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Substance Use & Misuse

Jessica Duncan Cance, Anna E Talley, Antonio Morgan-Lopez, Kim Fromme
BACKGROUND: The concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco has a multiplicative effect on both social and physical consequences. While it is known that alcohol and tobacco use are strongly correlated in emerging adulthood, there is significant individual variability in use. However, little research has examined how patterns of concurrent use are related over time. OBJECTIVES: The current study explores these longitudinal conjoint trajectories, as well as the associated sociodemographic factors...
October 25, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Rayna B Hirst, Anna M Teague, Louise M Sodos, Robert E Wickham, L Taighlor Whittington, Brent M Mills, Mitch Earleywine
BACKGROUND: Few studies examining the cognitive effects of chronic cannabis use utilize research designs where examiners are blind to user status. Even in those that do, researchers may be able to guess the user status of participants, leaving these studies vulnerable to the expectancy effect confound. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the ability of neuropsychologists (those who would conduct research on the cognitive effects of cannabis) to differentiate cannabis users and nonusers based on physical appearance from photographs...
October 25, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Lauren J Parker, Haslyn Hunte, Anita Ohmit, Debra Furr-Holden, Roland J Thorpe
: Previous research has demonstrated that experiencing interpersonal discrimination is associated with cigarette smoking. Few studies have examined the relationship between the effects of physical and emotional discrimination and cigarette usage, and none have examined this relationship among Black men. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the effects of physical and emotional discrimination and cigarette smoking. METHODS: Data from the Indiana Black Men's Health Study, a community-based sample of adult Black men, was used to conduct multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between the physical and emotional effects of discrimination and smoking, net of healthcare and workplace discrimination, age, education, household income, and being married...
October 25, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Ashly E Jordan, David C Perlman
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is hyperendemic among people who inject drugs; nonsterile drug injection is the principle risk for HCV acquisition. Due to gaps in the HCV care continuum, there have been recommendations in the United States emphasizing age-rather than risk-based testing strategies. The central research focus of this project is to explore the meanings and implications of the shift in emphasis from risk-based to age-based HCV testing with regard to people who use drugs...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Martie L Skinner, Kevin P Haggerty, Mary Casey-Goldstein, Ronald W Thompson, Laura Buddenberg, W Alex Mason
OBJECTIVES: The changes in Washington State and Colorado marijuana laws call for the development of new brief family-focused adolescent marijuana use preventive interventions that are relevant for and tailored to the context of legalization for retail sale. To that end, focus groups with parents and teens were conducted to find out about their concerns and needs in the context of legalization. METHODS: Six semi-structured focus groups (3 with parents, 3 with teens) were conducted in Washington State in 2013 related to consequences of teen marijuana use and messages that would be effective in helping to prevent teens from using marijuana in the context of legal adult use...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Grace Kong, Bulat Idrisov, Artur Galimov, Radik Masagutov, Steve Sussman
BACKGROUND: Information on e-cigarettes among youth in the Russian Federation is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We examined prevalence of and factors associated with youth e-cigarette use in the Russian Federation. METHODS: A cross-sectional, anonymous survey, conducted among 716 (females 51.5%) high school students in three cities (i.e., Ufa, Sterlitamak, Karagaevo) within the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation in 2015, assessed e-cigarette use and its correlates (i...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Severin Haug, Peter Eggli, Michael P Schaub
BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared characteristics of clients entering alcohol treatment who differ in their drinking goal preferences or have investigated the relevance of drinking goals as a predictor of treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between baseline drinking goal preferences and client characteristics as well as treatment retention and outcomes among clients in outpatient alcohol treatment. METHODS: Secondary data analyses on a longitudinal multicenter study investigating the effectiveness of outpatient alcohol treatment in Switzerland among 805 clients...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Mansoo Yu, Paulette E Chavez, René Olate, Clark Peters
Although Latino/Hispanic adolescent substance use is a growing research area in the United States, there is little research examining the prevalence and factors associated with adolescent cigarette smoking status in this population. A nationally representative sample of 5,929 middle and high Latino/Hispanic students in the 2009 US National Youth Tobacco Survey was selected to assess the prevalence and various risk and protective factors associated with cigarette smoking status. Results revealed one in five (20%) were experimental smokers, nearly one in eleven (8...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Tommi L Gaines, Daniel Werb, Jaime Arredondo, Victor M Alaniz, Carlos Vilalta, Leo Beletsky
BACKGROUND: In 2009, Mexico enacted a drug policy reform (Narcomenudeo) designed to divert persons possessing small amounts of illicit drugs to treatment rather than incarceration. To assess reform impact, this study examines the spatial-temporal trends of drug-related policing in Tijuana, Mexico post-enactment. METHOD: Location of self-reported arrests (N = 1,160) among a prospective, community-recruited cohort of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana (N = 552) was mapped across city neighborhoods...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Jasmine A Mena, Gifty G Ampadu, James O Prochaska
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death. Most smokers are not motivated to quit; however, most smoking cessation interventions are designed for smokers who are ready to take action. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to describe participant engagement and satisfaction with telephonic smoking cessation coaching with a population of smokers at different stages of readiness to quit. METHODS: Qualitative description was used to capture the experiences of 62 individuals who participated in telephonic smoking cessation coaching using semistructured interviews...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Francisco Javier Del Río, Francisco Cabello-Santamaría, Marina A Cabello-García, Jerónimo Aragón-Vela
