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Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813178/centriole-biogenesis-from-identifying-the-characters-to-understanding-the-plot
#1
Niccolò Banterle, Pierre Gönczy
The centriole is a beautiful microtubule-based organelle that is critical for the proper execution of many fundamental cellular processes, including polarity, motility, and division. Centriole biogenesis, the making of this miniature architectural wonder, has emerged as an exemplary model to dissect the mechanisms governing the assembly of a eukaryotic organelle. Centriole biogenesis relies on a set of core proteins whose contributions to the assembly process have begun to be elucidated. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which these core characters function in an orderly fashion to assemble the centriole...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813177/how-single-cell-genomics-is-changing-evolutionary-and-developmental-biology
#2
John C Marioni, Detlev Arendt
The recent flood of single-cell data not only boosts our knowledge of cells and cell types, but also provides new insight into development and evolution from a cellular perspective. For example, assaying the genomes of multiple cells during development reveals developmental lineage trees-the kinship lineage-whereas cellular transcriptomes inform us about the regulatory state of cells and their gradual restriction in potency-the Waddington lineage. Beyond that, the comparison of single-cell data across species allows evolutionary changes to be tracked at all stages of development from the zygote, via different kinds of stem cells, to the differentiating cells...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806099/lessons-from-interspecies-mammalian-chimeras
#3
Fabian Suchy, Hiromitsu Nakauchi
As chimeras transform from beasts of Greek mythology into tools of contemporary bioscience, secrets of developmental biology and evolutionary divergence are being revealed. Recent advances in stem cell biology and interspecies chimerism have generated new models with extensive basic and translational applications, including generation of transplantable, patient-specific organs. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology Volume 33 is October 6, 2017. Please see http://www...
August 14, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800257/the-inherent-asymmetry-of-dna-replication
#4
Jonathan Snedeker, Matthew Wooten, Xin Chen
Semiconservative DNA replication has provided an elegant solution to the fundamental problem of how life is able to proliferate in a way that allows cells, organisms, and populations to survive and replicate many times over. Somewhat lost, however, in our admiration for this elegant mechanism is an appreciation for the asymmetries that occur in the process of DNA replication. As we discuss in this review, these asymmetries arise as a consequence of the structure of the DNA molecule and the enzymatic mechanism of DNA synthesis...
August 11, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793795/lipid-droplet-biogenesis
#5
Tobias C Walther, Jeeyun Chung, Robert V Farese
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that store neutral lipids for energy or membrane synthesis and act as hubs for metabolic processes. Cells generate LDs de novo, converting cells to emulsions with LDs constituting the dispersed oil phase in the aqueous cytoplasm. Here we review our current view of LD biogenesis. We present a model of LD formation from the ER in distinct steps and highlight the biology of proteins that govern this biophysical process. Areas of incomplete knowledge are identified, as are connections with physiology and diseases linked to alterations in LD biology...
August 9, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793794/excitable-signal-transduction-networks-in-directed-cell-migration
#6
Peter N Devreotes, Sayak Bhattacharya, Marc Edwards, Pablo A Iglesias, Thomas Lampert, Yuchuan Miao
Although directed migration of eukaryotic cells may have evolved to escape nutrient depletion, it has been adopted for an extensive range of physiological events during development and in the adult organism. The subversion of these movements results in disease, such as cancer. Mechanisms of propulsion and sensing are extremely diverse, but most eukaryotic cells move by extending actin-filled protrusions termed macropinosomes, pseudopodia, or lamellipodia or by extension of blebs. In addition to motility, directed migration involves polarity and directional sensing...
August 9, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783961/the-three-dimensional-organization-of-mammalian-genomes
#7
Miao Yu, Bing Ren
Animal development depends on not only the linear genome sequence that embeds millions of cis-regulatory elements, but also the three-dimensional (3D) chromatin architecture that orchestrates the interplay between cisregulatory elements and their target genes. Compared to our knowledge of the cis-regulatory sequences, the understanding of the 3D genome organization in human and other eukaryotes is still limited. Recent advances in technologies to map the 3D genome architecture have greatly accelerated the pace of discovery...
