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Clinical Microbiology and Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196696/patients-hospitalized-abroad-as-importers-of-multiresistant-bacteria-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Tamim Khawaja, Juha Kirveskari, Sara Johansson, Juuso Väisänen, Aurora Djupsjöbacka, Annika Nevalainen, Anu Kantele
OBJECTIVES: The pandemic spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria poses a threat to healthcare worldwide, with highest prevalence in indigent regions of the (sub)tropics. As hospitalization constitutes a major risk factor for colonization, infection control management in low-prevalence countries urgently needs background data on patients hospitalized abroad. METHODS: We collected data on 1122 patients who, after hospitalization abroad, were treated at the Helsinki University Hospital between 2010 and 2013...
February 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196695/impact-of-erg3-mutations-and-expression-of-ergosterol-genes-controlled-by-upc2-and-ndt80-in-candida-parapsilosis-azole-resistance
#2
Joana Branco, Mihaela Ola, Raquel M Silva, Elizangela Fonseca, Nuno C Gomes, Cláudia Martins-Cruz, Ana P Silva, Ana Silva-Dias, Cidália Pina-Vaz, Claire Erraught, Lorraine Brennan, Acácio Gonçalves Rodrigues, Geraldine Butler, Isabel M Miranda
OBJECTIVES: C. parapsilosis is a health care related fungal pathogen particularly common among immunocompromised patients. Our understanding of antifungal resistance mechanisms in C. parapsilosis remains very limited. We previously described an azole-resistant strain of C. parapsilosis (BC014RPSC), obtained following exposure in vitro to posaconazole. Resistance was associated with overexpression of ergosterol biosynthetic genes (ERG genes), together with the transcription factors UPC2 (CPAR2-207280) and NDT80 (CPAR2-213640)...
February 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193527/cmv-dna-load-in-breast-milk-of-hiv-positive-women-and-infant-cmv-infection-acquisition-are-not-reduced-with-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy
#3
LETTER
Marina Giuliano, Maria Franca Pirillo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Marco Floridia, Fausto Ciccacci, Haswell Jere, Jean-Baptiste Sagno, Roberta Amici, Sandro Mancinelli, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Stefano Vella, Leonardo Palombi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192237/untargeted-next-generation-sequencing-based-first-line-diagnosis-of-infection-in-immunocompromised-adults-a-multicentre-blinded-prospective-study
#4
Perrine Parize, Erika Muth, Clémence Richaud, Marlène Gratigny, Benoit Pilmis, Arnaud Lamamy, Jean-Luc Mainardi, Justine Cheval, Louise de Visser, Florence Jagorel, Laura Ben Yahia, Geraldine Bamba, Myriam Dubois, Olivier Join-Lambert, Marianne Leruez-Ville, Xavier Nassif, Agnes Lefort, Fanny Lanternier, Felipe Suarez, Olivier Lortholary, Marc Lecuit, Marc Eloit
OBJECTIVE: Infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Improving microbiological diagnosis in these patients is of paramount clinical importance. METHODS: We performed this multicentre, blinded, prospective, proof-of-concept study, to compare untargeted next-generation sequencing with conventional microbiological methods for first-line diagnosis of infection in 101 immunocompromised adults. Patients were followed for 30 days and their blood samples, and in some cases nasopharyngeal swabs and/or biological fluids, were analysed...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192236/diagnosis-of-primary-antibody-and-complement-immunodeficiencies-in-young-adults-after-a-first-invasive-bacterial-infection
#5
Sébastien Sanges, Frédéric Wallet, Nicolas Blondiaux, Didier Theis, Isabelle Verin, Anne Vachée, Rodrigue Dessein, Karine Faure, Nathalie Viget, Eric Senneville, Olivier Leroy, Fleur Maury, Nicolas Just, Julien Poissy, Daniel Mathieu, Anne Prévotat, Cécile Chenivesse, Arnaud Scherpereel, Grégoire Smith, Benjamin Lopez, Jérémie Rosain, Véronique Fremeaux-Bacchi, Eric Hachulla, Pierre-Yves Hatron, Mathilde Bahuaud, Frédéric Batteux, David Launay, Myriam Labalette, Guillaume Lefèvre
OBJECTIVES: Screening for primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) in adults is recommended after two severe bacterial infections. We aimed to evaluate if screening should be performed after the first invasive infection in young adults. METHODS: Eligible patients were retrospectively identified using hospital discharge and bacteriology databases in 3 centers during a 3-year period. Eighteen to forty year-old patients were included if they had experienced an invasive infection with encapsulated bacteria commonly encountered in PIDs (Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Neisseria meningitidis (NM), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Haemophilus influenzae (HI) or group A Streptococcus (GAS))...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192235/high-hcv-subtype-heterogeneity-in-a-chronically-infected-general-population-revealed-by-high-resolution-hcv-subtyping
#6
Francisco Rodriguez-Frias, Leonardo Nieto, Josep Gregori, Damir Garcia-Cehic, Rosario Casillas, David Tabernero, Maria Homs, Maria Blasi, Marta Vila, Qian Chen, Victor Vargas, Lluís Castells, Lluís Viladomiu, Joan Genesca, Beatriz Minguez, Salvador Augustin, Judit Carbonell, Celia Perales, Maria Eugenia Soria, Miriam Asensio, Meritxell Llorens, Laura Ordeig, Cristina Godoy, Maria Buti, Rafael Esteban, Tomas Pumarola, Juan Ignacio Esteban, Josep Quer
