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Clinical Microbiology and Infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529027/management-of-postneurosurgical-meningitis-narrative-review
#1
REVIEW
Khetam Hussein, Roni Bitterman, Ben Shofty, Mical Paul, Ami Neuberger
BACKGROUND: Infections complicating neurosurgery pose unacceptable mortality and morbidity. AIMS: To summarize what is known about the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of post-neurosurgical meningitis (PNM). SOURCES: PubMed, references of identified studies and reviews, and personal experience when evidence was lacking. CONTENT: The incidence and pathogen distribution of PNM is highly variable. A shift towards Gram-negative bacteria has been observed with use of antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic-coated devices directed mainly against Gram-positive bacteria...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529026/the-use-of-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-maldi-tof-ms-for-rapid-bacterial-identification-in-patients-with-smear-positive-bacterial-meningitis
#2
Boaz Bishop, Yuval Geffen, Adi Plaut, Ola Kassis, Roni Bitterman, Mical Paul, Ami Neuberger
OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in rapid identification of bacteria from smear-positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a cohort of patients with meningitis. METHODS: Single-center observational study, including adults and children with community-acquired or postneurosurgical bacterial meningitis. Meningitis was defined using established criteria. CSF samples that had a positive CSF Gram stain were directly examined by MALDI-TOF-MS...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529025/how-to-establish-and-run-a-stool-bank
#3
REVIEW
Elisabeth M Terveer, Yvette H van Beurden, Abraham Goorhuis, Jos F M L Seegers, Martijn P Bauer, E van Nood, Marcel G W Dijkgraaf, Chris J J Mulder, Christina M J E Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Hein W Verspaget, Josbert J Keller, Ed J Kuijper
Since 2013, several stool banks have been developed following publications reporting on clinical success of "Fecal Microbiota Transplantation" (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). However, protocols for donor screening, fecal suspension preparation and transfer of the fecal suspension differ between various countries and institutions. Moreover, no European consensus exists regarding the legislative aspects of the fecal suspension product. Internationally standardized recommendations about the above mentioned aspects have not yet been established...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528192/coloring-outside-the-guidelines
#4
EDITORIAL
Michael Klompas, Andre C Kalil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506786/diagnostic-test-accuracy-of-antigenemia-assay-for-polymerase-chain-reaction-proven-cytomegalovirus-infection-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Hisashi Eguchi, Nobuyuki Horita, Ryota Ushio, Ikuma Kato, Yuki Nakajima, Erika Ota, Takeshi Kaneko
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess diagnostic test accuracy of antigenemia assay for PCR proven cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. METHODS: We systematically searched studies that provide data both on sensitivity and specificity of the CMV antigenemia assay using the PCR as the reference standard. Adults, children, infants, subjects who were immunocompromised for any reason, symptomatic patients, and asymptomatic individuals were all included. Hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristics model was used for diagnostic meta-analysis...
May 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506785/what-can-we-learn-from-our-peer-reviewers
#6
EDITORIAL
L Leibovici
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506784/healthcare-personnelintestinal-colonization-with-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#7
Brooke K Decker, Anna F Lau, John P Dekker, Christine D Spalding, Ninet Sinaii, Sean Conlan, David K Henderson, Julia A Segre, Karen M Frank, Tara N Palmore
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the association between patient contact and intestinal carriageof multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) by sampling healthcare personnel (HCP) and staff without patient contact. METHODS: For this observational study, we recruited400HCPwho worked in our 200-bed research hospitaland 400 subjectswithout patient contact between November 2013 and February 2015.Participants submitted two self-collected perirectal swabsand a questionnaire...
May 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506783/the-professional-status-of-infectious-disease-physicians-in-china-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-survey
#8
Chenlu Zhang, Sujuan Li, Jinru Ji, Ping Shen, Chaoqun Ying, Lanjuan Li, Yonghong Xiao
OBJECTIVES: The evolution of infectious diseases (IDs) poses a challenge to many ID physicians, who must either adapt or transition to another career track. This national cross-sectional study assessed the current working conditions and problems faced by ID professionals in China. METHODS: A national questionnaire survey of ID physicians and their facilities throughout China was performed in May- June 2016 using stratified random sampling. RESULTS: A total of 156/300 (52...
May 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506782/the-misleading-effect-of-serum-galactomannan-testing-in-high-risk-hematology-patients-receiving-prophylaxis-with-micafungin
#9
A Vena, E Bouza, A Álvarez-Uría, J Gayoso, P Martin-Rabadan, F Cajuste, J Guinea, J Gómez Castellá, R Alonso, P Munoz
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the performance of the routine serum galactomannan (sGM) assay in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in high-risk hematology patients receiving prophylaxis with micafungin. METHODS: Retrospective study including all hematological patients who received prophylaxis with micafungin during high-risk IA episodes (neutropenic patients after chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome; allogeneic HSCT during early neutropenic phase or graft-versus-host disease requiring high prednisone doses)...
May 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506781/implementation-of-quality-management-for-clinical-bacteriology-in-low-resource-settings
#10
REVIEW
Barbara Barbé, Cedric P Yansouni, Dissou Affolabi, Jan Jacobs
BACKGROUND: The declining trend of malaria and the recent prioritization of containment of antimicrobial resistance have created a momentum to implement clinical bacteriology in low-resource settings (LRS). Successful implementation relies on guidance by a quality management system (QMS). Over the past decade, international initiatives were launched towards implementation of QMS in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. AIMS: To describe the progress towards accreditation of medical laboratories and to identify the challenges and "Best practices" for implementation of QMS in clinical bacteriology in LRS...
