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New Microbiologica

Alberto Vera, Pablo Ruano, Esther Ortega, Borja Quiroga
Haemodialysis patients are at greater risk of infections than individuals not on dialysis due to their immunosuppressive state caused by several factors (uraemia, vascular access, inflammation, malnutrition). However, infections affecting the central nervous system are not frequent in this population. We present the case of a 77-year-old man with end-stage renal disease who was admitted to the emergency department for a decreased level of consciousness and fever. Although the initial clinical suspicion oriented to a urinary infection, the lack of improvement forced us to perform a lumbar puncture...
November 7, 2016: New Microbiologica
Francesco Santoro, Valentina Guerrini, Elisa Lazzeri, Francesco Iannelli, Gianni Pozzi
The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reference strain H37Rv (ATCC27294) was determined on an isolate carried in our laboratory collection for almost 20 years and named H37RvSiena. DNA sequence analysis showed that the genome of H37RvSiena was 4,410,911 bp in size and contained 101 genetic polymorphisms compared to H37Rv: 83 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 10 insertions, and 8 deletions of which one was 617-bp long and seven ranged from 1 to 7 bp. Comparison with the genomes of two other H37Rv derivatives allowed identification of 28 polymorphisms specific for H37RvSiena...
November 7, 2016: New Microbiologica
Isis Victoriano Llopis, Laura Tomassone, Elena Grego, Fabrizio Silvano, Luca Rossi
To assess the potential role of ticks as carriers of West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), we tested 1721 ticks from 379 wild birds in Northwestern Italy between 2012 and 2014. Ticks were analyzed in pools using a pan-flavivirus real-time RT-PCR and positive pools were subjected to RT-PCR for USUV and WNV genome detection. All the tested samples resulted negative, suggesting that Ixodes spp. ticks, at least in our study area, are not competent vectors and not even exploitable sentinels for USUV and WNV...
November 7, 2016: New Microbiologica
Rosa Sessa, Marisa Di Pietro, Simone Filardo, Alessia Bressan, Laura Mazzuti, Sara Serafino, Alessandra Fantauzzi, Ombretta Turriziani
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health problem in developed countries with over 17 million deaths per year. In the last decade, several infectious agents rather than any single pathogen, including Chlamydia pneumoniae and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have been shown to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular events by inducing systemic inflammation and/or acting directly on the vascular wall. For the first time, we evaluated C. pneumonia DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV patients by real-time polymerase chain reaction in order to shed light on C...
November 7, 2016: New Microbiologica
Francesca Beretti, Andrea Ardizzoni, Claudio Cermelli, Marianna Guida, Tullia Maraldi, Paola Pietrosemoli, Simona Paulone, Anto De Pol, Elisabetta Blasi, Marinella Portolani
We demonstrated the presence of an in vitro transmissible cytotoxic agent (TCA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with different acute neurological diseases. The nature of this agent is still a matter of study since repeated attempts have failed to identify it as a conventional infectious agent. Here, we describe the mechanisms through which TCA affects human astrocytes, demonstrating: i) a late apoptotic process, mediated by caspases 9 and 3 activation, involving the Bcl2-Bak-axis; ii) an early and late p38 MAPK activation, and iii) an interference with the IL-8 and MCP-1 secretory response...
November 7, 2016: New Microbiologica
Rosario Musumeci, Enrico Calaresu, Jolanda Gerosa, Davide Oggioni, Simone Bramati, Patrizia Morelli, Ida Mura, Andrea Piana, Bianca Maria Are, Clementina Elvezia Cocuzza
Linezolid is the main representative of the oxazolidinones, introduced in 2000 in clinical practice to treat severe Gram-positive infections. This compound inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the peptidyl transferase centre of the 50S bacterial ribosomal subunit. The aim of this study was to characterize 12 clinical strains of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus spp. isolated in Northern Italy. All isolates of Staphylococcus spp. studied showed a multi-antibiotic resistance phenotype. In particular, all isolates showed the presence of the mecA gene associated with SSCmec types IVa, V or I...
September 13, 2016: New Microbiologica
Elisa Gabanti, Francesca Bruno, Lucia Scaramuzzi, Filippo Mangione, Paola Zelini, Giuseppe Gerna, Daniele Lilleri
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is still the most common viral infection in solid-organ transplant recipients (SOTR). Our study aimed to identify the predictive values of the T-cell response able to protect from HCMV disease, according to different assays. Viral DNA was determined by real-time PCR. The T-cell immune response to HCMV infection was investigated in SOTR according to the following assays and stimuli: cytokine flow cytometry (CFC) after peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) stimulation with autologous HCMV-infected dendritic cells (iDC) vs three ELISPOT assays using PBMCs stimulated with: i) HCMV-infected cell lysate (iCL); ii) a pool of 34 epitopic peptides (PP) from different HCMV proteins; iii) a commercial pp65 peptide pool (CPM)...
