-and-controversies
#1
Aline Cristine da Silva de Souza, Vanesa Gesser Correa, Geferson de Almeida Gonçalves, Andréia Assunção Soares, Adelar Bracht, Rosane Marina Peralta
BACKGROUND: The mushroom Agaricus blazei has evoked considerable scientific and practical interest in several fields, especially those linked to its medicinal properties. This review aims to summarize and evaluate the past decade findings related to nutritional and therapeutic uses of A. blazei, with especial emphasis on the most recent discoveries regarding its chemical composition and clinical investigations. METHODS: The specialized literature was searched for basic and clinical studies...
January 18, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093969/traumatic-brain-injury-preclinical-imaging-diagnostic-s-and-therapeutic-approaches
#2
Eric L Kaijzel, Ermond R van Beek, Marieke A Stammes, Ivo Que, Alan B Chan, Clemens W G M Löwik, Luis J Cruz
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a result of an external physical force to the head that traumatically injures the brain. It is a major public health problem worldwide and mainly results from falls, vehicle accidents and violence. Clinical problem: The management of TBI, causing a wide spectrum of possible health outcomes, has barely changed over the years as encouraging outcomes from many pre-clinical therapeutic and pharmacological studies have only rarely been translated to the clinical situation...
January 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088910/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-sglt2i-their-role-in-cardiometabolic-risk-management
#3
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Michael J Theodorakis
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are a novel category of oral antidiabetic drugs that inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and increase renal glucose excretion, thus lowering plasma glucose levels. This unique mechanism of SGLT2i action is insulin independent, thus improving glycemic control without promoting hypoglycemia in the absence of exogenously administered insulin. METHODS: The present narrative review addresses the putative associations between SGLT2i and several cardiovascular (CV) and microvascular risk factors, as well as their effects on cardiac and renal function...
January 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088909/synergistic-interaction-between-heme-oxygenase-ho-and-nuclear-factor-e2-related-factor-2-nrf2-against-oxidative-stress-in-cardiovascular-related-diseases
#4
Joseph Fomusi Ndisang
BACKGROUND: Nuclear factor-erythroid related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a master regulator of transcriptional activation of anti-oxidants in cells. Similarly, heme oxygenase (HO) is a cytoprotective protein with anti-oxidant effects. This review article will shed more light on the interaction between Nrf2 and HO. METHODS AND RESULTS: A PubMed search was done for recent articles on Nrf2 and HO. These studies suggested that under normal physiological conditions, Nrf2 is bound within the cytoplasm to its repressor, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein (Keap1), an oxidative stress sensor...
January 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088911/microbubbles-a-novel-strategy-for-chemotherapy
#5
Mu-Hua Luo, Chih-Kuang Yeh, Bing Situ, Jin-Sui Yu, Bing-Cheng Li, Zhi-Yi Chen
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound microbubbles have conventionally been used for diagnostic purposes. In recent years, however, new types of microbubbles have emerged as important carriers for drug delivery. Moreover, studies have shown that ultrasound microbubbles can serve as valuable and noninvasive tools in cancer therapy; thus the use of ultrasound microbubbles to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to malignant tissues is a promising possibility. METHODS: In this review, we briefly describe the status of ultrasound microbubbles in clinical practice and then discuss the development of targeted microbubbles...
January 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079007/novel-therapies-targeting-cardioprotection-and-regeneration
#6
Valeria Garrido, Evelyn Mendoza-Torres, Jaime A Riquelme, Ariel Díaz, Marcela Pizarro, Mario Bustamante, Myra N Chavez, María Paz Ocaranza, Rosemarie Mellado, Ramon Corbalan, Miguel L Allende, Sergio Lavandero
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. The heart is susceptible to pathologies that impact the myocardium directly, such myocardial infarction and consequent heart failure, as well as conditions with indirect cardiac effects, such cancer treatment-related cardiotoxicity. As the contractile cells of the heart, cardiomyocytes are essential for normal cardiac function. Various stress stimuli may result in transient damage or cell death in cardiomyocytes through apoptosis, necrosis or maladaptive autophagy...
