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Substance Use & Misuse

Emma L Davies, Mary Sissons Joshi
BACKGROUND: Studies exploring "anticipated regret" concerning alcohol rarely consider the broader consequences of excessive drinking that might be regretted. Even if specific regrettable experiences are identified, interventions targeting them may not succeed because individuals are often optimistic about their risk susceptibility. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the consequences young adult drinkers reported, and the extent to which these were regretted...
April 20, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Paul Sacamano, Noa Krawczyk, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: Frequent emergency department (ED) visits often suggest inappropriate use for low acuity needs and multiple comorbidities, including substance use disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study examines associations of individuals and their social networks with high frequency ED use among persons reporting substance use. METHODS: Information was obtained from interview responses from the first 6-month follow-up visit of a longitudinal. Prevalence ratios for the outcome of high frequency ED visits (≥2 in 6 months) were determined with a generalized linear model, log link, Poisson distribution and robust standard errors...
April 19, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Adrian Meule, Julia Reichenberger, Jens Blechert
BACKGROUND: Some individuals respond to stress with increased food intake while others reduce their food intake. Smokers often report using smoking to cope with stress and have a lower body weight than nonsmokers on average. Thus, smokers may tend to eat less when stressed, which may partly explain their lower body weight as compared to nonsmokers. In turn, nonsmokers may tend to eat more when stressed, which may partly explain their higher body weight as compared to smokers. OBJECTIVE: To examine the interplay between smoking and stress-related eating...
April 19, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Ashley N Linden-Carmichael, Stephanie T Lanza
BACKGROUND: Young adults report the heaviest drinking of any age group, and many are at risk for experiencing an alcohol use disorder. Most research investigating young adult drinking has focused on single indicators of use. Using multiple dimensions of consumption, such as federal guidelines for daily/weekly drinking and engagement in drinking at twice the binge threshold ("high-intensity drinking") to characterize drinking behavior could illuminate drinking patterns linked with harms...
April 19, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Ruken Ağaçhanlı, İzgi Alnıak, Cuneyt Evren
BACKGROUND: Studies on sexual functioning of populations with substance use disorders (SUDs) are mostly conducted with male substance users. We have very limited information about the sexuality and related factors in women with opioid use disorder (OUD). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs) and sexual dysfunctions (SDs) of women with OUD and to compare it with a sample of women who do not have SUD. METHODS: Participants included 51 outpatient women with OUD who were on opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) with Buprenorphine/Naloxone and 48 women without SUD...
April 19, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Laura E Kunst, Winifred A Gebhardt
BACKGROUND: Recent developments in drug use patterns call for an investigation of current party-drug use and associated problems among college students, who appear to be an important target population for harm reduction interventions. OBJECTIVES: In addition to reporting on party-drug use prevalence, we investigated whether initial use and continuation of party-drug use among students was associated with demographic, personality and psychosocial factors. METHODS: An online questionnaire was administered to 446 students from a Dutch university, inquiring about party-drug use, demographic characteristics, social norms and personality (big five, impulsiveness, aggression)...
April 18, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Rachel L Graves, Christopher Tufts, Zachary F Meisel, Dan Polsky, Lyle Ungar, Raina M Merchant
BACKGROUND: The rise in opioid use and overdose has increased the importance of improving data collection methods for the purpose of targeting resources to high-need populations and responding rapidly to emerging trends. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Twitter data could be used to identify geographic differences in opioid-related discussion and whether opioid topics were significantly correlated with opioid overdose death rate. METHODS: We filtered approximately 10 billion tweets for keywords related to opioids between July 2009 and October 2015...
April 16, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Paige Clarke, Tonya Dodge, Michelle L Stock
BACKGROUND: There is little published research that tests the effect of recreational marijuana legislation on risk-related cognitions and how individuals respond immediately after legislative approval. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to test whether learning about the passage of Initiative 71, a voter referendum that legalized recreational use of marijuana in the District of Columbia, would lead individuals to adopt more favorable marijuana cognitions than they had before the Initiative was passed...
April 13, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Severin Haug, Raquel Paz Castro, Peter Eggli, Michael P Schaub
BACKGROUND: Drinking goal preferences could change over time in alcohol treatment and during follow up. OBJECTIVES: To examine the stability of drinking goals over time, types of drinking goal trajectory, and the associations between drinking goal trajectories and baseline client characteristics and treatment outcomes. METHODS: We performed secondary analysis of a dataset from a multicenter longitudinal study on the effectiveness of outpatient alcohol treatment (n = 543)...
April 13, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Gabriel J Merrin, Bonnie Leadbeater
BACKGROUND: Past studies have differentiated classes of polysubstance use in adolescence, however, the associations of adolescent polysubstance use classes with longitudinal substance use trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined substance use classes during adolescence and longitudinal trajectories of each substance used across the transition to young adulthood. METHOD: Data were collected biennially from 662 youth and followed 10 years across six measurement assessments...
