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Substance Use & Misuse

Daniela Krause, Diana Plörer, Gabriele Koller, Gabi Martin, Catja Winter, Roland Adam, Minavere Canolli, Jori Al-Iassin, Rainer Musselmann, Stephan Walcher, Frank Schäfer, Oliver Pogarell
BACKGROUND: Concomitant opioid misuse is an increasing problem in opioid maintenance treatment as it interferes with treatment success. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, the rates of concomitant fentanyl misuse in opioid maintained patients were investigated. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study which consisted in collecting data via urine samples and questionnaires in Germany. Urine samples of patients on opioid maintenance treatment were gathered and fentanyl concentrations were measured from 2008 to 2012...
February 3, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Zahra Jojaran Shushtari, Alireza Noroozi, Ali Mirzazadeh, Elahe Ahounbar, Ahmad Hajbi, Mohammad Najafi, Ali Bazrafshan, Mohammad Hossin Farhadi, Ali Farhoudian, Peter Higgs, Farahnaz Mohammadi Shahboulagh, Katherine Waye, Mehdi Noroozi
BACKGROUND: Characteristics and behaviors of early-onset injection drug users are under studied topics in Iran. This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic characteristics as well as the drug using behaviors of early-onset and late-onset injection drug users in Kermanshah, West Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study using snowball and convenience sampling, we recruited 450 people during the Fall of 2014 from two drop in centers in Kermanshah, Iran...
February 3, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
David Otiashvili, Irma Kirtadze, Dessa Bergen-Cico
BACKGROUND: Since the end of 2015, reports by service providers have indicated a new trend in kitchen (homemade) production of an injection drug prepared from an ephedrine-containing conifer bush that is indigenous to the region. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report is to describe an emerging new homemade psychoactive drug synthesized from the ephedra plant, and the drug consumption methods associated with its' use in the Eurasia. METHODS: Focus groups conducted with 16 people, self-identified as injection drug users (IDU's) who reported at least one incidence of ephedra preparation injection during the previous 30-days...
February 3, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Marc W Manseau, Amit Rajparia, Adriana Joseph, Sarah Azarchi, Donald Goff, Ritvij Satodiya, Crystal Fuller Lewis
BACKGROUND: Increasing reports of synthetic cannabinoid (SC)-related adverse events have largely comprised case reports and analyses of calls to poison control centers. Existing studies have also mostly involved white male populations. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to systematically describe clinical characteristics of SC use in a relatively large, diverse, urban sample presenting to a psychiatric emergency setting. METHODS: SC users (n = 110) were identified by reviewing charts (n = 948) from the psychiatric emergency service of a large, urban public hospital in the United States for November 2014, which was randomly selected from the 12 months of that year...
February 3, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Christina Weber, Oliver Krug, Matthias Kamber, Mario Thevis
BACKGROUND: Substances developed for therapeutic use are also known to be misused by athletes as doping agents and, outside of regulated sport, for image-enhancement. This has generated a market for counterfeit doping substances. Counterfeit doping agents may be of poor pharmaceutical quality and therefore constitute health risks to consumers. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the pharmaceutical quality of 1,190 doping products seized at the Swiss border...
February 3, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Michael T McKay, James R Andretta, Jon C Cole
Previous studies using bivariate or correlational analyses have established a relationship between alcohol use, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and scores on a range of temporal psychology measures. Temporal psychology measures variously assess the cognitive or affective (or in some cases, both) engagement with the past, present, and future. Although developed and validated in adolescents, recent research has suggested that the Time Attitudes Scale is internally consistent and reliable in adults also. The present study is the first to apply a person-centered approach to assessing the relationship between scores on the Time Attitudes Scale and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and alcohol-related problems in adults...
February 3, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Nancy Jo Kepple
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment studies predominantly have operationalized parental substance use as dichotomous variables for any use, any harmful/risky use, or any substance use disorder (SUD). This limits our understanding about how a range of use behaviors may contribute to child maltreatment. OBJECTIVE: Build upon prior studies by incorporating a multi-faceted approach to operationalizing parental substance use. METHODS: Cross-sectional, secondary data analyses were conducted using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW I)...
February 1, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Rachel Lipari, Lori-Ann Palen, Olivia Silber Ashley, Michael Penne, Marni Kan, Michael Pemberton
BACKGROUND: Adolescent children of U.S. military veterans may be at increased risk for engaging in substance use; however, this has yet to be examined using nationally representative data. Parental involvement and communication are potential protective factors to target with prevention efforts, but veterans' parenting has not been studied in general, nonclinical populations. OBJECTIVES: This study presents data on parenting characteristics among fathers who are veterans of the U...
February 1, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Melissa J Krauss, Shaina J Sowles, Haley E Stelzer-Monahan, Tatiana Bierut, Patricia A Cavazos-Rehg
BACKGROUND: Interest in marijuana edibles has increased as perceptions of harm from marijuana have decreased. Media and peer influences impact youth substance use, and YouTube is the most popular video-sharing website. No studies have examined the content and accessibility of YouTube videos related to marijuana edibles. OBJECTIVES: To describe the messages conveyed to viewers in YouTube videos about edibles and determine their accessibility to youth. METHODS: On June 12, 2015, we searched YouTube for videos about marijuana/cannabis/weed edibles...
February 1, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
McKenzie Lynn LeTendre, Mark B Reed
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse is one of the most common health outcomes associated with adverse childhood experience, and poses a significant public health threat. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a relationship between adverse childhood experience and a substance use disorder using nationally representative data as well as to test whether religion moderates this relationship. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 11,279)...
