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Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Mathias Klok Pedersen, Troels Lillebaek, Aase Bengaard Andersen, Hanna Soini, Marjo Haanperä, Ramona Groenheit, Jerker Jonsson, Erik Svensson
OBJECTIVES: To compare the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in Denmark, Sweden and Finland, by focusing on the native population in order to identify epidemiological differences and thus indirectly possible differences in TB control. METHODS: TB incidence trends from 1990 through 2015 were compared among the countries. Also, for the periodes 2012-2013 and 2014-2015, genotyping data were compared. Genotyping was performed using the 24-locus Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) method in Denmark and Sweden...
October 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Violaine Tran Quang, Philippe Bidet, André Birgy, Marion Caseris, Romain Basmaci, Stéphane Bonacorsi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Yolanda Peña-López, Montserrat Pujol, Magda Campins, Leonel Lagunes, Joan Balcells, Jordi Rello
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prediction accuracy of 2008 Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)/ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT), 2013-CDC definitions for ventilator-associated events (VAE) and a new VAE algorithm (Ped-VAE) in children. METHODS: Prospective 13-month cohort study at a multidisciplinary Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Primary end-points were duration of ventilation episode, PICU/hospitalization length of stay from episode (LOS), and episode mortality...
October 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Richard Horowitz, Alexis Lacout, Pierre-Yves Marcy, Christian Perronne
Formal serology in patients presenting with presumptive Lyme disease symptoms is not sufficient to definitively rule out Lyme disease. A broader laboratory panel approach such as including a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or ELISPOT test can be more sensitive and specific. The search for an antibody intrathecal production may not be essential to the diagnosis in some neuroboreliosis cases (peripheral neuropathy).
October 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Carlota Rodó, Anna Suy, Elena Sulleiro, Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Andrés Antón, Itziar García, Silvia Arévalo, Élida Vázquez, Ana Vázquez, Fernando de Ory, M Paz Sánchez-Seco, Carlos Rodrigo, Tomás Pumarola, Elena Carreras
OBJECTIVES: To describe a case of a pregnant woman with Zika virus infection and severe fetal brain malformations. METHODS: Serial ultrasound measurements, fetal magnetic resonance imaging results, laboratory and amniocentesis results, and perinatal outcomes of the pregnant woman and her neonate are reported. RESULTS: Zika virus tested positive in amniotic fluid at 19 weeks while being negative at delivery. The newborn did not meet the case definition of congenital Zika virus syndrome because neither the Zika virus RNA nor immunoglobulin M antibodies were detected; however, prenatal brain lesions were confirmed after birth...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
George S Heriot, Allen C Cheng, Steven Y C Tong, Danny Liew
This letter discusses an important limitation of the literature recently reviewed by Bai et al (Bai AD, Agarwal A, Steinberg M, et al. Clinical predictors and clinical prediction rules to estimate initial patient risk for infective endocarditis in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Microbiol Infect 2017. In press). Specifically we discuss the effect that low transoesophageal echocardiography usage on the reliability of the reference standard used in many of these studies, and outline the potential effect this might have on the reliability of the estimates of the diagnostic performance of the clinical prediction rules...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Rune Micha Pedersen, Marc Trunjer Kusk Nielsen, Sören Möller, Steen Ethelberg, Marianne Nielsine Skov, Hans Jørn Kolmos, Flemming Scheutz, Hanne Marie Holt, Flemming Schønning Rosenvinge
OBJECTIVES: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes diarrhoeal disease, bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of STEC and the clinical features of STEC patients from a well-defined Danish population in which all fecal samples of patients with suspected infective gastroenteritis were analysed for STEC. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, all stool samples referred to two clinical microbiology laboratories, were screened for STEC by culture and/or PCR...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ioana D Olaru, Hemu Patel, Katharina Kranzer, Nelun Perera
OBJECTIVES: Until recently whole genome sequencing (WGS) for mycobacteria has been restricted mostly to the research setting. However, in 2017 Public Health England has implemented WGS for routine mycobacterial identification and susceptibility testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of this change on the laboratory turnaround times and availability of results. METHODS: Over the years 2016 and 2017, the period January 1(st) to April 30(th) was selected to represent before and after implementation of WGS...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Nienke L Plantinga, Marc Jm Bonten
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
David S Y Ong, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Olaf L Cremer, Guy E Thwaites, Marc J M Bonten
Short-term adjunctive treatment with aminoglycosides in critically ill patients is advocated in guidelines for the empirical treatment of sepsis, despite lack of evidence from randomized trials. A large observational study recently reported more nephrotoxicity and a trend to worse patient outcome in critically ill patients receiving aminoglycosides added to beta-lactam antibiotics. Here, we discuss if a randomized controlled trial to obtain a more definite answer is justified and how it could be performed.
October 5, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Etienne Ruppé, Charles Burdet, Nathalie Grall, Victoire de Lastours, François-Xavier Lescure, Antoine Andremont, Laurence Armand-Lefèvre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Tania Amat, Antonio Gutiérrez-Pizarraya, Isabel Machuca, Irene Gracia-Ahufinger, Elena Pérez-Nadales, Álvaro Torre-Giménez, José Garnacho-Montero, José Miguel Cisneros, Julian Torre-Cisneros
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of survival and treatment with colistin and tigecycline in critically ill patients with carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii bacteraemia. METHODS: An observational cohort study was carried out. Targeted therapy consisted of monotherapy with colistin (9 millions UI/day) or combined therapy with colistin and tigecycline (100 g/day). The primary outcome was 30-day crude mortality. The association between combined targeted therapy and mortality was controlled for empirical therapy with colistin, propensity score of combined therapy and other potential confounding variables in a multivariate Cox regression analysis...
