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ILAR Journal

Stephanie D Lewis, Judy M Hickman-Davis, Valerie K Bergdall
The use of virus-induced carcinogenesis and oncologic experimental animal models is essential in understanding the mechanisms of cancer development to advance prevention, diagnosis, and treatment methods. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) is responsible for both the complex philosophical and practical considerations associated with animal models of cancer. Animal models of cancer carry their own unique issues that require special consideration from the IACUC. Many of the considerations to be discussed apply to cancer models in general; specific issues related to viral carcinogenesis or oncolytic viruses will be specifically discussed as they arise...
2016: ILAR Journal
Theresa Falls, Dominic Guy Roy, John Cameron Bell, Marie-Claude Bourgeois-Daigneault
The preclinical optimization and validation of novel treatments for cancer therapy requires the use of laboratory animals. Although in vitro experiments using tumor cell lines and ex vivo treatment of patient tumor samples provide a remarkable first-line tool for the initial study of tumoricidal potential, tumor-bearing animals remain the primary option to study delivery, efficacy, and safety of therapies in the context of a complete tumor microenvironment and functional immune system. In this review, we will describe the use of murine tumor models for oncolytic virotherapy using vesicular stomatitis virus...
2016: ILAR Journal
Maria-Carmela Speranza, Kazue Kasai, Sean E Lawler
After more than two decades of research and development, oncolytic herpes viruses (oHSVs) are moving into the spotlight due to recent encouraging clinical trial data. oHSV and other oncolytic viruses function through direct oncolytic cancer cell-killing mechanisms and by stimulating antitumor immunity. As further viruses are developed and optimized for the treatment of various types of cancer, appropriate predictive preclinical models will be of great utility. This review will discuss existing data in this area, focusing on the mouse tumor models that are commonly used...
2016: ILAR Journal
Elshafa Hassan Ahmed, Robert A Baiocchi
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a B-lymphotropic gamma herpes virus associated with a number of malignancies. Most EBV-related cancers present complex medical management challenges; thus it has been essential to develop preclinical in vivo models allowing for the study of pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of these diseases. Early in vivo models used nonhuman primates; however, such models were limited by the inability of EBV to achieve viral latency, availability, and cost. Immunodeficient mouse strains emerged as efficient models that allow for engraftment of human mononuclear cells and controlled evaluation of EBV-driven lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD)...
2016: ILAR Journal
Amanda L Hudson, Emily K Colvin
The SV40 viral oncogene has been used since the 1970s as a reliable and reproducible method to generate transgenic mouse models. This seminal discovery has taught us an immense amount about how tumorigenesis occurs, and its success has led to the evolution of many mouse models of cancer. Despite the development of more modern and targeted approaches for developing genetically engineered mouse models of cancer, SV40-induced mouse models still remain frequently used today. This review discusses a number of cancer types in which SV40 mouse models of cancer have been developed and highlights their relevance and importance to preclinical research...
2016: ILAR Journal
Robyn A Haines, Rebeccah A Urbiztondo, Rashade A H Haynes, Elaine Simpson, Stefan Niewiesk, Michael D Lairmore
Rabbits have served as a valuable animal model for the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including those related to agents that gain entry through the gastrointestinal tract such as human T cell leukemia virus type 1. However, limited information is available regarding the spatial distribution and phenotypic characterization of major rabbit leukocyte populations in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. Herein, we describe the spatial distribution and phenotypic characterization of leukocytes from gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) from 12-week-old New Zealand White rabbits...
2016: ILAR Journal
Sarah Kaye, Wenqi Wang, Craig Miller, Alicia McLuckie, Julia A Beatty, Chris K Grant, Sue VandeWoude, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally occurring lentivirus of domestic and nondomestic feline species. Infection in domestic cats leads to immune dysfunction via mechanisms similar to those caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and, as such, is a valuable natural animal model for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. An association between FIV and an increased incidence of neoplasia has long been recognized, with frequencies of up to 20% in FIV-positive cats recorded in some studies...
2016: ILAR Journal
Jaquelin P Dudley, Tatyana V Golovkina, Susan R Ross
Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), which was discovered as a milk-transmitted, infectious, cancer-inducing agent in the 1930s, has been used as an animal model for the study of retroviral infection and transmission, antiviral immune responses, and breast cancer and lymphoma biology. The main target cells for MMTV infection in vivo are cells of the immune system and mammary epithelial cells. Although the host mounts an immune response to the virus, MMTV has evolved multiple means of evading this response. MMTV causes mammary tumors when the provirus integrates into the mammary epithelial and lymphoid cell genome during viral replication and thereby activates cellular oncogene expression...
