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American Journal of Health Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376980/an-experimental-study-of-implicit-racial-bias-in-recognition-of-child-abuse
#1
Mary Rojas, Ingrid Walker-Descartes, Danielle Laraque-Arena
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether implicit racial bias influences pediatricians' suspicion of child abuse. METHODS: Child abuse experts developed 9 injury vignettes. Pediatricians (N = 342) were randomly assigned one of 2 versions to rate for suspicion of abuse, with the child's race in each vignette varying between white and black. Data were collected online and anonymously. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in suspicion for an abuse-related injury based on the race of the child...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376979/role-of-depressive-symptoms-in-mediating-socioeconomic-disparities-in-diabetes-risk-misperception
#2
Sarah K Wilkie, William K Bleser, Patricia Y Miranda, Rhonda BeLue
OBJECTIVES: In the U.S., type 2 diabetes awareness remains low among individuals at risk. Unawareness poses risk of developing comorbidities, commonly depression, which would harm physical and mental health and well-being. This study builds off previous findings identifying significant differences in accurate diabetes perception by race/ethnicity, sex, age, and self-rated health. This study explores depressive symptoms as a mediator and potential explanation for significant associations between determinants of risk and incorrect perception of risk when at risk...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376978/obesity-and-cigarette-smoking-extending-the-link-to-e-cigarette-vaping-use
#3
H Isabella Lanza, Patricia Pittman, Jennifer Batshoun
OBJECTIVES: In recent years, electronic tobacco (e-cigarette/vaping) use among young adults has grown exponentially. Given past research linking obesity and cigarette smoking, assessing whether this relationship extends to electronic tobacco use is warranted. The current study examined weight status as a correlate of substance use patterns reflecting electronic tobacco use. METHODS: Survey data were collected from a convenience sample of 452 (59% female) undergraduates attending a large, public university during the 2015-2016 academic year...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376977/predictors-of-smoking-among-saudi-dental-students-in-jeddah
#4
Ameerah Y Mansour
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess tobacco use, secondhand smoke exposure, knowledge of health risks, and smoking predictors among dental students attending King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted and 420 dental students were invited to participate. Binary logistic regression analyses assessed the predictors of smoking. RESULTS: A total of 336 dental students completed the questionnaires with 25% reporting current or previous tobacco use and 96% reporting secondhand smoke exposure...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376976/environmental-tobacco-smoke-relationship-to-early-pregnancy-discomforts
#5
Hui-Jung Hung, Chiu-Ying Chen, Shu-Li Wang, Trong-Neng Wu, Chiu-Hsiang Lee, Shi-Yann Cheng
OBJECTIVES: We assessed environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and examined its association with pregnancy discomforts. METHODS: We used structured questionnaires to interview a convenience sample of 139 pregnant women (8-20 weeks of gestation) recruited from 2 hospitals in central Taiwan. RESULTS: We found that 84% of the participants experienced ETS exposure in their households, workplaces, and/or public areas. Bivariate analyses showed the severity of pregnancy discomforts in the participants exposed to a high level of ETS was higher than that in those exposed to a low level of ETS...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376975/smoking-behavior-and-exposure-results-of-a-menthol-cigarette-cross-over-study
#6
Christina Vaughan Watson, Patricia Richter, B Rey de Castro, Connie Sosnoff, Jennifer Potts, Pamela Clark, Joan McCraw, Xizheng Yan, David Chambers, Clifford Watson
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to improve understanding of the differences in use behavior and exposure when smoking menthol and non-menthol cigarettes using a 2-part cross-over design. METHODS: Adult daily smokers were assigned randomly to alternate between 2 weeks of exclusively smoking a menthol test cigarette or a non-menthol test cigarette. Urine and saliva were collected for biomarker measurements; carbon monoxide (CO) was measured, and participants smoked test cigarettes through a CreSS® smoking topography device during 3 clinic visits...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376974/impact-of-health-literacy-directed-colonoscopy-bowel-preparation-instruction-sheet
#7
Terry C Davis, Jill Hancock, James Morris, Perry Branim, Abhishek Seth, Alfred Rademaker, Connie L Arnold
