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Clinical Microbiology and Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919649/maldi-tof-ms-identification-of-species-from-the-acinetobacter-baumannii-ab-group-revisited-inclusion-of-the-novel-a-seifertii-and-a-dijkshoorniae-species
#1
Marta Marí-Almirall, Clara Cosgaya, Paul G Higgins, Ado Van Assche, Murat Telli, Geert Huys, Bart Lievens, Harald Seifert, Lenie Dijkshoorn, Ignasi Roca, Jordi Vila
OBJECTIVES: Rapid identification of Acinetobacter species is critical since members of the A. baumannii (Ab) group differ in antibiotic susceptibility and clinical outcomes. A. baumannii, A. pittii and A. nosocomialis can be identified by MALDI-TOF/MS, while the novel species A. seifertii and A. dijkshoorniae cannot. Low identification rates for A. nosocomialis have also been reported. We evaluated the use of MALDI-TOF/MS to identify isolates of A. seifertii and A. dijkshoorniae and revisited the identification of A...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915212/rapid-detection-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-legionella-pneumophila-serogroup-1-sequence-type-47
#2
M Mentasti, P Cassier, S David, C Ginevra, L Gomez-Valero, A Underwood, B Afshar, J Etienne, J Parkhill, V Chalker, C Buchrieser, T G Harrison, S Jarraud
OBJECTIVES: Legionella pneumophia serogroup 1 (Lp1) sequence type 47 is the leading cause of legionellosis in North-Western Europe but surprisingly it is rarely isolated from environmental samples. Comparative genomics was applied to develop a PCR assay and to better understand the evolution of this strain. METHODS: Comparative analysis of 36 genomes representative of the Lp species was used to identify specific PCR targets which were then evaluated in silico on 545 sequenced genomes, and in vitro on 436 Legionella strains, 106 respiratory samples and three environmental samples from proven ST47 sources...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908744/are-breakpoints-for-phenotypic-susceptibility-testing-no-longer-needed
#3
EDITORIAL
Gunnar Kahlmeter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903461/clinical-characteristics-and-outcome-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-among-adults-hospitalized-with-influenza-like-illness-in-france
#4
Paul Loubet, Nezha Lenzi, Martine Valette, Vincent Foulongne, Anne Krivine, Nadhira Houhou, Gisele Lagathu, Sylvie Rogez, Sophie Alain, Xavier Duval, Florence Galtier, Deborah Postil, Pierre Tattevin, Philippe Vanhems, Fabrice Carrat, Bruno Lina, Odile Launay
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze characteristics and outcome of RSV infection in adults hospitalized with influenza-like illness (ILI). METHODS: Patients hospitalized with ILI were included in this prospective, multicenter study carried out in six French hospitals during three consecutive influenza seasons (2012-2015). RSV and other respiratory viruses were detected by multiplex PCR in nasopharyngeal swabs. Risk factors for RSV infection were identified by backward stepwise logistic regression analysis...
November 26, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903460/evaluation-of-qpcr-for-early-diagnosis-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Geneviève Héry-Arnaud, Emmanuel Nowak, Jocelyne Caillon, Valérie David, Anne Dirou, Krista Revert, Marie-Reine Munck, Irène Frachon, Alain Haloun, Delphine Horeau-Langlard, Jean Le Bihan, Isabelle Danner-Boucher, Sophie Ramel, Marie-Paule Pelletier, Sylvain Rosec, Stéphanie Gouriou, Elise Poulhazan, Christopher Payan, Claude Férec, Gilles Rault, Grégoire Le Gal, Rozenn Le Berre
OBJECTIVES: Early detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung positivity is a key element in cystic fibrosis (CF) management. The PCR has increased the accuracy of many microorganisms detection. Clinical relevance of P. aeruginosa quantitative PCR (qPCR) in this context is unclear. Our aim was to determine P. aeruginosa qPCR sensitivity and specificity, and to assess the possible time saved by qPCR in comparison with standard practice (culture). METHODS: A multicentre cohort study was conducted over a 3-year period in 96 CF patients without chronic P...
November 26, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903459/true-rifampicin-resistance-missed-by-the-mgit-prevalence-of-this-pheno-genotype-in-the-uk-and-ireland-after-18-month-surveillance
#6
Ximena Gonzalo, Pauline Claxton, Tim Brown, Lorraine Montgomery, Margaret Fitzgibbon, Ian Laurenson, Francis Drobniewski
OBJECTIVES: To characterise rifampicin resistant strains missed by the MGIT 960 system but not by egg-based media in the UK and Ireland and to ascertain their prevalence. METHODS: All strains sent for second line susceptibility testing were prospectively collected. Drug Susceptibility Testing was performed by Resistance Ratio (RR), Proportion Method (PM), MGIT 960 and MIC determination by microdilution. Rifampicin resistance conferring mutations were detected with line probe assays and sequencing...