September 13, 2016: New Microbiologica
Elisa Fronti, Marco Vecchia, Luigia Scudeller, Liliana Praticò, Piero Marone, Alba Muzzi, Lorenzo Minoli, Elena Seminari
This study investigated the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the last 16 years in the province of Pavia, Lombardy, Northern Italy. The objective was to evaluate the clinical pattern of tuberculosis in immigrant groups compared with Italians in an observational retrospective study conducted from 1998 to 2013. In all, 615 tuberculosis cases were admitted, 354 males (57.3%), median age 47 years, 425 (69.1%) Italian-born patients, 190 (30.9%) immigrants. The ratio between the immigrant group and the Italian-born group of patients increased from 1...
September 13, 2016: New Microbiologica
Giuseppina Musumeci, Giacomo Magnani, Isabella Bon, Serena Longo, Alessia Bertoldi, Anna Maria Degli Antoni, Maria Rita Rossi, Alessandro Ruggeri, Vittorio Sambri, Simona Semprini, Laura Sighinolfi, Maria Alessandra Ursitti, Alessandro Zerbini, Vincenzo Colangeli, Leonardo Calza, Alba Carola Finarelli, Erika Massimiliani, Maria Carla Re
It is crucial to establish the timing of infection and distinguish between early and long-lasting HIV-1 infections not only for partner notification and epidemiological surveillance, but also to offer early drug treatment and contain the spread of infection. This study analyzed serum and/or plasma samples with a first positive HIV antibody/antigen result coming from different Medical Centers in the Emilia Romagna Region, North East Italy, using the avidity assay, Western Blotting, RNA viral load, CD4 cell counts and genotyping assay...
September 13, 2016: New Microbiologica
Francieli Chassot, Tarcieli Pozzebon Venturini, Fernanda Baldissera Piasentin, Janio Morais Santurio, Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski, Sydney Hartz Alves
We evaluated the in vitro antifungal activity of diphenyl diselenide and ebselen against echinocandin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Candida parapsilosis using the broth microdilution method. Diphenyl diselenide (MIC range=1-8μg/mL) and ebselen (MIC range=0.25-4μg/mL) showed in vitro activity against echinocandin-susceptible isolates. However, ebselen also showed the highest antifungal activity against echinocandin-resistant strains (MIC range=0.06-4μg/mL). This study demonstrated that the antifungal potential of diphenyl diselenide and ebselen deserves further investigation using in vivo experimental protocols...
September 13, 2016: New Microbiologica
Elisa D'Agati, Mariabernarda Pitzianti, Emanuela Balestrieri, Claudia Matteucci, Paola Sinibaldi Vallebona, Augusto Pasini
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have been associated with many complex diseases including neuropsychiatric diseases, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In ADHD an over-expression of HERV-H family in peripheral blood mononuclear cells has been documented. It has been hypothesized that HERVs may represent the link between genetic and environmental risk factors, contributing to the clinical onset and/or to the progression of the neurodevelopmental disease. The effect of pharmacological treatment on HERV transcriptional activity in psychiatric disorders has been attracting attention...
September 2016: New Microbiologica
Stefano Grandesso, Fabio Arena, Franklin Esoka Eseme, Sandro Panese, Lucia Henrici De Angelis, Patrizia Spigaglia, Fabrizio Barbanti, Gian Maria Rossolini
This report describes a case of Clostridium difficile ribotype 033 colitis in a patient treated with multiple antibiotics for KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae pancreatitis. Diagnostic, clinical and therapeutic features are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of C. difficile ribotype 033 clinical infection reported from Italy.
September 2016: New Microbiologica
Aldo Naselli, Alberto Garaventa, Piero Buffa, Claudio Granata, Roberto Bandettini, Giuliana Cangemi, Andrea Moscatelli, Elio Castagnola
We report a case of primary intestinal infection due to filamentous fungi in an adolescent with Ewing sarcoma. The clinical picture was that of peritonitis secondary to intestinal perforation and the diagnosis was established only on histopathological bases. This condition is very rare, and only one case of primary intestinal mold infection in children with solid tumors has been reported in the literature, although more records can be found describing similar conditions in other cancer patient populations (i...
