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Substance Use & Misuse

Janice V Bowie, Lauren J Parker, Michelle Beadle-Holder, Ashley Ezema, Marino A Bruce, Roland J Thorpe
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking poses a major public health problem that disproportionately affects Blacks and men. Religious attendance has been shown to be positively associated with health promotion and disease prevention among the Black population. In light of this evidence, this study examined if a similar relationship could be found for religious attendance and smoking in Black men. METHODS: The National Survey of American Life (NSAL) study sampled 1,271 African American men and 562 Black Caribbean men...
December 29, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Julia F Van den Berg, Bernadette Dogge, Nicolien Kist, Rob M Kok, Karin Van der Hiele
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is associated with impairments in cognition, especially in later life. Previous studies suggest that excessive drinking has more negative impact on cognition in women than in men. OBJECTIVES: In this study, differences in cognition between male and female older, alcohol-dependent patients were examined. METHOD: Older alcohol-dependent inpatients (N = 164, 62.2% men, mean age 62.6 ± 6.4) underwent neuropsychological tests of sensitivity to interference, mental flexibility, and visual processing...
December 29, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, Lyle Fried, Mona Li, Kristina Dushaj, Eric R Braverman, Thomas McLaughlin, Bruce Steinberg, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
BACKGROUND: There is need for better treatments of addictive behaviors, both substance and non-substance related, termed Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). While the FDA has approved pharmaceuticals under the umbrella term Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT), these drugs are not optimal. OBJECTIVES: It is our contention that these drugs work well in the short-term by blocking dopamine function leading to psychological extinction. However, use of buprenorphine/Naloxone over a long period of time results in unwanted addiction liability, reduced emotional affect, and mood changes including suicidal ideation...
December 29, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Alexandra S Wimberly, Max R Stern, Sarah B Rosenbach, Tyrone Thomas, James R McKay
BACKGROUND: Intimate partnerships are discouraged during early recovery, despite research that highlights their capacity to be resources for change. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to provide descriptions of intimate partnerships and how such partnerships challenge and/or support minimizing HIV sex-risk among participants in continuing care for cocaine addiction in order to inform substance use programming. METHODS: Forty-two recorded continuing care counseling sessions of 33 people who discussed HIV sex-risk behavior were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis...
December 27, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Jazmín Mora-Ríos, Miriam Ortega-Ortega, Maria Elena Medina-Mora
: Social rejection of drug use is greater than that directed at other psychiatric conditions, like depression and anxiety, which may lead to social exclusion of substance users and prevent them from seeking and receiving treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the stigma and discrimination related to addiction in treatment centers in Mexico City. METHODS: Data are from a broad mixed methods study. The present study is a qualitative analysis of 35 in-depth interviews of drug users, family members, and providers, using guidelines for the exploration of experiences of stigma and discrimination related to substance abuse...
December 27, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Eric Janssen
BACKGROUND: An updated prevalence estimate for heroin users in France is lacking. Accurate figures are needed to estimate the potential need for treatment. METHOD: This research relies on a capture-recapture framework and, for the first time, makes use of individual data collected by a standardized survey conducted within treatment centers. Taking the hierarchical structure of data collection into consideration, a multilevel Zelterman regression model was used, thus enabling estimates at national level...
December 27, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Michael L Goodman, Astrid Grouls, Catherine X Chen, Philip H Keiser, Stanley Gitari
OBJECTIVE: We analyze whether adverse childhood experiences predict weekly alcohol consumption patterns of Kenyan mothers and their partners. METHOD: Randomly selected respondents (n = 1,976) were asked about adverse childhood experiences and alcohol consumption patterns for themselves and their partners. Fixed effect models were used to determine odds of reporting weekly alcohol consumption and the number of beverages typically consumed, controlling for wealth, age, education, and partner alcohol consumption...
December 27, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello, Giuseppe Scimeca, Simona Lorusso, Fortunato Battaglia, Gianluca Pandolfo, Rocco A Zoccali, Antonio Bruno
BACKGROUND: The existing literature suggests the presence of a possible relationship between high anger levels and smoking behavior; however, there are no available data highlighting possible differences between moderate and heavy smokers and the putative effect of gender on smoking behavior. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the current study were to assess the relationship among anger, depression, and anxiety and smoking patterns taking into account the possible mediator role of gender...
December 27, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Sarah Baker
BACKGROUND: Social factors have been linked to patterns of alcohol use among women. However, conflicting evidence on the ways in which socio-economic circumstances are linked to women's alcohol use impedes our understanding. Interest in women's alcohol use has moved up the policy agenda. Nevertheless, existing research fails to attend to differences among groups of women according to their social circumstances, including whether or not they are mothers. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to enhance our understanding of "risky" patterns of alcohol use among mothers in the UK during very early motherhood...
December 27, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Assaf Oshri, Matthew W Carlson, Shiran Bord, Amos Zeichner
BACKGROUND: The rate of alcohol-impaired driving (AID) increases during the college years and students who have reported adverse rearing environments appear to be at increased risk for the development of alcohol and drug use behaviors. Alcohol and cannabis are the most commonly used drugs by college students, and these substances are particularly predictive of substance-impaired driving. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate whether adverse rearing environment experiences and level of alcohol and cannabis use are related to the frequency of alcohol-impaired driving and whether anxiety might buffer or accelerate this effect...