January 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079006/a-new-vaccine-delivery-vehicle-and-adjuvant-candidate-bordetella-pertussis-inactivated-whole-cells-entrapped-in-alginate-microspheres
#7
Naser Mohammadpour Dounighi, Fereshteh Shahcheraghi, Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mojtaba Nofeli, Hossein Zolfagharian
There is no doubt about whole cell pertussis vaccine efficacy, but it is necessary to improve the vaccine quality specially to decreasing its toxicity by obtaining good immunogenicity with low bacteria number content. In this work, under optimum condition inactivated B. pertussis bacteria cells entrapped alginate microparticles were fabricated and in vivo immunogenicity and potency of new microparticle based vaccine evaluated in mice. Microspheres loaded inactive B. pertussis bacterium cells were prepared via an emulsification method and analyzed for morphology, size, polydispersity index, loading efficiency, loading capacity, release profile and in vivo potency...
January 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079005/dendritic-cells-modulate-iron-homeostasis-and-inflammatory-abilities-following-quercetin-exposure
#8
Vanessa Galleggiante, Stefania De Santis, Elisabetta Cavalcanti, Aurelia Scarano, Maria De Benedictis, Grazia Serino, Maria Lucia Caruso, Mauro Mastronardi, Aldo Pinto, Pietro Campiglia, Dale Kunde, Angelo Santino, Marcello Chieppa
BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetables are rich in plant polyphenols, whose consumption is encouraged in healthy dietary regimes due to their antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. These organic molecules exhibit numerous properties including phylochelation; the ability to create complex with metal ions. Among polyphenols, we focused our attention to quercetin that previously demonstrated its ability to reduce dendritic cells (DCs) inflammatory cytokine secretion and antigen presentation following LPS exposure...
January 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078990/mass-spectrometry-imaging-in-nanomedicine-unraveling-the-potential-of-msi-for-the-detection-of-nanoparticles-in-neuroscience
#9
Florian Py Barré, Ron Ma Heeren, Nina Ogrinc Potočnik
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can uniquely detect thousands of compounds allowing both their identification and localization within biological tissue samples. MSI is an interdisciplinary science that crosses the borders of physics, chemistry and biology, and enables local molecular analysis at a broad range of length scales: From the subcellular level to whole body tissue sections. The spatial resolution of some mass spectrometers now allows nano-scale research, crucial for studies in nanomedicine. Recent developments in MSI have enabled the optimization and localization of drug delivery with nanoparticles within the body and in specific organs such as kidney, liver and brain...
January 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078989/a-comprehensive-review-of-mtor-inhibiting-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-non-infectious-uveitis
#10
Joshua Blair, Robert Barry, David J Moore, Alastair K Denniston
BACKGROUND: Non-infectious uveitis is a sight-threatening inflammatory disease that often necessitates prolonged use of high-dose corticosteroids, resulting in significant systemic side effects. There is a need for efficacious steroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy for these patients, and the mTOR inhibitors (sirolimus and everolimus) may be contenders for this role. METHODS: A comprehensive review of preclinical and clinical research on mTOR inhibitors for non-infectious uveitis was performed...
January 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078988/bdnf-nf-kb-signaling-in-the-neurobiology-of-depression
#11
Ariel Caviedes, Carlos Lafourcade, Claudio Soto, Ursula Wyneken
BACKGROUND: Mood disorders, consisting of unipolar and bipolar depression, are complex diseases characterized by depressed mood and anhedonia. These core symptoms are accompanied in a varying manner by anxiety, several neurovegetative symptoms and cognitive impairment. Mood disorders are characterized by decreases in neurogenesis, alteration in synaptic structure and synaptic transmission, all of them regulated by BDNF, a neurotrophin that performs multiple functions in the adult central nervous system...
January 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078987/role-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-dopaminergic-system-disturbances-implications-for-anhedonic-features-of-mdd
#12
Zihang Pan, Joshua D Rosenblat, Walter Swardfager, Roger S McIntyre
Anhedonia, characterized by a loss of interest and/or pleasure in previously enjoyable activities, is an important diagnostic criterion of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Converging evidence implicates a behaviouralcausal relationship between proinflammatory cytokines and disturbances that characterize anhedonia in the context of MDD. Additionally, anhedonia has been implicated in disturbances of key central dopaminergic modulatory pathways. Emerging research into the roles of tetrahydrobiopterin, a cytokine-targeted co-enzyme in the synthesis of dopamine, and kynurenine, a product of inflammation-sensitive breakdown of tryptophan via indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, have shed new light into the role of inflammation in mediating anhedonic behaviours...
