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Current Pharmaceutical Design

Alexandros Briasoulis, Mohan Pala, Tesfaye Telila, Obsinet Merid, Emmanuel Akintoye, Georgia Vogiatzi, Evangelos Oikonomou, Dimitris Tousoulis
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a type of acute kidney injury associated with intravascular administration of iodinated contrast, usually reversible. Contrast agents are an essential component of invasive and noninvasive coronary angiography. These agents have been modified over time to enhance patient safety and tolerability, but adverse reactions still occur. CIN has been variably defined, as a rise in serum creatinine of 0.5 mg/dl, or a 25% increase in serum creatinine above baseline within 24-72 hours after the procedure...
September 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Junichi Matsumoto, Tessandra Stewart, William A Banks, Jing Zhang
Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs), like exosomes and microvesicles, have attracted attention as potent carriers of intercellular communication throughout the body, including the brain. They transmit biological signals from donor cells to recipient cells, and recent evidence suggests they may even carry such signals to distant destinations through peripheral circulation. In the central nervous system (CNS), EVs contribute to maintaining normal neuronal function, as well as to the pathological development of neurodegenerative diseases...
September 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Kavita Reginald, Yanqi Chan, Magdalena Plebanski, Chit Laa Poh
Dengue is one of the most important arboviral infection worldwide, infecting up to 390 million people and causing 25,000 deaths annually. Although a licensed dengue vaccine is available, it is not efficacious against dengue serotypes that infect people living in South East Asia, where dengue is an endemic disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient dengue vaccine for this region. Data from different clinical trials indicate that a successful dengue vaccine must elicit both neutralizing antibodies and cell mediated immunity...
September 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Zunnan Huang, Mee-Hyun Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Domenico Di Raimondo, Gaia Musiari, Mauro Grova, Giuseppe Miceli, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Antonio Pinto
BACKGROUND: Clinic resting heart rate (RHR), is one of the cardiovascular parameters more easily measurable. In the general population RHR has been associated with total and cardiovascular mortality and higher rate of vascular events. OBJECTIVE: The case of essential hypertension is in some ways peculiar: in the past decades has often been attributed to hypertensive subjects higher values of RHR than healthy controls as a result of the effects of the different factors leading to the development of essential hypertension itself, first of all the presence of an increased tone of the sympathetic nervous system Methods: Several excellent articles debated the issue of autonomic dysfunction in essential hypertension; nevertheless of this, after various decades of debate, this issue is to-date unresolved...
September 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Antonio Gambardella, Angelo Labate, Laura Mumoli, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Fernando Cendes
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence indicates that pharmacogenomics will positively impact treatment for patients with epilepsy in the near future, leading to the implementation of a precision-based use of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy, thereby providing a cornerstone for precision medicine. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we briefly summarize the studies of pharmacogenomics in epilepsy, recent advances, and how it may progress in the future. METHODS: We subdivided the review into two main sections: genetic variants that may modulate response to AEDs through pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics mechanisms; and gene variants that may affect tolerability and safety of AEDs...
September 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Louise Marqvard Sørensen, Markus Wehland, Marcus Krüger, Ulf Simonsen, Mohamed Zakaria Nassef, Manfred Infanger, Daniela Grimm
BACKGROUND: This review focuses on the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) with selexipag and compares its drug-related therapeutic effects with those of prostacyclin analogues. METHODS: We searched the relevant literature and summarized the current clinical trials concerning selexipag and PAH. RESULTS: With only few cases per million, PAH is a rare disease, but when untreated it can be life threatening. PAH is linked to elevated levels of endothelin (ET-1) and decreased levels of nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGI2)...
September 7, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Mariano Bizzarri, Simona Dinicola, Alessandra Cucina
Insulin resistance indicates a deregulated set of biochemical pathways and physiological functions involved in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cancer. Conversely, a number of synthetic and natural insulin sensitizers, including inositol, have been recognized to exert both anti-diabetic as well as anti-cancer properties. Inositol participates in insulin transduction signaling, and deregulated inositol metabolism has been ascertained in several conditions associated with insulin resistance...
August 30, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Vadim V Tarasov, Nikita V Kudryashov, Vladimir N Chubarev, Tatiana S Kalinina, George E Barreto, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Gjumrakch Aliev
The use of systematic approach for the analysis of mechanism of action of drugs at different levels of biological organization of organism is an important task in experimental and clinical pharmacology for drug designing and increasing the efficacy and safety of drugs. The analysis of published data on pharmacological effects of psychotropic drugs possessing immunomodulatory and/or antiviral properties have shown a correlation between central effects of examined drugs associated with the impact on the processes of neurogenesis of mature brain and survival of neurons, and their ability to alter levels of key proinflammatory cytokines...
August 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Iliyas Khan, Hitesh Kumar, Gaurav Mishra, Avinash Gothwal, Prashant Kesharwani, Umesh Gupta
BACKGROUND: Delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer is becoming advanced day by day. However, the challenge of the effective delivery system still does exist. In various types of cancers, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women. Breast cancer is a combination of different diseases. It cannot be considered as only one entity because there are many specific patient factors, which are involved in the development of this disease...
August 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Antonia Kaltsatou
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is considered as a major health problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as approximately 80-85% of CKD patients' suffering from hypertension in the United States. Hypertension is the second leading cause of CKD after diabetes and is strongly related with morbidity and mortality. It has been shown that a relation between hypertension and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and creatinine levels exists. OBJECTIVE: Since there is a strong relation between hypertension and CKD and hypertension seems to lead to cardiovascular diseases, which have epidemic proportions in CKD, this review article discusses the etiology of hypertension and the existing optimal therapies that contribute to the hypertension and heart rate management...
