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Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia

Helga Bergholtz, Tonje Gulbrandsen Lien, Giske Ursin, Marit Muri Holmen, Åslaug Helland, Therese Sørlie, Vilde Drageset Haakensen
High mammographic density (MD) is associated with a 4-6 times increase in breast cancer risk. For post-menopausal women, MD often decreases over time, but little is known about the underlying biological mechanisms. MD reflects breast tissue composition, and may be associated with microenvironment subtypes previously identified in tumor-adjacent normal tissue. Currently, these subtypes have not been explored in normal breast tissue. We obtained biopsies from breasts of healthy women at two different time points several years apart and performed microarray gene expression analysis...
January 6, 2019: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Eman S A Saad, Jacqueline S Y Lam, Awf A Al-Khan, Mourad Tayebi, Michael J Day, Samantha J Richardson, Janine A Danks
Mixed tumors are characterized by the histological identification of two or more cell types. Commonly, a mixture of epithelial and myoepithelial cells is included in abundant stroma, which can consist of myxoid, chondroid or bony matrices. Spontaneously arising mixed tumors are rare lesions in the human breast but are common in human salivary glands and canine mammary glands. Subtle histopathological characteristics and overlapping attributes of malignant lesions with other benign lesions can lead to a diagnostic challenge...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Nikitha K Pallegar, Chantae J Garland, Mathepan Mahendralingam, Alicia M Viloria-Petit, Sherri L Christian
Cancer metastases are accountable for almost 90% of all human cancer related deaths including from breast cancer (BC). Adipocytes can alter the tumor microenvironment, which can promote metastasis by inducing an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in BC cells. However, the role of adipocytes during the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), that can be important in metastasis, is not clear. To understand the effect of adipocytes on the BC progression, there is a requirement for a better in vitro 3-dimensional (3D) co-culture system that mimics the breast tissue and allows for more accurate analysis of EMT and MET...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Hugo Villanueva, Sandra L Grimm, Sagar Dhamne, Kimal Rajapakshe, Adriana P Visbal, Christel M Davis, Erik A Ehli, Sean M Hartig, Cristian Coarfa, Dean P Edwards
The original version of this article unfortunately contained mistakes.
November 21, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Jason I Herschkowitz, Fariba Behbod
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Hugo Villanueva, Sandra Grimm, Sagar Dhamne, Kimal Rajapakshe, Adriana Visbal, Christel M Davis, Erik A Ehli, Sean M Hartig, Cristian Coarfa, Dean P Edwards
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-obligate precursor to most types of invasive breast cancer (IBC). Although it is estimated only one third of untreated patients with DCIS will progress to IBC, standard of care for treatment is surgery and radiation. This therapeutic approach combined with a lack of reliable biomarker panels to predict DCIS progression is a major clinical problem. DCIS shares the same molecular subtypes as IBC including estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) positive luminal subtypes, which encompass the majority (60-70%) of DCIS...
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Rebecca S DeVaux, Jason I Herschkowitz
Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) is an early breast cancer lesion that is considered a nonobligate precursor to development of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Although only a small subset of DCIS lesions are predicted to progress into a breast cancer, distinguishing innocuous from minacious DCIS lesions remains a clinical challenge. Thus, patients diagnosed with DCIS will undergo surgery with the potential for radiation and hormone therapy. This has led to a current state of overdiagnosis and overtreatment...
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Kaleigh Doke, Shirley Butler, Melissa P Mitchell
Treatment for ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) has historically been extrapolated from studies of invasive breast cancer. Accepted local therapy approaches range from small local excisions, with or without radiation, to bilateral mastectomies. Systemic treatment with endocrine therapy is often recommended for hormone positive patients. With improvements in imaging, pathologic review, and treatment techniques in the modern era, combined with new information regarding tumor biology, the management of DCIS is rapidly evolving...
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Michelle S Han, Seema A Khan
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a non-obligatory precursor to invasive breast carcinoma, with a variable natural history and biological potential for progression to invasive disease. Over the past 30 years, clinical trials have applied the therapeutic principles used for invasive carcinoma to treat DCIS (surgery, with or without breast radiotherapy, and post-operative endocrine therapy), with excellent survival outcomes, and in-breast recurrence rates that range from 0.5 to 1% annually. However, half of such recurrences are again in-situ lesions, and intensive therapy is likely not necessary for all patients...
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Vidya C Sinha, Helen Piwnica-Worms
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive proliferative growth in the breast that serves as a non-obligate precursor to invasive ductal carcinoma. The widespread adoption of screening mammography has led to a steep increase in the detection of DCIS, which now comprises approximately 20% of new breast cancer diagnoses in the United States. Interestingly, the intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) that has been observed in invasive breast cancers may have been established early in tumorigenesis, given the vast and varied ITH that has been detected in DCIS...
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Andrew C Nelson, Heather L Machado, Kathryn L Schwertfeger
Refinements in early detection, surgical and radiation therapy, and hormone receptor-targeted treatments have improved the survival rates for breast cancer patients. However, the ability to reliably identify which non-invasive lesions and localized tumors have the ability to progress and/or metastasize remains a major unmet need in the field. The current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies focus on intrinsic alterations within carcinoma cells that are closely associated with proliferation. However, substantial accumulating evidence has indicated that permissive changes in the stromal tissues surrounding the carcinoma play an integral role in breast cancer tumor initiation and progression...
