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Clinical Microbiology and Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458158/toll-like-receptor-tlr-9-promotor-polymorphisms-and-gene-expression-are-associated-with-persistent-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage
#1
Dennis Nurjadi, Klaus Heeg, Alexander N R Weber, Philipp Zanger
OBJECTIVES: Toll-like receptor (TLR) -9 could have importance in human S. aureus immunity, but population level evidence for this hypothesis is missing. METHODS: We phenotyped 603 volunteers for S. aureus nasal carriage using four consecutive swabs, genotyped TLR9 promotor variants in 106 persistent carriers and 219 non-carriers, measured TLR9-mRNA expression in whole blood after stimulation with viable S. aureus, and studied mutual associations of carriage, transcriptional activity, and single nucleotide polymorphisms while accounting for sex and hormonal contraceptive use (HCU+/- )...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458157/clostridium-innocuum-is-a-vancomycin-resistant-pathogen-that-may-cause-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea
#2
Ju-Hsin Chia, Ting-Shu Wu, Tsu-Lan Wu, Chyi-Liang Chen, Chih-Hsien Chuang, Lin-Hui Su, Hong-Jyun Chang, Chia-Chen Lu, An-Jing Kuo, Hsin-Chih Lai, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium innocuum can cause extra-intestinal infection in patients with underlying diseases. The role of C. innocuum in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) remains unknown. METHODS: Clinical information of 103 patients in which C. innocuum was isolated from was reviewed. We carried out cellular and animal experiments to examine the pathogenic potential of C. innocuum in AAD. RESULTS: Eighty-eight percent (91/103) of the 103 patients received antibiotics within 2 weeks of diarrhea onset...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458156/how-to-isolate-identify-and-determine-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-anaerobic-bacteria-in-routine-laboratories
#3
REVIEW
Elisabeth Nagy, Lyudmila Boyanova, Ulrik S Justesen
BACKGROUND: There has been an increased interest in the study of anaerobic bacteria, which cause human infection during the past decade. Many new genera and species have been described by to use 16S rRNA gene sequencing of clinical isolates obtained from different infection sites with commercially available special culture media to support the growth of anaerobes. Several systems, such as anaerobic pouches, boxes, jars and chambers provide suitable anaerobic culture conditions to isolate even strict anaerobic bacteria successfully from clinical specimens...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454850/dissemination-of-panton-valentine-leukocidin-positive-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-usa300-clone-in-multiple-hospitals-in-tokyo-japan
#4
Shunsuke Takadama, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Asami Sato, Manami Shoshi, Takeshi Fujii, Norihisa Noguchi
OBJECTIVE: Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene (lukS/F-PV)-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), particularly the USA300 clone, is a health concern worldwide. Recently, CA-MRSA clones have been found to spread and persist in hospital settings. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiological features of lukS/F-PV-positive MRSA in Japanese hospitals. METHODS: A total of 3,433 MRSA isolated from nine hospitals in 2011-2015 were used...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454849/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-intracellular-signaling-pathways-tyrosine-kinase-and-mtor-inhibitors
#5
REVIEW
Mark Reinwald, Jose T Silva, Nicolas J Mueller, Jesús Fortún, Christian Garzoni, Johan W de Fijter, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Paolo Grossi, Jose María Aguado
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of therapies targeting different intracellular signaling pathways and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454848/a-multi-center-derivation-and-validation-of-a-simple-predictive-index-for-healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection
#6
Meghann L Davis, Harlan G Sparrow, Judy O Ikwuagwu, William L Musick, Kevin W Garey, Katherine K Perez
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infections in the United States. Despite well-established risk factors, very little research has focused on use of these variables to identify a patient population at high-risk for CDI to target with primary prevention strategies. A predictive index for healthcare-associated CDI could improve clinical care and guide research for primary prevention trials. Our objective was to develop a predictive index to identify patients at high-risk for healthcare-associated CDI...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454847/bejel-in-cuba-molecular-identification-of-treponema-pallidum-subsp-endemicum-in-patients-diagnosed-with-venereal-syphilis
#7
Angel A Noda, Linda Grillová, Reto Lienhard, Orestes Blanco, Islay Rodríguez, David Šmajs