August 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Adriana Trompetero, Aldemar Gordillo, Carolina Del Pilar Mora, María Cristina Velasquillo, Rosa Helena Bustos
Neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs) are characterized by the progressive loss of structure or neuron function, often associated with neuronal death. Treatments for neurodegenerative diseases only address symptoms without having any disease-modifying effect but serious side effects. Currently, there is no effective treatment for NDDs. This is due to the poor flow of drugs to the blood-barrier brain (BBB) which does not allow macromolecules like proteins and peptides to pass through it. Targeted drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) for the diagnosis and treatment of NDDs, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is restricted due to the limitations posed by the BBB as well as opsonization by plasma proteins in the systemic circulation and peripheral side-effects...
August 28, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Adam Ioannou, Nikolaos Papageorgiou, Vincent McVaughan, Marietta Charakida, Dimitris Bertsias, Fay Zacharia, Gerasimos Siasos, George Latsios, Spyridon Papaioannou, Evangelos Oikonomou, Dimitris Tousoulis
BACKGROUND: Stable angina is a debilitating and progressive disease caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries, which in turn affects cardiac perfusion. Statins have a well-established role, modifying symptoms and progression of the disease not only through lipid lowering, but also through pleiotropic effects. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the effect of statins in stable angina pectoris Method: We performed a systematic review of the literature searching MEDLINE via Pubmed for all studies which examine the possible effects of statins in stable angina pectoris...
August 28, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Qing Wang, Yan-Hua Li, Wei-Jia Jiang, Jian-Guo Zhao, Bao-Guo Xiao, Guang-Xian Zhang, Cun-Gen Ma
Graphene, with its outstanding electrical properties, large surface area, and excellent mechanical properties, is found in a wide variety of applications in biomimetic substrates and biomedicine, with the result that there is growing interest in the effect of graphene-based nanomaterials on neural cells. This review sums up current research on the effectiveness of graphene and its derivatives on neural cells. We emphasize the biocompatibility of graphene and its derivatives, and how they affect the behavior of neural cells, including adhesion, proliferation, neurite outgrowth and differentiation...
August 28, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Jorge M Moreno-Collazos, Eva S Orti
The effects of physical exercise on cerebral function have been reported in various research studies, thereby leading to better understanding of the brain's cellular mechanisms related to adaptations concerning physical exercise and the different cell responses which become compromised regarding chronic mechanisms. Relearning patterns of movement may thus be an alternative clinical approach affecting cognition and brain plasticity. Recent evidence has shown that neurogenesis can become increased by exercise; nevertheless, moderation mechanisms and the times involved in this process are not at all clear...
August 28, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Julio Cesar Martinez Lozano, Rosa Margarita Gómez, Andres Gabriel Zarate Sanabria, Giovanny Jubiz, Sonia Del Pilar Otalora Valderrama
Glial cells (also known as glia or neuroglia) are structures which are found in large numbers throughout the nervous system, fulfilling multiple functions, such as regulating the synapses, providing structure, support and nutrition, contributing towards the immune response and tissue oxygenation. Knowledge regarding glial cells has increased during the last few years, since Virchow defined them as supporting connective tissue, followed by Ramón y Cajal who described them as tissue in themselves, until today when a first order physiological role has been recognised for them and a leading role in the appearance and progression of various pathological processes, primarily in the group of neurodegenerative diseases (ND)...
August 28, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Mathieu Nadeau-Vallée, Dima Obari, Alexandra Beaudry-Richard, Estefania Marin Sierra, Alexandre Beaulac, Noémie Maurice, David M Olson, Sylvain Chemtob
Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide, and surviving infants are at increased risks of lifelong complications. PTB has been firmly linked to inflammation regardless of infection, specific aetiology or timing of birth. Deleterious inflammation is observed in maternal and fetal tissue, and correlates with the severity of perinatal complications. At present, PTB is treated with tocolytics as though it is exclusively a myometrial contractile disorder. These agents do not address underlying inflammatory processes and are thus vastly ineffective at improving neonatal outcomes...
August 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Juan S Gnecco, Anjali P Anders, David Cliffel, Virginia Pensabene, Lisa M Rogers, Kevin Osteen, David M Aronoff
Preterm birth (PTB) is clinically defined as process of giving birth before 37 weeks of gestation and is a leading cause of death among neonates and children under the age of five. Prematurity remains a critical issue in developed countries, yet our understanding of the pathophysiology of PTB remains largely unknown. Among pregnancy complications, subclinical infections such as chorioamnionitis (CAM) are implicated in up to 70% of PTB cases. Specifically, CAM is characterized by the infection of the fetal membranes that surround the developing fetus and extend from the placenta, and is often associated with preterm, premature rupture of the fetal membranes (PPROM)...
August 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Ekrem Gurel, Serhan Karvar, Buhara Yucesan, Ismail Eker, Muhammad Sameeullah
The genus Digitalis L. containing species, commonly known as the "foxglove", is the main source of cardenolides, which have various pharmacological properties effective against certain pathological conditions including myocardial infarction, arterial hypertension, cardiac dysfunction, angina, and hypertrophy. Togehter with a prime effect of controlling the heart rhythm, many workers demonstrated that lanatoside C and some other cardiac glycosides are effective in several cancer treatments such as prostate and breast cancers...
August 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Seul Ki Min, Yeo Seon Kwon, Myung Kwon Cho, Hwa Sung Shin
Antioxidants have the potential to prevent cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-associated secondary damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, the short therapeutic time window of IR is a considerable obstacle. Nano-sized nasal delivery systems provide an effective means of delivering drugs through the BBB, but few such systems have been developed to extend the treatment time window in IR. In this work, a nano-sized nasal delivery system for antioxidants was found to have the potential to extend the neuroprotective time window...
August 25, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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