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Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Konstantin Evdokimov, Kong Sayasinh, Phonethipsavanh Nouanthong, Keooudomphone Vilivong, Bounthome Samountry, Darouny Phonekeo, Michel Strobel, Frank Haegeman, Peter Heimann, Claude P Muller, Antony P Black
OBJECTIVES: In Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) the high burden of vaccine preventable diseases is thought to be mainly due to low vaccine coverage. Here, we investigated the seroprotective response against diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPw-HepB-Hib) vaccine in children. METHODS: Serum was collected from 1131 children aged 9 to 50 months and their mothers in a cross-sectional study between December 2013 and July 2014...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Keertan Dheda, Kwok Chiu Chang, Lorenzo Guglielmetti, Jennifer Furin, H Simon Schaaf, Dumitru Chesov, Aliasgar Esmail, Christoph Lange
Globally there is a burgeoning epidemic of drug mono-resistant tuberculosis (TB), multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). Almost 20% of all TB strains worldwide are resistant to at least 1 major TB drug including isoniazid. In several parts of the world there is an increasing incidence of MDR-TB, and alarmingly almost a third of MDR-TB cases globally are resistant to either a fluoroquinolone or aminoglycocide. This trend cannot be ignored because DR-TB is associated with greater morbidity compared to drug-sensitive TB, it accounts for almost 25% of global TB mortality, is extremely costly to treat, consuming substantial portions of budgets allocated to national TB programmes in TB endemic countries, and is a major threat to healthcare workers who are already in short supply in resource-poor settings...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
A Cherkaoui, S M Diene, A Renzoni, S Emonet, G Renzi, P François, J Schrenzel
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present work was to investigate the potential roles of PBPs, efflux pumps, and slow drug influx for imipenem heteroresistance in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). METHODS: The 59 NTHi clinical isolates examined in this study were collected at Geneva University Hospitals between 2009 and 2014. Alterations in PBPs were investigated by gene sequencing. To evaluate the affinities of the PBPs to imipenem, steady-state concentration-response experiments were carried out using imipenem in a competition assay with Bocillin-FL...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Judith Kikhney, Dinah von Schöning, Ina Steding, Julia Schulze, Annett Petrich, Andreas Hiergeist, Udo Reischl, Annette Moter, Anke Thomas
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to detect microorganisms in foetal membranes and placental tissue in preterm chorioamnionitis by combining FISH with broad range PCR. The combination of the two molecular techniques enables identification and localization of the microorganisms within the tissue, confirming their clinical relevance. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we compared 31 patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes or preterm labour and preterm delivery by caesarean section with a control group of 26 participants with elective caesarean section at term...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Laura Pérez-Lago, Santiago Izco, Marta Herranz, Griselda Tudó, María Carcelén, Iñaki Comas, Olalla Sierra, Juliá González, María Jesús Ruiz-Serrano, Juan Eyene, Emilio Bouza, Darío García-de-Viedma
OBJECTIVE: Molecular epidemiology techniques in tuberculosis (TB) can identify high-risk strains that are actively transmitted. We aimed to implement a novel strategy to optimize the identification and control of MDR-TB in a specific population. METHODS: We developed a strain-specific-PCR tailored from whole-genome-sequencing (WGS) data to track a specific multidrug-resistant prevalent strain in Equatorial Guinea (EG-MDR). RESULTS: The PCR was applied prospectively on remnants of GeneXpert reaction mixtures owing to the lack of culture facilities in EG...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
A Egli, H Schmid, E Kuenzli, A Widmer, M Battegay, H Plagge, R Frei, Rita Achermann, M Weisser
OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to analyse the association between use of daptomycin and MICs of daptomycin in E. faecium bacteremia. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients aged ≥18 years with E. faecium bacteremia hospitalized at the University Hospital Basel from 2008-2014. We determined daptomycin minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by Etests and used pulsed field gel electrophoresis to determine clonal relatedness. We recorded the defined daily dosages of daptomycin (DDDs) per 100 patient days (PDs) and clinical data from charts...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Patrick J van der Geest, Mostafa Mohseni, Daan Nieboer, Servet Duran, A B Johan Groeneveld
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the safety and efficacy of PCT in guiding blood culture taking in critically ill patients with suspected infection. METHODS: We performed a cluster-randomized, multi-center, single-blinded, cross-over trial. Patients suspected of infection in whom taking blood for culture was indicated were included. The participating ICU's were stratified and randomized by treatment regimen into a control group and PCT-guided group. All patients included into this trial followed the regimen which was allocated to the ICU for that period...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Philippe Montravers, Pierre-François Perrigault, Jean-François Timsit, Jean-Paul Mira, Olivier Lortholary, Olivier Leroy, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Didier Guillemot, Caroline Bensoussan, Sébastien Bailly, Elie Azoulay, Jean-Michel Constantin, Hervé Dupont
OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients treated for Candida peritonitis (CP), according to the type of systemic anti-fungal therapy (SAT), empiric (EAF) or targeted (TAF) therapies, and the final diagnosis of infection. METHODS: ICU patients treated for CP were selected among the AmarCAND2 cohort, to compare patients receiving EAF for not confirmed suspicion of CP (EAF/nonCP), to those with suspected secondarily confirmed CP (EAF/CP), or with primarily proven CP receiving TAF...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Jonathan A Otter, Philip Burgess, Frances Davies, Siddharth Mookerjee, Julie Singleton, Mark Gilchrist, Darren Parsons, Eimear T Brannigan, Julie Robotham, Alison H Holmes
