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Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Sang Taek Heo, Samuel L Aitken, Frank P Tverdek, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the frequency at which patients with elevated voriconazole (VRC) levels but no clinically evident central nervous system (CNS) toxicity subsequently develop CNS toxicity. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of adult patients with haematolologic malignancy (HM) who had a VRC serum level > 5.5mcg/mL at MD Anderson Cancer Center (January 2010 ─ December 2015). Patients with any documented CNS toxicity at the time the VRC level was obtained or patients whose VRC was discontinued as a response to high VRC level were excluded...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Catherine Ingels, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Greet Van den Berghe
Critical illness is a complex life-threatening disease characterised by profound endocrine and metabolic alterations and by a dysregulated immune response, together contributing to the susceptibility for nosocomial infections and sepsis. Hitherto, two metabolic strategies have been shown to reduce nosocomial infections in the critically ill, namely tight blood glucose control and early macronutrient restriction. Hyperglycaemia, as part of the endocrine-metabolic responses to stress, is present in virtually all critically ill patients and is associated with poor outcome...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
E S Berg, A L Wester, J Ahrenfeldt, S S Mo, J S Slettemeås, M Steinbakk, Ø Samuelsen, N Grude, G S Simonsen, I H Løhr, S B Jørgensen, S Tofteland, O Lund, U R Dahle, M Sunde
OBJECTIVES: In 2012 and 2014 the Norwegian monitoring programme for antimicrobial resistance in the veterinary and food production sectors (NORM-VET) showed that 124 of a total of 406 samples (31%) of Norwegian retail chicken meat was contaminated with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to compare selected cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from humans and poultry to determine their genetic relatedness based on whole genome sequencing (WGS)...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Michal Gordon, Eugenia Yakunin, Lea Valinsky, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Jacob Moran-Gilad
OBJECTIVES: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has revolutionised the subtyping of L. pneumophila (Lp) but calling the traditional sequence based type from genomic data is hampered by multiple copies of the mompS locus. We propose a novel bioinformatics solution for rectifying that limitation, ensuring the feasibility of WGS for cluster investigation. METHODS: we designed a novel approach based on alignment of raw reads to a reference sequence. With WGS, reads originating from either of the two mompS copies cannot be differentiated...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
L Leibovici
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 7, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Liangjing Wang, Zhenghua Lin, Shujie Chen, Jun Li, Chun Xiao Chen, Zhiming Huang, Bin Ye, Jin Ding, Wei Li, Lunpo Wu, Ying Jiang, Lina Meng, Qin Du, Jianmin Si
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of 10-day bismuth-containing quadruple (B-quadruple) treatment as first-line therapy in patients with Helicobacter pylori related chronic gastritis. METHODS: Randomized control trial conducted from Oct. 2011 to Dec. 2013 in Zhejiang, China, including patients with H. pylori-related chronic gastritis who were randomly given either 10-day omeprazole-based triple (OM-triple, omeprazole 20 mg twice daily, clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily and amoxicillin 1g twice daily), or 10-day B-quadruple therapy (OM-triple + bismuth subcitrate 120 mg four times daily)...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Daniel Wagner de Castro Lima Santos, Luis Fernando Aranha Camargo, Sarah Santos Gonçalves, Marília Marufuji Ogawa, Jane Tomimori, Milvia Maria Simões E Silva Enokihara, José Osmar Medina Pestana, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo
OBJECTIVES: This is a retrospective and observational study addressing clinical and therapeutic aspects of melanised fungal infections in kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all patients admitted between January 1996 and December 2013 in a single institution who developed infections by melanised fungi. RESULTS: We reported 56 patients aging between 30 and 74 years with phaeohyphomycosis or chromoblastomycosis (0...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Petar Stupar, Onya Opota, Giovanni Longo, Guy Prod'hom, Giovanni Dietler, Gilbert Greub, Sandor Kasas
OBJECTIVES: The management of bloodstream infection, a life-threatening disease, largely relies on early detection of infecting microorganisms and accurate determination of their antibiotic susceptibility, to reduce both mortality and morbidity. Recently, we developed a new technique based on atomic force microscopy, capable of detecting movements of biological samples at the nanoscale. Such sensor is able to monitor the response of bacteria to antibiotic's pressure, allowing a fast and versatile susceptibility test...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Henrich A van der Lee, Paul E Verweij, Adilia Warris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
M Ballestero-Téllez, F Docobo-Pérez, J M Rodríguez-Martínez, M C Conejo, M S Ramos-Guelfo, J Blázquez, J Rodríguez-Baño, A Pascual
OBJECTIVES: Fosfomycin is re-evaluated as treatment of multidrug resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, MIC differences have been described among the different susceptibility testing. The aim was to study the role of the different inoculum size used in agar dilution with respect broth microdilution, according to CLSI, in the fosfomycin MIC discrepancies. METHODS: Fosfomycin MICs were determined using agar dilution (reference) and broth microdilution in 220 Escherichia coli (81) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (139) clinical isolates...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Megan Staples, Rikki M A Graham, Vicki Hicks, Janet Strachan, Anders Gonçalves da Silva, Jade Peverall, Veyatie Wicks, Amy V Jennison
