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New Microbiologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384559/neurobrucellosis-diagnostic-and-clinical-management-of-an-atypical-case
#1
Marco Rossi, Carlo Tascini, Novella Carannante, Giovanni Di Caprio, Sonia Sofia, Carmelo Iacobello
Brucellosis is the most common zoonosis in the world and it is caused by ingestion of foods contaminated by Brucella spp. that is able to avoid the immune system and can involve every organ system. The bacteria may affect the Central Nervous System (CNS) directly or using phagocytic cells with the way of the "Trojan Horse Model". Meningitis is the most common form of neuro-brucellosis (NB) but other neurological manifestation, with variable onset, such as severe encephalic involvement, neuropathy, vascular damage, radiculitis and hydrocephalus might happened...
January 31, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384558/the-human-cytomegalovirus-tegument-protein-pp65-pul83-a-key-player-in-innate-immune-evasion
#2
Matteo Biolatti, Valentina Dell'Oste, Marco De Andrea, Santo Landolfo
The germline encoded proteins serving as "pattern recognition receptors" (PRRs) constitute the earliest step in the innate immune response by recognizing the "pathogen-associated molecular patterns" (PAMPs) that comprise microbe nucleic acids and proteins usually absent from healthy hosts. Upon detection of exogenous nucleic acid two different innate immunity signaling cascades are activated. The first culminates in the production of chemokines, cytokines, and type I interferons (IFN-I), while the second leads to inflammasome complex formation...
January 31, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313868/pets-as-potential-carriers-of-multidrug-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-of-significance-to-public-health
#3
Giorgia Dotto, Michele Berlanda, Daniela Pasotto, Alessandra Mondin, Giorgio Zambotto, Maria Luisa Menandro
Enterococci are important opportunistic pathogens for humans and animals and have recently become one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, raising concerns about their virulence and antimicrobial traits. This study describes a multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from a case of feline urinary tract infection. This strain was characterized for virulence and antimicrobial resistance markers, phylogenetic group and sensitivity to antimicrobial agents used routinely in veterinary and human practice...
January 9, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313867/hpv-chlamydia-trachomatis-co-infection-metagenomic-analysis-of-cervical-microbiota-in-asymptomatic-women
#4
Marisa Di Pietro, Simone Filardo, Maria Grazia Porpora, Nadia Recine, Maria Agnese Latino, Rosa Sessa
HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Most infections are asymptomatic and left untreated lead to severe reproductive tract sequelae such as cervical cancer and infertility. Interestingly, C. trachomatis may also increase the susceptibility to HPV infection as well as contribute to viral persistence. Recently, a growing body of evidence has suggested that the composition of the cervico-vaginal microbiota plays a key role in the susceptibility and outcome of genital infections caused by several pathogens, including HPV and C...
January 9, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313866/extensively-drug-resistant-arma-producing-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-an-italian-intensive-care-unit
#5
Carla Caio, Gaetano Maugeri, Tiziana Zingali, Floriana Gona, Stefania Stefani, Maria Lina Mezzatesta
We describe the spread of 12 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in hospitalized patients. All strains showed an extensively drug-resistant phenotype and high-level of aminoglycoside resistance, harboring the ArmA gene and blaoxa-23 downstream of ISAba1 (transposon Tn2008 arrangement) where both were located on the chromosome. These strains carry a class 1 integrone containing the gene cassette aacA4-catB8-aadA1. Molecular analysis revealed that all isolates belonged to the same sequence type (ST) 2 clone...
January 9, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313865/evaluation-of-emdogain%C3%A2-antimicrobial-effectiveness-against-biofilms-containing-the-keystone-pathogen-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#6
Jérôme Lasserre, Selena Toma, Ana-Maria Dos Santos-Gonçalvez, Julian Leprince, Gaëtane Leloup, Michel Brecx
This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Emdogain® (EMD) against biofilms containing the periopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. A brain-Heart infusion broth inoculated with S. gordonii and P. gingivalis was perfused (7-d, anaerobiosis) through a closed circuit containing two Robbins devices as to form biofilms. The latter were then treated for 2 min with various antimicrobials (Chlorhexidine (CHX) 0.2%, Povidone iodine (PVI) 5%, PVI 10%, essential oils (EO), EO Zero™ or EMD)(n=8) and cell densities were calculated and compared...