February 1, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Neslim Guvendeger Doksat, Oguzhan Zahmacioglu, Arzu Ciftci Demirci, Gizem Melissa Kocaman, Ayten Erdogan
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies in youth and adults suggest strong association between substance use disorders and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors. There is paucity of studies exploring the association of substance use with history of suicide attempts (HSA) and NSSI in children and adolescents in Turkey. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the prevalence of NSSI and HSA and their relationship with substance use and family characteristics among youth seeking treatment for substance use in Turkey...
January 31, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Hanneke A Teunissen, Renske Spijkerman, Emmanuel Kuntsche, Rutger C M E Engels, Ron H J Scholte
OBJECTIVES: There is still limited understanding of how different kinds of drinker prototypes are associated with adolescent drinking. This study uses the strengths of multiple time-point diary measures (enhanced validity of alcohol use measurement) to test the predictive value of abstainer, moderate and heavy drinker prototypes in social situations. We examined whether the favorability of these prototypes (i.e., "prototype evaluation"), the perceived similarity of these prototypes to one's self-image (i...
January 31, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Cheng-Chieh Lin, Irene Tamí-Maury, Wei-Fen Ma, Cho Lam, Ming-Hsui Tsai, Mi-Ting Lin, Chia-Ing Li, Chiu-Shong Liu, Tsai-Chung Li, Chang-Fang Chiu, I-Ying Lu, Ellen R Gritz
BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, betel quid chewing is a part of social life for chewers. Betel quid itself, with or without tobacco, is a Group 1 human carcinogen. Betel quid chewing has become a severe health threat in Taiwan. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify the individual, social, contextual, and cultural factors related to initiation, continuous use, and cessation of betel quid chewing. METHODS: Four focus groups and 15 in depth face-to-face interviews were conducted in 2013 with current and former users of betel quid, members of a community organization located in central Taiwan...
January 31, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Juan M Flores, Glenn-Milo Santos, Keletso Makofane, Sonya Arreola, George Ayala
BACKGROUND: Substance use is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) worldwide, and epidemiologic data suggest that alcohol/substance-using MSM are at greater risk for HIV. However, there are scarce data on substance abuse treatment programs (SATPs) for substance-using MSM. OBJECTIVES: We examined proportions of substance use as well as SATP availability and use. We used multivariable regression models, controlling for potential confounders, to examine behavioral and demographic correlates of SATP availability and use...
January 31, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Yi-Chun Liu, Hung-Hui Chen, Jia-Fu Lee, Kuei-Hui Chu, Li-Yin Chien
BACKGROUND: Transnational marriage-based immigrant women in Taiwan have moved to a country where alcohol use is prevalent and they face the challenge of adaptation into a new society, which could influence their drinking behavior. OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of alcohol drinking and examine factors associated with drinking patterns among immigrant women in Taiwan. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey and data were collected from June through November in 2013...
January 31, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Janice V Bowie, Lauren J Parker, Michelle Beadle-Holder, Ashley Ezema, Marino A Bruce, Roland J Thorpe
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking poses a major public health problem that disproportionately affects Blacks and men. Religious attendance has been shown to be positively associated with health promotion and disease prevention among the Black population. In light of this evidence, this study examined if a similar relationship could be found for religious attendance and smoking in Black men. METHODS: The National Survey of American Life (NSAL) study sampled 1,271 African American men and 562 Black Caribbean men...
December 29, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Julia F Van den Berg, Bernadette Dogge, Nicolien Kist, Rob M Kok, Karin Van der Hiele
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is associated with impairments in cognition, especially in later life. Previous studies suggest that excessive drinking has more negative impact on cognition in women than in men. OBJECTIVES: In this study, differences in cognition between male and female older, alcohol-dependent patients were examined. METHOD: Older alcohol-dependent inpatients (N = 164, 62.2% men, mean age 62.6 ± 6.4) underwent neuropsychological tests of sensitivity to interference, mental flexibility, and visual processing...
December 29, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Alexandra S Wimberly, Max R Stern, Sarah B Rosenbach, Tyrone Thomas, James R McKay
BACKGROUND: Intimate partnerships are discouraged during early recovery, despite research that highlights their capacity to be resources for change. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to provide descriptions of intimate partnerships and how such partnerships challenge and/or support minimizing HIV sex-risk among participants in continuing care for cocaine addiction in order to inform substance use programming. METHODS: Forty-two recorded continuing care counseling sessions of 33 people who discussed HIV sex-risk behavior were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis...
December 27, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Jazmín Mora-Ríos, Miriam Ortega-Ortega, Maria Elena Medina-Mora
: Social rejection of drug use is greater than that directed at other psychiatric conditions, like depression and anxiety, which may lead to social exclusion of substance users and prevent them from seeking and receiving treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the stigma and discrimination related to addiction in treatment centers in Mexico City. METHODS: Data are from a broad mixed methods study. The present study is a qualitative analysis of 35 in-depth interviews of drug users, family members, and providers, using guidelines for the exploration of experiences of stigma and discrimination related to substance abuse...
December 27, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Eric Janssen
BACKGROUND: An updated prevalence estimate for heroin users in France is lacking. Accurate figures are needed to estimate the potential need for treatment. METHOD: This research relies on a capture-recapture framework and, for the first time, makes use of individual data collected by a standardized survey conducted within treatment centers. Taking the hierarchical structure of data collection into consideration, a multilevel Zelterman regression model was used, thus enabling estimates at national level...
December 27, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
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