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Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Le Zhang, Qiong Meng, Songhua Chen, Minwu Zhang, Bin Chen, Beibei Wu, Guangsen Yan, Xiaomeng Wang, Zhongwei Jia
OBJECTIVES: To examine treatment outcomes and factors associated with poor outcome of MDR-TB in China. METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study including consecutive patients with MDR-TB between 2009-2013 in six regions of Zhejiang province. Patients were prescribed treatments by infectious disease specialists and treatment outcomes were recorded. Sociodemographic characteristics were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The primary endpoint was poor treatment outcomes, defined as treatment failure based on microbiological persistence, default (lost to follow-up) or death at 24 months...
July 13, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Janneke A Cox, Erika Vlieghe, Marc Mendelson, Heiman Wertheim, Linus Ndegwa, Maria Virginia Villegas, Ian Gould, Gabriel Levy Hara
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a quickly worsening problem worldwide, also in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Appropriate antibiotic use in humans and animals, i.e. antibiotic stewardship (ABS), is one of the corner stones of the World Health Organization's global action plan for ABR. Many LMICs are in the process of developing stewardship policies and programs. AIMS: We highlight the challenges for ABS initiatives in LMICs, give an outline of the (inter)national recommendations and demonstrate examples of effective, contextualised stewardship interventions...
July 13, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
S Santibanez, J M Hübschen, M C Ben Mamou, M Muscat, K E Brown, R Myers, O Donoso Mantke, H Zeichhardt, D Brockmann, S Shulga, C P Muller, P M O'Connor, M N Mulders, A Mankertz
BACKGROUND: TheWHO European Region (EUR) has adopted the goal of eliminating measles and rubella but individual countries perform differently in achieving this goal. Measles virus spread across the EUR by mobile groups has recently led to large outbreaks in the insufficiently vaccinated resident population. As an instrument for monitoring the elimination process and verifying the interruption of endemic virus transmission, molecular surveillance has to provide valid and representative data...
July 13, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Angel Ros Die, J M Nogueira Coito
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Didier Musso, Vaea Richard, Anita Teissier, Mars Stone, Marion C Lanteri, Geraldo Latoni, Jose Alsina, Rita Reik, Michael P Busch
OBJECTIVES: Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission through semen donation has never been reported but the risk is supported by the detection of ZIKV in semen and the demonstration of ZIKV sexual transmission. The potential impact of ZIKV on assisted reproductive procedures should be evaluated. METHODS: We tested longitudinally collected semen samples provided by asymptomatic blood donors who tested positive for ZIKV RNA in plasma during ZIKV outbreaks in Puerto Rico and Florida in 2016...
July 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Frederik S Frenzen, Ulrike Kutschan, Nils Meiswinkel, Bernhard Schulte-Hubbert, Santiago Ewig, Martin Kolditz
OBJECTIVES: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with a high risk of respiratory failure or septic organ dysfunction. Lactate is an established early marker of prognosis and sepsis severity, but few data exist in patients with CAP. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of consecutive adult CAP patients without treatment restrictions or direct ICU admission. Lactate was measured as point of care test within the capillary admission blood gas analysis and its prognostic value was compared to the CRB/CURB-65 criteria by multivariate and ROC curve analysis...
