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ILAR Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531265/utility-of-nonhuman-primates-in-substance-use-disorders-research
#1
Matthew L Banks, Paul W Czoty, Sidney S Negus
Substance use disorders (i.e., drug addiction) constitute a global and insidious public health issue. Preclinical biomedical research has been invaluable in elucidating the environmental, biological, and pharmacological determinants of drug abuse and in the process of developing innovative pharmacological and behavioral treatment strategies. For more than 70 years, nonhuman primates have been utilized as research subjects in biomedical research related to drug addiction. There are already several excellent published reviews highlighting species differences in both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics between rodents and nonhuman primates in preclinical substance abuse research...
May 20, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472500/naturally-occurring-nonhuman-primate-models-of-psychosocial-processes
#2
John P Capitanio
Human research into psychological processes such as anxiety, depression, or loneliness typically involves accruing cases in which the phenomenon of interest is naturally occurring, and then comparing such a sample with control cases. In contrast, animal research designed to model similar processes to test mechanistic hypotheses typically involves inducing the phenomenon of interest via some exogenously (i.e., human) administered procedure. In the present review, the author proposes that naturally occurring animal models can complement induced models in understanding complex psychological phenomena...
May 2, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444204/murine-models-of-sepsis-and-trauma-can-we-bridge-the-gap
#3
Julie A Stortz, Steven L Raymond, Juan C Mira, Lyle L Moldawer, Alicia M Mohr, Philip A Efron
Sepsis and trauma are both leading causes of death in the United States and represent major public health challenges. Murine models have largely been used in sepsis and trauma research to better understand the pathophysiological changes that occur after an insult and to develop potential life-saving therapeutic agents. Mice are favorable subjects for this type of research given the variety of readily available strains including inbred, outbred, and transgenic strains. In addition, they are relatively easy to maintain and have a high fecundity...
April 21, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444192/from-reproducibility-to-translation-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#4
Caroline J Zeiss
Despite tremendous investment and preclinical success in neurodegenerative disease, effective disease-altering treatments for patients have remained elusive. One highly cited reason for this discrepancy is flawed animal study design and reporting. If this can be broadly remedied, reproducibility of preclinical studies will improve. However, without concurrent efforts to improve generalizability, these improvements may not translate effectively from animal experiments to more complex human neurodegenerative diseases...
April 21, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444189/environmental-enrichment-in-the-21st-century
#5
Kristine Coleman, Melinda A Novak
More than a quarter of a century has elapsed since the Animal Welfare Act mandated that research facilities develop and follow a plan to promote the psychological well-being of captive primates. Since passage of this law, considerable effort and resources have been directed to designing environmental enrichment strategies in an effort to improve animal welfare. These plans typically consist of environmental enrichment and socialization efforts. While environmental enhancement has undergone a great deal of improvement in the past 25 years, it should be viewed as a continual work in progress, which takes advantage of emergent and future technologies...
April 21, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369515/tick-borne-zoonoses-in-the-united-states-persistent-and-emerging-threats-to-human-health
#6
Rebecca J Eisen, Kiersten J Kugeler, Lars Eisen, Charles B Beard, Christopher D Paddock
In the United States, ticks transmit the greatest diversity of arthropod-borne pathogens and are responsible for the most cases of all vector-borne diseases. In recent decades, the number of reported cases of notifiable tick-borne diseases has steadily increased, geographic distributions of many ticks and tick-borne diseases have expanded, and new tick-borne disease agents have been recognized. In this review, we (1) describe the known disease agents associated with the most commonly human-biting ixodid ticks, (2) review the natural histories of these ticks and their associated pathogens, (3) highlight spatial and temporal changes in vector tick distributions and tick-borne disease occurrence in recent decades, and (4) identify knowledge gaps and barriers to more effective prevention of tick-borne diseases...
