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Substance Use & Misuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622067/opioid-involved-overdose-among-male-afghanistan-iraq-era-u-s-military-veterans-a-multidimensional-perspective
#1
Alex S Bennett, Luther Elliott, Andrew Golub, Brett Wolfson-Stofko, Honoria Guarino
BACKGROUND: Mirroring nationwide trends in a broad range of U.S. populations, an alarming number of Afghanistan/Iraq-era U.S. Military veterans have experienced opioid-related overdoses. A growing body of research has examined the proximal behaviors that can precipitate an overdose; considerably less is known about more distal physiological, psychosocial and structural influences on these risk behaviors. OBJECTIVES: This study adopts a multidimensional approach to better understand opioid-related overdose among U...
June 16, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605315/tracking-young-adults-attitudes-toward-tobacco-marketing-using-ecological-momentary-assessment-ema
#2
Megan E Roberts, Bo Lu, Christopher R Browning, Amy K Ferketich
BACKGROUND: Decades of research demonstrate the pernicious effects of targeted cigarette marketing on young people. Now, with tobacco marketing shifting toward greater incorporation of alternative products, it is critical to identify current attitudes toward the new landscape of tobacco advertisements. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to understand the present landscape of tobacco marketing to which young adults are exposed, and to assess how they respond to it...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605308/prevalence-of-heavy-alcohol-use-among-people-receiving-methadone-following-change-to-methadose
#3
Jan Klimas, Evan Wood, Ekaterina Nosova, M-J Milloy, Thomas Kerr, Kanna Hayashi
BACKGROUND: A recent switch in methadone formulation from methadone (1 mg/mL) to Methadose (10 mg/mL) in British Columbia (BC), Canada, was associated with increased reports of opioid withdrawal and increases in illicit opioid use. Impacts on other forms of drug use have not been assessed. Since alcohol use is common among people receiving Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT), we assessed if switch was associated with increased prevalence of heavy alcohol use. METHODS: Drawing on data from two open prospective cohort studies of people who inject drugs in Vancouver, BC, generalized estimating equations (GEE) model examined relationship between methadone formulation change and heavy alcohol use, defined by National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605305/attitudes-toward-medical-cannabis-legalization-among-serbian-medical-students
#4
Isidora Vujcic, Aleksandar Pavlovic, Eleonora Dubljanin, Jadranka Maksimovic, Aleksandra Nikolic, Sandra Sipetic-Grujicic
BACKGROUND: Currently, medical cannabis polices are experiencing rapid changes, and an increasing number of nations around the world legalize medical cannabis for certain groups of patients, including those in Serbia. OBJECTIVES: To determine medical students' attitudes toward medical cannabis legalization and to examine the factors influencing their attitudes. METHODS: Fourth-year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, had participated in a cross-sectional study...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605304/report-on-the-international-workshop-on-drug-prevention-and-treatment-in-rural-settings-organized-by-united-nation-office-on-drugs-and-crime-unodc-and-world-health-organization-who
#5
Giulia Milano, Elizabeth Saenz, Nicolas Clark, Anja Busse, John Gale, Giovanna Campello, Elizabeth Mattfeld, Wadih Maalouf, Hanna Heikkila, Antonietta Martelli, Brian Morales, Gilberto Gerra
Very little evidence has been reported in literature regarding the misuse of substances in rural areas. Despite the common perception of rural communities as a protective and risk-mitigating environment, the scientific literature demonstrated the existence of many risk factors in rural communities. The Drug Prevention and Health Branch (DHB) of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), and the World Health Organization (WHO), in June 2016, organized a meeting of experts in treatment and prevention of SUDs in rural settings...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605301/cold-preparation-of-heroin-in-a-black-tar-market
#6
Alexis M Roth, Richard F Armenta, Karla D Wagner, Steffanie A Strathdee, Jesse L Goldshear, Jazmine Cuevas-Mota, Richard S Garfein
BACKGROUND: Black tar heroin is typically prepared for injection with heat which decreases the risk of HIV transmission by inactivating the virus. We received reports that persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, a black tar heroin market, were using only water to dissolve heroin. OBJECTIVES: Because Tijuana abuts San Diego County, CA, United States, we undertook the present analyses to determine the prevalence of this practice among PWID in San Diego, California...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605282/is-binge-drinking-onset-timing-related-to-academic-performance-engagement-and-aspirations-among-youth-in-the-compass-study
#7
Karen A Patte, Wei Qian, Scott T Leatherdale
BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests early initiation of alcohol use is associated with academic underachievement; however, substance use onset is an ambiguous concept, resulting in mixed findings across studies. Moreover, the quantity of early use is likely an important determinant. Binge drinking is a common pattern among younger cohorts, and is shown to magnify the risk of related problems. OBJECTIVES: The current study explored how students who initiated binge drinking early (grade 10 or earlier) or later in high school (grade 11 or 12) differed in relation to a variety of academic indices...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605278/prescription-opioid-misuse-and-public-health-approach-in-australia
#8
Tom Kovitwanichkanont, Carolyn Day
