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Substance Use & Misuse

Claudia M Carlini, Zila M Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Nightclubs are venues in which excessive alcohol use and illegal drug consumption occur in addition to other high-risk behaviors, such as violence and sexual risk behaviors. Environmental factors common in nightclubs and the personal characteristics of patrons might increase the risk of these events. To better understand the relationship between these factors, typologies were formulated that clustered nightclubs according to definite profiles to identify differences to be taken into consideration in preventive interventions...
February 21, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Elizabeth A Prosek, Amanda L Giordano, Elliott S Woehler, Eric Price, Rachel McCullough
BACKGROUND: Illicit substance users may rely on mind-altering substances to regulate affect, especially when mental health symptoms are present. OBJECTIVES: In light of the prevalence of illicit substance use and symptoms of depression and anxiety among college students, as well as the affect regulation properties of illicit substances, we sought to examine whether differences in emotion dysregulation, depression, anxiety, and stress exist between illicit substance users and non-users...
February 21, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Lisa M Najavits, Karen Krinsley, Molly E Waring, Matthew W Gallagher, Christopher Skidmore
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) co-occur in military veterans and other populations. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a randomized controlled trial to compare a new past-focused treatment (Creating Change; CC), to a well-established, evidence-based present-focused treatment for PTSD/SUD (Seeking Safety; SS), on symptoms of both disorders. CC guides patients to process the past through exploration of PTSD/SUD life themes and memories whereas SS focuses on coping skills in the present...
February 20, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Christopher Rowe, Eric Vittinghoff, Grant Colfax, Phillip O Coffin, Glenn-Milo Santos
BACKGROUND: Self-reported data are widely used in substance-use research, yet few studies have assessed the validity of self-reported methamphetamine use compared to biological assays. OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess the validity and correlates of validity of self-reported methamphetamine use compared to urine toxicology (UTOX). METHODS: Using a sample of methamphetamine-dependent individuals enrolled in a randomized controlled pharmacotherapy trial in the United States (n = 327 visits among 90 participants), we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and the kappa coefficient of self-reported methamphetamine use in the past 3 days compared to UTOX, as well as the NPV of self-reported methamphetamine use over an extended recall period of 1 month...
February 20, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Thomas E Guadamuz, Michael C Clatts, Lloyd A Goldsamt
BACKGROUND: There is scarce research on male sex workers in the context of alcohol use. While heavy alcohol use has been established as a risk factor for HIV and STI infections among men who have sex with men (MSM), men who engage in sex work with other men, particularly from the Global South, have not been included in these studies. Moreover, studies among male sex workers in Asia often do not explore migration contexts of these men. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this exploratory study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of heavy alcohol use among migrant and non-migrant male sex workers in Bangkok and Pattaya, Central Thailand...
February 20, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Yeon Jung Yu, Christopher McCarty, Bo Wang
Research on women who engage both in drug use and sex work has been limited, as most previous studies have focused on these risk behaviors separately. The current study examines the network properties as well as the demographic and behavioral factors associated with drug use among female sex workers (FSWs) in southern China. We collected survey data (n = 175) in the Hainan province during our 26 months of ethnographic fieldwork in China. Our analyses included Fisher's exact chi-square tests, independent-samples t-tests, Mann-Whitney U, binary logistic regression (LR), as well as ethnographic data analysis...
February 20, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Paul Brunault, Pierre-Henri Ducluzeau, Robert Courtois, Céline Bourbao-Tournois, Irène Delbachian, Christian Réveillère, Nicolas Ballon
BACKGROUND: The "food addiction" phenotype identifies a subpopulation of individuals experiencing substance-dependence symptoms toward specific foods. In the current debate on whether the "food addiction" phenotype should be considered as an addictive disorder, assessment of the personality traits associated with this phenotype would provide arguments for or against the "food addiction" phenotype and its inclusion in the "substance-related and addictive disorder" category...
February 16, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Zeena Harakeh, Tom F M Ter Bogt
BACKGROUND: Music may influence young people's behavior through its lyrics. Substance use references occur more frequently in rap/hip-hop than in other music genres. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to examine whether the exposure to rap/hip-hop lyrics referring to substance use affected cigarette smoking. METHODS: An experiment with a 3-group between subject design was conducted among 74 daily-smoking young adults ranging in age from 17 to 25 years old...
February 16, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Jon Agley, Joan M Carlson, Angela M McNelis, Ruth A Gassman, Rhonda Schwindt, David Crabb, Julie Vannerson
BACKGROUND: Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a promising public health approach for problematic substance use. A core component of SBIRT is the use of formal screening tools to categorize a patient's likely level of risk in order to provide an appropriately-matched service. Training in formal screening is included in many SBIRT training programs, but infrequently is emphasized. OBJECTIVES: To assess pre-training levels of SBIRT-related clinical behaviors, including screening, this study examined a secondary dataset collected from internal medicine residents and graduate nurse practitioner students...
February 15, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Katherine L Friedman, Megan E Roberts, Brittney Keller-Hamilton, Katherine A Yates, Electra D Paskett, Micah L Berman, Michael D Slater, Bo Lu, Amy K Ferketich
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have examined what adolescents find appealing in tobacco and alcohol advertisements and how different themes in advertisements are used to manipulate consumer behaviors. Yet, we know little about the relationship between the themes portrayed in advertisements and youth attitudes towards those themes. OBJECTIVES: This study compared attitudes towards advertisements for different consumer products in a sample of urban and rural adolescent boys in order to examine how key marketing themes impact adolescent attitudes towards those advertisements...
