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Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Margreke J E Brill, Anders N Kristoffersson, Chenyan Zhao, Elisabet I Nielsen, Lena E Friberg
BACKGROUND: Deriving suitable dosing regimens for antibiotic combination therapy poses several challenges as the drug interaction can be highly complex, the traditional pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index methodology cannot be applied straightforwardly, and exploring all possible dose combinations is unfeasible. Therefore, semi-mechanistic PKPD models developed based on in vitro single and combination experiments can be valuable to suggest suitable combination dosing regimens...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Lena de Thurah, Jesper Bonde, Janni Uyen Hoa Lam, Matejka Rebolj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Erika Matuschek, Jenny Åhman, Catherine Webster, Gunnar Kahlmeter
OBJECTIVE: Both EUCAST and CLSI recommend broth microdilution (BMD) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of colistin, but BMD is rarely used in routine microbiology laboratories. The objective of this study was to evaluate five commercially available BMD products and two brands of gradient tests for colistin MIC determination using BMD according to ISO standard 20776-1 as reference. METHODS: Colistin MIC determination was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions on five commercially available BMD products (Sensititre, MICRONAUT-S, MICRONAUT MIC-Strip, SensiTest and UMIC) and two gradient tests (Etest and MIC Test Strip)...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
G Drozdinsky, H Ben-Zvi, S Kushnir, L Leibovici, D Yahav
OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between increased colistin use and selection for inherently colistin resistant Enterobacteriaceae (ICRE). We aimed to evaluate whether colistin exposure is a risk factor for ICRE infection. METHODS: A matched 1:1 case-control study including patients recently hospitalized for >=14 days with ICRE infection as cases matched with similar patients with a clinical isolate of a colistin susceptible Enterobacteriaceae as controls was performed...
December 4, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ngu Njei Abanda, Josiane Yvonne Djieugoué, Vedbar S Khadka, Eric Walter Pefura-Yone, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Guy Vernet, Veronique Mbeng Penlap, Youping Deng, Sara Irene Eyangoh, Diane Wallace Taylor, Rose Gana Fomban Leke
OBJECTIVE: Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates that fail to hybridize to at least one rpoB wildtype or any mutation probe on the Genotype MTBDRplus strip are assumed Rifampicin-resistant. However, the precise mutation(s) are unknown. We sought to identify the mutations in isolates with such hybridization patterns and determine if the mutations are associated with resistance to Rifampicin. METHODS: In this study, 275 M. tuberculosis isolates were screened with the Genotype MTBDRplus assay to identify isolates with the hybridization pattern...
December 4, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
C H Chilton, D S Pickering, J Freeman
BACKGROUND: Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) places a huge economic and practical burden on healthcare facilities. Furthermore, rCDI may impact quality of life, leaving patients in a 'rCDI cycle', and dependant on antibiotic therapy. AIMS: This article discusses the importance of microbiological factors in the development of rCDI. SOURCES: Literature was drawn from a search of PubMed from 2000 onwards with the search term "recurrent Clostridium difficile infection"; and further references quoted within these articles...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Moshe Yeshurun, Iuliana Vaxman, Liat Shargian, Dafna Yahav, Jihad Bashara, Oren Pasvolski, Ofir Wolach, Meir Lahav, Ronit Gurion, Hila Magen, Liat Vidal, Corina Herscovici, Anat Peck, Maya Moshe, Michal Sela Navon, Elizabeth Naparstek, Pia Raanani, Uri Rozovski
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study whether ciprofloxacin prophylaxis reduces infectious complications in patients undergoing autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT). METHODS: This is a quasi-experimental, retrospective, before-after study. We compared the incidence of bacterial related complications among 356 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) (n=202) and lymphoma (n=154) who underwent AHCT with (n=177) or without (n=179) ciprofloxacin prophylaxis between 03/2007-10/2012 and between 10/2012-07/2016, respectively at a single centre...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Huai-Shiuan Huang, Chi-Lin Tsai, Jeffrey Chang, Tzu-Chun Hsu, Samuel Lin, Chien-Chang Lee
OBJECTIVES: We aim to provide a summary of evidence for the diagnostic accuracies of three multiplex PCR systems (mPCRs): BioFire Filmarray RP (Filmarray), Nanosphere Verigene RV+ test (Verigene) and Hologic Gen-Probe Prodesse assays on the detection of viral respiratory infections. METHODS: A comprehensive search up to July 1st, 2017 was conducted on Medline and Embase for studies that utilized Filmarray, Verigene and Prodesse for diagnosis of viral respiratory infections...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Jose-Ramon Blanco, Belen Alejos, Santiago Moreno
OBJECTIVE: CD4/CD8 ratio and CD4+ T-cell percentage (CD4%) predicts the risk of AIDS and non-AIDS events. Multiple T-cell marker recovery (MTMR) has been proposed as the most complete level of immune reconstitution. In this study we quantified differences in the CD4/CD8 ratio, CD4% recovery and MTMR after starting HIV-1 treatment with DTG/ABC/3TC vs. EFV/TDF/FTC. METHODS: Exploratory post-hoc analysis of the SINGLE study, a randomized double-blind, clinical trial...