The number of opioid prescriptions has increased significantly over the last few years due to multiple factors, such as physicians' heightened attention to pain management, greater prevalence of chronic pain due to the aging population, and the availability of sustained-release opioid preparations. Correspondingly, this has been associated with a rise in considerable harm due to opioid misuse, which is recognized as a national health priority in Australia. This article outlines the major public health approaches that have been introduced in Australia to address this issue...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605272/methamphetamine-use-among-iranian-youth-a-population-based-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-study
#9
Hamid Sharifi, Mostafa Shokoohi, Ali Ahmad RafieiRad, Maryam Sargolzaie Moghadam, Ali-Akbar Haghdoost, Ali Mirzazadeh, Mohammad Karamouzian
Despite the increasing prevalence of methamphetamine use among the young population in Iran, the body of literature on their methamphetamine use remains slim. This study was designed to investigate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of Iranian youth about methamphetamine to help inform harm reduction policies catered towards young men and women. In a cross-sectional study using multistage sampling in 13 provinces, 4868 participants aged 15-29 years old were recruited. Knowledge, attitude and practices of youth about methamphetamine were assessed through a pilot-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605267/hoarding-behaviors-and-alcohol-use-the-mediating-role-of-emotion-dysregulation
#10
Amanda M Raines, Jesus Chavarria, Nicholas P Allan, Nicole A Short, Norman B Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Despite recent research establishing high rates of comorbidity between hoarding disorder and alcohol use disorders (AUD), no studies have systemically examined the associations between symptoms of hoarding and alcohol use. Moreover, no studies have explored potential mechanisms that may help to explain these relations. OBJECTIVES: Thus, the current study was designed to examine the associations between hoarding and AUD symptoms, as well as the mediating role of emotion dysregulation...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605229/beliefs-behaviors-and-contexts-of-adolescent-caffeine-use-a-focus-group-study
#11
Alison B Ludden, Elizabeth M O'Brien, Keryn E Pasch
BACKGROUND: Caffeinated products are widely available to adolescents, and consumption of caffeine products-energy drinks and coffee in particular-is on the rise in this age group (Branum, Rossen, & Schoendorf, 2014). Yet, little is known about the psychosocial context of caffeine use. Previous studies on adolescent caffeine use have focused on caffeine's acute physiological effects, rather than the psychosocial contexts and beliefs regarding different types of caffeinated beverages (e...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605226/the-role-of-alcohol-expectancies-in-the-associations-between-close-friend-typical-college-student-and-personal-alcohol-use
#12
Christine A P Walther, Sarah L Pedersen, JeeWon Cheong, Brooke S G Molina
Background Perceptions of peer drinking and alcohol expectancies have been consistently associated with alcohol use among college students. There is evidence that perceived peer drinking also shapes alcohol expectancies. Research has yet to address the potential differential impact of perceived drinking by close friends versus by typical college students on alcohol use among first-semester college students. Relatedly, mediation of these associations by specific domains of alcohol expectancies has yet to be examined...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605218/family-structure-and-adolescent-substance-use-an-international-perspective
#13
John P Hoffmann
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies indicate that family structure is a key correlate of adolescent substance use. Yet there are some important limitations to this research. Studies have been conducted mainly in the United States, with relatively few studies that have compared family structure and youth substance use across nations. There is also a lack of recognition of the complexity of family types prevalent in contemporary global society. Moreover, there remains a need to consider personal, interpersonal, and macro-level characteristics that may help account for the association between family structure and youth substance use...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605216/drug-avoidance-self-efficacy-among-exclusive-cannabis-users-vs-other-drug-users-visiting-the-emergency-department
#14
Sarah E Clingan, Susan I Woodruff
BACKGROUND: Medical care in the emergency department (ED) is a growing and complex area of outpatient care, with about 256 visits made to EDs every minute in 2013. Studies report that, compared to people who do not use drugs, people who use illicit drugs are more likely to use the ED for their medical care. Self-efficacy has been shown to be a predictor of abstinence or reduced use among drug-using individuals. OBJECTIVES: The current study describes drug avoidance self-efficacy among exclusive cannabis-using individuals and other drug-using individuals who use the ED for any reason...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605215/experienced-based-versus-scenario-based-assessments-of-shame-and-guilt-and-their-relationship-to-alcohol-consumption-and-problems
#15
Jason Luoma, Paul Guinther, Jacqueline Potter, Megan Cheslock
BACKGROUND: Empirical studies of the relationships between shame, guilt, and drinking are sparse and sometimes appear contradictory. However, a more coherent picture emerges when researchers differentiate between measures of experienced of guilt and shame (i.e., questionnaires that ask how often people experience thoughts, feelings, and sensations associated with the emotion) versus proneness to guilt and shame (i.e., self-report of likely responses to imagined situations) is understood...
