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Clinical Microbiology and Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827120/a-simple-phenotypic-method-for-screening-of-mcr-1-mediated-colistin-resistance
#1
Marco Coppi, Antonio Cannatelli, Alberto Antonelli, Ilaria Baccani, Vincenzo Di Pilato, Samanta Sennati, Tommaso Giani, Gian Maria Rossolini
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a novel method, named Colistin-MAC test, for phenotypic screening of acquired colistin-resistance mediated by transferable mcr-1 resistance determinants, based on colistin MIC reduction in the presence of dipicolinic acid (DPA). METHODS: The Colistin-MAC test consists in a broth microdilution method, in which colistin MIC is tested in absence or presence of DPA (900 μg/mL). Overall, 74 colistin-resistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae (65 Escherichia coli and 9 of other species), including 61 strains carrying mcr-1-like genes and 13 strains negative for mcr genes, were evaluated with the Colistin-MAC test...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823606/reliability-of-self-reported-recent-antibiotic-use-among-the-general-population-a-methodological-issue-author-s-reply
#2
LETTER
Nathalie Thilly, Céline Pulcini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818628/a-prospective-multicentre-study-of-the-epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-bloodstream-infection-in-cirrhotic-patients
#3
Michele Bartoletti, Maddalena Giannella, Russell Lewis, Paolo Caraceni, Sara Tedeschi, Mical Paul, Christoph Schramm, Tony Bruns, Manuela Merli, Nazaret Cobos-Trigueros, Elena Seminari, Pilar Retamar, Patricia Muñoz, Mario Tumbarello, Patrizia Burra, Maria Torrani Cerenzia, Bruno Barsic, Ester Calbo, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Nicola Petrosillo, Maria Angeles Galan-Ladero, Giampiero D'Offizi, Noa Bar Sinai, Jesus Rodríguez-Baño, Gabriella Verucchi, Mauro Bernardi, Pierluigi Viale
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the current epidemiology of BSI in patients with cirrhosis, analyse predictors of 30-day mortality, and risk factors for antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Cirrhotic patients developing a BSI episode were prospectively included at 19 centres in five countries from September 2014 to December 2015. The discrimination of mortality risk scores for 30-day mortality were compared by area under the receiver operator-risk and Cox-regression models...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811246/microbial-metagenomics-mock-scenario-based-sample-simulation-m3s3
#4
Yair Motro, Jacob Moran-Gilad
OBJECTIVES: Shotgun sequencing in increasingly applied in clinical microbiology for unbiased culture-independent diagnosis. While software solutions for metagenomics proliferate, integration of metagenomics in clinical care, requires method standardisation and validation. Virtual metagenomics samples could underpin validation by substituting real samples and thus we sought to develop a novel solution for simulation of metagenomics samples based on user-defined clinical scenarios. METHODS: We designed the Microbial Metagenomics Mock Scenario-based Sample Simulation (M3S3) workflow, which allows users to generate virtual samples from raw reads or assemblies...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811245/low-prevalence-of-mcr-1-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-bloodstream-infections-in-china
#5
LETTER
Beiwen Zheng, Hao Xu, Xiao Yu, Xiawei Jiang, Jing Zhang, Yunbo Chen, Jinwei Huang, Chen Huang, Yonghong Xiao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811244/comparison-of-the-clinical-course-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-gdh-positive-toxin-negative-patients-diagnosed-by-pcr-to-those-with-a-positive-toxin-test
#6
Julia Origüen, Laura Corbella, María Ángeles Orellana, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Francisco López-Medrano, Rafael San Juan, Manuel Lizasoain, Tamara Ruiz-Merlo, Alejandra Morales-Cartagena, Guillermo Maestro, Patricia Parra, Jennifer Villa, Rafael Delgado, José María Aguado
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the potential role of PCR-based assays in the overdiagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) by using a validated diagnostic algorithm in daily clinical practice. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study evaluating all C. difficile-positive stool samples identified at our institution during a 12-month period, to compare outcomes and recurrence rate between patients with a positive enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for both glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin A/B ("toxin-positive group"), with those with GDH-positive, toxin-negative samples in which the diagnosis was made by a positive PCR-based assay ("toxin-/PCR+ group")...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811243/preserving-the-commons-addressing-the-sustainable-use-of-antibiotics-through-an-economic-lens
#7
REVIEW
C M Morel, S E Edwards, S Harbarth
