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ILAR Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586416/bridging-the-gap-between-reproducibility-and-translation-data-resources-and-approaches
#1
Caroline J Zeiss, Linda K Johnson
Animal research has constituted a fundamental means to achieve groundbreaking therapies for human disease. However, for complex diseases, promising preclinical results have failed to translate to the clinic. Reasons for this disparity are multifactorial. These include the challenges inherent in modeling complex disease in animals, as well issues of study design, reproducibility and operational norms within the biomedical research enterprise. In this issue, we explore the range of information resources available for the comparative study of disease, as well as challenges to the ultimate translation of preclinical findings...
June 6, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575443/accelerating-biomedical-discoveries-through-rigor-and-transparency
#2
Judith A Hewitt, Liliana L Brown, Stephanie J Murphy, Franziska Grieder, Shai D Silberberg
Difficulties in reproducing published research findings have garnered a lot of press in recent years. As a funder of biomedical research, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has taken measures to address underlying causes of low reproducibility. Extensive deliberations resulted in a policy, released in 2015, to enhance reproducibility through rigor and transparency. We briefly explain what led to the policy, describe its elements, provide examples and resources for the biomedical research community, and discuss the potential impact of the policy on translatability with a focus on research using animal models...
May 31, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575330/the-utility-of-gene-expression-profiling-from-tissue-samples-to-support-drug-safety-assessments
#3
Daniel P Stiehl, Elaine Tritto, Salah-Dine Chibout, André Cordier, Pierre Moulin
Originally conceptualized as an integrated approach combining conventional toxicology methods with genome-wide expression profiling, toxicogenomics has promised to provide unequivocal relationships between the molecular changes elicited by a compound or a target pathway and the lesions that appear subsequently in the tissues. However, the discipline has only partially delivered on this promise, and the number of publications and submissions related to toxicogenomics is stagnating. The purpose of this article is to outline key factors contributing to a successful implementation of toxicogenomics in the drug discovery and development process...
May 31, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575319/translational-research-in-the-nonhuman-primate-model-of-tuberculosis
#4
Taylor W Foreman, Smriti Mehra, Andrew A Lackner, Deepak Kaushal
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis predominantly establishes subclinical latent infection over the lifetime of an individual, with a fraction of infected individuals rapidly progressing to active disease. The immune control in latent infection can be perturbed by comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, and coinfection with helminthes or HIV. Modeling the varying aspects of natural infection remains incomplete when using zebrafish and mice. However, the nonhuman primate model of tuberculosis offers a unique and accurate model to investigate host responses to infection, test novel therapeutics, and thoroughly assess preclinical vaccine candidates...
May 31, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575309/nonhuman-primate-studies-to-advance-vision-science-and-prevent-blindness
#5
Michael J Mustari
Most primate behavior is dependent on high acuity vision. Optimal visual performance in primates depends heavily upon frontally placed eyes, retinal specializations, and binocular vision. To see an object clearly its image must be placed on or near the fovea of each eye. The oculomotor system is responsible for maintaining precise eye alignment during fixation and generating eye movements to track moving targets. The visual system of nonhuman primates has a similar anatomical organization and functional capability to that of humans...
May 31, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531265/utility-of-nonhuman-primates-in-substance-use-disorders-research
#6
Matthew L Banks, Paul W Czoty, Sidney S Negus
Substance use disorders (i.e., drug addiction) constitute a global and insidious public health issue. Preclinical biomedical research has been invaluable in elucidating the environmental, biological, and pharmacological determinants of drug abuse and in the process of developing innovative pharmacological and behavioral treatment strategies. For more than 70 years, nonhuman primates have been utilized as research subjects in biomedical research related to drug addiction. There are already several excellent published reviews highlighting species differences in both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics between rodents and nonhuman primates in preclinical substance abuse research...
May 20, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472500/naturally-occurring-nonhuman-primate-models-of-psychosocial-processes
#7
John P Capitanio
Human research into psychological processes such as anxiety, depression, or loneliness typically involves accruing cases in which the phenomenon of interest is naturally occurring, and then comparing such a sample with control cases. In contrast, animal research designed to model similar processes to test mechanistic hypotheses typically involves inducing the phenomenon of interest via some exogenously (i.e., human) administered procedure. In the present review, the author proposes that naturally occurring animal models can complement induced models in understanding complex psychological phenomena...
