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Substance Use & Misuse

Kasim Ortiz, Adolfo G Cuevas, Ramzi Salloum, Nancy Lopez, Thomas LaVeist-Ramos
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study examined differences in waterpipe smoking (both lifetime and current) by race and ethnicity. More specifically, we evaluated intra-ethnic racial differences among Latinos using a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Pooled data from the National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) [2012-2014] was used, in which Log-Poisson multivariable regression models were deployed to determine the prevalence of waterpipe smoking behavior. Models were stratified by gender and we further investigated acculturation, controlling for relevant sociodemographic characteristics...
July 20, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Cathy Lau-Barraco, Ashley N Linden-Carmichael
BACKGROUND: Emerging adults with lower educational attainment are at higher long-term risk for problematic drinking and alcohol use disorders. Efforts to gain a more in-depth understanding of the drinking habits of nonstudent emerging adults are critical to reduce disparities and to shed light on targets of intervention for this vulnerable group. OBJECTIVES: The current investigation aimed to: (1) provide a description of the daily drinking habits of nonstudent emerging adult drinkers using a 14-day diary method, and (2) examine nondrinking days by assessing their reasons for not drinking as well as strategies used to avoid drinking...
July 2, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Lisa M Boucher, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Amy E Mark, Curtis Cooper, Alana Martin, Zack Marshall, Rob Boyd, Pam Oickle, Nicola Diliso, Dave Pineau, Brad Renaud, Sean LeBlanc, Mark Tyndall, Olivia M Lee, Claire E Kendall
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common among people who inject drugs (PWID) and is associated with morbidity and premature death. Although HCV can be cured, treatment may be inaccessible. We studied HCV testing, status and treatment among marginalized people who use drugs in Ottawa, Canada, a setting with universal insurance coverage for physician services. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Participatory Research in Ottawa: Understanding Drugs study, a cross-sectional, peer-administered survey of people who use drugs from 2012 to 2013...
June 22, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Andrew M Kiselica, Amy Duhig, Ivan Montoya, Phil Skolnick, Jennifer Floyd, Cigi Byars
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorder (CUD) as described/defined in DSM 5, is characterized by impaired control of marijuana use and related personal, health, and legal consequences. CUD is a serious public health problem, affecting nearly 6 million individuals in the United States. There are no FDA approved medications to treat this disorder. The lack of available treatment options contributes to uncertainties by drug sponsors about formulary and reimbursement decision-making for CUD pharmacotherapies...
June 21, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Eleanor L S Leavens, Julie Croff, Rachel Feddor, Kathleen Olson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and related consequences is a problem on many college campuses. Tailgating parties before college sporting events may be contributing, however, little recent research has investigated alcohol consumption at these events. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the drinking behaviors of college game day tailgate attendees and subsequent alcohol-related consequences. METHODS: Participants (N = 89; 44...
June 21, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Philseok Lee, Sunhee Lee
The drinking motives questionnaire (DMQ, Cooper, 1994) has been a very useful measurement tool for understanding why people drink alcohol. Recent attempts to examine drinking motives used the DMQ within a person-centered analysis framework. However, latent profiles identified in previous research largely presented level effects without strong shape effects, which consequently restricted meaningful interpretations and effective applications of drinking-motive profiles. To address this limitation, we applied a new alternative methodology for the study of drinking motives that integrated variable- and person-centered approaches...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Ellen M Leslie, Andrew Smirnov, Adrian Cherney, Helene Wells, Margot Legosz, Robert Kemp, Jake M Najman
BACKGROUND: Prior research indicates that patterns of combined alcohol and methamphetamine use may be associated with experiencing subjective feelings of aggression or hostility during methamphetamine use episodes. OBJECTIVES: This study examines whether subjective effects of methamphetamine use (i.e., aggression or hostility and paranoia) are associated with aggressive behavior while under the influence of any illicit drugs, controlling for combined alcohol and methamphetamine use and a number of other potential predictors...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Caroline O Cobb, Eric K Soule, Alyssa K Rudy, Megan E Sutter, Amy M Cohn
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is more common among tobacco users than nonusers, and co-use (i.e., use of both substances individually) may be increasing. Better understanding of patterns and correlates of co-use is needed. The current study aimed to compare rates and correlates of tobacco and cannabis co-use by tobacco product among youth. METHODS: High school students who completed the 2013 Virginia Youth Survey and reported past 30-day tobacco use (cigarette, smokeless tobacco, cigar) were included (n = 1390)...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Cesare Maffei, Marco Cavicchioli, Mariagrazia Movalli, Roberto Cavallaro, Andrea Fossati
BACKGROUND: Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has demonstrated efficacy in treating disorders such as alcohol dependence that are characterized by emotional dysregulation. Preliminary evidence has revealed the feasibility of DBT skills training (ST) as a stand-alone treatment for such disorders. Although emotional dysregulation plays a significant role in alcohol dependence, there are no previous reports of using DBT-ST to treat it. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the duration of abstinence and changes in emotional regulation in a 3-month DBT-ST program for alcohol-dependent patients and to look for relations between abstinence and emotional regulation...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Trond Nordfjærn
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relative role of religiosity for alcohol abstention and consumption levels among individuals aged 40 years or above. METHOD: A two-wave prospective survey was conducted among Norwegians aged 40 to 80 years (Time 1 in 2002/2003, and Time 2 in 2007/2008). The analytical sample of this study constituted those who responded to the questionnaire survey at both time points (n = 2671). RESULTS: The findings showed that religiousity was strongly associated with abstention and less consumption while adjusting for demographics and health variables...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