OBJECTIVES: To improve patient colonoscopy bowel preparation with a newly developed simplified instruction sheet in a safety-net hospital system. METHODS: Bowel preparation quality was compared in a retrospective chart review of 543 patients, 287 of whom received standard instructions (9th grade reading level) between November 2015 and February 2016, and 256 of whom received simplified instructions (6th grade level) between March and May 2016. Instructions were mailed to all patients...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376973/does-context-matter-literacy-disparities-in-self-rated-health-using-evidence-from-17-developed-countries
#8
Yeonjin Lee
OBJECTIVES: The study examines whether adult literacy skills predict self-rated health status beyond educational credentials in 17 developed countries using a cross-national survey, the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). METHODS: The study uses linear regression models with country-level fixed effects to predict self-rated health to account the unobserved country-level heterogeneity. A total of 73,806 respondents aged 25 to 65 were included in the analysis...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376972/family-menu-planning-workshop-a-pilot-study-on-the-feasibility-of-adult-and-peer-led-instruction
#9
Cassandra J Nikolaus, Sharon M Nickols-Richardson
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the feasibility of a menu-planning workshop led by adults or by adolescents (ie, peers), delivered to parents and their adolescent children. METHODS: We randomly assigned a convenience sample of 15 parents and their 17 adolescent children to menu-planning workshops taught by either an adult or peer leader. We conducted process evaluation using workshop observations and participant perceptions. Parents and their adolescents completed questionnaires before and immediately after attending and 3- and 6-months after the workshop...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376971/clustering-of-un-healthy-behaviors-in-adolescents-from-dunedin-new-zealand
#10
Sandra Mandic, Enrique García Bengoechea, Kirsten J Coppell, John C Spence
OBJECTIVES: Healthy lifestyle habits set the stage for healthy behaviors in adulthood. We examined clustering of health behaviors (physical activity [PA], screen time, fruit and vegetable [F&V] intake) and weight status in New Zealand adolescents. METHODS: Adolescents from Dunedin, New Zealand (N = 1300; 49.0% male; 15.3±1.4 years) completed a questionnaire about PA, screen time (TV/computer/video games), and F&V intake. Height and weight were measured. A 2-step cluster analysis was completed...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376970/energy-drink-use-linked-to-high-sugar-beverage-intake-and-bmi-among-teens
#11
Ronald D Williams, Jeff M Housman, Mary Odum, Alissa E Rivera
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship of energy drink, high-sugar, and low-sugar beverage consumption. METHODS: Mann-Whitney U, Cohen's d and effect sizes were used to examine data from 1737 adolescents in the United States who participated in the 2014 FLASHE Study. Secondary analysis examined consumption of energy drinks, high- and low-sugar beverages, and adolescents' BMIs. RESULTS: Among adolescents, 13.7% (N = 239) reported past 7-day energy drink consumption...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376969/a-systematic-review-of-rural-theory-based-physical-activity-interventions
#12
Shana M Walsh, M Renée Umstattd Meyer, Abigail Gamble, Megan S Patterson, Justin B Moore
OBJECTIVES: This systematic review synthesized the scientific literature on theory-based physical activity (PA) interventions in rural populations. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched to identify studies with a rural study sample, PA as a primary outcome, use of a behavioral theory or model, randomized or quasi-experimental research design, and application at the primary and/or secondary level of prevention. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies met our inclusion criteria...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376968/trajectories-of-hookah-use-harm-perceptions-from-youth-to-young-adulthood
#13
Elizabeth Hair, Jessica M Rath, Lindsay Pitzer, Brittany Emelle, Ollie Ganz, Michael J Halenar, Jennifer Cantrell, Donna Vallone
OBJECTIVES: Hookah use has increased in United States, especially among young adults. This study investigates the role of harm perceptions of hookah use over a 2-year period in a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults as they transition to young adulthood. METHODS: Using a probability-based, nationally representative, longitudinal cohort of youth aged 15-21, we analyzed the 7536 participants who completed all 4 waves. Ordered logit growth models examined changes over time in hookah use, and whether that relationship varies by baseline harm perceptions...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376967/understanding-eating-behaviors-through-parental-communication-and-the-integrative-model-of-behavioral-prediction
#14
Emily Scheinfeld, Minsun Shim
OBJECTIVE: Emerging adulthood (EA) is an important yet overlooked period for developing long-term health behaviors. During these years, emerging adults adopt health behaviors that persist throughout life. This study applies the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) to examine the role of childhood parental communication in predicting engagement in healthful eating during EA. METHODS: Participants included 239 college students, ages 18 to 25, from a large university in the southern United States...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376966/effectiveness-of-educational-interventions-on-fireworks-related-injuries-among-schoolboys