OBJECTIVES: Bejel, caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN), was until now considered as a non-venereal disease endemic in areas with hot and dry climates. This study has identified TEN in clinical samples from Cuban patients previously diagnosed with syphilis. METHODS: We performed sequencing-based molecular typing on 92 samples from Cuban patients diagnosed with syphilis. Moreover, to differentiate T. pallidum subspecies, Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) was designed, and applied to suspicious samples...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454846/comparison-of-reporting-phase-iii-randomized-controlled-trials-of-antibiotic-treatment-for-common-bacterial-infections-in-clinicaltrials-gov-and-matched-publications
#8
Daniel Shepshelovich, Dana Yelin, Anat Gafter-Gvili, Shira Goldman, Tomer Avni, Dafna Yahav
OBJECTIVES: Discrepancies between ClinicalTrials.gov entries and matching publications were previously described in general medicine. We aimed to evaluate the consistency of reporting in trials addressing systemic antibiotic therapy. METHODS: We searched ClinicalTrials.gov for completed phase III trials comparing antibiotic regimens until 5/2017. Matched publications were identified in PubMed. Two independent reviewers extracted data and identified inconsistencies...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454845/evaluation-of-a-new-multiplex-pcr-assay-paragenie-g-amoeba-real-time-pcr-kit-targeting-giardia-intestinalis-entamoeba-histolytica-and-entamoeba-dispar-entamoeba-moshkovskii-from-stool-specimens-evidence-for-the-limited-performances-of-microscopy-based-approach
#9
Florent Morio, Stéphane Valot, Adrien Laude, Guillaume Desoubeaux, Nicolas Argy, Céline Nourrisson, Christelle Pomares, Marie Machouart, Yohann Le Govic, Frédéric Dalle, Françoise Botterel, Nathalie Bourgeois, Estelle Cateau, Marion Leterrier, Fakhri Jeddi, Manuel Gaboyard, Patrice Le Pape
OBJECTIVES: Besides the potential to identify a wide variety of gastrointestinal parasites, microscopy remains the gold standard in clinical microbiology for amoeba species identification and especially, when coupled with adhesin detection, to discriminate the pathogenic E. histolytica from its sisters but non-pathogenic species E. dispar/E. moschovskii. However, this approach is time-consuming, requires a high-level of expertise that can be jeopardized considering the low prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in non-endemic countries...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454844/the-epidemiology-of-febrile-illness-in-sub-saharan-africa-implications-for-diagnosis-and-management
#10
REVIEW
Michael J Maze, Quique Bassat, Nicholas A Feasey, Inácio Mandomando, Patrick Musicha, John A Crump
BACKGROUND: Fever is among the most common symptoms of people living in Africa, and clinicians are challenged by the similar clinical features of a wide spectrum of potential aetiologies. AIM: To summarise recent studies of fever aetiology in sub-Saharan Africa focusing on causes other than malaria. SOURCES: A narrative literature review by searching the MEDLINE database, and recent conference abstracts. CONTENT: Studies of multiple potential causes of fever are scarce, and for many participants the infecting organism remains unidentified, or multiple co-infecting microorganisms are identified, and establishing causation is challenging...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447989/aetiology-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-adults-in-primary-care-a-prospective-study-in-11-european-countries
#11
Margareta Ieven, Samuel Coenen, Katherine Loens, Christine Lammens, Frank Coenjaerts, Anouk Vanderstraeten, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Derrick Crook, Kris Huygen, Chris C Butler, Theo Jm Verheij, Paul Little, Kalina Zlateva, Anton van Loon, Eric Cj Claas, Herman Goossens
OBJECTIVES: To describe the role of bacteria (including bacterial resistance), viruses (including those recently described), and mixed bacterial-viral infections in adults presenting to primary care with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). METHODS: We enrolled 3104 adults with LRTI, 141 (4.5%) of whom had community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and 2985 matched controls in a prospective study in 16 primary care networks in Europe, and followed patients up at 28-35 days...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447988/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-agents-targeting-lymphoid-cells-surface-antigens-i-cd19-cd20-and-cd52
#12
REVIEW
Małgorzata Mikulska, Simone Lanini, Carlota Gudiol, Lubos Drgona, Giuseppe Ippolito, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Bernd Salzberger
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting CD19, CD20 and CD52 and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447987/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-soluble-immune-effector-molecules-ii-agents-targeting-interleukins-immunoglobulins-and-complement
#13
REVIEW
