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Substance Use & Misuse

Shabnam Sood, Alicia Cowdrey, Bikash Bhattarai, Napatkamon Ayutyanont, Gilbert Ramos, Dhruv Khosla, Brooke Willows
BACKGROUND: Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) have been implemented as tools to help identify misuse of prescription medications. There has been mixed data regarding the efficacy of PDMP, and physician attitudes towards it vary. In an inpatient psychiatric hospital, history of substance use, including prescription medications, and results of urine drug screens (UDS) are obtained during the admission interview. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine if the substance use history and UDS are sufficient to identify substance use as compared to information obtained by Arizona's Controlled Substance Prescription Monitoring Program (CSPMP) in an inpatient setting...
October 17, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Michael Lyvers, Niloufar Hayatbakhsh, Janet Stalewski, Fred Arne Thorberg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Personality traits previously known as risk factors for alcohol use disorder (AUD) were assessed in 29 young adult children of alcoholics (COAs) and 68 young adult children of nonalcoholics (non-COAs). Male and female university students (Mage  = 22.11 years) completed questions pertaining to demographics and alcohol use, and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test; Toronto Alexithymia Scale; Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire; and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales...
October 15, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Michelle Pitts, Graig M Chow, Brad Donohue
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use (and adverse consequences due to alcohol use) among college student-athletes is a common occurrence and consequently garners attention as a health concern within athletic departments and the NCAA. One of the strongest predictors of alcohol use in athletes is motivation to drink. However, not much is known about the influence of alcohol use motivations on drinking in collegiate athletes. Therefore, this study examined the influence of sport-related and general drinking motives on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems...
October 1, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Cynthia J Price, Sheila E Crowell, Kenneth C Pike, Sunny Chieh Cheng, Megan Puzia, Elaine Adams Thompson
BACKGROUND: Emotion regulation is increasingly recognized as important for the prevention and treatment of substance use disorder (SUD). However, there is an identified lack of physiological indexes of emotion dysregulation in SUD treatment studies, critically needed to better understand the link between emotion regulation capacity (measured physiologically) and self-report health outcomes among individuals in SUD treatment. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and self-report health outcomes among women in SUD treatment...
October 1, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Philseok Lee, Sunhee Lee
The drinking motives questionnaire (DMQ, Cooper, 1994) has been a very useful measurement tool for understanding why people drink alcohol. Recent attempts to examine drinking motives used the DMQ within a person-centered analysis framework. However, latent profiles identified in previous research largely presented level effects without strong shape effects, which consequently restricted meaningful interpretations and effective applications of drinking-motive profiles. To address this limitation, we applied a new alternative methodology for the study of drinking motives that integrated variable- and person-centered approaches...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Ellen M Leslie, Andrew Smirnov, Adrian Cherney, Helene Wells, Margot Legosz, Robert Kemp, Jake M Najman
BACKGROUND: Prior research indicates that patterns of combined alcohol and methamphetamine use may be associated with experiencing subjective feelings of aggression or hostility during methamphetamine use episodes. OBJECTIVES: This study examines whether subjective effects of methamphetamine use (i.e., aggression or hostility and paranoia) are associated with aggressive behavior while under the influence of any illicit drugs, controlling for combined alcohol and methamphetamine use and a number of other potential predictors...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Caroline O Cobb, Eric K Soule, Alyssa K Rudy, Megan E Sutter, Amy M Cohn
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is more common among tobacco users than nonusers, and co-use (i.e., use of both substances individually) may be increasing. Better understanding of patterns and correlates of co-use is needed. The current study aimed to compare rates and correlates of tobacco and cannabis co-use by tobacco product among youth. METHODS: High school students who completed the 2013 Virginia Youth Survey and reported past 30-day tobacco use (cigarette, smokeless tobacco, cigar) were included (n = 1390)...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Cesare Maffei, Marco Cavicchioli, Mariagrazia Movalli, Roberto Cavallaro, Andrea Fossati
BACKGROUND: Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has demonstrated efficacy in treating disorders such as alcohol dependence that are characterized by emotional dysregulation. Preliminary evidence has revealed the feasibility of DBT skills training (ST) as a stand-alone treatment for such disorders. Although emotional dysregulation plays a significant role in alcohol dependence, there are no previous reports of using DBT-ST to treat it. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the duration of abstinence and changes in emotional regulation in a 3-month DBT-ST program for alcohol-dependent patients and to look for relations between abstinence and emotional regulation...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Trond Nordfjærn
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relative role of religiosity for alcohol abstention and consumption levels among individuals aged 40 years or above. METHOD: A two-wave prospective survey was conducted among Norwegians aged 40 to 80 years (Time 1 in 2002/2003, and Time 2 in 2007/2008). The analytical sample of this study constituted those who responded to the questionnaire survey at both time points (n = 2671). RESULTS: The findings showed that religiousity was strongly associated with abstention and less consumption while adjusting for demographics and health variables...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
S E Streisel
BACKGROUND: As opioid use increases in the United States, especially in the correctional population, the most effective treatment approaches need to be utilized. Research has shown that medication-assisted treatment (MAT) provides better outcomes than traditional treatment approaches alone, but is underutilized among correctional-supervised populations. OBJECTIVE: This article looks at how previously identified barriers to implementing MAT can create potential biases regarding the intent to refer individuals to either buprenorphine or methadone among treatment and correctional staff within community corrections...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Rayna B Hirst, Casey Conaboy, Dylan Vaughn, Richard H Enriquez, Robert Wickham
