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Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology

Nicholas R J Gascoigne, Vasily Rybakin, Oreste Acuto, Joanna Brzostek
Thymocyte selection involves the positive and negative selection of the repertoire of T cell receptors (TCRs) such that the organism does not suffer autoimmunity, yet has the benefit of the ability to recognize any invading pathogen. The signal transduced through the TCR is translated into a number of different signaling cascades that result in transcription factor activity in the nucleus and changes to the cytoskeleton and motility. Negative selection involves inducing apoptosis in thymocytes that express strongly self-reactive TCRs, whereas positive selection must induce survival and differentiation programs in cells that are more weakly self-reactive...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Guillermo García-Cardeña, Bendix R Slegtenhorst
Biomechanical forces are emerging as critical regulators of embryogenesis, particularly in the developing cardiovascular system. From the onset of blood flow, the embryonic vasculature is continuously exposed to a variety of hemodynamic forces. These biomechanical stimuli are key determinants of vascular cell specification and remodeling and the establishment of vascular homeostasis. In recent years, major advances have been made in our understanding of mechano-activated signaling networks that control both spatiotemporal and structural aspects of vascular development...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Kay O Schink, Kia-Wee Tan, Harald Stenmark
Most functions of eukaryotic cells are controlled by cellular membranes, which are not static entities but undergo frequent budding, fission, fusion, and sculpting reactions collectively referred to as membrane dynamics. Consequently, regulation of membrane dynamics is crucial for cellular functions. A key mechanism in such regulation is the reversible recruitment of cytosolic proteins or protein complexes to specific membranes at specific time points. To a large extent this recruitment is orchestrated by phosphorylated derivatives of the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol, known as phosphoinositides...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Saravana K Ramasamy, Anjali P Kusumbe, Tomer Itkin, Shiri Gur-Cohen, Tsvee Lapidot, Ralf H Adams
In addition to their conventional role as a versatile transport system, blood vessels provide signals controlling organ development, regeneration, and stem cell behavior. In the skeletal system, certain capillaries support perivascular osteoprogenitor cells and thereby control bone formation. Blood vessels are also a critical component of niche microenvironments for hematopoietic stem cells. Here we discuss key pathways and factors controlling endothelial cell behavior in bone, the role of vessels in osteogenesis, and the nature of vascular stem cell niches in bone marrow...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Joakim Palovaara, Thijs de Zeeuw, Dolf Weijers
Land plants can grow to tremendous body sizes, yet even the most complex architectures are the result of iterations of the same developmental processes: organ initiation, growth, and pattern formation. A central question in plant biology is how these processes are regulated and coordinated to allow for the formation of ordered, 3D structures. All these elementary processes first occur in early embryogenesis, during which, from a fertilized egg cell, precursors for all major tissues and stem cells are initiated, followed by tissue growth and patterning...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Elena Seiradake, E Yvonne Jones, Rüdiger Klein
Axon guidance relies on a combinatorial code of receptor and ligand interactions that direct adhesive/attractive and repulsive cellular responses. Recent structural data have revealed many of the molecular mechanisms that govern these interactions and enabled the design of sophisticated mutant tools to dissect their biological functions. Here, we discuss the structure/function relationships of four major classes of guidance cues (ephrins, semaphorins, slits, netrins) and examples of morphogens (Wnt, Shh) and of cell adhesion molecules (FLRT)...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Veronika Te Boekhorst, Luigi Preziosi, Peter Friedl
Cell migration results from stepwise mechanical and chemical interactions between cells and their extracellular environment. Mechanistic principles that determine single-cell and collective migration modes and their interconversions depend upon the polarization, adhesion, deformability, contractility, and proteolytic ability of cells. Cellular determinants of cell migration respond to extracellular cues, including tissue composition, topography, alignment, and tissue-associated growth factors and cytokines...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Eric Wieschaus, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
In large-scale mutagenesis screens performed in 1979-1980 at the EMBL in Heidelberg, we isolated mutations affecting the pattern or structure of the larval cuticle in Drosophila. The 600 mutants we characterized could be assigned to 120 genes and represent the majority of such genes in the genome. These mutants subsequently provided a rich resource for understanding many fundamental developmental processes, such as the transcriptional hierarchies controlling segmentation, the establishment of cell states by signaling pathways, and the differentiation of epithelial cells...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Michael L Dustin, Kaushik Choudhuri
T cells express a somatically recombined antigen receptor (αβTCR) that is calibrated during development to respond to changes in peptides displayed by major histocompatibility complex proteins (pMHC) on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APC). A key characteristic of pMHC for adaptive immunity is the ability to sample internal states of cells and tissues to sensitively detect changes associated with infection, cell derangement, or tissue injury. Physical T cell-APC contact sets up an axis for polarization of TCR, adhesion molecules, kinases, cytoskeletal elements, and organelles inherent in this mode of juxtacrine signaling...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Rushika M Perera, Roberto Zoncu
The lysosome has long been viewed as the recycling center of the cell. However, recent discoveries have challenged this simple view and have established a central role of the lysosome in nutrient-dependent signal transduction. The degradative role of the lysosome and its newly discovered signaling functions are not in conflict but rather cooperate extensively to mediate fundamental cellular activities such as nutrient sensing, metabolic adaptation, and quality control of proteins and organelles. Moreover, lysosome-based signaling and degradation are subject to reciprocal regulation...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Takehiko Ogura, Wolfgang Busch