September 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Alyajahan Bhimji, Archana Bhaskaran, Lianne G Singer, Deepali Kumar, Atul Humar, Rhea Pavan, Jeffrey Lipton, John Kuruvilla, Andre Schuh, Karen Yee, Mark D Minden, Aaron Schimmer, Coleman Rotstein, Shaf Keshavjee, Tony Mazzulli, Shahid Husain
OBJECTIVE: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive means of sampling the airways that has shown significant promise in the diagnosis of many disorders. There have been no reports of its utility for the detection of galactomannan (GM), a component of the cell wall of Aspergillus. The suitability of EBC for the detection of GM for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) using the Platelia(®)Aspergillus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was investigated. METHODS: Prospective, cross-sectional study of lung transplant recipient and hematological malignancy patients at a university center...
September 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Remco Schrijver, Martijn Stijntjes, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Evelina Tacconelli, Nithya Babu Rajendran, Andreas Voss
OBJECTIVES: - Objective of this review was to describe surveillance programmes reporting antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and resistance genes in bacterial isolates from livestock and meat and to compare them with those relevant for human health. METHODS: - A review has been carried out to identify publications on AMR in European countries. PubMed has been reviewed and AMR monitoring programmes were identified from reports retrieved by internet searches and by contacting national authorities in EU/EEA MSs...
September 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Arshad Javaid, Irfan Ullah, Haleema Masud, Anila Basit, Waqas Ahmad, Zahid Ahmad Butt, Muhammad Qasim
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the characteristics, treatment outcomes and risk factors for poor treatment outcomes among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study including all patients with MDR-TB attended at the MDR-TB unit in Peshawar was conducted between January 2012 and April 2014. Patients were followed until an outcome of TB treatment was recorded as successful (cured or completed) or unsuccessful...
September 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Xiaomeng Nie, Yesheng Li, Zhangwei Yang, Hui Wang, Sanyong Jin, Yang Jiao, Mark L Metersky, Yi Huang
OBJECTIVES: Studies on treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in China are very scarce. This study was performed to investigate empirical antibiotic practices for patients hospitalized with CAP in China and the risk factors for treatment failure. METHODS: Data was collected from a national Chinese hospitalization database. Adult patients who were diagnosed as CAP between October 1st, 2014, and September 30th, 2015 were identified. We studied initial empiric antibiotic regimens, microbiologic sampling, treatment failure, in hospital mortality, and length of hospital stay (LOS)...
September 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Marina Oviaño, Belén Rodríguez-Sánchez, Marta Gómara, Luis Alcalá, Estrella Zvezdanova, Adrián Ruíz, David Velasco, María José Gude, Emilio Bouza, Germán Bou
OBJECTIVES: We propose using MALDI-TOF MS as a tool for identifying microorganisms directly from liquid cultures after enrichment of the clinical sample in the media, in order to obtain a rapid microbiological diagnosis and an adequate administration of the antibiotic therapy in a clinical setting. METHODS: To evaluate this approach, a series of quality control isolates, were grown in thioglycollate (TG) broth and brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and extracted under 4 different protocols before finally being identified by MALDI-TOF MS...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
W Jalalzaï, M Boutrot, J Guinard, A Guigon, L Bret, D-M Poisson, T Boulain, F Barbier
OBJECTIVES: The usefulness of screening for carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) with active surveillance cultures (ASC) remains equivocal in low-endemicity intensive care units (ICUs). Our primary objective was to appraise the impact of ceasing ASC on the incidence of ICU-acquired ESBL-E infections in an ICU with universal contact precautions (CP). Patient outcomes and carbapenem consumption were also investigated. METHODS: A single-ICU, retrospective, uncontrolled before-and-after study including all patients admitted for ≥3 days during two consecutive 1-year periods with and without ASC...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Niccolò Buetti, Elia Lo Priore, Andrew Atkinson, Andreas Kronenberg, Jonas Marschall
OBJECTIVES: We determined the frequency of subsequent bloodstream infection >2 days after removal of a catheter with positive tip cultures. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, observational study on intravascular catheter (IVC) tip cultures in Switzerland from 2008 to 2015 using data from the Swiss Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (ANRESIS). An IVC tip culture was included in the analysis if ≥1 microorganism could be cultivated from it. We excluded all data from patients with concurrent bacteremia with the same microorganism identified 7 days before to 2 days after IVC removal...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Anne Vankeerberghen, Stijn Jonckheere, Hendrik De Raeve, Rogier Caluwe, Hans De Beenhouwer
OBJECTIVES: A kidney transplant recipient suffering of recurrent pleuritis underwent an open lung biopsy showing multiple nodular infiltrates. The Grocott and PAS staining were positive. Fungal and Tropheryma whipplei PCR were, however, negative. Further identification was needed. METHODS: FFPE extraction was performed using the FFPE extraction kit (Qiagen). T. whipplei was searched for using a real time PCR targeting the non-coding repeat specific for T. whipplei...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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