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Clinical Microbiology and Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625573/management-from-antibiotic-stewardship-to-clinical-microbiology
#1
EDITORIAL
Gilbert Greub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624613/nitroimidazole-refractory-giardiasis-a-growing-problem-requiring-rational-solutions
#2
REVIEW
E R Carter, L E Nabarro, L Hedley, P L Chiodini
BACKGROUND: Giardia intestinalis is microaerophillic diarrhoea-causing protozoan common in countries with suboptimal sanitation. Standard treatment is with nitroimidazoles but a growing number of refractory cases are being reported. Treatment failure has become increasingly prevalent in travellers who contract giardiasis in Asia. Clinicians are increasingly falling back on second line and less well known drugs to treat giardiasis. AIMS: To review nitroimidazole-refractory G...
June 14, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606645/detection-of-causative-agents-of-tick-borne-rickettsioses-in-western-siberia-russia-identification-of-rickettsia-raoultii-and-rickettsia-sibirica-dna-in-clinical-samples
#3
Igolkina Yana, Krasnova Elena, Rar Vera, Savelieva Mariya, Epikhina Tamara, Tikunov Artem, Khokhlova Natalya, Provorova Veronika, Tikunova Nina
OBJECTIVES: The main causative agent of tick-borne rickettsioses in Siberia is considered to be Rickettsia sibirica; however, only a few cases have been genetically confirmed. Other pathogenic species of Rickettsia have also been detected in ixodid ticks in Western Siberia. The aim of this study was to detect the etiologic agents of tick-borne rickettsioses in Western Siberia and compare their clinical manifestations. METHODS: A total of 273 blood and 44 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 273 patients hospitalized owing to tick-transmitted infection in 2016, April-September, were examined for the presence of Rickettsia spp...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606644/comparison-of-methods-for-detection-of-plasmid-mediated-and-chromosomally-encoded-colistin-resistance-in-enterobacteriaceae
#4
Aurélie Jayol, Patrice Nordmann, Philippe Lehours, Laurent Poirel, Véronique Dubois
OBJECTIVES: Because of the emergence of plasmid-mediated (mcr-1 and mcr-2 genes) and chromosomally-encoded colistin resistance, reliable methods for detecting colistin resistance/susceptibility in routine laboratories are required. We evaluated the respective performances of the BD Phoenix automated system, the newly-developed Rapid Polymyxin NP test and the broth microdilution (BMD) reference method to detect colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, and particularly those producing MCR-1 and MCR-2...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606643/diagnostic-accuracy-of-a-rapid-e1-antigen-test-for-chikungunya-virus-infection-in-a-reference-setting
#5
Ralph Huits, Tamaki Okabayashi, Lieselotte Cnops, Barbara Barbé, Riemsdijk Van Den Berg, Koen Bartholomeeusen, Kevin K Ariën, Jan Jacobs, Emmanuel Bottieau, Emi E Nakayama, Tatsuo Shioda, Marjan Van Esbroeck
OBJECTIVES: Rapid diagnostic tests targeting virus-specific antigen could significantly enhance the diagnostic capacity for chikungunya virus infections. We evaluated the accuracy of an immunochromatographic antigen test for the diagnosis of chikungunya in a reference laboratory for arboviruses. METHODS: an immunochromatographic rapid test that uses mouse monoclonal antibodies as a tracer against the E1-envelope protein of chikungunya (ARKRAY, Inc. Kyoto, Japan) was evaluated...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606642/a-new-series-of-reviews-in-cmi-how-to%C3%A2
#6
EDITORIAL
L Leibovici
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587905/rapid-identification-of-imported-influenza-viruses-at-xiamen-international-airport-via-an-active-surveillance-program
#7
Junyu Chen, Kunyu Yang, Minwei Zhang, Chenguang Shen, Jing Chen, Guosong Wang, Shoujie Huang, Mengya Zhang, Huanchang Xiong, Honglin Chen, Yixin Chen, Ningshao Xia
OBJECTIVES: The cross-border transmission of infectious diseases is a worldwide public health issue. Current border screening measures are insufficiently sensitive. The study objectives were to describe the epidemiological pattern of influenza infection among incoming travellers at Xiamen International Airport during non-pandemic periods and to assess the performance of a rapid influenza diagnostic test in border screening. METHODS: Between May 2015 and May 2016 travellers with influenza-like-illnesses (ILIs) entering China at Xiamen International Airport were screened with a rapid test, Flu Dot-ELISA, and the collected specimens were further subjected to virus isolation and phylogenetic analysis...