May 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502839/predictors-of-failure-after-single-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-patients-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-results-from-a-three-year-cohort-study-authors-reply
#11
LETTER
Gianluca Ianiro, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Cammarota
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522030/ensuring-universal-access-to-old-antibiotics-a-critical-but-neglected-priority
#12
C Pulcini, B Beovic, G Béraud, J Carlet, O Cars, P Howard, G Levy-Hara, G Li, D Nathwani, F Roblot, M Sharland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501669/an-update-on-bacterial-brain-abscess-in-immunocompetent-patients
#13
REVIEW
R Sonneville, R Ruimy, N Benzonana, L Riffaud, A Carsin, J-M Tadié, C Piau, M Revest, P Tattevin
BACKGROUND: Brain abscess is a focal infection of the brain, that begins as a localized area of cerebritis. In immunocompetent patients, bacteria are responsible for >95% of brain abscess, and enter the brain either through contiguous spread following otitis, sinusitis, neurosurgery, or cranial trauma, or through hematogenous dissemination. AIMS: To identify recent advents in the field. Sources We searched Medline and Embase for articles published during years 2012-2016, with the keywords 'brain', and 'abscess'...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501668/response-adjusted-for-days-of-antibiotic-risk-radar-evaluation-of-a-novel-method-to-compare-strategies-to-optimise-antibiotic-use
#14
Valentijn A Schweitzer, Maarten van Smeden, Douwe F Postma, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert, Marc J M Bonten, Cornelis H van Werkhoven
OBJECTIVES: The Response Adjusted for Days of Antibiotic Risk (RADAR)-statistic was proposed to improve efficiency of trials comparing antibiotic stewardship strategies to optimize antibiotic use. We studied the behaviour of RADAR in a non-inferiority trial in which a beta-lactam monotherapy strategy (BL, n=656) was non-inferior to fluoroquinolone monotherapy (FQL, n=888) for moderately-severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. METHODS: Patients were ranked according to clinical outcome, using five or eight categories, and antibiotic use...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501667/update-and-new-insights-in-encephalitis
#15
REVIEW
Alexandra Mailles, Jean-Paul Stahl, Karen C Bloch
BACKGROUND: Encephalitis is a medical condition possibly caused by an unlimited number of infectious agents. AIMS: Our review aims at giving an overview of the recent discoveries and advances in encephalitis presentation, diagnosis and management, including in the field of emerging diseases. SOURCES: We search the literature using Pubmed and Embase to identify the most relevant new data published over the last years in the field of infectious encephalitis...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487169/emergence-of-carbapenemase-producing-acinetobacter-ursingii-in-the-netherlands
#16
LETTER
Elske Sieswerda, Rogier Schade, Thijs Bosch, Janneke de Vries, Martine Chamuleau, Eric Haarman, Leo Schouls, Karin van Dijk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487168/clinical-predictors-and-clinical-prediction-rules-to-estimate-initial-patient-risk-for-infective-endocarditis-in-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Anthony D Bai, Arnav Agarwal, Marilyn Steinberg, Adrienne Showler, Lisa Burry, George A Tomlinson, Chaim M Bell, Andrew M Morris
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize diagnostic properties of risk factors and clinical prediction rules for diagnosing infective endocarditis (IE) in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Database from inception to January 6, 2016 to identify studies evaluating risk factors and clinical prediction rules for IE in SAB patients. Pooled estimates of diagnostic properties for main risk factors were calculated using a bivariate random effects model...
May 6, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487167/world-health-organization-save-lives-clean-your-hands-global-campaign-fight-antibiotic-resistance-it-s-in-your-hands
#18
Ermira Tartari, Mohamed Abbas, Daniela Pires, Marlieke Elizabeth Adriana de Kraker, Didier Pittet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487166/rapid-detection-of-group-b-streptococcus-directly-from-vaginal-rectal-specimens-using-liquid-swabs-and-the-bd-max-gbs-assay
#19
Justin A Ellem, Daniel Kovacevic, Tom Olma, Sharon C-A Chen
OBJECTIVE: We adapted the BD Max GBS assay, an automated platform for detection of Group B Streptococcus DNA in vaginal-rectal swab specimens after LIM broth enrichment, to directly detect GBS in specimens collected using cellular foam swabs in Amies liquid medium. We compared the BD Max GBS assay performance to that of enriched culture and the BD GeneOhm StrepB assay. METHODS: Seventy-two reference vaginal-rectal specimens were employed to determine the limit of GBS detection and the preferred test volume for direct detection of GBS...
May 6, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487165/west-nile-virus-outbreak-in-israel-in-2015-phylogenetic-and-geographic-characterization-in-humans-and-mosquitoes
#20
Yaniv Lustig, Zalman Kaufman, Batya Mannasse, Ravit Koren, Shiri Katz-Likvornik, Laor Orshan, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Ella Mendelson
OBJECTIVES: West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel and was responsible for several outbreaks in the past 16 years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the spatial distribution of WNV acute infections from an outbreak which occurred in 2015 in Israel and report the molecular and geographic characterization of WNV isolates from human cases and mosquito pools obtained during this outbreak. METHODS: Using a geographical layer comprising 51 continuous areas of Israel, the number of WNV infection cases per 100,000 people in each area and the locations of WNV-infected mosquitoes in 2015 were analyzed...
May 6, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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