Kevin L Winthrop, Xavier Mariette, Jose T Silva, Esther Benamu, Leonard H Calabrese, Alexandre Dumusc, Josef S Smolen, José María Aguado, Mario Fernández-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of agents targeting interleukins, immunoglobulins and complement factors and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427805/comparison-of-antipseudomonal-beta-lactams-for-febrile-neutropenia-empiric-therapy-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-authors-reply
#14
LETTER
Nobuyuki Horita, Yuji Shibata, Hiroki Watanabe, Ho Namkoong, Takeshi Kaneko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427804/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-cell-adhesion-inhibitors-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-modulators
#15
REVIEW
Gil Redelman-Sidi, Olivier Michielin, Carlos Cervera, Camillo Ribi, José María Aguado, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Oriol Manuel
BACKGROUND: The present review is part of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) Consensus Document on the safety of targeted and biological therapies. AIMS: To review, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety profile of immune checkpoint inhibitors, LFA-3-targeted agents, cell adhesion inhibitors, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators and proteasome inhibitors and to suggest preventive recommendations. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427803/chlamydia-trachomatis-genotypes-a-and-b-from-urogenital-specimens-of-patients-in-spain-an-organotropism-related-gene-and-multilocus-sequence-typing-study
#16
Luis Piñeiro, Jenny Isaksson, Marisol Zapico, Gustavo Cilla, Björn Herrmann
OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia trachomatis ompA genotypes A and B, primarily associated with trachoma, were unexpectedly detected in urogenital samples of patients in Spain, a trachoma-free country. In this study, we aimed to explain this finding using analysis of organotropism-related genes and a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) technique. METHODS: C. trachomatis genotypes A or B were detected in 8/930 (0.9%) infection episodes between 2006 and 2012. In these strains, organotropism related genes (polymorphic membrane protein gene H, tryptophan synthase gene A, CTA0934, and cytotoxin) were studied...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427802/invasive-aspergillosis-with-pulmonary-and-central-nervous-system-involvement-during-ibrutinib-therapy-for-relapsed-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia-a-case-report
#17
LETTER
Anna Maria Peri, Luca Bisi, Anna Cappelletti, Elisa Colella, Luisa Verga, Chiara Borella, Sergio Foresti, Guglielmo Marco Migliorino, Andrea Gori, Alessandra Bandera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427801/escmid-study-group-for-infections-in-compromised-hosts-esgich-consensus-document-on-the-safety-of-targeted-and-biological-therapies-an-infectious-diseases-perspective-introduction
#18
REVIEW
Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Yolanda Meije, Oriol Manuel, Hamdi Akan, Jordi Carratalà, José María Aguado, Julie Delaloye
BACKGROUND: The field of new biological agents is increasing exponentially over the past years, thus making prevention and management of associated infectious complications a challenge for non-specialized clinicians. AIMS: The present Consensus Document is an initiative of the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts (ESGICH) aimed at analyzing, from an Infectious Diseases perspective, the safety of targeted and biological therapies. SOURCES: Computer-based MEDLINE searches with MeSH terms pertaining to each agent or therapeutic family...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427800/new-insights-into-transmission-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-narrative-review
#19
REVIEW
Ana Durovic, Andreas Widmer, Sarah Tschudin Sutter
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, Clostridium difficile has been considered a typical healthcare-associated pathogen - transmitted within healthcare facilities and thus prevented by implementation of standard infection control measures. More recently, this concept has been challenged by studies suggesting a relevant role for community-acquisition of C. difficile. AIMS: To discusses the current literature, compiled during the last decade, reporting on sources of acquisition of C...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427799/the-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-recurrent-severe-lower-limb-cellulitis-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#20
Jeffrey Cannon, John Dyer, Jonathan Carapetis, Laurens Manning
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and risk factors for recurrence of severe lower leg cellulitis (LLC) METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study using state-wide data of adults presenting with recurrent LLC following a primary episode occurring between January 2002 and December 2013. The incidence of recurrent LLC was estimated using the cumulative incidence function, accounting for mortality. Independent risk factors for recurrence were identified using Fine-Gray sub-distribution and Cox proportional hazards models...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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