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ILAR Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253273/nonhuman-primates-and-translational-research-progress-opportunities-and-challenges
#1
John D Harding
Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are the closest animal models to humans regarding genetics, physiology and behavior. Therefore, NHPs are usually a critical component in translational research projects aimed at developing therapeutics, vaccines, devices or other interventions aimed at preventing, curing or ameliorating human disease. NHPs are often used in conjunction with other animal models, such as rodents, and results obtained using NHPs must often be used as the final criterion for establishing the potential efficacy of a pharmaceutical or vaccine before transition to human clinical trails...
December 15, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253158/the-impact-of-global-environmental-changes-on-infectious-disease-emergence-with-a-focus-on-risks-for-brazil
#2
Alessandra Nava, Juliana Suieko Shimabukuro, Aleksei A Chmura, Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz
Environmental changes have a huge impact on the emergence and reemergence of certain infectious diseases, mostly in countries with high biodiversity and serious unresolved environmental, social, and economic issues. This article summarizes the most important findings with special attention to Brazil and diseases of present public health importance in the country such as Chikungunya, dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, leptospirosis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease. An extensive literature review revealed a relationship between infectious diseases outbreaks and climate change events (El Niño, La Niña, heatwaves, droughts, floods, increased temperature, higher rainfall, and others) or environmental changes (habitat fragmentation, deforestation, urbanization, bushmeat consumption, and others)...
December 15, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253148/changing-patterns-of-emerging-zoonotic-diseases-in-wildlife-domestic-animals-and-humans-linked-to-biodiversity-loss-and-globalization
#3
A Alonso Aguirre
The fundamental human threats to biodiversity including habitat destruction, globalization, and species loss have led to ecosystem disruptions altering infectious disease transmission patterns, the accumulation of toxic pollutants, and the invasion of alien species and pathogens. To top it all, the profound role of climate change on many ecological processes has affected the inability of many species to adapt to these relatively rapid changes. This special issue, "Zoonotic Disease Ecology: Effects on Humans, Domestic Animals and Wildlife," explores the complex interactions of emerging infectious diseases across taxa linked to many of these anthropogenic and environmental drivers...
December 15, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228218/nonhuman-primate-models-and-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-infection-and-aids
#4
Ronald S Veazey, Andrew A Lackner
Research using nonhuman primates (NHPs) as models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has resulted in tremendous achievements not only in the prevention and treatment of HIV, but also in biomedical research more broadly. Once considered a death sentence, HIV infection is now fairly well controlled with combination antiretroviral treatments, almost all of which were first tested for efficacy and safety in nonhuman primates or other laboratory animals...
December 8, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216343/nonhuman-primate-models-of-respiratory-disease-past-present-and-future
#5
Lisa A Miller, Christopher M Royer, Kent E Pinkerton, Edward S Schelegle
The respiratory system consists of an integrated network of organs and structures that primarily function for gas exchange. In mammals, oxygen and carbon dioxide are transmitted through a complex respiratory tract, consisting of the nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, and lung. Exposure to ambient air throughout the lifespan imposes vulnerability of the respiratory system to environmental challenges that can contribute toward development of disease. The importance of the respiratory system to human health is supported by statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; in 2015, chronic lower respiratory diseases were the third leading cause of death in the United States...
December 5, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216341/use-and-importance-of-nonhuman-primates-in-metabolic-disease-research-current-state-of-the-field
#6
Peter J Havel, Paul Kievit, Anthony G Comuzzie, Andrew A Bremer
Obesity and its multiple metabolic sequelae, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and fatty liver disease, are becoming increasingly widespread in both the developed and developing world. There is an urgent need to identify new approaches for the prevention and treatment of these costly and prevalent metabolic conditions. Accomplishing this will require the use of appropriate animal models for preclinical and translational investigations in metabolic disease research. Although studies in rodent models are often useful for target/pathway identification and testing hypotheses, there are important differences in metabolic physiology between rodents and primates, and experimental findings in rodent models have often failed to be successfully translated into new, clinically useful therapeutic modalities in humans...
December 5, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045731/the-chimpanzee-model-of-viral-hepatitis-advances-in-understanding-the-immune-response-and-treatment-of-viral-hepatitis
#7
Robert E Lanford, Christopher M Walker, Stanley M Lemon
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have contributed to diverse fields of biomedical research due to their close genetic relationship to humans and in many instances due to the lack of any other animal model. This review focuses on the contributions of the chimpanzee model to research on hepatitis viruses where chimpanzees represented the only animal model (hepatitis B and C) or the most appropriate animal model (hepatitis A). Research with chimpanzees led to the development of vaccines for HAV and HBV that are used worldwide to protect hundreds of millions from these diseases and, where fully implemented, have provided immunity for entire generations...