#15
Masood Naseripour, Reza Hamidian, Gary A Smith, Soheil Saadat
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effectiveness of educational interventions in increasing the perceived risk of fireworks and preventing fireworks-related injuries among male teenagers. METHODS: In a field trial, using a cluster sampling approach, 3 high-, middle- and low-income municipality districts were selected. In each district, 5 male middle and high schools were randomly selected and assigned into one control and 4 intervention groups: (1) distribution of a multimedia disk regarding injury victims; (2) distribution of safety brochures; (3) mailing to parents from schools discussing the risk of fireworks and limiting the fireworks budget; and (4) peer-to-peer education by trained students about the risks of fireworks...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452699/health-literacy-among-iranian-high-school-students
#16
Reza Khajouei, Fatemeh Salehi
OBJECTIVE: We examined the health lit- eracy status of high school students in Kerman, Iran. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at high schools in Kerman. Data concerning 3 dimensions of health literacy (health knowledge, health skills and health be- haviors) were collected from 312 students using an adapted version of a valid and reliable questionnaire developed by the Ministry of Health of China. Data analysis was performed by descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis using SPSS version 22...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452698/hepatitis-b-screening-vaccination-behaviors-in-a-community-based-sample-of-chinese-korean-americans-in-new-york-city
#17
Shijian Li, Shao-Chee Sim, Linda Lee, Henry J Pollack, Laura C Wyatt, Chau Trinh-Shevrin, Perry Pong, Simona C Kwon
OBJECTIVES: As Asian Americans are dis- proportionately affected by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), we explored predictors of HBV screening and vaccination among Chinese and Korean Americans. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from a com- munity-based sample of Chinese Americans (N = 502) and Korean Americans (N = 487) residing in the metropolitan New York City area during 2008-2009. Logistic regression models were stratified by Asian-American subgroup and sex to predict HBV screening (for the entire sam- ple) and HBV vaccination (among those not HBV positive)...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452697/a-content-analysis-of-unique-selling-propositions-of-tobacco-print-ads
#18
Megan Johnson Shen, Smita C Banerjee, Kathryn Greene, Amanda Carpenter, Jamie S Ostroff
OBJECTIVES: We describe the unique selling propositions (USPs) (propositions used to convince customers to use a particular brand/product by focusing on the unique benefit) of print tobacco ads. METHODS: A qualitative content analysis was conducted of print tobacco ads (N = 171) selected from August 2012 to August 2013 for cigarettes, moist snuff, e-cigarettes, cigars, and snus to determine the content and themes of USPs for tobacco ads. RESULTS: Cigarette ad USP themes focused on portraying the product as attractive; moist snuff ads focused on portraying product as masculine; cigar ads focused on selling a "high end product;" and new and emerging tobacco products (e-cigarette, snus) focused on directly comparing these products to cigarettes...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452696/personal-and-environmental-resources-mediate-the-positivity-emotional-dysfunction-relationship
#19
H Matthew Lehrer, Katherine C Janus, Christian T Gloria, Mary A Steinhardt
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationships among positivity, perceived personal and environmental resources, and emotional dysfunction in adolescent girls. We hypothesized that perceived resources would mediate the relationship between positivity and emotional dysfunction. METHODS: Participants (N = 510) attending an all-girls public school completed a survey assessing emotional dysfunction (depressive symptoms and perceived stress), positivity (positive/negative emotions), and personal/ environmental resources (resilience, hope, percent adaptive coping, community connectedness, social support, and school connectedness)...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452695/sport-participation-and-academic-achievement-a-longitudinal-study
#20
Angela M Dyer, Alfgeir L Kristjansson, Michael J Mann, Megan L Smith, John P Allegrante
OBJECTIVES: We examined the relation- ship between sport participation and academic achievement in a sample of adolescents, while accounting for socioeconomic status (SES) and sex. METHODS: We analyzed data from a cohort of 271 Mid-Atlantic high school students who participated in a longitudinal study of risk and protective factors for substance use, teen parenting, and school drop out. RESULTS: Sport participation at year one predicted academic achievement in English (p < ...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
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