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Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715909/ribosomal-stalling-during-translation-providing-substrates-for-ribosome-associated-protein-quality-control
#1
Claudio A P Joazeiro
Cells of all organisms survey problems during translation elongation, which may happen as a consequence of mRNA aberrations, inefficient decoding, or other sources. In eukaryotes, ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) senses elongation-stalled ribosomes and promotes dissociation of ribosomal subunits. This so-called ribosomal rescue releases the mRNA for degradation and allows 40S subunits to be recycled for new rounds of translation. However, the nascent polypeptide chains remain linked to tRNA and associated with the rescued 60S subunits...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693388/sending-and-receiving-hedgehog-signals
#2
Kostadin Petrov, Bradley M Wierbowski, Adrian Salic
Communication between cells pervades the development and physiology of metazoans. In animals, this process is carried out by a relatively small number of signaling pathways, each consisting of a chain of biochemical events through which extracellular stimuli control the behavior of target cells. One such signaling system is the Hedgehog pathway, which is crucial in embryogenesis and is implicated in many birth defects and cancers. Although Hedgehog pathway components were identified by genetic analysis more than a decade ago, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of signaling is far from complete...
July 10, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693387/the-flc-locus-a-platform-for-discoveries-in-epigenetics-and-adaptation
#3
Charles Whittaker, Caroline Dean
Our understanding of the detailed molecular mechanisms underpinning adaptation is still poor. One example for which mechanistic understanding of regulation has converged with studies of life history variation is Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). FLC determines the need for plants to overwinter and their ability to respond to prolonged cold in a process termed vernalization. This review highlights how molecular analysis of vernalization pathways has revealed important insight into antisense-mediated chromatin silencing mechanisms that regulate FLC...
July 10, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661722/unconventional-or-preset-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-evolutionarily-conserved-tissue-resident-t-cells-recognizing-nonpeptidic-ligands
#4
Francois Legoux, Marion Salou, Olivier Lantz
A majority of T cells bearing the αβ T cell receptor (TCR) are specific for peptides bound to polymorphic classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Smaller subsets of T cells are reactive toward various nonpeptidic ligands associated with nonpolymorphic MHC class-Ib (MHC-Ib) molecules. These cells have been termed unconventional for decades, even though only the composite antigen is different from the one seen by classical T cells. Herein, we discuss the identity of these particular T cells in light of the coevolution of their TCR and MHC-Ib restricting elements...
June 29, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645217/microtubule-organizing-centers
#5
Jingchao Wu, Anna Akhmanova
The organization of microtubule networks is crucial for controlling chromosome segregation during cell division, positioning, and transport of different organelles and for cell polarity and morphogenesis. The geometry of microtubule arrays strongly depends on the localization and activity of the sites where microtubules are nucleated and where their minus ends are anchored. Such sites are often clustered into structures known as microtubule-organizing centers, which include the centrosomes in animals and spindle pole bodies in fungi...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613937/cell-removal-efferocytosis
#6
Peter M Henson
In metazoa, removal of cells in situ is involved in larval maturation, metamorphosis, and embryonic development. In adults, such cell removal plays a role in the homeostatic maintenance of cell numbers and tissue integrity as well as in the response to cell injury and damage. This removal involves uptake of the whole or fragmented target cells into phagocytes. Depending on the organism, these latter may be near-neighbor tissue cells and/or professional phagocytes such as, in vertebrates, members of the myeloid family of cells, especially macrophages...
June 14, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598695/unconventional-roles-of-opsins
#7
Nicole Y Leung, Craig Montell
Rhodopsin is the classical light sensor. Although rhodopsin has long been known to be important for image formation in the eye, the requirements for opsins in non-image formation and in extraocular light sensation were revealed much later. Most recent is the demonstration that an opsin in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is expressed in pacemaker neurons in the brain and functions in light entrainment of circadian rhythms. However, the biggest surprise is that opsins have light-independent roles, countering more than a century of dogma that they function exclusively as light sensors...