October 17, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036417/coprophagous-insects-and-the-ecology-of-infectious-diseases-of-wildlife
#8
Elizabeth Nichols, Viviana Alarcón, Shaun Forgie, Luis A Gomez-Puerta, Matthew S Jones
A diversity of macro- and microparasitic species exert strong influences on wildlife population density, community structure, and ecosystem functioning, all through their impacts on individual host fitness. Through consuming, manipulating, and relocating wildlife feces, over 7,000 species of coprophagous dung beetles interact with a staggering diversity of wildlife parasites with fecal-oral transmission in ways that both increase and decrease transmission. Here, we review the mechanisms by which dung beetles influence micro- and macroparasite transmission and outline a future research framework that integrates theory and empirical insights to advance our understanding of how these relationships may interact with ongoing environmental change drivers to further influence wildlife populations and community structure...
September 28, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985316/are-rna-viruses-candidate-agents-for-the-next-global-pandemic-a-review
#9
R Carrasco-Hernandez, Rodrigo Jácome, Yolanda López Vidal, Samuel Ponce de León
Pathogenic RNA viruses are potentially the most important group involved in zoonotic disease transmission, and they represent a challenge for global disease control. Their biological diversity and rapid adaptive rates have proved to be difficult to overcome and to anticipate by modern medical technology. Also, the anthropogenic change of natural ecosystems and the continuous population growth are driving increased rates of interspecies contacts and the interchange of pathogens that can develop into global pandemics...
September 4, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985319/rift-valley-fever-does-wildlife-play-a-role
#10
Melinda K Rostal, Janice E Liang, David Zimmermann, Roy Bengis, Janusz Paweska, William B Karesh
Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an emerging vector-borne pathogen that causes sporadic epizootics and epidemics with multi-year, apparently quiescent, inter-epidemic periods. The epidemiology and ecology of the virus during these inter-epidemic periods is poorly understood. There is evidence for low-level circulation of the virus in livestock and wild ruminants; however, as of yet there is no evidence to identify a specific mammalian reservoir host. Using a systematic approach, this review synthesizes results from serosurveys, attempts at viral detection, and experimental infection of wildlife...
August 31, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985395/nonhuman-primates-and-translational-research-cardiovascular-disease
#11
Laura A Cox, Michael Olivier, Kimberly Spradling-Reeves, Genesio M Karere, Anthony G Comuzzie, John L VandeBerg
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Human epidemiological studies provide challenges for understanding mechanisms that regulate initiation and progression of CVD due to variation in lifestyle, diet, and other environmental factors. Studies describing metabolic and physiologic aspects of CVD, and those investigating genetic and epigenetic mechanisms influencing CVD initiation and progression, have been conducted in multiple Old World nonhuman primate (NHP) species...
August 28, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985318/nonhuman-primates-a-vital-model-for-basic-and-applied-research-on-female-reproduction-prenatal-development-and-women-s-health
#12
Richard L Stouffer, Teresa K Woodruff
The comparative biology of reproduction and development in mammalian species is remarkable. Hence, because of similarities in environmental and neuroendocrine control of the reproductive axis, the cyclic function of the ovary and reproductive tract, establishment and control of the maternal-fetal-placental unit during pregnancy, and reproductive aging from puberty through menopause, nonhuman primates (NHPs) are valuable models for research related to women's reproductive health and its disorders. This chapter provides examples of research over the past 10+ years using Old World monkeys (notably macaque species), baboons, and to a lesser extent New World monkeys (especially marmosets) that contributed to our understanding of the etiology and therapies or prevention of: (1) ovarian disorders, e...
August 28, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985406/the-animal-welfare-act-and-the-conduct-and-publishing-of-wildlife-research-in-the-united-states
#13
Daniel M Mulcahy
In the US, the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and its enabling regulations (AWAR) cover all warm-blooded animals used for research, testing, experimentation, or exhibition. The only exceptions, made in the enabling regulations, are for two genera of rodents and for birds, bred specifically for research (meaning even those exceptions do not apply to wild birds and wild rodents of those genera) and for farm and agricultural animals. Research using animals covered by the AWA and AWAR must be reviewed and approved by an Animal Care and Use Committee (ACUC) properly constituted according to AWA and AWAR...
August 10, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985333/nonhuman-primate-models-of-neurodegenerative-disorders
#14
Marina E Emborg
Alzheimer's (AD), Huntington's (HD), and Parkinson's (PD) disease are age-related neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive neuronal cell death. Although each disease has particular pathologies and symptoms, accumulated evidence points to similar mechanisms of neurodegeneration, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and protein aggregation. A significant body of research is ongoing to understand how these pathways affect each other and what ultimately triggers the onset of the disease. Experiments in nonhuman primates (NHPs) account for only 5% of all research in animals...