OBJECTIVES: Accurately characterize the chronically-infected general HCV population in the Barcelona area by a highly sensitive subtyping method able to identify the 67 recognized hepatitis C virus (HCV) subtypes, and to discriminate mixed infections in a single individual. This information has strong implications on patient management, in deciding the optimal combination of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for each patient. METHODS: HCV subtyping by UDPS. All HCV patients who attended Vall d'Hebron Hospital outpatient clinics from February 2015 to May 2016 (N=1473) were included...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192234/meningococcal-carriage-in-dutch-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-cohort-study
#7
Mariëtte B van Ravenhorst, Merijn W Bijlsma, Marlies A van Houten, Veerle M D Struben, Annaliesa S Anderson, Joseph Eiden, Hao Li, Kathrin U Jansen, Hal Jones, Nicholas Kitchin, Louise Pedneault, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Arie van der Ende
OBJECTIVES: Current information on rates and dynamics of meningococcal carriage is essential for public health policy. This study aimed to determine meningococcal carriage prevalence, its risk factors and duration in the Netherlands, where meningococcal C vaccine coverage is >90%. Several methods to identify serogroups of meningococcal carriage isolates among adolescent and young adults were compared. METHODS: Oropharyngeal swabs from 1715 subjects 13-23 years of age were collected in 2013-2014; 300 were prospectively followed over 8 months...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189857/comparison-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-entecavir-and-tenofovir-in-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-na%C3%A3-ve-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-with-high-viremia-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
I-Ting Wu, Tsung-Hui Hu, Chao-Hung Hung, Sheng-Nan Lu, Jing-Houng Wang, Chung-Mo Lee, Chien-Hung Chen
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study are to compare the long-term efficacy and safety of entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir (TDF) in nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA)-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with high HBV DNA (>6 log10 IU/mL). METHODS: We recruited 419 NA-naïve patients for analysis (313 ETV, 106 TDF). We used propensity score matching to match 106 patients in TDF group with 212 patients in ETV group by age, baseline HBV DNA levels and cirrhosis after subgrouping by HBeAg status...
February 9, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179203/involvement-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-chronic-q-fever
#9
Anne F M Jansen, Teske Schoffelen, Julien Textoris, Jean Louis Mege, Chantal P Bleeker-Rovers, Hendrik I J Roest, Peter C Wever, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Esther van de Vosse, Marcel van Deuren
OBJECTIVES: Chronic Q fever is a persistent infection with the intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii, which can lead to complications of infected aneurysms. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) cleave extracellular matrix and are involved in infections as well as aneurysms. We aimed to study the role of MMPs in the pathogenesis of chronic Q fever. METHODS: We investigated gene expression of MMPs through microarray analysis and MMP production with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in C...
February 4, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179202/detection-of-rare-hepatitis-c-viruses-of-subtype-4r-in-southeastern-france
#10
LETTER
Lorene Dubourg, René Gerolami, Patrick Borentain, Catherine Tamalet, Saadia Mokhtari, Danielle Botta-Fridlund, Sarah Aherfi, Philippe Colson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179201/response-to-the-comment-on-efficacy-of-the-switch-to-oral-antibiotics-in-the-treatment-of-non-staphylococcus-aureus-infective-endocarditis-in-non-severely-ill-patients-by-davido-et-al
#11
LETTER
S Kernéis, A Mzabi, C Richaud, I Podglajen, M P Fernandez-Gerlinger, J L Mainardi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159672/influence-of-vancomycin-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-on-the-outcome-of-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-left-sided-infective-endocarditis-treated-with-anti-staphylococcal-beta-lactam-antibiotics-a-prospective-cohort-study-by-the-international
#12
Juan M Pericàs, Julia A Messina, Cristina Garcia-de-la-Maria, Lawrence Park, Batu K Sharma-Kuinkel, Francesc Marco, Dannah Wray, Zeina Kanafani, Manuela Carugati, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, Pierre Tattevin, Vivian H Chu, Asuncion Moreno, Vance G Fowler, Jose M Miró
OBJECTIVES: A recent study showed a poorer prognosis in left-sided MSSA endocarditis treated with cloxacillin when the vancomycin MIC was ≥1.5 mg/L. We aimed to validate these results using the International Collaboration on Endocarditis cohort and to analyze whether specific genetic characteristics were associated with a high vancomycin MIC (≥1.5 mg/L) phenotype. METHODS: All patients with left-sided MSSA IE treated with anti-staphylococcal beta-lactam antibiotics between 2000 and 2006 with available isolates were included...