BACKGROUND: The impact of pain in sexuality, couple relationships and the quality of life is very well known. OBJECTIVES: The relationship between substance abuse and the presence of sexual pain disorder is assessed, together with anxiety and sexual attitudes . METHOD: Two samples were selected. One sample for women with a history of substance abuse (n = 129), and another one of women nonconsumers (n = 129). The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS), the Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Alba Catalá-Miñana, Marisol Lila, Amparo Oliver, Juana-María Vivo, Laura Galiana, Enrique Gracia
BACKGROUND: The association between alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence (IPV) has been reiterated in numerous studies. Some authors have found higher levels of risk factors in intimate partner violence offenders (IPVOs) with alcohol problems than in IPVOs without such problems. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship of contextual variables with harmful alcohol use in a sample of IPVOs. METHOD: This cross-sectional research analyzes data from 231 IPVOs...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Neal Krause, Kenneth I Pargament, Gail Ironson, Peter Hill
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that greater involvement in religion is associated with lower rates of substance use and misuse. However, religion is a complex construct that can be assessed in many ways. The purpose of this study is to explore a dimension of religion that has not been evaluated in previous research on poly-drug use: a religious sense of meaning in life. OBJECTIVES: It is hypothesized that a religious sense of meaning in life will offset (i.e., moderate) the effects of chronic financial strain on poly-drug use...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Jeremy T Goldbach, Ethan H Mereish, Claire Burgess
BACKGROUND: Prescription drug, e-cigarette, smokeless tobacco, and synthetic marijuana use has risen dramatically in the United States over the past decade. OBJECTIVES: This paper investigates the use of risky substances among adolescents, and examines disparities between sexual minority (i.e., mostly heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual; LGB) and heterosexual adolescents in use of novel and emerging substances. Given the public health risk and the imminence of these substances in the media, emerging drug use was examined in a county wide sample of adolescents in a Southern state...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Mark Haden, John R H Archer, Paul I Dargan, David M Wood
BACKGROUND: MDMB-CHMICA (methyl 2-[[1-(cyclohexylmethyl)indole-3-carbonyl]amino]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) is a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist that has been detected in several recreational drug products in Europe since August 2014. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to describe the prevalence of use, availability, and desired and adverse effects of MDMB-CHMICA. METHODS: Data were collated from published scientific literature, and systematic searches were conducted of publically available Internet sources (the "gray literature"), including websites offering to sell MDMB-CHMICA and Internet discussion forums featuring user reports...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Johannes Thrul, Danielle E Ramo
BACKGROUND: Young adults underutilize current evidence-based smoking cessation strategies; yet social media are widely used and accepted among this population. A better understanding of whether and how young adults try to quit smoking in the context of a social media smoking cessation intervention could inform future intervention improvements. OBJECTIVES: We examined frequency, strategies used, and predictors of self-initiated 24-hour quit attempts among young adults participating in a Facebook intervention...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Kleio Koutra, George Kritsotakis, Manolis Linardakis, Nikoleta Ratsika, Anna Kokkevi, Anastas Philalithis
BACKGROUND: Smoking is among the health risk behaviors taken up by many adolescents with lifelong consequences and associations with multiple health risk behaviors. Smoking and smoking initiation in adolescence involves an interaction between micro-, meso-, and macro systems, including neighborhoods and the greater community. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of individual social and economic capital with self-reported health, life satisfaction, and smoking behavior in adolescents...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
David R Hodge, Christopher P Salas-Wright, Michael G Vaughn
BACKGROUND: The homeschool population continues to grow in size and now accounts for 3.4% of all students in the United States. OBJECTIVE: Given the heterogeneous nature of the population, this study examines the relationship between different types of homeschoolers and a number of substance use related outcomes. METHODS: To conduct this study, we used pooled data (2002-2013) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Respondents aged 12-17 who reported they had been homeschooled at any time during the previous 12 months were classified as homeschoolers (N = 1,321)...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Frederico Rosário, Marcin Wojnar, Cristina Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of interventions to increase general practitioners' management of alcohol problems is affected by their attitudes toward at-risk drinkers. Tailoring training programs to general practitioners' attitudes may be useful in increasing alcohol screening and brief advice. OBJECTIVES: to determine whether general practitioners could be divided into distinct groups based on their attitudes toward at-risk drinkers. Another aim of this study was to develop and validate a model for classifying general practitioners into distinct groups...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Carrie M Farmer, Shauna Stahlman, Kimberly A Hepner
BACKGROUND: Brief intervention is recommended for individuals who misuse alcohol, but studies vary on how frequently patients talk with their providers about alcohol use. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether veterans who had recently screened positive for alcohol misuse reported having conversations about their alcohol use with their providers. METHODS: Following a positive screening for alcohol misuse during a primary care visit in 2013, veterans completed a telephone interview on alcohol use, conversations with their providers about drinking, and factors potentially associated with such conversations...
October 18, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
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