August 7, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783960/cell-polarity-in-yeast
#8
Jian-Geng Chiou, Mohan K Balasubramanian, Daniel J Lew
A conserved molecular machinery centered on the Cdc42 GTPase regulates cell polarity in diverse organisms. Here we review findings from budding and fission yeasts that reveal both a conserved core polarity circuit and several adaptations that each organism exploits to fulfill the needs of its lifestyle. The core circuit involves positive feedback by local activation of Cdc42 to generate a cluster of concentrated GTP-Cdc42 at the membrane. Speciesspecific pathways regulate the timing of polarization during the cell cycle, as well as the location and number of polarity sites...
August 7, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759257/in-search-of-lost-small-peptides
#9
Serge Plaza, Gerben Menschaert, François Payre
A large body of evidence indicates that genome annotation pipelines have biased our view of coding sequences because they generally undersample small proteins and peptides. The recent development of genome-wide translation profiling reveals the prevalence of small/short open reading frames (smORFs or sORFs), which are scattered over all classes of transcripts, including both mRNAs and presumptive long noncodingRNAs. Proteomic approaches further confirm an unexpected variety of smORF-encoded peptides (SEPs), representing an overlooked reservoir of bioactive molecules...
July 31, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759256/rethinking-m-6-a-readers-writers-and-erasers
#10
Kate D Meyer, Samie R Jaffrey
In recent years, m(6)A has emerged as an abundant and dynamically regulated modification throughout the transcriptome. Recent technological advances have enabled the transcriptome-wide identification of m(6)A residues, which in turn has provided important insights into the biology and regulation of this pervasive regulatory mark. Also central to our current understanding ofm(6)A are the discovery and characterization of m(6)A readers, writers, and erasers. Over the last few years, studies into the function of these proteins have led to important discoveries about the regulation and function of m(6)A...
July 31, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715909/ribosomal-stalling-during-translation-providing-substrates-for-ribosome-associated-protein-quality-control
#11
Claudio A P Joazeiro
Cells of all organisms survey problems during translation elongation, which may happen as a consequence of mRNA aberrations, inefficient decoding, or other sources. In eukaryotes, ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) senses elongation-stalled ribosomes and promotes dissociation of ribosomal subunits. This so-called ribosomal rescue releases the mRNA for degradation and allows 40S subunits to be recycled for new rounds of translation. However, the nascent polypeptide chains remain linked to tRNA and associated with the rescued 60S subunits...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693388/sending-and-receiving-hedgehog-signals
#12
Kostadin Petrov, Bradley M Wierbowski, Adrian Salic
Communication between cells pervades the development and physiology of metazoans. In animals, this process is carried out by a relatively small number of signaling pathways, each consisting of a chain of biochemical events through which extracellular stimuli control the behavior of target cells. One such signaling system is the Hedgehog pathway, which is crucial in embryogenesis and is implicated in many birth defects and cancers. Although Hedgehog pathway components were identified by genetic analysis more than a decade ago, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of signaling is far from complete...
July 10, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693387/the-flc-locus-a-platform-for-discoveries-in-epigenetics-and-adaptation
#13
Charles Whittaker, Caroline Dean
Our understanding of the detailed molecular mechanisms underpinning adaptation is still poor. One example for which mechanistic understanding of regulation has converged with studies of life history variation is Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). FLC determines the need for plants to overwinter and their ability to respond to prolonged cold in a process termed vernalization. This review highlights how molecular analysis of vernalization pathways has revealed important insight into antisense-mediated chromatin silencing mechanisms that regulate FLC...
