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Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology

Daniel P Kiehart, Janice M Crawford, Andreas Aristotelous, Stephanos Venakides, Glenn S Edwards
Dorsal closure is a key process during Drosophila morphogenesis that models cell sheet movements in chordates, including neural tube closure, palate formation, and wound healing. Closure occurs midway through embryogenesis and entails circumferential elongation of lateral epidermal cell sheets that close a dorsal hole filled with amnioserosa cells. Signaling pathways regulate the function of cellular structures and processes, including Actomyosin and microtubule cytoskeletons, cell-cell/cell-matrix adhesion complexes, and endocytosis/vesicle trafficking...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Un Seng Chio, Hyunju Cho, Shu-Ou Shan
Proper localization of membrane proteins is essential for the function of biological membranes and for the establishment of organelle identity within a cell. Molecular machineries that mediate membrane protein biogenesis need to not only achieve a high degree of efficiency and accuracy, but also prevent off-pathway aggregation events that can be detrimental to cells. The posttranslational targeting of tail-anchored proteins (TAs) provides tractable model systems to probe these fundamental issues. Recent advances in understanding TA-targeting pathways reveal sophisticated molecular machineries that drive and regulate these processes...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Esther Pilla, Kim Schneider, Anne Bertolotti
Cells and organisms have evolved numerous mechanisms to cope with and to adapt to unexpected challenges and harsh conditions. Proteins are essential to perform the vast majority of cellular and organismal functions. To maintain a healthy proteome, cells rely on a network of factors and pathways collectively known as protein quality control (PQC) systems, which not only ensure that newly synthesized proteins reach a functional conformation but also are essential for surveillance, prevention, and rescue of protein defects...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Chris Q Doe
A small pool of neural progenitors generates the vast diversity of cell types in the CNS. Spatial patterning specifies progenitor identity, followed by temporal patterning within progenitor lineages to expand neural diversity. Recent work has shown that in Drosophila, all neural progenitors (neuroblasts) sequentially express temporal transcription factors (TTFs) that generate molecular and cellular diversity. Embryonic neuroblasts use a lineage-intrinsic cascade of five TTFs that switch nearly every neuroblast cell division; larval optic lobe neuroblasts also use a rapid cascade of five TTFs, but the factors are completely different...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Margaret A Wangeline, Nidhi Vashistha, Randolph Y Hampton
In eukaryotes, the synthesis and uptake of sterols undergo stringent multivalent regulation. Both individual enzymes and transcriptional networks are controlled to meet changing needs of the many sterol pathway products. Regulation is tailored by evolution to match regulatory constraints, which can be very different in distinct species. Nevertheless, a broadly conserved feature of many aspects of sterol regulation is employment of proteostasis mechanisms to bring about control of individual proteins. Proteostasis is the set of processes that maintain homeostasis of a dynamic proteome...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
J Richard McIntosh
During my graduate work with Keith Porter, I became fascinated by the mitotic spindle, an interest that has motivated much of my scientific work ever since. I began spindle studies by using electron microscopes, instruments that have made significant contributions to our understanding of spindle organization. Such instruments have helped to elucidate the distributions of spindle microtubules, the interactions among them, their molecular polarity, and their associations with both kinetochores and spindle poles...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Katie L Flanagan, Ashley L Fink, Magdalena Plebanski, Sabra L Klein
Both sex (i.e., biological differences) and gender (i.e., social or cultural influences) impact vaccine acceptance, responses, and outcomes. Clinical data illustrate that among children, young adults, and aged individuals, males and females differ in vaccine-induced immune responses, adverse events, and protection. Although males are more likely to receive vaccines, following vaccination, females typically develop higher antibody responses and report more adverse effects of vaccination than do males. Human, nonhuman animal, and in vitro studies reveal numerous immunological, genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors that differ between males and females and contribute to sex- and gender-specific vaccine responses and outcomes...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Randy Schekman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Niccolò Banterle, Pierre Gönczy
The centriole is a beautiful microtubule-based organelle that is critical for the proper execution of many fundamental cellular processes, including polarity, motility, and division. Centriole biogenesis, the making of this miniature architectural wonder, has emerged as an exemplary model to dissect the mechanisms governing the assembly of a eukaryotic organelle. Centriole biogenesis relies on a set of core proteins whose contributions to the assembly process have begun to be elucidated. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which these core characters function in an orderly fashion to assemble the centriole...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
John C Marioni, Detlev Arendt
The recent flood of single-cell data not only boosts our knowledge of cells and cell types, but also provides new insight into development and evolution from a cellular perspective. For example, assaying the genomes of multiple cells during development reveals developmental lineage trees-the kinship lineage-whereas cellular transcriptomes inform us about the regulatory state of cells and their gradual restriction in potency-the Waddington lineage. Beyond that, the comparison of single-cell data across species allows evolutionary changes to be tracked at all stages of development from the zygote, via different kinds of stem cells, to the differentiating cells...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Fabian Suchy, Hiromitsu Nakauchi
As chimeras transform from beasts of Greek mythology into tools of contemporary bioscience, secrets of developmental biology and evolutionary divergence are being revealed. Recent advances in stem cell biology and interspecies chimerism have generated new models with extensive basic and translational applications, including generation of transplantable, patient-specific organs.