November 26, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903458/cardiac-arrest-among-patients-with-infections-causes-clinical-practice-and-research-implications
#7
REVIEW
Davide Leoni, Jordi Rello
The incidence of sepsis is increasing, and the condition is now the leading cause of death in general intensive care units (ICUs). Our review failed to identify studies of the causes of cardiac arrest among infected patients, even though non-cardiac causes represent 15% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and though one-third of events have positive blood cultures. Sudden cardiac arrest is the result of local damage to the heart and of the impact of systemic and pulmonary conditions on cardiac performance, and its danger is underestimated...
November 26, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890458/amoxicillin-dosing-recommendations-are-very-different-in-european-countries-a-cross-sectional-survey
#8
LETTER
Céline Pulcini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890457/the-role-of-whole-genome-sequencing-wgs-in-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-bacteria-report-from-the-eucast-subcommittee
#9
REVIEW
Matthew J Ellington, Oskar Ekelund, Frank M Aarestrup, Rafael Canton, Michel Doumith, Christian Giske, Hajo Grundman, Henrik Hasman, Matthew Holden, Katie L Hopkins, Jon Iredell, Gunnar Kahlmeter, Claudio U Köser, Alasdair MacGowan, Dik Mevius, Mike Mulvey, Thierry Naas, Tim Peto, Jean-Marc Rolain, Ørjan Samuelsen, Neil Woodford
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) offers the potential to predict antimicrobial susceptibility from a single assay. The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) established a subcommittee to review the current development status of WGS for bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). The published evidence for using WGS as a tool to infer antimicrobial susceptibility accurately is currently either poor or non-existent and the evidence / knowledge base requires significant expansion...
November 23, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890456/introduction-to-the-supplement-on-vaccines-for-mutual-protection
#10
EDITORIAL
Inge C Gyssens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890455/the-detection-of-microbial-dna-but-not-cultured-bacteria-is-associated-with-increased-mortality-in-patients-with-suspected-sepsis-a-prospective-multi-centre-european-observational-study
#11
Michael J O'Dwyer, Malgorzata H Starczewska, Jacques Schrenzel, Kai Zacharowski, David Ecker, Rangarajan Sampath, David Brealey, Mervyn Singer, Nicolas Libert, Mark Wilks, Jean-Louis Vincent
OBJECTIVES: Blood culture results inadequately stratify the mortality risk in critically ill patients with sepsis. We sought to establish the prognostic significance of the presence of microbial DNA in the bloodstream of patients hospitalised with suspected sepsis. METHODS: We analysed the data collected during the Rapid Diagnosis of Infections in the Critically Ill (RADICAL) study which compared a novel culture-independent polymerase chain reaction/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) assay with standard microbiological testing...
November 23, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876594/successful-control-of-a-large-outbreak-of-hiv-infection-associated-with-injection-of-cathinone-derivatives-in-tel-aviv-israel
#12
Eugene Katchman, Ronen Ben-Ami, Michal Savyon, Daniel Chemtob, Boaz Avidor, Asaf Wasserman, Irena Zeldis, Shirley Girshengorn, Ziva Amitai, Rivka Sheffer, Dan Turner
OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of HIV infection have been linked to injectable drug abuse, but specific triggers often remain obscure. We report on an outbreak of primary HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tel Aviv, associated with a local shift in drug-use practices. METHODS: A cluster of primary HIV infection cases in PWID was detected in May 2012. Retrospective and prospective multi-hospital case finding was initiated. PWID were interviewed and risk factors for primary HIV infection were identified...
November 19, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876593/intact-interferon-%C3%AE-response-against-coxiella-burnetii-by-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-chronic-q-fever
#13
Teske Schoffelen, Julien Textoris, Chantal P Bleeker-Rovers, Amira Ben Amara, Jos W M van der Meer, Mihai G Netea, Jean-Louis Mege, Marcel van Deuren, Esther van de Vosse
OBJECTIVES: Q fever is caused by Coxiella burnetii, an intracellular bacterium that infects phagocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the C. burnetii-induced IFN-γ response is defective in chronic Q fever patients. METHODS: IFN-γ was measured in supernatants of C. burnetii-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 17 chronic Q fever patients and 17 healthy individuals. To assess IFN-γ responses, expression profiles of IFN-γ-induced genes in C...