August 10, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106561/toward-an-ecological-framework-for-assessing-reservoirs-of-vector-borne-pathogens-wildlife-reservoirs-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-across-the-southern-united-states
#15
Carolyn L Hodo, Sarah A Hamer
Wildlife species are critical for both feeding vectors and serving as reservoirs of zoonotic vector-borne pathogens. Transmission pathways leading to disease in humans or other target taxa might be better understood and managed given a complete understanding of the relative importance of different reservoir species in nature. Using the conceptual framework of "reservoir potential," which considers elements of both reservoir competence and vector-host contact, we review the wildlife reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi in the southern United States, where many species of triatomine vectors occur and wildlife maintain enzootic cycles that create a risk of spillover to humans, domestic dogs, and captive nonhuman primates that may develop Chagas disease...
July 6, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838071/informatics-support-for-basic-research-in-biomedicine
#16
Thomas C Rindflesch, Catherine L Blake, Marcelo Fiszman, Halil Kilicoglu, Graciela Rosemblat, Jodi Schneider, Caroline J Zeiss
Informatics methodologies exploit computer-assisted techniques to help biomedical researchers manage large amounts of information. In this paper, we focus on the biomedical research literature (MEDLINE). We first provide an overview of some text mining techniques that offer assistance in research by identifying biomedical entities (e.g., genes, substances, and diseases) and relations between them in text.We then discuss Semantic MEDLINE, an application that integrates PubMed document retrieval, concept and relation identification, and visualization, thus enabling a user to explore concepts and relations from within a set of retrieved citations...
July 1, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838070/the-role-of-the-iacuc-in-the-design-and-conduct-of-animal-experiments-that-contribute-to-translational-success
#17
J I Everitt, B R Berridge
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) have a mandated role under the Animal Welfare Act and under Public Health Service Policy to assure the ethical and humane use of research animals in experiments conducted in the United States. The IACUC by virtue of its mandated functions is well positioned to help nurture an institutional culture of optimized animal use since this Committee is often responsible in large part for the culture of animal use that evolves within an institution. In addition to fostering a culture of humane care for research animals and a culture of working with the concepts of the 3Rs (refinement, reduction, replacement), the IACUC can help foster a culture of optimized animal use that encourages high quality reproducible studies that contribute to translational success...
July 1, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838069/genomic-tools-for-the-use-of-nonhuman-primates-in-translational-research
#18
John D Harding
Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are important preclinical models for understanding the etiology of human diseases and for developing therapies and vaccines to cure or eliminate disease. Most human diseases have genetic components. Therefore, to be of maximal utility, the NHP species used for translational science should be as well characterized in regard to their genome and transcriptome as possible. This article reviews the current status of genomic information for the five NHP species used most often in translational research: rhesus macaque, cynomolgus macaque, vervet (African green) monkey, baboon, and marmoset NHP...
July 1, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838068/rat-genome-and-model-resources
#19
Mary Shimoyama, Jennifer R Smith, Elizabeth Bryda, Takashi Kuramoto, Laura Saba, Melinda Dwinell
Rats remain a major model for studying disease mechanisms and discovery, validation, and testing of new compounds to improve human health. The rat's value continues to grow as indicated by the more than 1.4 million publications (second to human) at PubMed documenting important discoveries using this model. Advanced sequencing technologies, genome modification techniques, and the development of embryonic stem cell protocols ensure the rat remains an important mammalian model for disease studies. The 2004 release of the reference genome has been followed by the production of complete genomes for more than two dozen individual strains utilizing NextGen sequencing technologies; their analyses have identified over 80 million variants...
July 1, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838067/zebrafish-models-of-human-disease-gaining-insight-into-human-disease-at-zfin
#20
Yvonne M Bradford, Sabrina Toro, Sridhar Ramachandran, Leyla Ruzicka, Douglas G Howe, Anne Eagle, Patrick Kalita, Ryan Martin, Sierra A Taylor Moxon, Kevin Schaper, Monte Westerfield
The Zebrafish Model Organism Database (ZFIN; https://zfin.org) is the central resource for genetic, genomic, and phenotypic data for zebrafish (Danio rerio) research. ZFIN continuously assesses trends in zebrafish research, adding new data types and providing data repositories and tools that members of the research community can use to navigate data. The many research advantages and flexibility of manipulation of zebrafish have made them an increasingly attractive animal to model and study human disease.To facilitate disease-related research, ZFIN developed support to provide human disease information as well as annotation of zebrafish models of human disease...
July 1, 2017: ILAR Journal
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