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Fariba Behbod, Angelica M Gomes, Heather L Machado
Breast cancer development is a multi-step process in which genetic and molecular heterogeneity occurs at multiple stages. Ductal carcinoma arises from pre-invasive lesions such as atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), which progress to invasive and metastatic cancer. The feasibility of obtaining tissue samples from all stages of progression from the same patient is low, and thus molecular studies dissecting the mechanisms that mediate the transition from pre-invasive DCIS to invasive carcinoma have been hampered...
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Shira Bernard, Megan Myers, Wei Bin Fang, Brandon Zinda, Curtis Smart, Diana Lambert, An Zou, Fang Fan, Nikki Cheng
With improved screening methods, the numbers of abnormal breast lesions diagnosed in women have been increasing over time. However, it remains unclear whether these breast lesions will develop into invasive cancers. To more effectively predict the outcome of breast lesions and determine a more appropriate course of treatment, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate progression of non-invasive lesions to invasive breast cancers. A hallmark of invasive breast cancers is the accumulation of fibroblasts...
December 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Ha Youn Shin, Lothar Hennighausen, Kyung Hyun Yoo
The de novo formation of milk-secreting mammary epithelium during pregnancy is regulated by prolactin through activation of the transcription factor STAT5, which stimulates the expression of several hundred mammary-specific genes. In addition to its key role in activating gene expression in mammary tissue, STAT5, which is ubiquitously expressed in most cell types, implements T cell-specific programs controlled by interleukins. However, the mechanisms by which STAT5 controls cell-specific genetic programs activated by distinct cytokines remain relatively unknown...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Kyung Hyun Yoo, Lothar Hennighausen, Ha Youn Shin
Recent advances in genome-wide sequencing technologies have provided researchers with unprecedented opportunities to discover the genomic structures of gene regulatory units in living organisms. In particular, the integration of ChIP-seq, RNA-seq, and DNase-seq techniques has facilitated the mapping of a new class of regulatory elements. These elements, called super-enhancers, can regulate cell-type-specific gene sets and even fine-tune gene expression regulation in response to external stimuli, and have become a hot topic in genome biology...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Fabiana Lüönd, Ruben Bill, Andrea Vettiger, Heide Oller, Pawel Pelczar, Gerhard Christofori
Genetically engineered mouse models have become an indispensable tool for breast cancer research. Combination of multiple site-specific recombination systems such as Cre/loxP and Flippase (Flp)/Frt allows for engineering of sophisticated, multi-layered conditional mouse models. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a novel transgenic mouse line expressing a mouse codon-optimized Flp under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter. These mice show robust Flp-mediated recombination in luminal mammary gland and breast cancer cells but no Flp activity in non-mammary tissues, with the exception of limited activity in salivary glands...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Sabreen F Fostok, Mirvat El-Sibai, Marwan El-Sabban, Rabih S Talhouk
Connexins (Cxs), the building blocks of gap junctions (GJs), exhibit spatiotemporal patterns of expression and regulate the development and differentiation of the mammary gland, acting via channel-dependent and channel-independent mechanisms. Impaired Cx expression and localization are reported in breast cancer, suggesting a tumor suppressive role for Cxs. The signaling events that mediate the role of GJs in the development and tumorigenesis of the mammary gland remain poorly identified. The Wnt pathways, encompassing the canonical or the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the noncanonical β-catenin-independent pathway, also play important roles in those processes...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Jason Harquail, Nicolas LeBlanc, Carine Landry, Nicolas Crapoulet, Gilles A Robichaud
Pax-5, an essential transcription factor in B cell development, is aberrantly expressed in various B cell cancer lesions and solid tumors such as breast carcinoma. We have recently shown that Pax-5 regulates NF-κB activity which lead to the modulation of breast cancer phenotypic features (EMT-MET). NF-κB is known as a central mediator in inflammation, stress response as well as being a gatekeeper of pro-tumorigenic activity. However, little is known as to how Pax-5 affects this modulation. We thus turned our attention to microRNAs as potential regulatory effectors...
September 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Andrew R Chin, Wei Yan, Minghui Cao, Xuxiang Liu, Shizhen Emily Wang
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted by many cell types and are increasingly investigated for their role in human diseases including cancer. Here we focus on the secretion and potential physiological function of non-pathological EVs secreted by polarized normal mammary epithelial cells. Using a transwell system to allow formation of epithelial polarity and EV collection from the apical versus basolateral compartments, we found that impaired secretion of EVs by knockdown of RAB27A or RAB27B suppressed the establishment of mammary epithelial polarity, and that addition of apical but not basolateral EVs suppressed epithelial polarity in a dose-dependent manner...
September 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Kalpana Gopalakrishnan, Susan L Teitelbaum, James Wetmur, Fabiana Manservisi, Laura Falcioni, Simona Panzacchi, Federica Gnudi, Fiorella Belpoggi, Jia Chen
Breast development occurs through well-defined stages representing 'windows of susceptibility' to adverse environmental exposures that potentially modify breast cancer risk. Systematic characterization of morphology and transcriptome during normal breast development lays the foundation of our understanding of cancer etiology. We examined mammary glands in female Sprague Dawley rats across six developmental stages - pre-pubertal, peri-pubertal, pubertal, lactation, adult parous and adult nulliparous. We investigated histology by Hematoxylin and Eosin and Mallory's Trichrome stain, proliferative and apoptotic rate by immunohistochemistry and whole-transcriptome by microarrays...
September 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
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