January 9, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313864/trend-of-mdr-microorganisms-isolated-from-the-biological-samples-of-patients-with-hai-and-from-the-surfaces-around-that-patient
#7
Vincenza La Fauci, Gaetano Bruno Costa, Adriana Arena, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Cristina Genovese, Maria Angela Palamara, Raffaele Squeri
Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) continue to be a major public health concern. A number of epidemiologically relevant HAI microorganisms are multidrug-resistant (MDR) germs that can spread rapidly and/or carry multiple resistance to antibiotics. They are the cause of high mortality and possible nosocomial epidemics. For this reason, we implemented microbiological surveillance acquiring samples from patients with HAI and environmental samples from the surfaces surrounding those patients. A retrospective study was carried out from January 2014 to December 2016 in two departments of the University Hospital in Messina, Italy: the Microbiology and the Hygiene Laboratories...
January 9, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313863/pharmacokinetics-of-high-dose-extended-infusion-meropenem-during-pulmonary-exacerbation-in-adult-cystic-fibrosis-patients-a-case-series
#8
Emanuele Delfino, Carmen Fucile, Valerio Del Bono, Anna Marchese, Valeria Marini, Erika Coppo, Rosaria Casciaro, Laura Minicucci, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Antonietta Martelli, Claudio Viscoli, Francesca Mattioli
This case series explored the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) characteristics of meropenem (MEM) in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients hospitalized for a pulmonary exacerbation. From January 2015 to June 2016, all adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic pulmonary infection due to meropenem (MEM)-susceptible/intermediate Pseudomonas aeruginosa who received at least 48 h of MEM as an extended 3-hour infusion for treating a pulmonary exacerbation were enrolled. MEM plasma concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography...
January 9, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112768/an-autochthonous-sexually-transmitted-zika-virus-infection-in-italy-2016
#9
Paolo Antonio Grossi, Elena Percivalle, Giulia Campanini, Antonella Sarasini, Marta Premoli, Maurizio Zavattoni, Alessia Girello, Daniela Dalla Gasperina, Maria Luisa Balsamo, Fausto Baldanti, Francesca Rovida
We describe two cases of Zika virus infection involving an Italian patient returning from the Dominican Republic and his wife, who remained in Italy and had not travelled to Zika virus endemic areas in the previous months. The infection was transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse after the man's return to Italy.
November 7, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112767/fast-and-reliable-diagnosis-of-xdr-acinetobacter-baumannii-meningitis-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#10
Grazia Brunetti, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Alessandra Giordano, Anna Sara Navazio, Pietro Vittozzi, Mario Venditti, Giammarco Raponi
Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency needing quick and timely diagnosis. Even though meningitis caused by Acinetobacter baumannii is relatively rare, it is associated with high mortality rates especially in neurosurgery patients and represents a serious therapeutic problem due to the limited penetration of effective antibiotics into the cerebrospinal fluid. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) has been effectively used as a rapid method for microbial identification...
November 7, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112766/persistence-of-zikv-rna-in-the-cellular-fraction-of-semen-is-accompanied-by-a-surrogate-marker-of-viral-replication-diagnostic-implications-for-sexual-transmission
#11
Mirella Biava, Claudia Caglioti, Concetta Castilletti, Licia Bordi, Fabrizio Carletti, Francesca Colavita, Serena Quartu, Emanuele Nicastri, Marco Iannetta, Francesco Vairo, Giuseppina Liuzzi, Fabrizio Taglietti, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Eleonora Lalle
As asymptomatic infections represent 80% of ZIKV-infected individuals, sexual transmission is a rising concern. Recent studies highlighted a preferential association of ZIKV with the cellular fraction (CF) of different specimen types. Our aim was to evaluate the presence of ZIKV-RNA in different body fluids, focusing on semen specimens to assess the ZIKV-RNA content in either the unfractionated sample, its CF or seminal plasma (SP). In addition, to establish if the presence of ZIKV genome was associated with active virus replication, we measured the levels of negative-strand ZIKV-RNA...