March 23, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053083/the-guide-for-the-care-and-use-of-laboratory-animals
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053082/in-the-next-issue
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053081/ilar-council
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053080/about-ilar
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053079/ilar-journal-recent-issues-2014-2015
#11
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053078/ilar-publications
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053077/animal-research-the-3rs-and-the-internet-of-things-opportunities-and-oversight-in-international-pharmaceutical-development
#13
Steven M Niemi, Gail F Davies
Stages of drug (and vaccine) discovery and evaluation that involve laboratory animals increasingly occur via scientific collaborations across national borders and continents. Many of these research collaborations are between asset-rich institutions and others in less wealthy parts of the world. The care and use of laboratory animals in geographically disparate locations introduces new complexities, such as different oversight requirements and available resources, as well as diverse organizational and cultural milieus...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053076/opportunities-to-apply-the-3rs-in-safety-assessment-programs
#14
Fiona Sewell, Joanna Edwards, Helen Prior, Sally Robinson
Before a potential new medicine can be administered to humans it is essential that its safety is adequately assessed. Safety assessment in animals forms an integral part of this process, from early drug discovery and initial candidate selection to the program of recommended regulatory tests in animals. The 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement of animals in research) are integrated in the current regulatory requirements and expectations and, in the EU, provide a legal and ethical framework for in vivo research to ensure the scientific objectives are met whilst minimizing animal use and maintaining high animal welfare standards...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053075/refinement-reduction-and-replacement-of-animal-toxicity-tests-by-computational-methods
#15
Kevin A Ford
Widespread public and scientific interest in promoting the care and well-being of animals used for toxicity testing has given rise to improvements in animal welfare practices and views over time, as well as laws and regulations that support means to reduce, refine, and replace animal use (known as the 3Rs) in certain toxicity studies. One way these regulations continue to achieve their aim is by promoting the research, development, and application of alternative testing approaches to characterize potential toxicities either without animals or with minimal use...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053074/promoting-adoption-of-the-3rs-through-regulatory-qualification
#16
Elizabeth Gribble Walker, Amanda F Baker, John-Michael Sauer
One mechanism to advance the application of novel safety assessment methodologies in drug development, including in silico or in vitro approaches that reduce the use of animals in toxicology studies, is regulatory qualification. Regulatory qualification, a formal process defined at the the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency, hinges on a central concept of stating an appropriate "context of use" for a novel drug development tool (DDT) that precisely defines how that DDT can be used to support decision making in a regulated drug development setting...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053073/in-vivo-imaging-in-pharmaceutical-development-and-its-impact-on-the-3rs
#17
Barry R Campbell, Dinko Gonzalez Trotter, Catherine D G Hines, Wenping Li, Manishkumar Patel, Weisheng Zhang, Jeffrey L Evelhoch
It is well understood that the biopharmaceutical industry must improve efficiency along the path from laboratory concept to commercial product. In vivo imaging is recognized as a useful method to provide biomarkers for target engagement, treatment response, safety, and mechanism of action. Imaging biomarkers have the potential to inform the selection of drugs that are more likely to be safe and effective. Most of the imaging modalities for biopharmaceutical research are translatable to the clinic. In vivo imaging does not require removal of tissue to provide biomarkers, thus reducing the number of valuable preclinical subjects required for a study...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053072/the-promise-of-new-technologies-to-reduce-refine-or-replace-animal-use-while-reducing-risks-of-drug-induced-liver-injury-in-pharmaceutical-development
#18
Frank D Sistare, William B Mattes, Edward L LeCluyse
Drug induced liver injury (DILI) has contributed more to marketed pharmaceutical withdrawals and clinical development failures than any other human organ toxicity. DILI seen in animal studies also frequently leads to the discontinuation of promising drug candidates very early in the pipeline. This manuscript reviews and critically assesses the current regulatory expectations; the current drug development approaches, strategies, and gaps; and the numerous exciting opportunities becoming available to address these gaps through technological advances...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053071/mouse-models-for-drug-discovery-can-new-tools-and-technology-improve-translational-power
#19
Aamir Zuberi, Cathleen Lutz
The use of mouse models in biomedical research and preclinical drug evaluation is on the rise. The advent of new molecular genome-altering technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9 allows for genetic mutations to be introduced into the germ line of a mouse faster and less expensively than previous methods. In addition, the rapid progress in the development and use of somatic transgenesis using viral vectors, as well as manipulations of gene expression with siRNAs and antisense oligonucleotides, allow for even greater exploration into genomics and systems biology...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053070/automated-microsampling-technologies-and-enhancements-in-the-3rs
#20
L David Hopper
Data collected in vivo is essential for advising decisions on drug screening and development and basic research, and animal models are used extensively for acquiring experimental measurements. Traditionally, collection of specimens has been invasive, stressful to animal subjects, labor intensive, time-consuming and costly, and required many animals when using small models with low fluid volumes, such as rats or mice. Utilizing automated microsampling (AMS) alone or in an integrative pharmacology approach to evaluate multiple physiological, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic endpoints simultaneously in the same animal accomplishes multiple experimental goals...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
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