November 19, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866862/extraordinary-long-term-and-fluctuating-persistence-of-ebola-virus-rna-in-semen-of-survivors-in-guinea-implications-for-public-health
#14
LETTER
Alpha Kabinet Keita, Abdoulaye Toure, Mamadou Saliou Sow, Hervé Raoul, N'Faly Magassouba, Eric Delaporte, Jean-François Etard, Postebogui Study Group
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856269/efficacy-and-safety-of-withholding-antimicrobial-treatment-in-children-with-cancer-fever-and-neutropenia-with-a-demonstrated-viral-respiratory-infection-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
María E Santolaya, Ana M Alvarez, Mirta Acuña, Carmen L Avilés, Carmen Salgado, Juan Tordecilla, Mónica Varas, Marcela Venegas, Milena Villarroel, Marcela Zubieta, Alberto Toso, Alexander Bataszew, Mauricio J Farfán, Verónica de la Maza, Alejandra Vergara, Romina Valenzuela, Juan P Torres
OBJECTIVES: To determine efficacy and safety of withholding antimicrobials in children with cancer, fever and neutropenia (FN) with a demonstrated respiratory viral infection. METHODS: Prospective, multicenter, randomized study in children presenting with FN at five hospitals in Santiago, Chile, evaluated at admission for diagnosis of bacterial and viral pathogens including PCR-microarray for 17 respiratory viruses. Children positive for a respiratory virus, negative for a bacterial pathogen and with a favorable evolution after 48 hours of antimicrobial therapy were randomized to either maintain or withhold antimicrobials...
November 14, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856268/validation-of-the-new-sepsis-3-definitions-proposal-for-improvement-in-early-risk-identification
#16
Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Thomas Tsaganos, Iraklis Tsangaris, Malvina Lada, Christina Routsi, Dimitrios Sinapidis, Marina Koupetori, Magdalini Bristianou, George Adamis, Konstantinos Mandragos, George N Dalekos, Ioannis Kritselis, George Giannikopoulos, Ioannis Koutelidakis, Maria Pavlaki, Eleni Antoniadou, Glykeria Vlachogiannis, Vasilios Koulouras, Athanassios Prekates, George Dimopoulos, Antonia Koutsoukou, Ioannis Pnevmatikos, Aikaterini Ioakeimidou, Anastasia Kotanidou, Stylianos E Orfanos, Apostolos Armaganidis, Charalambos Gogos
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis-3 definitions generated controversies regarding their general applicability. The Sepsis-3 Task Force outscored the need of validation with emphasis on quick SOFA (qSOFA) score. This was done in a prospective cohort coming from a different health-care setting. METHODS: Patients with infections and at least two signs of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) were analyzed. Sepsis was defined as total SOFA ≥2 outside the ICU or as increase of ICU admission SOFA ≥2...
November 14, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852000/the-spread-and-clinical-impact-of-st14cc-pbp3-type-iib-a-a-clonal-group-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-with-chromosomally-mediated-beta-lactam-resistance-a-prospective-observational-study
#17
Viktor Månsson, Dagfinn Skaare, Kristian Riesbeck, Fredrik Resman
OBJECTIVES: Increasing incidences of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) with beta-lactam resistance mediated through alterations in penicillin-binding protein 3 (BLNAR/rPBP3) have been observed in the past decades. Recently, an rPBP3 NTHi sequence type (ST) 14, with PBP3 type IIb/A, caused a disease outbreak in a nursing home in Sweden with severe outcomes, indicating increased bacterial virulence. In this prospective observational study, the epidemiology and clinical significance of the corresponding clonal group (ST14CC-PBP3IIb/A) in Skåne, Sweden was investigated...
November 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851999/addressing-vaccine-hesitancy-the-crucial-role-of-healthcare-providers
#18
E Dubé
To maintain successful vaccination programmes, it is of critical importance to identify providers who are vaccine-hesitant, to understand the causes of their hesitancies, and to develop tailored strategies to address this. Within the population, vaccine hesitancy in healthcare providers is highly context-specific and will vary among different vaccines, professions, and in time. There are gaps in understanding of the complex mix of factors leading to vaccine hesitancy among healthcare providers, but this is key to design of effective targeted interventions...
November 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851998/clinical-and-molecular-features-of-adenovirus-type-2-3-and-7-infections-in-children-in-an-outbreak-in-taiwan-2011
#19
Ming-Ru Lin, Shu-Li Yang, Yu-Nong Gong, Ching-Chia Kuo, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Chih-Jung Chen, Yu-Chia Hsieh, Chen-Yen Kuo, Chun-Wan Fang, Kuo-Chien Tsao, Yhu-Chering Huang
OBJECTIVES: We studied pediatric patients with human adenovirus (HAdV) infection during the 2011 outbreak in northern Taiwan in order to define the clinical features of different HAdV genotypes in children. METHODS: Between January and December 2011, 637 patients <19 years of age exhibited culture-confirmed adenoviral infection in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, and provided specimens available for genotyping by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction. Clinical data were retrospectively collected...
November 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851997/mrsa-among-animals-current-overview
#20
REVIEW
Marta Aires-de-Sousa
Currently, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a universal threat. After being well established in the healthcare setting, it has emerged in the community among people with no risk factors for MRSA acquisition, therefore imposing a new threat. The subsequent detection of MRSA colonizing or infecting animals as well as in food of animal origin was of major concern, revealing new reservoirs for MRSA. The major MRSA clonal lineages circulating in the different settings, i.e. in hospitals, in the community and among animals are described here, differentiating between clones colonizing companion and food-chain animals...
November 13, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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