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Jonathan Snedeker, Matthew Wooten, Xin Chen
Semiconservative DNA replication has provided an elegant solution to the fundamental problem of how life is able to proliferate in a way that allows cells, organisms, and populations to survive and replicate many times over. Somewhat lost, however, in our admiration for this mechanism is an appreciation for the asymmetries that occur in the process of DNA replication. As we discuss in this review, these asymmetries arise as a consequence of the structure of the DNA molecule and the enzymatic mechanism of DNA synthesis...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Tobias C Walther, Jeeyun Chung, Robert V Farese
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that store neutral lipids for energy or membrane synthesis and act as hubs for metabolic processes. Cells generate LDs de novo, converting cells to emulsions with LDs constituting the dispersed oil phase in the aqueous cytoplasm. Here we review our current view of LD biogenesis. We present a model of LD formation from the ER in distinct steps and highlight the biology of proteins that govern this biophysical process. Areas of incomplete knowledge are identified, as are connections with physiology and diseases linked to alterations in LD biology...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Peter N Devreotes, Sayak Bhattacharya, Marc Edwards, Pablo A Iglesias, Thomas Lampert, Yuchuan Miao
Although directed migration of eukaryotic cells may have evolved to escape nutrient depletion, it has been adopted for an extensive range of physiological events during development and in the adult organism. The subversion of these movements results in disease, such as cancer. Mechanisms of propulsion and sensing are extremely diverse, but most eukaryotic cells move by extending actin-filled protrusions termed macropinosomes, pseudopodia, or lamellipodia or by extension of blebs. In addition to motility, directed migration involves polarity and directional sensing...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Miao Yu, Bing Ren
Animal development depends on not only the linear genome sequence that embeds millions of cis-regulatory elements, but also the three-dimensional (3D) chromatin architecture that orchestrates the interplay between cis-regulatory elements and their target genes. Compared to our knowledge of the cis-regulatory sequences, the understanding of the 3D genome organization in human and other eukaryotes is still limited. Recent advances in technologies to map the 3D genome architecture have greatly accelerated the pace of discovery...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Jian-Geng Chiou, Mohan K Balasubramanian, Daniel J Lew
A conserved molecular machinery centered on the Cdc42 GTPase regulates cell polarity in diverse organisms. Here we review findings from budding and fission yeasts that reveal both a conserved core polarity circuit and several adaptations that each organism exploits to fulfill the needs of its lifestyle. The core circuit involves positive feedback by local activation of Cdc42 to generate a cluster of concentrated GTP-Cdc42 at the membrane. Species-specific pathways regulate the timing of polarization during the cell cycle, as well as the location and number of polarity sites...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Serge Plaza, Gerben Menschaert, François Payre
A large body of evidence indicates that genome annotation pipelines have biased our view of coding sequences because they generally undersample small proteins and peptides. The recent development of genome-wide translation profiling reveals the prevalence of small/short open reading frames (smORFs or sORFs), which are scattered over all classes of transcripts, including both mRNAs and presumptive long noncoding RNAs. Proteomic approaches further confirm an unexpected variety of smORF-encoded peptides (SEPs), representing an overlooked reservoir of bioactive molecules...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Kate D Meyer, Samie R Jaffrey
In recent years, m(6)A has emerged as an abundant and dynamically regulated modification throughout the transcriptome. Recent technological advances have enabled the transcriptome-wide identification of m(6)A residues, which in turn has provided important insights into the biology and regulation of this pervasive regulatory mark. Also central to our current understanding of m(6)A are the discovery and characterization of m(6)A readers, writers, and erasers. Over the last few years, studies into the function of these proteins have led to important discoveries about the regulation and function of m(6)A...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Claudio A P Joazeiro
Cells of all organisms survey problems during translation elongation, which may happen as a consequence of mRNA aberrations, inefficient decoding, or other sources. In eukaryotes, ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) senses elongation-stalled ribosomes and promotes dissociation of ribosomal subunits. This so-called ribosomal rescue releases the mRNA for degradation and allows 40S subunits to be recycled for new rounds of translation. However, the nascent polypeptide chains remain linked to tRNA and associated with the rescued 60S subunits...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Kostadin Petrov, Bradley M Wierbowski, Adrian Salic
Communication between cells pervades the development and physiology of metazoans. In animals, this process is carried out by a relatively small number of signaling pathways, each consisting of a chain of biochemical events through which extracellular stimuli control the behavior of target cells. One such signaling system is the Hedgehog pathway, which is crucial in embryogenesis and is implicated in many birth defects and cancers. Although Hedgehog pathway components were identified by genetic analysis more than a decade ago, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of signaling is far from complete...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
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