June 9, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564553/structural-and-mechanistic-insights-into-protein-translocation
#8
Tom A Rapoport, Long Li, Eunyong Park
Many proteins are translocated across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane in eukaryotes or the plasma membrane in prokaryotes. These proteins use hydrophobic signal sequences or transmembrane (TM) segments to trigger their translocation through the protein-conducting Sec61/SecY channel. Substrates are first directed to the channel by cytosolic targeting factors, which use hydrophobic pockets to bind diverse signal and TM sequences. Subsequently, these hydrophobic sequences insert into the channel, docking into a groove on the outside of the lateral gate of the channel, where they also interact with lipids...
May 31, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712102/tcr-signal-strength-and-t-cell-development
#9
Nicholas R J Gascoigne, Vasily Rybakin, Oreste Acuto, Joanna Brzostek
Thymocyte selection involves the positive and negative selection of the repertoire of T cell receptors (TCRs) such that the organism does not suffer autoimmunity, yet has the benefit of the ability to recognize any invading pathogen. The signal transduced through the TCR is translated into a number of different signaling cascades that result in transcription factor activity in the nucleus and changes to the cytoskeleton and motility. Negative selection involves inducing apoptosis in thymocytes that express strongly self-reactive TCRs, whereas positive selection must induce survival and differentiation programs in cells that are more weakly self-reactive...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712101/hemodynamic-control-of-endothelial-cell-fates-in-development
#10
Guillermo García-Cardeña, Bendix R Slegtenhorst
Biomechanical forces are emerging as critical regulators of embryogenesis, particularly in the developing cardiovascular system. From the onset of blood flow, the embryonic vasculature is continuously exposed to a variety of hemodynamic forces. These biomechanical stimuli are key determinants of vascular cell specification and remodeling and the establishment of vascular homeostasis. In recent years, major advances have been made in our understanding of mechano-activated signaling networks that control both spatiotemporal and structural aspects of vascular development...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576122/phosphoinositides-in-control-of-membrane-dynamics
#11
Kay O Schink, Kia-Wee Tan, Harald Stenmark
Most functions of eukaryotic cells are controlled by cellular membranes, which are not static entities but undergo frequent budding, fission, fusion, and sculpting reactions collectively referred to as membrane dynamics. Consequently, regulation of membrane dynamics is crucial for cellular functions. A key mechanism in such regulation is the reversible recruitment of cytosolic proteins or protein complexes to specific membranes at specific time points. To a large extent this recruitment is orchestrated by phosphorylated derivatives of the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol, known as phosphoinositides...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576121/regulation-of-hematopoiesis-and-osteogenesis-by-blood-vessel-derived-signals
#12
Saravana K Ramasamy, Anjali P Kusumbe, Tomer Itkin, Shiri Gur-Cohen, Tsvee Lapidot, Ralf H Adams
In addition to their conventional role as a versatile transport system, blood vessels provide signals controlling organ development, regeneration, and stem cell behavior. In the skeletal system, certain capillaries support perivascular osteoprogenitor cells and thereby control bone formation. Blood vessels are also a critical component of niche microenvironments for hematopoietic stem cells. Here we discuss key pathways and factors controlling endothelial cell behavior in bone, the role of vessels in osteogenesis, and the nature of vascular stem cell niches in bone marrow...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576120/tissue-and-organ-initiation-in-the-plant-embryo-a-first-time-for-everything
#13
Joakim Palovaara, Thijs de Zeeuw, Dolf Weijers
Land plants can grow to tremendous body sizes, yet even the most complex architectures are the result of iterations of the same developmental processes: organ initiation, growth, and pattern formation. A central question in plant biology is how these processes are regulated and coordinated to allow for the formation of ordered, 3D structures. All these elementary processes first occur in early embryogenesis, during which, from a fertilized egg cell, precursors for all major tissues and stem cells are initiated, followed by tissue growth and patterning...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576119/structural-perspectives-on-axon-guidance
#14
Elena Seiradake, E Yvonne Jones, Rüdiger Klein