One of the central goals in biology is to understand how and how much of the phenotype of an organism is encoded in its genome. Although many genes that are crucial for organismal processes have been identified, much less is known about the genetic bases underlying quantitative phenotypic differences in natural populations. We discuss the fundamental gap between the large body of knowledge generated over the past decades by experimental genetics in the laboratory and what is needed to understand the genotype-to-phenotype problem on a broader scale...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Ewa K Paluch, Irene M Aspalter, Michael Sixt
Cell migration is central to a multitude of physiological processes, including embryonic development, immune surveillance, and wound healing, and deregulated migration is key to cancer dissemination. Decades of investigations have uncovered many of the molecular and physical mechanisms underlying cell migration. Together with protrusion extension and cell body retraction, adhesion to the substrate via specific focal adhesion points has long been considered an essential step in cell migration. Although this is true for cells moving on two-dimensional substrates, recent studies have demonstrated that focal adhesions are not required for cells moving in three dimensions, in which confinement is sufficient to maintain a cell in contact with its substrate...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Yelena Bernadskaya, Lionel Christiaen
Tissue-specific transcription regulators emerged as key developmental control genes, which operate in the context of complex gene regulatory networks (GRNs) to coordinate progressive cell fate specification and tissue morphogenesis. We discuss how GRNs control the individual cell behaviors underlying complex morphogenetic events. Cell behaviors classically range from mesenchymal cell motility to cell shape changes in epithelial sheets. These behaviors emerge from the tissue-specific, multiscale integration of the local activities of universal and pleiotropic effectors, which underlie modular subcellular processes including cytoskeletal dynamics, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, signaling, polarity, and vesicle trafficking...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Cristina Clavería, Miguel Torres
Cell-competitive interactions are widespread in nature and determine the outcome of a vast variety of biological processes. A particular class of competitive interactions takes place when alterations in intrinsic cellular properties are sensed nonautonomously by comparison between neighboring cells, resulting in the selective elimination of one cell population. This type of cell competition was first described four decades ago in developing epithelia of Drosophila. In the last 15 years, further molecular and cellular analyses have provided essential knowledge about the mechanisms, universality, and physiological relevance of cell competition...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Antonio Castro-Castro, Valentina Marchesin, Pedro Monteiro, Catalina Lodillinsky, Carine Rossé, Philippe Chavrier
Metastasis is responsible for most cancer-associated deaths. Accumulating evidence based on 3D migration models has revealed a diversity of invasive migratory schemes reflecting the plasticity of tumor cells to switch between proteolytic and nonproteolytic modes of invasion. Yet, initial stages of localized regional tumor dissemination require proteolytic remodeling of the extracellular matrix to overcome tissue barriers. Recent data indicate that surface-exposed membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), belonging to a group of membrane-anchored MMPs, plays a central role in pericellular matrix degradation during basement membrane and interstitial tissue transmigration programs...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Kyoko Ito, Keisuke Ito
Although the stem cells of various tissues remain in the quiescent state to maintain their undifferentiated state, they also undergo cell divisions as required, and if necessary, even a single stem cell is able to provide for lifelong tissue homeostasis. Stem cell populations are precisely controlled by the balance between their symmetric and asymmetric divisions, with their division patterns determined by whether the daughter cells involved retain their self-renewal capacities. Recent studies have reported that metabolic pathways and the distribution of mitochondria are regulators of the division balance of stem cells and that metabolic defects can shift division balance toward symmetric commitment, which leads to stem cell exhaustion...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Ji-Long Liu
Compartmentation is essential for the localization of biological processes within a cell. In 2010, three groups independently reported that cytidine triphosphate synthase (CTPS), a metabolic enzyme for de novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP, is compartmentalized in cytoophidia (Greek for "cellular snakes") in bacteria, yeast, and fruit flies. Subsequent studies demonstrate that CTPS can also form filaments in human cells. Thus, the cytoophidium represents a new type of intracellular compartment that is strikingly conserved across prokaryotes and eukaryotes...
June 27, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Margot E Quinlan
Objects are commonly moved within the cell by either passive diffusion or active directed transport. A third possibility is advection, in which objects within the cytoplasm are moved with the flow of the cytoplasm. Bulk movement of the cytoplasm, or streaming, as required for advection, is more common in large cells than in small cells. For example, streaming is observed in elongated plant cells and the oocytes of several species. In the Drosophila oocyte, two stages of streaming are observed: relatively slow streaming during mid-oogenesis and streaming that is approximately ten times faster during late oogenesis...
June 24, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Harold R Neely, Martin F Flajnik
For effective adaptive immunity to foreign antigens (Ag), secondary lymphoid organs (SLO) provide the confined environment in which Agrestricted lymphocytes, with very low precursor frequencies, interact with Ag on Ag-presenting cells (APC). The spleen is the primordial SLO, arising in conjunction with adaptive immunity in early jawed vertebrates. The spleen, especially the spleen's lymphoid compartment, the white pulp (WP), has undergone numerous modifications over evolutionary time. We describe the progressive advancement of splenic WP complexity, which evolved in parallel with the increasing functionality of adaptive immunity...
June 17, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
Anna Daneva, Zhen Gao, Matthias Van Durme, Moritz K Nowack
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a collective term for diverse processes causing an actively induced, tightly controlled cellular suicide. PCD has a multitude of functions in the development and health of multicellular organisms. In comparison to intensively studied forms of animal PCD such as apoptosis, our knowledge of the regulation of PCD in plants remains limited. Despite the importance of PCD in plant development and as a response to biotic and abiotic stresses, the complex molecular networks controlling different forms of plant PCD are only just beginning to emerge...
June 8, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
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