OBJECTIVE: With increasing legalization of medicinal and recreational cannabis, use is on the rise. Research suggests individuals may be able to guess cannabis user status based upon appearance; however, these findings utilized a small sample of photographs that was not balanced on user status or gender. Further, no studies examined whether raters with cannabis experience are better at judging others' cannabis use, or what physical features they use to make these judgments. This study explored these factors using a larger, balanced photograph database...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Kat Kolar, Patricia Erickson, Andrew Hathaway, Geraint Osborne
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The drug normalization framework investigates the social integration of substance use. This article contributes a quantitative assessment of cannabis normalization as differentiated by social location predictors. METHODS: Logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models assess three areas of cannabis normalization: accessibility, acceptability, and recent use. Peer network cannabis use prevalence, gender, nativity, campus locale and living arrangement are explored as focal predictors of variation in normalization among 1,713 cannabis using and nonusing undergraduate students in Canada...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
John P Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Research on the association between cohabitation and substance use has been inconsistent, with some studies indicating an elevated risk among cohabiters and others finding either no difference in risk or a reduced risk of substance use. However, studies of this association have not utilized a causal modeling empirical framework. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research was to assess whether cohabitation has a causal effect on two forms of substance use among young adults: marijuana and heavy alcohol use...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Emma Mc Donnell, David Hevey, Mathew McCauley, Kevin Noel Ducray
BACKGROUND: Early Maladaptive Schema (EMS) are self-beliefs regarding oneself, others and the world, developed in childhood as the result of cumulative negative experiences (Young, 1993). High levels of EMS are present in the opioid using population along with high levels of emotional dysregulation and maladaptive coping alongside traits of resilience. OBJECTIVES: The study explored the associations between EMS in relation to emotional dysregulation, maladaptive coping, adaptive coping and resilience between a clinical group composed of opioid dependent polydrug users attending a facility for opioid substitution treatment (n = 52) and a healthy comparison group (n = 70)...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Adam E Barry, Alisa A Padon, Shawn D Whiteman, Kristen K Hicks, Amie K Carreon, Jarrett R Crowell, Kristen L Willingham, Ashley L Merianos
BACKGROUND: There is considerable evidence that exposure to alcohol marketing increases the likelihood of adolescents initiating and engaging in alcohol consumption. There is a paucity of research, however, specifically examining industry generated alcohol marketing occurring on social media/networking platforms. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the content of promotional advertisements by alcohol brands on Instagram. METHODS: For a 30-day period, Instagram profiles of 15 distinct alcohol brands were examined...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Michelle I Jongenelis, Robyn Johnston, Julia Stafford
BACKGROUND: Parental provision of alcohol to their underage child has been associated with risky adolescent drinking. While parents' belief in the appropriateness of providing their child with alcohol may influence their provision behaviors, research into the factors associated with this belief is lacking. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify the factors associated with parents' belief in the appropriateness of providing alcohol to their underage child. METHODS: Western Australian parents of 12-17 year olds (n = 443) completed an online survey assessing their drinking habits, alcohol provision behaviors, alcohol-related beliefs and attitudes, their child's alcohol consumption, and demographics...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
James G Phillips, C Erik Landhuis, Rowan P Ogeil
University students engage in risky patterns of alcohol consumption, which may affect their health and performance at university. This study provides a novel analysis which tracked students' interaction with online course materials over time, and examined associations between online activity and alcohol related harm (as indicated by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). Study 1 tracked 63 undergraduate psychology students in the second half of a semester and found risky drinking behaviors were marginally related to reductions in online study activity...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Alison J Kaiser, Heather A Davis, Richard Milich, Gregory T Smith, Richard Charnigo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the bidirectional relations between alcohol use and three impulsive personality traits, to advance understanding of risk processes. PARTICIPANTS: 525 college students (mean age = 18.95 years) recruited in August 2008 and 2009 and followed up annually for three years. METHODS: Personality and past/current substance use were assessed. RESULTS: T2 sensation seeking mediated the predictive relationship between T1 and T3 alcohol use, and T2 alcohol use mediated the predictive relationship between T1 and T3 sensation seeking...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Loren Brener, Joanne Bryant, Elena Cama, Lucy Pepolin, Mary Ellen Harrod
BACKGROUND: Extended distribution refers to the practice whereby people who inject drugs pass on sterile injecting equipment to their networks and can be a means to access people who inject drugs who do not attend state-sanctioned needle and syringe programs. While it is legal, to possess a sterile syringe for the purpose of injecting drugs in New South Wales, Australia, it is a criminal offence to pass this equipment on for others to use. In 2013 a pilot project was established to trial the authorization of "extended" peer distribution...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Jian Yang, Jun Ye, Qiao Guo, Yining Sun, Yansong Zheng, Yongliang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Smoking and drinking are two predisposing factors for dyslipidemia. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to improve the blood lipids. However, it remains unclear how smoking and drinking jointly affect blood lipids and whether exercise influences their effects. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of smoking and drinking, either alone or in combination, on lipid-related indices in both exercise and non-exercise groups among Chinese men. METHODS: This study was conducted in a health examination center between 2015 and 2016...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
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