BACKGROUND: As the growth of antibiotic resistance is in large part due to the widespread use of antibiotics, every effort must be made to ensure their sustainable use. AIMS: This narrative review aims to assess the potential contribution of health economic analyses to sustainable use efforts. SOURCES: The work draws on existing literature and experience with health economic tools. CONTENT: The study examines some of the weaknesses in the health, regulatory, and industry arenas that could be contributing to inappropriate or sub-optimal prescribing of antibiotics and describes how economic analysis could be utilized to improve current practice by comparing both costs and health outcomes in order to maximize societal wellbeing over the longer-term...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811242/natural-ns5a-inhibitor-resistance-associated-substitutions-in-hcv-genotype-1-infected-patients-from-italy
#8
Cinzia Caudai, Angelo Materazzi, Francesco Saladini, Simona Di Gianbenedetto, Carlo Torti, Barbara Ricciardi, Barbara Rossetti, Paolo Almi, Andrea De Luca, Maurizio Zazzi
OBJECTIVES: Genetic variability in NS5A is associated to different levels of resistance to the currently licensed NS5A inhibitors. The aim of this study was to detect NS5A inhibitor resistance associated substitutions (RASs) in HCV genotype 1 (GT1) patients naïve to direct acting HCV antivirals. METHODS: Amplification, Sanger sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the HCV NS5A region were performed on plasma obtained from 122 consecutive patients with HCV chronic infection attending four different clinics in Italy...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811241/utility-of-prior-cultures-in-predicting-antibiotic-resistance-of-bloodstream-infections-due-to-gram-negative-pathogens-a-multicenter-observational-cohort-study
#9
Derek R MacFadden, Bryan Coburn, Nirav Shah, Ari Robicsek, Rachel Savage, Marion Elligsen, Nick Daneman
OBJECTIVES: Appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy in patients with bloodstream infections due to Gram-negative pathogens can improve outcomes. We evaluated the utility of prior microbiologic results for guiding empiric treatment in Gram-negative bloodstream infections. METHODS: We conducted a multi-center observational cohort study, in two large health systems in Canada and the United States, including 1,832 hospitalized patients with Gram-negative bloodstream infection (community, hospital, and ICU acquired) from April 2010 to March 2015...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782649/comparison-of-methods-available-for-the-identification-of-mycobacterium-chimaera
#10
Emmanuel Lecorche, Sophie Haenn, Faiza Mougari, Sylvain Kumanski, Nicolas Veziris, Hanaa Benmansour, Laurent Raskine, Laurent Moulin, Emmanuelle Cambau
OBJECTIVES: Mycobacterium chimaera is a recently described nontuberculous mycobacterium belonging to the M. avium complex (MAC). Because this species is implicated in a worldwide outbreak due to contaminated heater-cooler unit water tanks during open-heart surgery, it becomes mandatory for clinical microbiology laboratories to be able to differentiate M. chimaera from the other MAC species, especially M. intracellulare. Such identification was so far restricted to specialized laboratories, since it required the analysis of several gene sequences...
August 4, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782652/antibiotic-treatment-of-propionibacterium-acnes-endocarditis
#11
LETTER
Nelianne J Verkaik, Carolina A M Schurink, Damian C Melles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782651/emergence-of-dalbavancin-non-susceptible-vancomycin-intermediate-staphylococcus-aureus-visa-after-treatment-of-mrsa-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-with-a-dalbavancin-and-vancomycin-containing-regimen
#12
Brian J Werth, Rupali Jain, Andrew Hahn, Lisa Cummings, Tatiana Weaver, Adam Waalkes, Dhruba Sengupta, Stephen J Salipante, Robert M Rakita, Susan M Butler-Wu
OBJECTIVES: Dalbavancin is a long-acting lipoglycopeptide with activity against Gram-positives, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA). The potential for lipoglycopeptides, with half-lives greater than one-week, to select for resistance is unknown. Here we explore a case of MRSA central line-associated blood stream infection in which dalbavancin and vancomycin non-susceptibility emerged in a urine isolate collected after the patient was treated with vancomycin and dalbavancin sequentially...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782650/are-we-making-an-impact
#13
EDITORIAL
L Leibovici
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782648/whole-genome-sequencing-of-campylobacter-jejuni-isolated-from-danish-routine-human-stool-samples-reveals-surprising-degree-of-clustering
#14
K G Joensen, K G Kuhn, L Müller, J T Björkman, M Torpdahl, J Engberg, H M Holt, H L Nielsen, A M Petersen, S Ethelberg, E M Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of Campylobacter are traditionally considered to be rare, however rather than being the true nature of the disease, this may reflect our present inability to detect them. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic and epidemiological degree of clustering among Campylobacter jejuni isolates from Danish patients. METHODS: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was applied to 245 C. jejuni isolates from patients with domestically acquired infection over a 9-month period in 2015 and 2016...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782647/host-factors-are-more-important-in-predicting-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-than-ribotype-and-use-of-antibiotics
#15
Yvette H van Beurden, Shabir Nezami, Chris J J Mulder, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls
OBJECTIVE: A frequent complication of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is recurrent disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether early recurrence risk was higher after infection with ribotype 027 (outbreak strain) compared to infection with endemic strain types of C. difficile METHODS: Consecutive patients diagnosed with CDI between May 2013 and March 2014 were included (outbreak strain, and non-outbreak strains). Patients who developed recurrent CDI within 30 days after completion of CDI treatment, were compared to patients without a recurrence...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782646/%C3%AE-lacta-%C3%A2-test-performance-for-detection-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli-directly-on-bronchial-aspirates-samples-a-validation-study
#16
Salah Gallah, Yahia Benzarara, Jacques Tankovic, Paul-Louis Woerther, Hayat Bensekri, Jean-Luc Mainardi, Guillaume Arlet, Sophie Vimont, Marc Garnier
OBJECTIVES: Incidence of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase-producing Gram Negative Bacilli (ESBL-P-GNB)-related infections is worryingly increasing worldwide. ESBL-P-GNB detection directly on bronchial aspirate samples (BAS) performed for suspected pneumonia may help save empirical carbapenems. Our objectives were to optimize β-LACTA(®) test (BLT) realization and evaluate BLT performance for ESBL-P-GNB detection directly on BAS. METHODS: 1) BLT technical optimization using BAS of different matrix types spiked with increasing concentrations of CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae; 2) in vitro validation of BLT diagnostic performance on 17 ESBL enzymes, belonging to CTX-M, SHV, TEM, OXA, GES, VEB, and PER groups; 3) clinical validation of BLT performance on 126 BAS prospectively collected from 7 Intensive Care Units...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780059/a-simple-laboratory-algorithm-for-diagnosis-of-melioidosis-in-resource-constrained-areas-a-study-from-north-central-vietnam
#17
T T Trinh, T S Hoang, D A Tran, V T Trinh, A Göhler, T T Nguyen, S N Hoang, R Krumkamp, L T N Nguyen, J May, P M Doan, C D Do, T A Que, I Steinmetz
OBJECTIVE: Melioidosis may be endemic in many tropical developing countries but diagnosis of the disease is currently unreliable in resource-limited areas. Here we aimed to validate a simple and cheap laboratory algorithm for the identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei from clinical specimens in parts of Vietnam where the disease has not been reported before. METHODS: In June 2015, we conducted training courses at five general hospitals in north central provinces in order to raise awareness of the disease and to introduce a simple and cheap laboratory identification algorithm for B...
August 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765078/evolution-of-the-prevalence-of-hcv-infection-and-hcv-genotype-distribution-in-hiv-infected-patients-in-italy-between-1997-and-2015
#18
Barbara Rossetti, Francesca Bai, Alessandro Tavelli, Massimo Galli, Andrea Antinori, Francesco Castelli, Giampietro Pellizzer, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Stefano Bonora, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Massimo Puoti, Andrea De Luca
OBJECTIVES: Aim of the study was to analyze the variation of HCV prevalence and genotype distribution and their determinants in people living with HIV who entered care between 1997 and 2015. METHODS: HIV-infected patients enrolled in ICONA who were tested for HCV-Antibodies (HCV-Ab) were included. RESULTS: Overall 3,407/12,135 (28.1%) were HCV-Ab+; and 735/12,135 (6.1%) were HBsAg+. Among patients whose HCV genotype was known, the most represented were genotype 1 and 3...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760711/incidental-finding-observed-on-a-blood-smear
#19
Raúl Recio, Juan María Herrero-Martínez, Manuel Lizasoain, Encarna Oliveira, Ana Pérez-Ayala
Filariases are infections caused by distinct species of nematodes. These infections are transmitted through insect bites and primarily affect lymph nodes and skin. Filariases are classified as neglected diseases and affect millions, producing severe disability and social stigma. This type of infection is rarely diagnosed in travellers, as prolonged stays in endemic areas are usually required acquire infection. Infections may be asymptomatic, and clinical manifestations depend on the host immune response to the infection and the parasite burden...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760710/the-impact-of-preoperative-bacteriuria-on-the-risk-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-after-primary-knee-or-hip-replacement-a-retrospective-study-with-a-one-year-follow-up
#20
Meeri Honkanen, Esa Jämsen, Matti Karppelin, Reetta Huttunen, Heini Huhtala, Antti Eskelinen, Jaana Syrjänen
OBJECTIVES: Patients who undergo elective joint replacement are traditionally screened and treated for preoperative bacteriuria in order to prevent periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). More recently, this practice has been questioned. The purpose of this study was to determine whether preoperative bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of PJI. METHODS: Patients who had undergone a primary hip or knee replacement in a tertiary care hospital between September 2002 and December 2013 were identified from the hospital database (23 171 joint replacements, 10 200 hips, and 12 971 knees)...
July 28, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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