July 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Panayotis Ioannidis, Dick van Soolingen, Igor Mokrousov, Dimitrios Papaventsis, Simona Karabela, Eythymia Konstantinidou, Ioanna Marinou, Stavroula Nikolaou, Sofia Kanavaki, Elpis Mantadakis, George Samonis, Richard Anthony, Evangelos Vogiatzakis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 8, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Paul Loubet, Charles Burdet, William Vindrios, Nathalie Grall, Michel Wolff, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Antoine Andremont, Xavier Duval, François-Xavier Lescure
BACKGROUND: Anti-staphylococcal penicillins (ASPs) are recommended as first-line agents in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. Concerns about the safety profile have contributed to the increased use of cefazolin. The comparative clinical effectiveness and safety profile of cefazolin versus ASPs for such infections remain unclear. Furthermore, uncertainty persists concerning the use of cefazolin due to controversies over its efficacy in deep MSSA infections and its possible negative ecological impact...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Sarah Jolivet, Francois-Xavier Lescure, Laurence Armand-Lefevre, Richard Raffoul, Marie-Pierre Dilly, Walid Ghodbane, Patrick Nataf, Jean-Christophe Lucet
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine the incidence, microbiology and risk factors for sternal wound infection (SWI) with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) following cardiac surgery. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis between January 2006 and December 2015 of prospective surveillance of a cohort of patients with cardiac surgery at a single centre (Paris, France). SWI was defined as the need for reoperation due to sternal infection...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ji Yun Bae, Chung-Jong Kim, Uh-Jin Kim, Kyoung-Ho Song, Eu Suk Kim, Seung Ji Kang, Myoung-Don Oh, Kyung-Hwa Park, Nam Joong Kim
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate the concordance of results of blood and tissue cultures in patients with pyogenic spondylitis. METHODS: We searched the patients with pyogenic spondylitis in whom micro-organisms were isolated from both blood and tissue cultures by retrospective review of medical records in 3 tertiary university-affiliated hospitals between January 2005 and December 2015. The species and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolates from blood and tissue cultures were compared to each other...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Shinwon Lee, Kyoung-Ho Song, Sook-In Jung, Wan Beom Park, Sun Hee Lee, Yeon-Sook Kim, Yee Gyung Kwak, Young Keun Kim, Sung Min Kiem, Hye-In Kim, Eu Suk Kim, Kyung-Hwa Park, Nam Joong Kim, Hee-Chang Jang, Hong Bin Kim
OBJECTIVES: No randomized controlled trials have evaluated the comparative outcomes of cefazolin versus nafcillin for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study including all S. aureus bacteremia was conducted at 10 hospitals. Patients (≥15 years) with MSSA bacteremia who received cefazolin or nafcillin as definitive antibiotics were included. The rates of treatment failure (premature discontinuation of antibiotics due to adverse effects, switching of antibiotics due to clinical failure, all-cause mortality within one month, or recurrence) were compared between the cefazolin and nafcillin groups...
July 7, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Un-In Wu, Yu-Chung Chuang, Wang-Huei Sheng, Hsin-Yun Sun, Yi-Ting Jhong, Jann-Yuan Wang, Shan-Chwen Chang, Jann-Tay Wang, Yee-Chun Chen
OBJECTIVE: Anti-interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) autoantibodies (anti-IFN-γ Abs) have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial (DNTM) infection, and identification of this immunodeficiency impacts clinical management. However, the protean disease manifestations and inaccessibility to diagnostic tests in clinical settings hamper its early diagnosis. Here, we sought to determine whether QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube (QFT-GIT), a commercialized IFN-γ release assay, could be used to screen for neutralizing anti-IFN-γ Abs among previously healthy adults with DNTM infection...
July 7, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ceren Bilgilier, Alexander Stadlmann, Athanasios Makristathis, Jakob Thannesberger, Marie-Theres Kastner, Peter Knoflach, Pius Steiner, Maximilian Schöniger-Hekele, Christoph Högenauer, Andreas Blesl, Christian Datz, Ursula Huber-Schönauer, Rainer Schöfl, Friedrich Wewalka, Andreas Püspök, Nina Mitrovits, Judith Leiner, Herbert Tilg, Maria Effenberger, Manfred Moser, Franz Siebert, Isolde Hinterberger, Herbert Wurzer, Thaddäus Stupnicki, Norbert Watzinger, Gottfried Gombotz, Rainer Hubmann, Siegfried Klimpel, Susanne Biowski-Frotz, Christiane Schrutka-Kölbl, Ivo Graziadei, Othmar Ludwiczek, Michael Kundi, Alexander M Hirschl, Christoph Steininger
OBJECTIVES: We report on a large prospective, multicenter clinical investigation on inter- and intra-patient genetic variability for antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori. METHODS: Therapy-naïve patients (n=2004) with routine diagnostic gastroscopy were included prospectively from all geographic regions of Austria. Gastric biopsy samples were collected separately from antrum and corpus. Samples were analyzed by histopathology and real-time PCR for genotypic resistance to clarithromycin and quinolones...