December 23, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Lorena Peña, Elma I Lorenzo-Blanco, Adriana Pérez, Paola Morello, Edna Arillo Santillan, Christy Kollath-Cattano, James F Thrasher, James Sargent, Raúl Mejia
BACKGROUND: In Europe and the United States, family relationships and parenting behavior can influence youth substance use, but less is known about their influence in Latin American countries. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether parenting behavior is associated with substance use among Latin American youth. METHODS: A cross-sectional, school-based survey of middle-school youth (n = 3172) in three Argentinian cities queried tobacco, alcohol, and drug use using items adapted from global youth surveys...
December 23, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Claire E Blevins, Robert Stephens, Ana M Abrantes
BACKGROUND: Prescription stimulant misuse is increasingly prevalent in college populations, with some misuse estimates over 40%. Stimulant use is associated with a variety of health and psychological problems. Motives for use may provide insight into problematic trajectories. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate characteristics of users and motives for prescription stimulant misuse in a large southeastern university. METHOD: College students reported on prescription stimulant use, motives for use, consequences associated with use, perceptions of risk, and social norms...
December 23, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Alessandro Gabbiadini, Francesca Cristini, Luca Scacchi, Maria Grazia Monaci
BACKGROUND: One of the most problematic modes of alcohol consumption in young adults is risky drinking in single episodes, which typically takes place in social contexts. Several studies have applied the Theory of Planned Behavior to drinking intentions and behavior in young people. However, previous studies show that this model lacks a "bridge" that links a mental process like intentions to a physical process represented by the actual action. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to test the predictive power of the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior plus social influences in order to overcome theory of planned behavior gaps in predicting binge-drinking behavior in young people...
December 23, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Julia Dickson-Gomez, Maria Pacella, Michelle Renee Broaddus, Katherine Quinn, Carol Galletly, Justin Rivas
BACKGROUND: Adolescent gang members are a source of concern due to their involvement in criminal activity, violence, substance use, and high-risk sexual behaviors. Adolescent gang theories hypothesize that social institutions, including the family and school, fail to meet the needs of adolescents who therefore feel less attachment to these institutions and find an unconventional institution (i.e. the gang) to meet these needs through the gang. OBJECTIVES: In this paper, we will examine the extent to which social disorganization and social control theories, in particular the rejection of conventional norms and aspirations, match adolescents' subjective reasons for their decisions and their future aspirations...
December 23, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Maša Pavlović, Iris Zezelj
BACKGROUND: There is substantial empirical evidence that negative mood triggers smoking behavior, and less support for the similar effect of positive mood. However, the relationship between the intensity of mood and smoking remains relatively under-researched. OBJECTIVES: The present study explored the association between mood intensity and smoking behavior. METHODS: Seventy-three ad libitum smokers recorded their mood and concurrent number of smoked cigarettes three times daily for one week using electronic diary application...
December 23, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Wura Jacobs, Patricia Goodson, Adam E Barry, Kenneth R McLeroy, E Lisako J McKyer, Thomas W Valente
BACKGROUND: Scientists have established that social networks influence adolescents' substance use behavior, an influence that varies by gender. However, the role of gender in this mechanism of influence remains poorly understood. Particularly, the role an adolescent's gender, alongside the gender composition of his/her network, plays in facilitating or constraining alcohol use is still unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the associations among the gender composition of adolescents' networks, select network characteristics, intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, and alcohol use among a sample of adolescents in the United States...
December 23, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Liana R Taylor, Michael Caudy, Brandy L Blasko, Faye S Taxman
BACKGROUND: Substance-involved females tend to have different clinical profiles than men (Adams, Leukefeld, & Peden, 2008 ); yet they do not appear to have worse treatment outcomes (Green, 2006 ; Hser, Huang, Teruya, & Anglin, 2003 ). As motivation for treatment is considered essential in the substance abuse treatment context (Cahill, Adinoff, Hosig, Muller, & Pulliam, 2003 ; Longshore & Teruya, 2006 ), it is possible that higher motivation among females could potentially counteract the negative effect of more risk factors...
December 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Ziyun Wang, Wei-Xiu Li, Liu Zhi-Min
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the drug addiction process between Chinese heroin- and methamphetamine (MA)-dependent users via a modified 4-stage addiction model (experimentation, occasional use, regular use, and compulsive use). METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted among 683 eligible participants. In the statistical analysis, we selected 340 heroin- and 295 MA-dependent users without illicit drug use prior to onset of heroin or MA use. RESULTS: The addiction process of heroin-dependent users was shorter than that of MA-dependent users, with shorter transitions from the onset of drug-use to the first drug craving (19...
December 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Lillian Gelberg, Guillermina Natera Rey, Ronald M Andersen, Miriam Arroyo, Ietza Bojorquez-Chapela, Melvin W Rico, Mani Vahidi, Julia Yacenda-Murphy, Lisa Arangua, Martin Serota
BACKGROUND: Given the increased use of psychoactive substances on the United States-Mexico border, a binational study (Tijuana, Mexico-Los Angeles, USA) was conducted to identify the prevalence of substance use in primary care settings. OBJECTIVES: To compare the prevalence and characteristics of patients at risk for substance use disorders in Tijuana and East Los Angeles (LA) community clinics with special attention paid to drug use. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional, analytical study, comparing substance use screening results from patients in Tijuana and LA...
December 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Tess E Smith, Michelle M Martel, Alan D DeSantis
BACKGROUND: Side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use are understudied. OBJECTIVES: The study examined side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use in a college sample with attention to possible gender differences. METHODS: 2716 undergraduates (1448 male) between the ages of 17 and 57 years (M = 19.43 years, SD = 1.7 years) completed an online survey that included questions about the subjective side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use...
November 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
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