January 11, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078993/mirnas-new-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-in-dementia
#13
Ana Teresa de Bastos Viegas, Joana Ribeiro Guedes, Ana Rafaela Oliveira, Ana Maria Sequeira Cardoso, Ana Luísa Colaço Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a complex pathological state that affects millions of individuals worldwide and is responsible for a huge socioeconomic burden, making it a major health concern of current times. Given the impact of dementia in both patients and caregivers, it is crucial to fully clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying dementia-associated disorders, since without this knowledge our ability to correctly diagnose and treat these diseases is severely hampered. METHODS: Epigenetic mechanisms, such as miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation, have been reported to play a role in dementia pathogenesis...
January 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078992/smoking-and-eye-pathologies-a-systemic-review-part-ii-retina-diseases-uveitis-optic-neuropathies-thyroid-associated-orbitopathy
#14
Małgorzata Nita, Andrzej Grzybowski
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking has detrimental influence on human health. AIM: The analysis of influence of tobacco smoking on retina diseases, uveitis, optic neuropathies, and thyroid-associated orbitopathy in adults and children. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the literature performed through MEDLINE and PubMed searches, covering the years 2000-2016. RESULTS: In adults, tobacco smoking is a strong risk factor for age-related macular degeneration, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, uveitis and inflamed cystoid macular edema as well as Grave`s ophthalmopathy...
January 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078991/vegetable-organosulfur-compounds-and-their-health-promoting-effects
#15
Spyridon A Petropoulos, Francesco Di Gioia, Georgia Ntatsi
BACKGROUND: Trends in modern pharmaceutical science show an increase in demand for new drugs and diet supplements derived from natural products, while during the last decades, great research is conducted regarding the natural compounds and their medicinal and bioactive properties. Organosulfur compounds are present in many plants and their bioactive properties have been used in folk and traditional medicine throughout the centuries. Not until recently, modern science confirmed and revealed the chemical compounds that are responsible for these properties, the chemistry involved in their biosynthesis and the main mechanisms of action...
January 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067164/curcumin-and-lung-cancer-the-role-of-micrornas
#16
Diana Lelli, Claudio Pedone, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhosssein Sahebkar
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and is characterized by a poor prognosis, related both to late diagnosis and lack of effective treatments. In the last years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to have an important role in tumor microenvironment and immune regulation. These RNAs can be categorized into tumor-suppressor genes, such as let-7 family and miR-34, and oncogenes such as miR-221 and miR-222. Curcumin is a bioactive polyphenol that is documented to have promising anti-cancer activity, and to be well tolerated in humans...
January 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056735/effect-of-green-tea-phytochemicals-on-mood-and-cognition
#17
Christina Dietz, Matthijs Dekker
BACKGROUND: Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on tea constituents caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on mood and cognitive performance...
January 5, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056734/metal-nanoparticles-for-the-treatment-and-diagnosis-of-neurodegenerative-brain-diseases
#18
Valentina Vio, María José Marchant, Eyleen Araya, Marcelo J Kogan
This review focuses on the application of metal nanoparticles in the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Metal nanoparticles present interesting physicochemical properties that can be applied to increase biomarker detection sensitivities in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, these nanoparticles could be used in different strategies for the treatment of central nervous system diseases, particularly in regards to drug delivery. Herein, specific potential applications of metal nanoparticles are separately discussed for the contexts of in vitro diagnoses and treatments...
January 5, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042768/blood-serum-atherogenicity-cellular-test-for-the-development-of-anti-atherosclerotic-therapy
#19
Veronika A Myasoedova, Galina A Ivashinnikova, Igor A Sobenin, Ekaterina A Ivanova, Alexander N Orekhov
Atherosclerosis is one of the main problems in modern medical practice. This multifactorial disease can remain asymptomatic for a long time before manifesting itself in cardiovascular disorders, causing ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction and even sudden death. Many synthetic drugs have been developed to reduce the symptoms of atherosclerosis, however, their efficacy in terms of reduction of atherosclerotic lesions progression is a matter of debate. Adverse effects of the exiting therapy should also be taken into account...
January 2, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034355/inflammation-a-novel-therapeutic-target-direction-in-atherosclerosis
#20
Bin Li, Weihong Li, Xiaoli Li, Hong Zhou
Over the past two decades, the viewpoint of atherosclerosis has been replaced gradually by a lipid-driven, chronic, low-grade inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. Current treatment of atherosclerosis is focused on limiting its risk factors, such as hyperlipidemia or hypertension. However, treatment targeting the inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis is still very limited and deserves further attention to fight atherosclerosis successfully. Here, we review the current development of inflammation and atherosclerosis to discuss novel insights and potential targets in atherosclerosis, and to address drug discovery based on anti-inflammatory strategy in atherosclerotic disease...
December 30, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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