July 10, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661722/unconventional-or-preset-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-evolutionarily-conserved-tissue-resident-t-cells-recognizing-nonpeptidic-ligands
#14
Francois Legoux, Marion Salou, Olivier Lantz
A majority of T cells bearing the αβ T cell receptor (TCR) are specific for peptides bound to polymorphic classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Smaller subsets of T cells are reactive toward various nonpeptidic ligands associated with nonpolymorphic MHC class-Ib (MHC-Ib) molecules. These cells have been termed unconventional for decades, even though only the composite antigen is different from the one seen by classical T cells. Herein, we discuss the identity of these particular T cells in light of the coevolution of their TCR and MHC-Ib restricting elements...
June 29, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645217/microtubule-organizing-centers
#15
Jingchao Wu, Anna Akhmanova
The organization of microtubule networks is crucial for controlling chromosome segregation during cell division, positioning, and transport of different organelles and for cell polarity and morphogenesis. The geometry of microtubule arrays strongly depends on the localization and activity of the sites where microtubules are nucleated and where their minus ends are anchored. Such sites are often clustered into structures known as microtubule-organizing centers, which include the centrosomes in animals and spindle pole bodies in fungi...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613937/cell-removal-efferocytosis
#16
Peter M Henson
In metazoa, removal of cells in situ is involved in larval maturation, metamorphosis, and embryonic development. In adults, such cell removal plays a role in the homeostatic maintenance of cell numbers and tissue integrity as well as in the response to cell injury and damage. This removal involves uptake of the whole or fragmented target cells into phagocytes. Depending on the organism, these latter may be near-neighbor tissue cells and/or professional phagocytes such as, in vertebrates, members of the myeloid family of cells, especially macrophages...
June 14, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598695/unconventional-roles-of-opsins
#17
Nicole Y Leung, Craig Montell
Rhodopsin is the classical light sensor. Although rhodopsin has long been known to be important for image formation in the eye, the requirements for opsins in non-image formation and in extraocular light sensation were revealed much later. Most recent is the demonstration that an opsin in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is expressed in pacemaker neurons in the brain and functions in light entrainment of circadian rhythms. However, the biggest surprise is that opsins have light-independent roles, countering more than a century of dogma that they function exclusively as light sensors...
June 9, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564553/structural-and-mechanistic-insights-into-protein-translocation
#18
Tom A Rapoport, Long Li, Eunyong Park
Many proteins are translocated across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane in eukaryotes or the plasma membrane in prokaryotes. These proteins use hydrophobic signal sequences or transmembrane (TM) segments to trigger their translocation through the protein-conducting Sec61/SecY channel. Substrates are first directed to the channel by cytosolic targeting factors, which use hydrophobic pockets to bind diverse signal and TM sequences. Subsequently, these hydrophobic sequences insert into the channel, docking into a groove on the outside of the lateral gate of the channel, where they also interact with lipids...
May 31, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712102/tcr-signal-strength-and-t-cell-development
#19
Nicholas R J Gascoigne, Vasily Rybakin, Oreste Acuto, Joanna Brzostek
Thymocyte selection involves the positive and negative selection of the repertoire of T cell receptors (TCRs) such that the organism does not suffer autoimmunity, yet has the benefit of the ability to recognize any invading pathogen. The signal transduced through the TCR is translated into a number of different signaling cascades that result in transcription factor activity in the nucleus and changes to the cytoskeleton and motility. Negative selection involves inducing apoptosis in thymocytes that express strongly self-reactive TCRs, whereas positive selection must induce survival and differentiation programs in cells that are more weakly self-reactive...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712101/hemodynamic-control-of-endothelial-cell-fates-in-development
#20
Guillermo García-Cardeña, Bendix R Slegtenhorst
Biomechanical forces are emerging as critical regulators of embryogenesis, particularly in the developing cardiovascular system. From the onset of blood flow, the embryonic vasculature is continuously exposed to a variety of hemodynamic forces. These biomechanical stimuli are key determinants of vascular cell specification and remodeling and the establishment of vascular homeostasis. In recent years, major advances have been made in our understanding of mechano-activated signaling networks that control both spatiotemporal and structural aspects of vascular development...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
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