November 25, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Juliana Failde Gallo, Juliana Maira Watanabe Pinhata, Vera Simonsen, Vera Maria Neder Galesi, Lucilaine Ferrazoli, Rosângela Siqueira de Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the prevalence, associated factors, treatment outcomes and transmission of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in the period of 2011 to 2013. METHODS: Drug susceptibility testing to 1st and 2nd line drugs was performed by BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 and molecular typing, by RFLP-IS6110. Clinical, epidemiological and demographic data were obtained from surveillance information systems for TB...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Nobuyuki Horita, Yuji Shibata, Hiroki Watanabe, Ho Namkoong, Takeshi Kaneko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
L Leibovici, J-F Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 22, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Fernando Alcaide, J Amlerová, Germán Bou, Pieter-Jan Ceyssens, Pere Coll, Dan Corcoran, Marie-Sarah Fangous, Iván González-Álvarez, Rebecca Gorton, Gilbert Greub, Geneviève Hery-Arnaud, Jaroslav Hrábak, André Ingebretsen, Brigid Lucey, Ivana Marekoviċ, Concepción Mediavilla-Gradolph, James O'Connor, Jim O'Mahony, Onya Opota, Brendan O'Reilly, Dorothea Orth-Höller, Marina Oviaño, Juan José Palacios, Begoña Palop, Arthur Pranada, Lidia Quiroga, David Rodríguez-Temporal, María Jesús Ruiz-Serrano, Griselda Tudó, An van den Bossche, Jakko van Ingen, Belén Rodriguez-Sanchez
BACKGROUND: The implementation of MALDI-TOF MS for microorganism identification has changed the routine of the microbiology laboratories as we knew it. Most microorganisms can now be reliably identified within minutes using this inexpensive, user-friendly methodology. However, its application on the identification of mycobacteria isolates has been hampered by the structure of their cell wall. Improvements in the sample processing method and in the available database have proved key factors for the rapid and reliable identification of non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolates using MALDI-TOF MS AIMS: The main objective is to provide information about the proceedings for the identification of non-tuberculous isolates using MALDI-TOF MS and to review different sample processing methods, available databases and the interpretation of the results...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Stephanie E Giancola, Riley J Williams, Chris A Gentry
OBJECTIVES: The increased incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are thought to be partly due to the emergence of the hypervirulent BI/NAP1/027 strain. Limited recent data are available on the prevalence of BI/NAP1/027 in the United States (US). The objective of this study was to assess the recent prevalence of BI/NAP1/027 within the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA). METHODS: Patients with CDI at any Veterans Affairs Medical Center found to routinely test for the presence of BI/NAP1/027 during the study period were included between June 1, 2011 and June 30, 2016 in this retrospective, observational, nationwide study...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Eskild Petersen, Nicola Petrosillo, Marion Koopmans
OBJECTIVES: This paper review trends in emerging infections and the need for increased clinical and laboratory surveillance. METHODS: Factors that contributed to the emergence of recent outbreaks have been reviewed. Known, major outbreaks over the past two decades were reviewed. RESULTS: We identified at least four major drivers of emergent infections: i. increasing density of the human population; ii. stress from farmland expansion on the environment; iii...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Dong-Sheng Liu, You-Hua Wang, Zhi-Rong Zeng, Zhen-Yu Zhang, Hong Lu, Jian-Ming Xu, Yi-Qi Du, Yan Li, Jiang-Bin Wang, San-Ping Xu, Ye Chen, Chun-Hui Lan, Hong Cheng, Ming-de Jiang, Ling-Xia Zhang, Li-Juan Huo, Shi-Yao Chen, Guo-Xin Zhang, Kai-Chun Wu, Xuan Zhu, You-Xiang Chen, Yin Zhu, Xu Shu, Yong Xie, Nong-Hua Lu
OBJECTIVES: To explore the characteristics of H. pylori resistance in China and the association between antibiotic resistance and several clinical factors. METHODS: H. pylori strains were collected from patients in 13 provinces/cities in China between 2010 and 2016. Demographic data including type of disease, geographic area, age, gender and isolation year were collected to analyse their association with antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance was detected using the Epsilometer test and the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Chaturaka Rodrigo, Praveen Weeratunga, Sumadhya Deepika Fernando, Senaka Rajapakse
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence for use of different formulations of amphotericin B, minimum effective dose for each formulation and its comparative efficacy against other drugs in achieving definitive cure of visceral leishmaniasis. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis included following data sources; PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science and CINAHL. Controlled prospective clinical trials (randomized or non-randomized, including dose ranging studies) conducted between 1996 and 2017, with at least one treatment group receiving amphotericin B were included (published data only)...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Miranda So, Muhammad Mamdani, Andrew Morris, Tim Lau, Raewyn Broady, Uday Deotare, Jennifer Grant, Dennis Dong Hwan Kim, Aaron D Schimmer, Andre Schuh, Salomeh Shajari, Marilyn Steinberg, Chaim M Bell, Shahid Husain
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of an antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASPs) on utilisation and cost of antimicrobials in leukaemia patients in Canada. METHODS: We conducted a multisite, retrospective, observational time-series study from 2005 to 2013. We implemented academic detailing as the intervention of an ASP in leukaemia units at a hospital, piloted February-July 2010, then fully implemented December 2010-March 2013, with no intervention in August-November 2010...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Céline Pulcini, Angela Huttner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Silvia Soldini, Brunella Posteraro, Antonietta Vella, Elena De Carolis, Elisa Borghi, Monica Falleni, Angela Raffaella Losito, Giuseppe Maiuro, Enrico Maria Trecarichi, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Mario Tumbarello
OBJECTIVES: Biofilm formation (BF) by fungal isolates may dramatically complicate infection. We determined the ability of C. parapsilosis isolates from single fungaemia episodes to form biofilms and we analysed biofilm subgroups for antifungal susceptibility and pathogenic potential. We then correlated BF with clinical characteristics and outcomes of the episodes. METHODS: BF was measured using the crystal-violet biomass assay, antifungal susceptibility of preformed biofilms was assessed, and virulence was studied using the Galleria mellonella model...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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