June 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587904/evaluation-of-a-novel-line-probe-assay-to-detect-resistance-to-pyrazinamide-a-key-drug-used-for-tuberculosis-treatment
#8
Michèle Driesen, Yuji Kondo, Bouke C de Jong, Gabriela Torrea, Sylvie Asnong, Christel Desmaretz, Kamal S M Mostofa, Sabira Tahseen, Michael G Whitfield, Daniela M Cirillo, Paolo Miotto, Andrea M Cabibbe, Leen Rigouts
OBJECTIVES: The development of rapid molecular diagnostic assays for pyrazinamide (PZA) resistance is considered technically challenging as mutations are highly diverse, scattered along the full length of the pncA gene, and not all are associated with PZA resistance. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the novel Genoscholar PZA-TB II line-probe assay (NIPRO Corporation, Japan; 'PZA-LPA2'). METHODS: To evaluate the applicability of the PZA-LPA2 in clinical settings, we compared the performance of the PZA-LPA2 to a composite reference standard pncA Sanger and Illumina sequencing plus phenotypic susceptibility testing on a panel of 87 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from WHO drug resistance surveys, harbouring mutations previously classified as associated or not associated with resistance according to data from peer-reviewed literature...
June 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587903/cardiac-arrest-among-patients-with-infections
#9
LETTER
Xianshi Zhou, Zhongde Zhang, Jun Li, Ye Ye, Guanghua Tang, Banghan Ding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 3, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583741/escmid-an-international-europe-based-society-committed-to-fostering-cross-border-collaboration-and-education-to-improve-patient-care
#10
Mario Poljak, Murat Akova, Alexander W Friedrich, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Evelina Tacconelli, Annelies Zinkernagel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583740/diagnosing-fungal-infections-in-hematology-patients-another-case-of-less-is-more-in-the-clinical-setting
#11
EDITORIAL
Cornelia Lass-Florl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583739/a-new-equine-and-zoonotic-threat-emerges-from-an-old-chlamydial-pathogen-chlamydia-psittaci
#12
EDITORIAL
Adam Polkinghorne, Gilbert Greub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583738/predictors-of-mortality-in-nursing-home-residents-with-pneumonia-a-multicenter-study
#13
Marco Falcone, Alessandro Russo, Flaminia Gentiloni Silverj, Daniela Marzorati, Renzo Bagarolo, Massimo Monti, Rosella Velleca, Roberto D'Angelo, Antonino Frustaglia, Ginetto Carlo Zuccarelli, Roberto Prina, Marco Vignati, Maria Grazia Marnati, Mario Venditti, Marco Tinelli
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate predictors of mortality in patients residing in nursing-homes (NHs) or long-term care facilities (LTCFs) with diagnosis of NH-acquired pneumonia (NHAP). METHODS: We conducted an observational, prospective study (December 2013-December 2015) of patients residing in 9 NHs/LTCFs of Central and Northern Italy with diagnosis of NHAP. Data on demographics, comorbidities, microbiology, and therapies were entered in an electronic database. To identify risk factors associated with 30-day mortality, we performed univariable and multivariable analyses, and predictors were internally validated using a bootstrap resampling procedure...
June 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571767/good-epidemiological-practice-a-narrative-review-of-appropriate-scientific-methods-to-evaluate-the-impact-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-interventions
#14
EDITORIAL
Marlieke Ea de Kraker, Mohamed Abbas, Benedikt Huttner, Stephan Harbarth
AIMS: In this narrative review, we provide a framework for assessing the quality of evidence provided by studies investigating antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions, and inform the design and planning stage for future AMS evaluation studies to determine the best strategies to keep antimicrobial resistance at bay. SOURCES: Cochrane/Pubmed CONTENT: Since AMS is mostly applied in a complex, real-world setting, bias and random time effects can jeopardize the validity of causal inference...
