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Substance Use & Misuse

Herman Joseph, Joycelyn Sue Woods
Under the leadership of Drs. Vincent P. Dole, Marie Nyswander, and Mary Jeanne Kreek, in collaboration with the psychologist, Norman Gordon and sociologist, Herman Joseph at The Rockefeller University beginning in the 1960s, the first medical treatment for heroin addiction was developed. Drs. Dole, Nyswander and Kreek also developed the first hypothesis of opiate addiction as a metabolic disease. This biological revolution challenged beliefs about addiction, spurred further research and challenged legal positions of the judiciary and the broader criminal justice system (Dole & Nyswander, 1967 )...
December 11, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Karen McElrath, Herman Joseph
Several countries are experiencing public health crises as a result of opioid addiction. Fatal overdoses have reached record highs in many regions and Hepatitis C virus is the norm among people who inject drugs in several countries. Thus, providing for the global availability of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid addiction is more important than ever. In this article, we introduce readers to the collection of papers that appear in this special issue on MAT for opioid addiction. We describe the articles and commentaries thematically to include topics that address 1) the contemporary history of methadone maintenance, 2) the provision of and access and barriers to MAT, 3) compliance and outcomes of MAT, 4) health issues among MAT patients, 5) race, ethnicity, and social class backgrounds of MAT patients, 6) criminalization and stigma, and 7) challenges associated with the expansion of MAT...
December 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Petal Petersen-Williams, Catherine Mathews, Esmé Jordaan, Charles D H Parry
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the nature and extent of substance use among pregnant women in Cape Town (South Africa) despite the very high levels of substance use and related consequences such as FASD in this part of the country. The aim of the study was to determine predictors of alcohol use among pregnant women. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women attending 11 Midwife Obstetric Units (MOUs) in greater Cape Town. A two-stage cluster survey design was used...
December 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Laura J Holt, Alison Looby
BACKGROUND: The nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) is one of the most prevalent illicit behaviors on college campuses. While numerous risk factors for NMUPS have been identified, it is unknown how nonusing students who meet several risk factors for NMUPS differ from those who have used, which may inform intervention efforts. We expected that users would evidence greater cognitive enhancement and anxiety/arousal expectancies and intentions to use, and lower guilt/dependence expectancies, perceptions of NMUPS-related harm, and academic self-efficacy...
December 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Arpit Parmar, Vaibhav Patil, Siddharth Sarkar, Ravindra Rao
BACKGROUND: The type of opioid used influences the severity and complications experienced. Natural opiates (opium and poppy husk) use is a socio-culturally accepted phenomenon reported in India. However, studies on their profile, quality of life, and addiction severity are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this cross-sectional, observational study was to assess the socio-demographic profile, clinical profile, addiction severity, and quality of life of treatment-seeking natural opiate users...
December 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Gregory Bushman, Bryan G Victor, Joseph P Ryan, Brian E Perron
BACKGROUND: Women are underrepresented in the current substance abuse research; however, women are a particularly vulnerable population when it comes to opioid use and abuse. Pregnant women are even more so, because of the potential that exists for in utero exposure (IUE) to substances. OBJECTIVES: To identify trends in IUE to opioids in order to ensure that resources are allocated effectively to address the current opioid epidemic and to assist the populations most affected by it...
December 5, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Mieka J Smart, Safiya S Yearwood, Seungyoung Hwang, Roland J Thorpe, C Debra Furr-Holden
OBJECTIVE: This study A) assessed whether levels of alcohol-related disciplinary actions on college campuses changed among MD college students after the 2011 Maryland (MD) state alcohol tax increase from 6% to 9%, and B) determined which school-level factors impacted the magnitude of changes detected. METHOD: A quasi-experimental interrupted time series (ITS) analysis of panel data containing alcohol-related disciplinary actions on 33 MD college campuses in years 2006-2013...
December 1, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Jeremy W Luk, Anne M Fairlie, Christine M Lee
BACKGROUND: Individuals experiencing elevated negative mood and stress may drink to self-medicate, yet daily-level evidence for these associations is mixed. OBJECTIVE: To clarify daily associations between negative mood and perceived stress with alcohol use among high-risk college students and test whether these associations may vary by same-day versus next-day drinking, sex, and fraternity/sorority affiliation. METHODS: Frequently drinking college students (n = 347) participated in a daily diary study, which included daily morning and evening assessments that occurred for two weeks in four consecutive academic quarters...
November 30, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Adeline Grard, Anton Kunst, Mirte Kuipers, Matthias Richter, Arja Rimpela, Bruno Federico, Vincent Lorant
BACKGROUND: Other-sex friendship (girls with boy friends, boys with girl friends) has been associated with substance use, but how the gender composition of schools influences substance use has not been known. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the influence of other-sex friendship on substance use and took into account the proportion of each gender group at the schools, and hypothesized that other-sex friendship is associated with higher levels of substance use and that schools with a majority of males have higher levels of use than female-majority schools...
November 30, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
L Grau-López, L Grau-López, C Daigre, R F Palma-Álvarez, L Rodriguez-Cintas, E Ros-Cucurull, C Roncero
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacological treatment of insomnia in patients with addictions has been hardly investigated and there are few researches about it in an inpatient detoxification. The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes of the pharmacological treatment of insomnia in SUD patients admitted to a detoxification unit in Spain, with a focus on the primary substance of abuse and co-occurring mental disorders. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was conducted in 481 addicted in patients, who were admitted for substances detoxification in Vall d´Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain, from 2010 to 2015...