2016: ILAR Journal
Stefan Niewiesk
Infection with human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) in a minority of infected individuals after long periods of viral persistence. The various stages of HTLV-I infection and leukemia development are studied by using several different animal models: (1) the rabbit (and mouse) model of persistent HTLV-I infection, (2) transgenic mice to model tumorigenesis by HTLV-I specific protein expression, (3) ATL cell transfers into immune-deficient mice, and (4) infection of humanized mice with HTLV-I...
2016: ILAR Journal
Michael D Lairmore, Stefan Niewiesk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: ILAR Journal
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: ILAR Journal
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: ILAR Journal
Robert S Sikes, John A Bryan
Ethical and effective oversight of the use of wildlife species in research and education requires consideration of issues and methods not relevant to work with traditional laboratory or domesticated animals, just as the effective oversight of biomedical research requires consideration of issues and methods not germane to wildlife research. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees or other institutional review committees can meet their responsibilities in these disparate types of animal activities only by using resources tailored to the animals and situations encountered...
2016: ILAR Journal
Ellen Paul, Robert S Sikes, Steven J Beaupre, John C Wingfield
The use of vertebrate animals in research and education in the United States is subject to a number of regulations, policies, and guidelines under the immediate oversight of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs), which are charged with ensuring the ethical and appropriate use of the animal subjects. In almost all instances, this regulatory and oversight landscape of animal use has been developed around domesticated animals in biomedical research environments. When the research activities involve wild species, especially in their natural habitat rather than a laboratory, oversight personnel and investigators alike struggle with determining what constitutes ethical and appropriate activities...
2016: ILAR Journal
Tracey S McNamara
Emerging zoonoses have had a serious impact on human and animal health in recent decades. More often than not, these disease outbreaks have taken public health by surprise because we have failed to shift the epidemiological curve to the far left and detect zoonoses in animal populations prior to spillover to people. Not only can animals serve as valuable sentinels for emerging zoonoses but also much can be gained by the study of the animals themselves.
2016: ILAR Journal
Patricia A Pesavento, Terza Brostoff, Molly E Church, Florante N Dela Cruz, Kevin D Woolard
Polyomavirus (PyV) infections are widespread in human populations and, although generally associated with silent persistence, rarely cause severe disease. Among diseases convincingly associated with natural PyV infections of humans, there are remarkably different tissue tropisms and outcomes, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, transient or progressive nephropathy, and cancer. The variable character and unpredictable outcomes of infection attest to large gaps in our basic understanding of PyV biology...
2016: ILAR Journal
Simon Y Long, Erin M Latimer, Gary S Hayward
More than 100 young captive and wild Asian elephants are known to have died from a rapid-onset, acute hemorrhagic disease caused primarily by multiple distinct strains of two closely related chimeric variants of a novel herpesvirus species designated elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV1A and EEHV1B). These and two other species of Probosciviruses (EEHV4 and EEHV5) are evidently ancient and likely nearly ubiquitous asymptomatic infections of adult Asian elephants worldwide that are occasionally shed in trunk wash secretions...
2016: ILAR Journal
DeeAnn M Reeder, Kenneth A Field, Matthew H Slater
Additional ethical issues surrounding wildlife research compared with biomedical research include consideration of the harm of research to the ecosystem as a whole and the benefits of conservation to the same species of animals under study. Research on white-nose syndrome in bats provides a case study to apply these considerations to determine whether research that harms ecosystems under crisis is justified. By expanding well-established guidelines for animal and human subjects research, we demonstrate that this research can be considered highly justified...
2016: ILAR Journal
John A Bryan, Robert S Sikes
The language and subject matter offered in this issue of the ILAR Journal represent a departure from standard discourse on research animal welfare. Although the overall character of such a departure will become evident, the contributions herein reinforce and expand upon the shared, established tenets of research animal welfare. Through the work and experience of contributing wildlife research professionals, this issue of the ILAR Journal offers a diverse consortium of wildlife topics ranging from policy to conservation to disease investigation, all against the backdrop of the complexities of effective compliance and oversight when the research subjects are wild...
2016: ILAR Journal
John C Wingfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: ILAR Journal
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