Axon guidance relies on a combinatorial code of receptor and ligand interactions that direct adhesive/attractive and repulsive cellular responses. Recent structural data have revealed many of the molecular mechanisms that govern these interactions and enabled the design of sophisticated mutant tools to dissect their biological functions. Here, we discuss the structure/function relationships of four major classes of guidance cues (ephrins, semaphorins, slits, netrins) and examples of morphogens (Wnt, Shh) and of cell adhesion molecules (FLRT)...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576118/plasticity-of-cell-migration-in-vivo-and-in-silico
#15
Veronika Te Boekhorst, Luigi Preziosi, Peter Friedl
Cell migration results from stepwise mechanical and chemical interactions between cells and their extracellular environment. Mechanistic principles that determine single-cell and collective migration modes and their interconversions depend upon the polarization, adhesion, deformability, contractility, and proteolytic ability of cells. Cellular determinants of cell migration respond to extracellular cues, including tissue composition, topography, alignment, and tissue-associated growth factors and cytokines...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501451/the-heidelberg-screen-for-pattern-mutants-of-drosophila-a-personal-account
#16
Eric Wieschaus, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
In large-scale mutagenesis screens performed in 1979-1980 at the EMBL in Heidelberg, we isolated mutations affecting the pattern or structure of the larval cuticle in Drosophila. The 600 mutants we characterized could be assigned to 120 genes and represent the majority of such genes in the genome. These mutants subsequently provided a rich resource for understanding many fundamental developmental processes, such as the transcriptional hierarchies controlling segmentation, the establishment of cell states by signaling pathways, and the differentiation of epithelial cells...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501450/signaling-and-polarized-communication-across-the-t-cell-immunological-synapse
#17
Michael L Dustin, Kaushik Choudhuri
T cells express a somatically recombined antigen receptor (αβTCR) that is calibrated during development to respond to changes in peptides displayed by major histocompatibility complex proteins (pMHC) on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APC). A key characteristic of pMHC for adaptive immunity is the ability to sample internal states of cells and tissues to sensitively detect changes associated with infection, cell derangement, or tissue injury. Physical T cell-APC contact sets up an axis for polarization of TCR, adhesion molecules, kinases, cytoskeletal elements, and organelles inherent in this mode of juxtacrine signaling...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501449/the-lysosome-as-a-regulatory-hub
#18
Rushika M Perera, Roberto Zoncu
The lysosome has long been viewed as the recycling center of the cell. However, recent discoveries have challenged this simple view and have established a central role of the lysosome in nutrient-dependent signal transduction. The degradative role of the lysosome and its newly discovered signaling functions are not in conflict but rather cooperate extensively to mediate fundamental cellular activities such as nutrient sensing, metabolic adaptation, and quality control of proteins and organelles. Moreover, lysosome-based signaling and degradation are subject to reciprocal regulation...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501448/genotypes-networks-phenotypes-moving-toward-plant-systems-genetics
#19
Takehiko Ogura, Wolfgang Busch
One of the central goals in biology is to understand how and how much of the phenotype of an organism is encoded in its genome. Although many genes that are crucial for organismal processes have been identified, much less is known about the genetic bases underlying quantitative phenotypic differences in natural populations. We discuss the fundamental gap between the large body of knowledge generated over the past decades by experimental genetics in the laboratory and what is needed to understand the genotype-to-phenotype problem on a broader scale...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501447/focal-adhesion-independent-cell-migration
#20
Ewa K Paluch, Irene M Aspalter, Michael Sixt
Cell migration is central to a multitude of physiological processes, including embryonic development, immune surveillance, and wound healing, and deregulated migration is key to cancer dissemination. Decades of investigations have uncovered many of the molecular and physical mechanisms underlying cell migration. Together with protrusion extension and cell body retraction, adhesion to the substrate via specific focal adhesion points has long been considered an essential step in cell migration. Although this is true for cells moving on two-dimensional substrates, recent studies have demonstrated that focal adhesions are not required for cells moving in three dimensions, in which confinement is sufficient to maintain a cell in contact with its substrate...
October 6, 2016: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
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