May 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559003/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-the-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide-vaccine-na%C3%A3-ve-and-pre-immunized-patients-under-treatment-with-chronic-haemodialysis-a-longitudinal-quasi-experimental-phase-iv-study
#15
S J Vandecasteele, D De Bacquer, R Caluwe, S Ombelet, B Van Vlem
OBJECTIVE: To benchmark the immunogenicity of PCV-13 (pneumococcal conjugated vaccine) versus PPV-23 (pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) in haemodialysis patients pre-vaccinated or not with PPV-23. METHODS: The study is a longitudinal quasi-experimental phase IV study in chronic hemodialysis patients aged ≥ 50 years. Total (ELISA) and functional (OPA) antibodies after pneumococcal vaccination were quantified at baseline, and after 28 and 365 days. Out of 201 eligible patients, 155 were included...
May 27, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559002/assessment-of-the-automated-multiplex-pcr-unyvero-i60-iti-%C3%A2-cartridge-system-to-diagnose-prosthetic-joint-infection-a-multicenter-study
#16
D Malandain, P Bémer, A G Leroy, J Léger, C Plouzeau, A S Valentin, A Jolivet-Gougeon, D Tandé, G Héry-Arnaud, C Lemarié, M Kempf, L Bret, C Burucoa, S Corvec
OBJECTIVES: Prosthetic joint infections (PJI) are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality and their number continues to rise. Their management remains complex, especially the microbiological diagnosis. Besides "homemade" tests developed by several teams, new molecular biology methods are now available with different analytical performance and usability. METHODS: We studied the performances of one of these tests: ITI(®) multiplex PCR (mPCR) by the Curetis(®) company and compared it either to "optimized" culture or to 16S rRNA PCR...
May 27, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559001/characterizing-non-linear-effects-of-hospitalization-duration-on-antimicrobial-resistance-in-respiratory-isolates-a-retrospective-analysis-of-a-prospective-nationwide-surveillance-system
#17
Rami Sommerstein, Andrew Atkinson, Elia F Lo Priore, Andreas O Kronenberg, Jonas Marschall
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to systematically study the influence of length of hospital stay on bacterial resistance in relevant respiratory tract isolates. METHODS: Using prospective epidemiological data from the National Swiss Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System, susceptibility testing results of respiratory isolates retrospectively retrieved from patients hospitalized between 2008-2014 were compiled. Generalized additive models were used to illustrate resistance rates relative to hospitalization duration and to adjust for co-variables...
May 27, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559000/concordant-testing-results-between-various-human-papillomavirus-assays-in-primary-cervical-cancer-screening-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Lena de Thurah, Jesper Bonde, Janni Uyen Hoa Lam, Matejka Rebolj
OBJECTIVES: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) assays are increasingly used for primary cervical screening and HPV vaccination effect monitoring. We undertook a systematic literature review to determine the concordance in positive test results (i.e., detection of HPV infections) between Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and other assays. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and Scopus for studies of primary screening with HC2 and ≥one more assay, with cross-tabulated testing results for the assays...
May 27, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529027/management-of-postneurosurgical-meningitis-narrative-review
#19
REVIEW
Khetam Hussein, Roni Bitterman, Ben Shofty, Mical Paul, Ami Neuberger
BACKGROUND: Infections complicating neurosurgery pose unacceptable mortality and morbidity. AIMS: To summarize what is known about the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of post-neurosurgical meningitis (PNM). SOURCES: PubMed, references of identified studies and reviews, and personal experience when evidence was lacking. CONTENT: The incidence and pathogen distribution of PNM is highly variable. A shift towards Gram-negative bacteria has been observed with use of antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic-coated devices directed mainly against Gram-positive bacteria...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529026/the-use-of-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-maldi-tof-ms-for-rapid-bacterial-identification-in-patients-with-smear-positive-bacterial-meningitis
#20
Boaz Bishop, Yuval Geffen, Adi Plaut, Ola Kassis, Roni Bitterman, Mical Paul, Ami Neuberger
OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in rapid identification of bacteria from smear-positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a cohort of patients with meningitis. METHODS: Single-center observational study, including adults and children with community-acquired or postneurosurgical bacterial meningitis. Meningitis was defined using established criteria. CSF samples that had a positive CSF Gram stain were directly examined by MALDI-TOF-MS...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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