S E Streisel
BACKGROUND: As opioid use increases in the United States, especially in the correctional population, the most effective treatment approaches need to be utilized. Research has shown that medication-assisted treatment (MAT) provides better outcomes than traditional treatment approaches alone, but is underutilized among correctional-supervised populations. OBJECTIVE: This article looks at how previously identified barriers to implementing MAT can create potential biases regarding the intent to refer individuals to either buprenorphine or methadone among treatment and correctional staff within community corrections...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Rayna B Hirst, Casey Conaboy, Dylan Vaughn, Richard H Enriquez, Robert Wickham
OBJECTIVE: With increasing legalization of medicinal and recreational cannabis, use is on the rise. Research suggests individuals may be able to guess cannabis user status based upon appearance; however, these findings utilized a small sample of photographs that was not balanced on user status or gender. Further, no studies examined whether raters with cannabis experience are better at judging others' cannabis use, or what physical features they use to make these judgments. This study explored these factors using a larger, balanced photograph database...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Kat Kolar, Patricia Erickson, Andrew Hathaway, Geraint Osborne
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The drug normalization framework investigates the social integration of substance use. This article contributes a quantitative assessment of cannabis normalization as differentiated by social location predictors. METHODS: Logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models assess three areas of cannabis normalization: accessibility, acceptability, and recent use. Peer network cannabis use prevalence, gender, nativity, campus locale and living arrangement are explored as focal predictors of variation in normalization among 1,713 cannabis using and nonusing undergraduate students in Canada...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
John P Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Research on the association between cohabitation and substance use has been inconsistent, with some studies indicating an elevated risk among cohabiters and others finding either no difference in risk or a reduced risk of substance use. However, studies of this association have not utilized a causal modeling empirical framework. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research was to assess whether cohabitation has a causal effect on two forms of substance use among young adults: marijuana and heavy alcohol use...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Emma Mc Donnell, David Hevey, Mathew McCauley, Kevin Noel Ducray
BACKGROUND: Early Maladaptive Schema (EMS) are self-beliefs regarding oneself, others and the world, developed in childhood as the result of cumulative negative experiences (Young, 1993). High levels of EMS are present in the opioid using population along with high levels of emotional dysregulation and maladaptive coping alongside traits of resilience. OBJECTIVES: The study explored the associations between EMS in relation to emotional dysregulation, maladaptive coping, adaptive coping and resilience between a clinical group composed of opioid dependent polydrug users attending a facility for opioid substitution treatment (n = 52) and a healthy comparison group (n = 70)...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Adam E Barry, Alisa A Padon, Shawn D Whiteman, Kristen K Hicks, Amie K Carreon, Jarrett R Crowell, Kristen L Willingham, Ashley L Merianos
BACKGROUND: There is considerable evidence that exposure to alcohol marketing increases the likelihood of adolescents initiating and engaging in alcohol consumption. There is a paucity of research, however, specifically examining industry generated alcohol marketing occurring on social media/networking platforms. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the content of promotional advertisements by alcohol brands on Instagram. METHODS: For a 30-day period, Instagram profiles of 15 distinct alcohol brands were examined...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Michelle I Jongenelis, Robyn Johnston, Julia Stafford
BACKGROUND: Parental provision of alcohol to their underage child has been associated with risky adolescent drinking. While parents' belief in the appropriateness of providing their child with alcohol may influence their provision behaviors, research into the factors associated with this belief is lacking. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify the factors associated with parents' belief in the appropriateness of providing alcohol to their underage child. METHODS: Western Australian parents of 12-17 year olds (n = 443) completed an online survey assessing their drinking habits, alcohol provision behaviors, alcohol-related beliefs and attitudes, their child's alcohol consumption, and demographics...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
James G Phillips, C Erik Landhuis, Rowan P Ogeil
University students engage in risky patterns of alcohol consumption, which may affect their health and performance at university. This study provides a novel analysis which tracked students' interaction with online course materials over time, and examined associations between online activity and alcohol related harm (as indicated by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). Study 1 tracked 63 undergraduate psychology students in the second half of a semester and found risky drinking behaviors were marginally related to reductions in online study activity...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Alison J Kaiser, Heather A Davis, Richard Milich, Gregory T Smith, Richard Charnigo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the bidirectional relations between alcohol use and three impulsive personality traits, to advance understanding of risk processes. PARTICIPANTS: 525 college students (mean age = 18.95 years) recruited in August 2008 and 2009 and followed up annually for three years. METHODS: Personality and past/current substance use were assessed. RESULTS: T2 sensation seeking mediated the predictive relationship between T1 and T3 alcohol use, and T2 alcohol use mediated the predictive relationship between T1 and T3 sensation seeking...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Loren Brener, Joanne Bryant, Elena Cama, Lucy Pepolin, Mary Ellen Harrod
BACKGROUND: Extended distribution refers to the practice whereby people who inject drugs pass on sterile injecting equipment to their networks and can be a means to access people who inject drugs who do not attend state-sanctioned needle and syringe programs. While it is legal, to possess a sterile syringe for the purpose of injecting drugs in New South Wales, Australia, it is a criminal offence to pass this equipment on for others to use. In 2013 a pilot project was established to trial the authorization of "extended" peer distribution...
December 6, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
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