OBJECTIVES: S. pneumoniae isolates from Australian invasive pneumococcal disease cases displaying an atypical 35B phenotype. Whole genome sequencing was used to analyse these strains and identify changes to the capsule gene regions. METHODS: Four atypical serogroup 35 isolates from Australian reference laboratories were unable to be assigned to one of the four known group 35 serotypes by the Quellung serotyping method. Genetic characterisation of the capsule locus was performed by bioinformatic analysis of whole genome sequencing data for all isolates RESULTS: Genetic analysis identified four independent disruptions to the wciG gene, which encodes an O-acetyltransferase responsible for the O-acetylation of the 6Galβ1 residue in the capsular polysaccharide repeat unit of serotype 35B...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Manfred L Rotter, Reno Frei, Danica Nogarth, Peter Häusermann, Anne Stranden, Didier Pittet, Andreas F Widmer
OBJECTIVES: The World Health Organization (WHO) issued guidelines on hand hygiene recommending a six-step "how to hand rub" technique for applying alcohol-based hand rub. However, adherence to all six steps is poor. We assessed a simplified three-step technique and compared it to the conventional WHO six-step technique in terms of bacterial counts' reduction on healthcare workers' (HCW) hands. METHODS: Thirty-two participants were randomly assigned to clean their hands following the six-step "how to hand rub" technique (WHO-reference group) or a simplified three-step technique (intervention group)...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
José Moreira, Thiago M Peixoto, André Machado de Siqueira, Cristiane C Lamas
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is transmitted to humans primarily by Aedes mosquito bites. However, circumstantial evidence points to a sexual transmission route. OBJECTIVES: To assess the sexually-acquired ZIKV cases and to investigate the shedding of ZIKV in genital fluids. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, Pro-MED-mail, and WHO ZIKV notification databases from inception to December 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: Reports describing ZIKV acquisition through sex and studies reporting the detection or isolation of ZIKV in the genital fluids were included...
January 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Nicola Clementi, Francesca Cappelletti, Elena Criscuolo, Matteo Castelli, Nicasio Mancini, Roberto Burioni, Massimo Clementi
BACKGROUND: The cellular adaptive response directed against Herpesviruses is widely described in the scientific literature as a pivotal component of the immune system able to control virus replication. The role of humoral immunity remains unclear and controversial. AIMS: Discussing the role of adaptive immunity in Herpesvirus infection control, highlighting the potential role of the humoral branch of immunity through the description of human monoclonal antibodies directed against herpesviruses...
January 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Gianluca Ianiro, Luca Valerio, Luca Masucci, Silvia Pecere, Stefano Bibbò, Gianluca Quaranta, Brunella Posteraro, Diego Currò, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Cammarota
OBJECTIVES: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Although a single faecal infusion is usually sufficient to eradicate CDI, a considerable rate of patients needs multiple infusions to be cured. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of failure after single faecal infusion in patients with recurrent CDI. METHODS: We included patients with recurrent CDI prospectively treated with FMT by colonoscopy...
January 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Jona M Banzon, Susan J Rehm, Steven M Gordon, Syed T Hussain, Gosta B Pettersson, Nabin K Shrestha
OBJECTIVES: Propionibacterium acnes remains a rare cause of infective endocarditis (IE). It is challenging to diagnose due to the organism's fastidious nature and the indolent presentation of the disease. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical presentation and management of P. acnes IE with an emphasis on the methods of diagnosis. METHODS: We identified patients from the Cleveland Clinic Infective Endocarditis Registry who were admitted from 2007 to 2015 with definite IE by Duke Criteria...
January 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Marta Martínez-Bonet, A González-Serna, Maria Isabel Clemente, Sara Morón-López, Laura Díaz, Marisa Navarro, Maria C Puertas, Manuel Leal, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Javier Martinez-Picado, Maria Angeles Muñoz Fernández
BACKGROUND: Several host factors contribute to HIV disease progression in the absence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Among them, the CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is known to be the main coreceptor used by HIV-1 to enter target cells during the early stages of an HIV-1 infection. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of CCR5((WT/Δ32)) heterozygosity with HIV-1 reservoir size, lymphocyte differentiation, activation and immunosenescence in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV-infection receiving cART...
December 29, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Serge Alfandari, Céline Berthon, Florence Ader
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Dag Torfoss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 23, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Samuel Rhedin, Ilias Galanis, Fredrik Granath, Anders Ternhag, Jonas Hedlund, Carl Spindler, Pontus Naucler
OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effect of empirical treatment with narrow-spectrum ß-lactam monotherapy (NSBM) versus broad-spectrum ß-lactam monotherapy (BSBM) in non-severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: Hospitalised patients ≥18 years with CAP that received initial NSBM or BSBM, with a severity score according to CRB-65≤2 (C=confusion, R=respiratory rate >30/min, B=systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≤60 mmHg, 65= ≥65 years), in the Swedish Pneumonia Register from 2008-11 were included...
December 22, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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