OBJECTIVE: To perform an economic evaluation on the cost associated with an outbreak of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). METHODS: We performed an observational economic evaluation of an outbreak of CPE (NDM-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae) affecting 40 patients in a group of five hospitals across three sites in West London. Costs were split into actual expenditure (including anti-infective costs, enhanced CPE screening, contact precautions, temporary ward-based monitors of hand and environmental practice, and environmental decontamination), and 'opportunity cost' (staff time, bed closures, and elective surgical missed revenue)...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Parham Sendi, Werner Zimmerli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Roni Bitterman, Mical Paul, Dina Polak, Yuval Geffen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
S Hraiech, J Bordes, J L Mège, X de Lamballerie, R Charrel, Y Bechah, B Pastorino, C Guervilly, J M Forel, M Adda, J M Rolain, H Lepidi, D Raoult, S Lehingue, L Papazian
OBJECTIVES: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in intensive care unit patients may increase mortality and favour bacterial pneumonia. We developed a murine model to compare the severity of staphylococcal pneumonia after CMV reactivation and in CMV-negative mice. METHODS: Balb/c mice were primo-infected with murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV n=90) or received saline (control n=90). After latency, all mice underwent caecal ligation and puncture to trigger MCMV reactivation in MCMV primary-infected mice...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
C Fabrizio, A Procopio, L Scudeller, R Dell'Acqua, G Bruno, E Milano, M Milella, A Saracino, G Angarano
Pavone and colleagues described rapid reduction of fasting glucose (FG) levels in diabetic HCV positive patients receiving direct acting antivirals agents (DAAs). We aimed to assess if a similar decrease occurred in our study population and if it was maintained after the end of treatment (EOT). We retrospectively evaluated 449 patients treated with DAAs in our Centre (64 HIV/HCV co-infected) and selected 59 subjects (13.1%) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Pre-treatment FG value and at least one FG value during-treatment were available for all subjects...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Fleur P Paling, Martin Wolkewitz, Lonneke G M Bode, Peter M C Klein Klouwenberg, David S Y Ong, Pieter Depuydt, Liesbet de Bus, Frangiscos Sifakis, Marc J M Bonten, Jan A J W Kluytmans
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the incidence of intensive care unit (ICU) acquired pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and its association with S. aureus colonization at ICU admission. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of two cohort studies in critically ill patients. The primary outcome was the incidence of microbiologically confirmed S. aureus ICU-acquired pneumonia. Incidences of S. aureus ICU pneumonia and associations with S. aureus colonization at ICU admission were determined using competing risks analyses...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Benedikt Huttner, Céline Pulcini, Jeroen Schouten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Alina Sultanova, Maksims Cistjakovs, Sabine Gravelsina, Svetlana Chapenko, Silvija Roga, Egils Cunskis, Zaiga Nora-Krukle, Valerija Groma, Ildze Ventina, Modra Murovska
OBJECTIVES: Viral infections have been frequently cited as important environmental factors implicated in the onset of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of HHV-6 infection in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis. METHODS: This study included 45 patients (42 female and 3 male; median age 47.00 IQR: 38.50-57.00) with histologically, laboratory and clinically confirmed autoimmune thyroiditis, as well as 30 autopsied subjects (26 women and 4 men; median age 58...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ryohei Hirose, Takaaki Nakaya, Tomo Daidoji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Mette T Christiansen, Sebastiaan J Hullegie, Martin Schutten, Katja Einer-Jensen, Helena J Tutill, Judith Breuer, Bart J A Rijnders
OBJECTIVES: ; Within HIV positive men having sex with men the epidemic of hepatitis C (HCV) is ongoing. Transmission of resistant variants of HCV after failure of treatment with directly acting antivirals (DAA) could be a major threat to the effectivity of therapy. We determined whether HCV resistant variants to DAAs were prevalent amongst patients with an acute HCV infection diagnosed in 2013 and 2014 in the Netherlands. METHODS: Target enrichment for viral nucleic acid separation and deep sequencing were used to recover whole HCV genomes of 50 patients with an acute HCV infection...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Angela Huttner, Marina Cacace, Luciano d'Andrea, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Dan Otelea, Francesca Pugliese, Evelina Tacconelli
OBJECTIVES: In this qualitative study we explore the social, cultural, psychological, and organizational factors associated with inequality in the workplace among clinical microbiologists (CM) and infectious disease (ID) specialists in European hospitals. METHODS: We analysed data from 52 interviews and five focus groups involving 82 CM/ID specialists selected from university, research or community hospitals in five countries, one each in Northern, Western, Eastern, Southeastern, and Southwestern Europe...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Antonella Grottola, Maurilia Marcacci, Sara Tagliazucchi, William Gennari, Annapia Di Gennaro, Massimiliano Orsini, Federica Monaco, Patrizia Marchegiano, Valeria Marini, Marisa Meacci, Fabio Rumpianesi, Alessio Lorusso, Monica Pecorari, Giovanni Savini
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to monitor the spread and to evaluate the role for public health of Usutu virus (USUV) in an endemic area of Italy. METHODS: The survey was retrospectively conducted by detecting USUV-RNA and USUV-antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples collected between 2008 and 2011 from 915 patients with or without neurological impairments in the area of the municipality of Modena, Italy. Real time RT-PCR was performed on CSF and serum specimens while serum-neutralization was used to detect antibodies...
September 24, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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