June 12, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574740/people-who-inject-drugs-and-have-mood-disorders-a-brief-assessment-of-health-risk-behaviors
#16
Stacey Carroll Williams, Melissa Ann Davey-Rothwell, Karin E Tobin, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs have a greater risk of infectious disease and mortality than other substance abusers and nondrug users. Variation in risk behavior among people who inject drugs is likely associated with comorbid mental health disorders. OBJECTIVES: Examine the association between a history of mood disorder and recent risk behavior among people who inject drugs. METHODS: With baseline data from a behavioral HIV prevention clinical trial in a population of people who inject drugs, we used logistic regression models to compare the risk behaviors of people who report a past diagnosis of bipolar disorder (n = 113) or depression (n = 237) to a comparison group with no history of diagnosed mental illness (n = 446)...
June 2, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574738/characteristics-and-outcome-of-male-and-female-methadone-maintenance-patients-mmt-in-tel-aviv-and-las-vegas
#17
Miriam Adelson, Shirley Linzy, Einat Peles
To compare in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) gender characteristics and outcomes, all patients ever admitted to Tel Aviv (TA) MMT clinic (N = 837) (June 1993-December 2014) and Las Vegas (LV) MMT clinic (N = 1256) (February 2000-June 2015) were prospectively followed-up (until June 2016). Drugs in urine on admission and after one year and long-term retention up to 23 and 16 years, respectively, were analyzed. Females in both clinics admitted younger than males and following shorter duration of opioid usage (TA: n = 215, 25...
June 2, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569602/factors-associated-with-risky-alcohol-consumption-among-male-street-laborers-in-urban-vietnam
#18
Lamprini Mylona, Nguyen Van Huy, Pham Nguyen Ha, Emilia Riggi, Gaetano Marrone
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is of global concern. However, drinking patterns and associated factors remain under-investigated, especially among low socioeconomic groups such as street laborers. OBJECTIVE: Using the social cognitive model as a framework for the study we aimed to identify factors associated with risky alcohol consumption. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study using structured questionnaires, 450 male street laborers searching for casual works in Hanoi, Vietnam were interviewed...
June 1, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557687/relating-therapist-characteristics-to-client-engagement-and-the-therapeutic-alliance-in-an-adolescent-custodial-group-substance-misuse-treatment-program
#19
Rachael Anne Daniels, Emma Holdsworth, Carlo Tramontano
BACKGROUND: Client engagement in substance misuse treatment programs is directly associated with positive treatment outcomes. The nature of these programs means there are often difficulties engaging and retaining clients, but authors have consistently found a strong therapeutic alliance is associated with client engagement. While research has focused on the association between the alliance and engagement, the factors that influence the therapeutic alliance have received less attention...
May 30, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557662/trends-across-the-night-in-patronage-intoxication-and-licensed-venue-characteristics-in-five-australian-cities
#20
Kerri Coomber, Nicolas Droste, Amy Pennay, Richelle Mayshak, Florentine Martino, Peter G Miller
BACKGROUND: While alcohol-related harm is reportedly greater on weekend evenings, research investigating trends in the intoxication levels of patrons and factors that increase risk of harm over the night is lacking. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to observe trends over the course of the night for patron demographics, venue characteristics and patron intoxication. METHODS: Observations of licensed venues and patrons in night-time entertainment districts of five Australian cities were conducted...
May 30, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
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