April 13, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Janie Simmons, Sonali Rajan, Lloyd A Goldsamt, Luther Elliott
BACKGROUND: This article reports on the first implementation of an online opioid-overdose prevention, recognition and response training for laypeople. The training was disseminated nationally in November 2014. Between 2000 and 2014, U.S. opioid deaths increased by 200%. The importance of complementary approaches to reduce opioid overdose deaths, such as online training, cannot be overstated. OBJECTIVES: A retrospective evaluation was conducted to assess perceived knowledge, skills to intervene in an overdose, confidence to intervene, and satisfaction with the training...
April 11, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Julia Cen Chen
BACKGROUND: E-cigarette use prevalence has increased drastically among young adult cigarette smokers in recent years. OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to understand which e-cigarette flavors-sweet and fruity or tobacco and menthol/mint-are more likely to be associated with smoking reduction and cessation among young adults. METHODS: Longitudinal data (waves 1 and 2) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study from young adult (aged 18-34) cigarette smokers (n = 4,645) at wave 1 and current e-cigarette users (n = 844) at wave 2 were used...
April 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Amy L Ai, Jungup Lee
BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is a major behavioral health concern and imposes lasting sequelae on mental and physical health, including lifetime substance use disorders (LT-SUD). Yet, gender-specific research examining this early trauma and substance use in Latina-Americans (Latinas) is scarce. No study has explored the relationship between collectivist cultural factors and LT-SUD in this largest minority-female subgroup of the United States' population. OBJECTIVES: Based on coping theory, this study investigated the association between childhood abuse, cultural factors, and LT-SUD among Latinas nationwide...
April 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Katrina J Debnam, Shonali Saha, Catherine P Bradshaw
BACKGROUND: Synthetic and other drugs have become available to teens, yet little is known about risk factors of use. OBJECTIVE: To examine adolescent use of one class of synthetic drugs and its association with perceptions about its prevalence, access, and risk of substance use. METHODS: Adolescents from a convenience sample of 104 middle and high schools (N = 59,218) participated in an anonymous survey to assess school climate and substance use in 2013-2014...
April 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Rebekah L Thomas, Adrian B Kelly, Gary C K Chan, Leanne M Hides, Catherine A Quinn, David J Kavanagh, Joanne W Williams
OBJECTIVE: To assess gender differences in the relationship between eating and weight loss attitudes (EWAs), and 30-day tobacco and alcohol use among adolescents, while controlling for potential confounds (age, country of birth, psychological distress, pubertal development, peer alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity). METHODS: School students aged between 11 and 17 years (N = 10,273) from high schools in the State of Victoria (Australia) completed surveys in class under conditions of anonymity and confidentiality...
April 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Amanda J Simonton, Cara C Young, Karen E Johnson
BACKGROUND: Adolescent substance use, a major problem in the United States, has a significant negative effect on both short- and long-term mental and physical health. Physical activity (PA) may offer potentially effective strategies to combat substance use in youth. Like substance use, PA behaviors developed during adolescence persist into adulthood, so adolescence may be an ideal period in which to implement PA interventions to prevent substance abuse. However, there are no known systematic literature reviews of PA-based interventions that target substance use in adolescence...
April 2, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Michael J Mason, Jeremy Mennis
BACKGROUND: An understudied, yet important area of youth development research is the examination of how place affects critical psychosocial processes such as identity formation, problem solving, emotional regulation, and in particular with adolescents, belongingness, autonomy, social competency, and behavioral health. A growing spatially informed literature indicates that youth interact with meaningful places as environmental strategies, shaping developmental trajectories related to behavioral health...
April 2, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Nina Mulia, Yu Ye, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Sarah E Zemore, Rhonda Jones-Webb
BACKGROUND: African Americans are generally known to have lower heavy drinking prevalence than Whites despite often greater individual and community risk factors. While it is supposed that their protective resources explain this "paradox," studies have not explicitly examined this. OBJECTIVE: Assess the contribution of protective resources to Black-White differences in heavy drinking, and (secondarily) whether protective resources operate by reducing heavy drinking and/or increasing abstinence...
April 2, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Ninive von Greiff, Lisa Skogens, Marie Berlin, Anders Bergmark
BACKGROUND: This article presents a 30-year follow-up study of a cohort of 1163 substance misusers who were in inpatient treatment in the early 1980s. Data was originally collected in the Swedish Drug Addict Treatment Evaluation (SWEDATE). OBJECTIVES: The aim is to examine the overall mortality and identify causes of death in different groups based on self-reported most dominant substance misuse among those who have died during January 1984-December 2013. METHODS: SWEDATE-data was linked to the National Cause of Death Register...
March 26, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Katie Schultz, Ciwang Teyra, Glenda Breiler, Tessa Evans-Campbell, Cynthia Pearson
OBJECTIVE: This study explored factors related to substance misuse and recovery among Native mothers in a Pacific Northwest tribe, focusing on motherhood as a motivating factor in seeking treatment and sustaining recovery. METHOD: Using a community-based participatory research approach, we conducted a thematic analysis of 20 in-depth interviews and one focus group (N = 12) with Native women 18 years and older living on or near the reservation. RESULTS: Qualitative findings highlighted challenges, motivations and strategies for seeking treatment and recovery in four major themes: (a) the close relationship between interpersonal violence and substance misuse; (b) traditional healing in recovery; (c) community-specific challenges to recovery; and (d) the motivating role of motherhood in seeking treatment and successful recovery...
March 26, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
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