September 2016: New Microbiologica
Emanuela Balestrieri, Chiara Cipriani, Claudia Matteucci, Natale Capodicasa, Anita Pilika, Ina Korca, Roberta Sorrentino, Ayele Argaw-Denboba, Ilaria Bucci, Martino Tony Miele, Antonella Coniglio, Riccardo Alessandrelli, Paola Sinibaldi Vallebona
Recent studies suggest that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors, whose possible links could be represented by epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we investigated the transcriptional activity of three human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) families, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Albanian ASD children, by quantitative real-time PCR. We aimed to confirm the different expression profile already found in Italian ASD children, and to highlight any social and family health condition emerging from information gathered through a questionnaire, to be included among environmental risk factors...
September 2016: New Microbiologica
Laura Mazzuti, Maria Antonietta Lozzi, Elisabetta Riva, Paola Maida, Francesca Falasca, Guido Antonelli, Ombretta Turriziani
We assess the concordance between low level HCV values obtained using the VERSANT HCV RNA 1.0 Assay (kPCR) and COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV Quantitative Test v2.0. The correlation between the values obtained by the two RT-PCR assays for samples with quantifiable HCV RNA levels revealed that viral load measured by kPCR significantly correlated with that of the CAP/CTM (R=0.644, P<0.0001). The results show a good concordance (n=126/144, 87%); discordant results were mainly observed in the assessment of values below the lower limit of detection of the assays...
September 2016: New Microbiologica
Elisabetta Buommino, Francesca Paola Nocera, Annamaria Parisi, Antonietta Rizzo, Giovanna Donnarumma, Karina Mallardo, Filomena Fiorito, Adone Baroni, Luisa De Martino
Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast belonging to the microbiota of the skin and mucous membranes of dog and cat, but it can also act as pathogen, causing dermatitis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability of M. pachydermatis strains isolated from symptomatic dogs and cats and determine a correlation between genotype and phenotype. For this purpose eleven strains of M. pachydermatis were molecularly classified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) based on ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions, specific for fungal rRNA genes...
September 2016: New Microbiologica
Melania Ruggeri, Sara Cannas, Marina Cubeddu, Paola Molicotti, Gennarina Laura Piras, Salvatore Dessole, Stefania Zanetti
Infertility is a problem affecting almost 15% of couples. There are many causes for this condition, among which urogenital bacterial infections seem to play an important role. Many studies have explained the mechanisms by which bacteria cause infertility both in men and women. Therefore we undertook this study to evaluate the presence of genito-urinary infections in infertile couples who sought counselling to investigate their condition. Microbiological analysis was performed on semen and vaginal/cervical samples of both partners of each couple...
September 2016: New Microbiologica
Silvia Nozza, Angela Rosa Pignataro, Laura Galli, Valentina Svicher, Claudia Alteri, Enzo Boeri, Marco Ripa, Antonella Castagna, Michela Sampaolo, Massimo Clementi, Carlo Federico Perno, Adriano Lazzarin
This study assessed the 48-week efficacy of an antiretroviral therapy including maraviroc following the assessment of co-receptor tropism by use of Geno2Pheno algorithm or the Trofile phenotypic assay in failing treatment-experienced HIV-1 patients. This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, non-inferiority trial. Treatment-experienced subjects with HIV-RNA ≥500 copies/mL were randomized (1:1) to undergo co-receptor tropism testing by the Geno- 2Pheno algorithm (with a false positive rate >10%) or the Trofile assay before starting a new antiretroviral treatment which included maraviroc...
September 2016: New Microbiologica
Cristina Costa, Francesca Sidoti, Samantha Mantovani, Gabriella Gregori, Alex Proietti, Valeria Ghisetti, Rossana Cavallo
In immunosuppressed patients, pre-emptive therapy and a strict follow-up of CMV infection are the standard of care for the prevention of CMV disease. Several real-time PCR assays for CMV DNA quantification on whole blood (WB) and plasma (PL) are commercially available. This study compared and correlated CMV viral loads obtained by the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP/CTM) platform on plasma specimens with those obtained on corresponding whole blood specimens by the real-time PCR assay (ELITe MGB-CMV) in 185 sequential samples from 41 immunosuppressed patients...
September 2016: New Microbiologica
Maurizio Zavattoni, Stefano Paolucci, Antonella Sarasini, Beatrice Tassis, Mariangela Rustico, Aida Quarenghi, Antonio Piralla, Fausto Baldanti
To define diagnostic and prognostic markers of parvovirus B19 (B19V) fetal infection, two groups were investigated: 1) pregnant women with specific symptoms or contacts with symptomatic households (n=37); 2) mothers with pathological ultrasound findings and the relevant fetus at the time of prenatal diagnosis (n=16). In the first group, diagnosis of B19V infection was achieved using IgM detection in 29/37 (78.3%) of patients, while B19V DNA was detected in 36/37 (97.3%) of infected women. In the second group, intrauterine infection was investigated by amniocentesis (n=5), cordocentesis (n=3) or both (n=5)...
September 2016: New Microbiologica
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