January 31, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159671/the-effect-of-an-antibiotic-checklist-on-length-of-hospital-stay-and-appropriate-antibiotic-use-in-adult-patients-treated-with-intravenous-antibiotics-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-trial
#13
Frederike V van Daalen, Jan M Prins, Brent C Opmeer, Marja A Boermeester, Caroline E Visser, Reinier M van Hest, Judith Branger, Eva Mattsson, Medard F M van de Broek, Timo C Roeleveld, Azem A Karimbeg, Eric A F Haak, Ella C van den Hout, Michiel A van Agtmael, Marlies E J L Hulscher, Suzanne E Geerlings
OBJECTIVES: Quality indicators (QIs) have been developed to define appropriate antibiotic use in hospitalized patients. We evaluated whether a checklist based on these QIs affects appropriate antibiotic use and length of hospital stay. METHODS: An antibiotic checklist for patients treated with intravenous antibiotics was introduced in nine Dutch hospitals in a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial. Prophylaxis was excluded. We included a random sample before (baseline), and all eligible patients after (intervention) checklist introduction...
January 31, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159670/st405-ndm-5-producing-escherichia-coli-in-northern-italy-the-first-two-clinical-cases
#14
LETTER
Ibrahim Bitar, Aurora Piazza, Stefano Gaiarsa, Laura Villa, Palmino Pedroni, Ester Oliva, Elisabetta Nucleo, Laura Pagani, Alessandra Carattoli, Roberta Migliavacca
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143788/impact-of-fluconazole-susceptibility-on-the-outcome-of-patients-with-candidemia-data-from-a-population-based-surveillance
#15
Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Jesús Guinea, David Lora-Pablos, Óscar Zaragoza, Mireia Puig-Asensio, Benito Almirante, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, José María Aguado
OBJECTIVES: The clinical correlation of fluconazole antifungal susceptibility testing (AST) for Candida isolates and its integration with pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) parameters is unclear. We analyzed the impact of fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values, 24-hour area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24), and AUC24/MIC ratio on the outcome of candidemic patients. METHODS: We included 257 episodes of candidemia treated with fluconazole monotherapy for ≥72 hours from a population-based surveillance conducted in 29 hospitals (CANDIPOP Project)...
January 28, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143787/clonal-or-not-clonal-investigating-hospital-outbreaks-of-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-with-whole-genome-sequencing
#16
Etienne Ruppé, Flaminia Olearo, Daniela Pires, Damien Baud, Gesuele Renzi, Abdessalam Cherkaoui, Daniel Goldenberger, Angela Huttner, Patrice François, Stephan Harbarth, Jacques Schrenzel
OBJECTIVES: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is a promising tool for identifying transmission pathways in outbreaks caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. However, it is uncertain how the data produced by WGS can be best integrated into epidemiological investigations. METHODS: We tested various genomic analyses to identify clonal groups in two distinct outbreaks of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae that occurred in Switzerland in 2013 and 2015. In blinded fashion, we sequenced 12 strains involved in the 2 outbreaks, respectively, and six that were epidemiologically unrelated...
January 28, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143786/compliance-with-vaccination-against-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-in-germany
#17
Louis Jacob, Karel Kostev
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to analyze patients' compliance with vaccination against Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in Germany. METHODS: The present study included 7,266 patients from 638 general practices and 4,194 patients from 114 pediatric practices. Patients were included if they had received the first dose of one of two vaccines against TBE virus (FSME-Immune® and Encepur®). The immunization schedule of these vaccines consisted of three injections...
January 28, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143785/correlation-of-higher-antibody-levels-to-pneumococcal-proteins-with-protection-from-pneumococcal-acute-otitis-media-but-not-protection-from-nasopharyngeal-colonization-in-young-children
#18
Qingfu Xu, Janet R Casey, Anthony Almudevar, Michael E Pichichero
OBJECTIVES: We previously found that nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) elicits mucosal antibody responses to three protein vaccine candidates: pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PhtD), pneumococcal choline binding protein A (PcpA), and detoxified pneumolysin (PlyD1). Here we sought to determine if mucosal antibody levels to the proteins correlated with protection from acute otitis media (AOM) and NP colonization. METHODS: 228 NP samples were prospectively collected from 100 healthy infants at 6-24 months of age...
January 28, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143784/the-role-of-divalent-metals-for-infectious-diseases-susceptibility-and-outcome
#19
REVIEW
Guenter Weiss, Peggy L Carver
BACKGROUND: Divalent metals play important roles in maintaining metabolism and cellular growth of both eukaryotic hosts and invading microbes. Both metal deficiency and overload can result in abnormal cellular function or damage. Given its central role in host pathogen interactions, subtle alterations of divalent metal homeostasis occur in the course of infectious diseases which aim, from the host perspective, either to reduce the availability of respective metals to microbes, or to use toxic metal accumulation to eliminate pathogens...
January 28, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143783/analyzing-herpetic-meningoencephalitis
#20
LETTER
Hakan Erdem, Yasemin Çağ
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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