May 2, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444204/murine-models-of-sepsis-and-trauma-can-we-bridge-the-gap
#8
Julie A Stortz, Steven L Raymond, Juan C Mira, Lyle L Moldawer, Alicia M Mohr, Philip A Efron
Sepsis and trauma are both leading causes of death in the United States and represent major public health challenges. Murine models have largely been used in sepsis and trauma research to better understand the pathophysiological changes that occur after an insult and to develop potential life-saving therapeutic agents. Mice are favorable subjects for this type of research given the variety of readily available strains including inbred, outbred, and transgenic strains. In addition, they are relatively easy to maintain and have a high fecundity...
April 21, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444192/from-reproducibility-to-translation-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#9
Caroline J Zeiss
Despite tremendous investment and preclinical success in neurodegenerative disease, effective disease-altering treatments for patients have remained elusive. One highly cited reason for this discrepancy is flawed animal study design and reporting. If this can be broadly remedied, reproducibility of preclinical studies will improve. However, without concurrent efforts to improve generalizability, these improvements may not translate effectively from animal experiments to more complex human neurodegenerative diseases...
April 21, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444189/environmental-enrichment-in-the-21st-century
#10
Kristine Coleman, Melinda A Novak
More than a quarter of a century has elapsed since the Animal Welfare Act mandated that research facilities develop and follow a plan to promote the psychological well-being of captive primates. Since passage of this law, considerable effort and resources have been directed to designing environmental enrichment strategies in an effort to improve animal welfare. These plans typically consist of environmental enrichment and socialization efforts. While environmental enhancement has undergone a great deal of improvement in the past 25 years, it should be viewed as a continual work in progress, which takes advantage of emergent and future technologies...
April 21, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369515/tick-borne-zoonoses-in-the-united-states-persistent-and-emerging-threats-to-human-health
#11
Rebecca J Eisen, Kiersten J Kugeler, Lars Eisen, Charles B Beard, Christopher D Paddock
In the United States, ticks transmit the greatest diversity of arthropod-borne pathogens and are responsible for the most cases of all vector-borne diseases. In recent decades, the number of reported cases of notifiable tick-borne diseases has steadily increased, geographic distributions of many ticks and tick-borne diseases have expanded, and new tick-borne disease agents have been recognized. In this review, we (1) describe the known disease agents associated with the most commonly human-biting ixodid ticks, (2) review the natural histories of these ticks and their associated pathogens, (3) highlight spatial and temporal changes in vector tick distributions and tick-borne disease occurrence in recent decades, and (4) identify knowledge gaps and barriers to more effective prevention of tick-borne diseases...
March 23, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053083/the-guide-for-the-care-and-use-of-laboratory-animals
#12
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053082/in-the-next-issue
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053081/ilar-council
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053080/about-ilar
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053079/ilar-journal-recent-issues-2014-2015
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053078/ilar-publications
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053077/animal-research-the-3rs-and-the-internet-of-things-opportunities-and-oversight-in-international-pharmaceutical-development
#18
Steven M Niemi, Gail F Davies
Stages of drug (and vaccine) discovery and evaluation that involve laboratory animals increasingly occur via scientific collaborations across national borders and continents. Many of these research collaborations are between asset-rich institutions and others in less wealthy parts of the world. The care and use of laboratory animals in geographically disparate locations introduces new complexities, such as different oversight requirements and available resources, as well as diverse organizational and cultural milieus...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053076/opportunities-to-apply-the-3rs-in-safety-assessment-programs
#19
Fiona Sewell, Joanna Edwards, Helen Prior, Sally Robinson
Before a potential new medicine can be administered to humans it is essential that its safety is adequately assessed. Safety assessment in animals forms an integral part of this process, from early drug discovery and initial candidate selection to the program of recommended regulatory tests in animals. The 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement of animals in research) are integrated in the current regulatory requirements and expectations and, in the EU, provide a legal and ethical framework for in vivo research to ensure the scientific objectives are met whilst minimizing animal use and maintaining high animal welfare standards...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053075/refinement-reduction-and-replacement-of-animal-toxicity-tests-by-computational-methods
#20
Kevin A Ford
Widespread public and scientific interest in promoting the care and well-being of animals used for toxicity testing has given rise to improvements in animal welfare practices and views over time, as well as laws and regulations that support means to reduce, refine, and replace animal use (known as the 3Rs) in certain toxicity studies. One way these regulations continue to achieve their aim is by promoting the research, development, and application of alternative testing approaches to characterize potential toxicities either without animals or with minimal use...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
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