June 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
H Noël, M Ruello, A Maccary, C Pellat, C Sommen, J Boissier, H Barré-Cardi, J Fillaux, J-L Termignon, M Debruyne, G Chyderiotis, J Durand, L Ramalli, J-D Chiappini, P Malfait, A Berry
OBJECTIVES: Clustered cases of urogenital schistosomiasis were reported in April 2014 among French and German tourists linked to exposure in the Cavu River, Southern Corsica, between 2011 and 2013. We set up a national surveillance of autochthonous urogenital schistosomiasis documenting the largest possible number of cases to identify potential sites of transmission and to determine the extent of the outbreakin France and Corsica. METHODS: The early response consisted mostly in prohibiting swimming in the river, a nationwide serological screening of all persons exposed to the river between 2011 and 2013, and treating confirmed cases...
June 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
James I Campbell, Nguyen Phu Huong Lan, Phan Minh Phuong, Le Buu Chau, Trung Pham Duc, Caterina Guzmán-Verri, Nazareth Ruiz-Villalobos, Tam Pham Thi Minh, Pilar M Muñoz Álvaro, Edgardo Moreno, Guy E Thwaites, Maia A Rabaa, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Stephen Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Philippe Colson, Didier Raoult
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Sofie Marie Edslev, Henrik Torkil Westh, Paal Skytt Andersen, Robert Skov, Nobumichi Kobayashi, Mette Damkjær Bartels, Francois Vandenesh, Andreas Petersen, Peder Worning, Anders Rhod Larsen, Marc Stegger
OBJECTIVES: Community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) isolates belonging to clonal complex 80 (CC80) are recognized as the European CA-MRSA. The prevailing European CA-MRSA clone carries a type IVc staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and expresses Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Recently, a significant increase of PVL-negative CC80 MRSA has been observed in Denmark. The aim of this study was to examine the genetics and the epidemiology of these, and to compare them to the European CA-MRSA clone in order to understand the emergence of PVL-negative CC80 MRSA...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
L Sarmati, M Andreoni, G Antonelli, W Arcese, R Bruno, N Coppola, G B Gaeta, M Galli, C Girmenia, M Mikulska, F Pane, C F Perno, M Picardi, M Puoti, A Rambaldi, V Svicher, G Taliani, G Gentile
SCOPE: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection reactivation is associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancy and/or haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) however information on this issue is limited. The scope of this position paper is to provide recommendations on HBV screening, monitoring, prophylaxis, treatment and vaccination in the patients described above. METHODS: - These recommendations were developed from one meeting of experts attended by different Italian scientific societies as well as from a systematic literature review (through December 31, 2016) on HBV infection in haematological patients and in patients who underwent HSCT published in the same issue of this journal...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
G Gentile, M Andreoni, G Antonelli, L Sarmati
BACKGROUND: The growth of new therapeutic options and practices increases the risk of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients with haematological malignancies and/or patients undergoing haematological stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVES: To provide a systematic review supporting recommendations for prevention, monitoring, prophylaxis and therapy of HBV reactivation in patients with haematological malignancies and HSCT. DATA SOURCES: The systematic review was based on a search strategy using PubMed and the Cochrane Library from 1991 to December 31(,) 2016...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Iker Falces-Romero, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Julio García-Rodriguez
We report the first case in Europe of the isolation of Conidiobolus sp. in a respiratory sample of a Spanish patient who never travelled to tropical areas.
June 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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