November 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Haley M Kolp, Alexandra R Hershberger, Jasmyn Sanders, Miji Um, Matthew Aalsma, Melissa A Cyders
Conduct disorder (CD) symptoms cooccur at high rates with illicit drug use in juvenile justice involved youth, which results in poorer outcomes; however, research has not identified where best to intervene in this relationship, limiting the identification of modifiable risk factors to reduce negative effects of CD symptoms. Two mediation models were examined to investigate the potential for CD symptoms to influence a reciprocal relationship between illicit drug use and positive drug attitudes, controlling for age, gender, and race...
November 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Elizabeth Crouch, Elizabeth Radcliff, Melissa Strompolis, Abygail Wilson
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been associated with negative adult health outcomes, including alcohol misuse. The impact of ACEs on alcohol use may vary by gender, with ACEs impacting women more than men in coping with adulthood stressors. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to examine the gender-specific relationships between ACEs and self-reported binge drinking and heavy drinking in adulthood among South Carolina residents. METHODS: This study analyzed a sample of 8492 respondents who completed the 2014 or 2015 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey...
November 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Fruzsina Iszaj, Bea Ehmann, Mark D Griffiths, Zsolt Demetrovics
BACKGROUND: Psychoactive substance use has often been claimed to help generate and facilitate the artistic creative process. AIMS: This study explored the role of artists' substance use in their creative processes and their efforts to balance between enhancement and relaxation. METHODS: Semistructured interviews concerning the artistic creative process and the role of psychoactive substance use were recorded with 72 artists and analyzed using content analysis...
November 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Paul A Gilbert, Miesha Marzell
BACKGROUND: Drinkers who report some symptoms of alcohol-use disorder (AUD) but fail to meet full criteria are "diagnostic orphans." To improve risk-reduction efforts, we sought to develop better epidemiologic profiles of this underrecognized subgroup. METHODS: This study estimated the population prevalence and described AUD symptoms of diagnostic orphans using the 2012-2013 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model odds of being a diagnostic orphan or meeting mild, moderate, and severe AUD criteria versus no AUD symptoms...
November 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
William V Lechner, Rachel L Gunn, Alexia Minto, Noah S Philip, Richard A Brown, Lisa A Uebelacker, Lawrence H Price, Ana M Abrantes
BACKGROUND: Three key domains including negative emotionality, incentive salience, and executive function form the core functional elements of addictive behaviors. Variables related to these broader domains have been studied extensively in relation to one another; however, no studies to date, have examined models including variables from all three domains, in relation to nicotine dependence. METHOD: Smokers (N = 117), 65.8% female, 78% white, mean age of 44.4 (SD = 10...
November 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
MeLisa R Creamer, Joanne Delk, Kathleen Case, Cheryl L Perry, Melissa B Harrell
BACKGROUND: Outcome expectations are an important determinant of health behavior, according to Social Cognitive Theory; yet recent literature has not examined the relationship between outcome expectations and tobacco product use (e.g., use of cigarettes, cigars, hookah, e-cigarettes, or smokeless tobacco). OBJECTIVES: This study examines if outcome expectations at baseline, among an adolescent cohort of never users of tobacco products, predicts tobacco product use (i...
November 27, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Daniel W Capron, Brian W Bauer, Michael B Madson, Norman B Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Hazardous drinking is prevalent among college students and often comorbid with mood and/or anxiety disorders; however, these disorders frequently go untreated. Prior studies have found that individuals with comorbid hazardous drinking are more likely to seek treatment than those with an hazardous drinking alone. OBJECTIVES: The current study tested possible psychological and structural explanations to understand these treatment seeking behaviors. METHODS: A sample of 222 students identified as hazardous drinkers (AUDIT ≥ 8) participated from September 2010 to April 2011...
November 27, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Jenna Wintemberg, Mansoo Yu, Ozge Karadag Caman
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the prevalence of smoking status (i.e., current, former and never) between the United States and Turkey in terms of age and gender, and examine how smoking rules and health warnings are associated with smoking status within and between the two countries. METHODS: The study used data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey (U.S. sample, N = 60,196) and the 2012 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (Turkey sample, N = 9,581)...
November 27, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Neal Krause, Kenneth I Pargrament, Peter C Hill, Gail Ironson
BACKGROUND: Although a good deal of research has assessed the positive effects that involvement in religion has on alcohol use, there is relatively little research on the negative aspects of religious life and alcohol problems. OBJECTIVES: This study has two objectives. The first is to see if spiritual struggles are associated with problem drinking. The second is to see if the relationship between spiritual struggles and problem drinking is stronger for younger than for older adults...
November 27, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Paul E Bellair, Mike Vuolo, Eric G LaPlant
BACKGROUND: Employment is a central component of economic independence and is widely viewed as an essential element of social control. Whether frequent drug use reduces the likelihood of employment or obstructs hours worked, wages, and job commitment is therefore an important question about which there remains uncertainty. METHODS: We improve on shortcomings of prior research through a monthly within-person analysis of a population at high-risk of both drug use and poor employment outcomes...
November 27, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
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