February 13, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Cathy J Reback, Jesse B Fletcher, Dallas Swendeman
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) exhibit elevated rates of HIV and STI prevalence, indicating increased engagement in sexual risk behaviors. OBJECTIVES: This analysis elucidates associations between participant sociodemographics (i.e., age, racial/ethnic identity, sexual identity, educational attainment, and HIV status) and sexual risk behaviors, particularly substance use before/during sex, and engagement in condomless anal intercourse (CAI) with casual, anonymous, and/or exchange male partners...
February 12, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Molly Davis, Cyd K Eaton, Ana M Gutierrez-Colina, Assaf Oshri, Ronald Blount, Cynthia Suveg
BACKGROUND: Substance use problems are prevalent during emerging adulthood and may be particularly harmful for individuals with medical conditions. Understanding the role of positive temperament in substance use for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) may facilitate the identification of intervention and prevention targets given the complex relations between positive emotions and substance use. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether components of positive temperament differentially relate to substance use in a sample of AYAs with and without medical conditions...
February 9, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Jessica K Perrotte, Michael R Baumann, Cory F Knight
BACKGROUND: Latina/o college students have been shown to engage in more high risk drinking behavior than students from other ethnic minority groups, and are more likely to experience certain negative alcohol related consequences as a result of drinking. Previous research links stress to drinking among college students and indicates drinking occurs within a gendered context. Although this suggests an effect of gender role socialization, studies exploring these relationships among Latina/os are lacking...
February 9, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Kirsten C Morley, Gomathi Sitharthan, Paul S Haber, Peter Tucker, Thiagarajan Sitharthan
There is little research to distinguish those who attempt suicide and those who only consider suicide, and the role that substance use plays in this progression. We aim to describe clinical correlates of suicide attempters versus ideators in substance users. We examined characteristics of substance users (N = 185) that had either a suicide attempt within the last 6 months (n = 94) or were suicide ideators (n = 91). Suicide attempters displayed significant different clinical profiles to that of non-attemptors...
February 8, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Hsin-Yi Yen, Ping-Ho Chen, Ying-Chin Ko, Shih-Kuang Chiang, Yevvon Yi-Chi Chang, Yung-Jong Shiah
BACKGROUND: Betel quid (BQ), chewed by about 600 million people worldwide, is one of the most widely used addictive substances. Little is known about psychological factors in BQ chewers. OBJECTIVES: The present study was the first attempt to explore the relationships between BQ chewing, personality, and mood. METHODS: A survey was conducted with a purposive sample to assess BQ chewing habits in four subgroups: BQ-only users, BQ users who smoke and/or drink, smokers and/or drinkers only, and substance nonusers...
February 8, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Jacob J van den Berg, Samuel Adeyemo, Mary B Roberts, Beth C Bock, L A R Stein, Rosemarie A Martin, Donna R Parker, Jennifer G Clarke
BACKGROUND: Problems with self-reported drug use include difficulties with recall and recognition as well as the desire to respond to questions in a socially desirable manner. Various methods have been developed to improve and/or validate estimates based on direct questioning of individuals regarding their substance use. For this study, we were interested in validating self-reported use of: 1) tobacco, 2) marijuana, and 3) other substances (i.e., heroin, cocaine, opiates, oxycodone, benzodiazepines, methamphetamine, phencyclidine, and barbiturates) employing urinalysis among inmates who participated in a randomized controlled trial of a smoking abstinence intervention in a tobacco-free prison located in the northeastern United States...
February 8, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Bruce Simons-Morton, Denise Haynie, Joe Bible, Danping Liu
BACKGROUND: Descriptive norms are commonly associated with participant drinking. However, study participants may incorrectly perceive that their peers drink about the same amount as they do, which would bias estimates of drinking homogeneity. OBJECTIVES: This research examined the magnitude of associations between emerging adults' reports of their own drinking and peer drinking measured the previous year by measures of (1) participants' perceptions of friends' drinking; and (2) actual drinking reported by nominated peers...
February 5, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Samaneh Soleymani, Arman Zargaran
For several centuries, opium addiction has been a social problem all over the world. It has been prevalent in Iran from the Safavid era (1501-1736 A.D). During this period, Hakim Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn-Mas'ud Shirazi (1515-1592 A.D), also known as Imad was one of the Persian physicians who wrote one of the earliest books in the field of opium and addiction (called Afiounieh) in history. In this book, he introduced two sustained release rectal (suppository) and oral (pill) dosage forms for Muslim addicts who fast in the month of Ramadan...
February 2, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
A Chinneck, K Thompson, K S Dobson, H Stuart, M Teehan, S H Stewart
BACKGROUND: Rates of alcohol abuse are high on Canadian postsecondary campuses. Individual trait differences have been linked to indices of alcohol use/misuse, including neurotic traits like anxiety sensitivity (AS) and hopelessness (HOP). We know little, though, about how these traits confer vulnerability. AS and HOP are related to anxiety and depression, respectively, and to drinking to cope with symptoms of those disorders. Neurotic personality may therefore increase risk of alcohol use/abuse via (1) emotional disorder symptoms and/or (2) coping drinking motives...
February 2, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Michelle Snelleman, Tim M Schoenmakers, Dike van de Mheen
BACKGROUND: Negative affective states and alcohol-related stimuli increase risk of relapse in alcohol dependence. In research and in clinical practice, craving is often used as another important indicator of relapse, but this lacks a firm empirical foundation. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study is to explore and compare determinants for relapse and craving, using Marlatt's (1996) taxonomy of high risk situations as a template. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 alcohol-dependent patients about their most recent relapse and craving episodes...
February 1, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
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