November 7, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112765/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-in-a-high-prevalence-region-in-italy
#12
Antonio Riccardo Buonomo, Riccardo Scotto, Biagio Pinchera, Nicola Coppola, Caterina Monari, Margherita Macera, Guglielmo Borgia, Ivan Gentile
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is globally widespread. Southern Italy is a high prevalence region where the distribution of the HCV genotypes (GTs) is changing. Intravenous drug abuse is the only risk factor associated with a specific HCV GT (GT3). The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution and the risk factors for specific HCV GTs. A total of 682 patients with measurable serum HCV-RNA were enrolled between January and March 2017. We recorded clinical information and the presence of risk factors for HCV...
November 7, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994449/postantifungal-effect-of-micafungin-against-candida-albicans-candida-dubliniensis-and-candida-africana-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-serum
#13
Tamás Kardos, Qasem Saleh, Renátó Kovács, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Gábor Kardos, Aliz Bozó, Zoltán Tóth, László Majoros
We compared the micafungin killing rate and postantifungal effect (PAFE) at 4, 16 and 32 mg/L in RPMI-1640 and in 50% serum against the C. albicans complex. In RPMI-1640 PAFEs were 1.5 - >19.4, 9.7 - >20.1 and 15.9 - >18.5 hours for C. albicans, C. africana and C. dubliniensis, respectively. In 50% serum PAFEs decreased sharply to 0 - 1.7 hours for all three species; killing rates were always negative. Short growth inhibition without killing in 50% serum suggests that micafungin PAFE has a limited role in the eradication of the C...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994448/characterization-of-an-incl-m-plasmid-carrying-blaoxa-48-in-a-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strain-from-italy
#14
Paolo Gaibani, Erika Scaltriti, Chiara Benni, Stefano Pongolini, Simone Ambretti, Maria Paola Landini, PierLuigi Viale, Maddalena Giannella, Maria Carla Re
Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of a 49.257-bp IncL/M conjugative plasmid (pRAY) carrying the blaOXA-48 gene collected from a Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strain isolated in Italy. The genetic environment of pRAY plasmid revealed that the blaOXA-48 gene was located within a Tn1999.2 transposon. The pRAY plasmid differed from blaOXA-48-harboring IncL/M plasmids by genetic context and size. Comparative analysis demonstrated that pRAY plasmid lacked a region of 15 kb carrying genes encoding proteins involved in pilus assembly and plasmid conjugative apparatus...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994447/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-and-ribotype-027-infection-in-patients-with-nosocomial-diarrhoea-in-southern-italy
#15
Raffaele Del Prete, Luigi Ronga, Grazia Addati, Raffaella Magrone, Giuseppe Miragliotta
Clostridium difficile is an emerging cause of healthcare-associated infections. The increasing frequency and severity is attributed to highly virulent ribotypes such as 027. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of CDI and ribotype 027 in 481 clinical samples collected from hospitalized patients and sent to the laboratory of molecular biology, UOC Microbiology and Virology, Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria, Policlinico of Bari, Italy. Toxins A+B and DNA C. difficile detections were performed using immunochromatographic test and a multiplex real-time PCR assay, respectively...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994446/colonization-of-residents-and-staff-of-an-italian-long-term-care-facility-and-an-adjacent-acute-care-hospital-geriatric-unit-by-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#16
Albert March, Richard Aschbacher, Ferisa Sleghel, Gertrud Soelva, Malgorzata Kaczor, Roberta Migliavacca, Aurora Piazza, Vittoria Mattioni Marchetti, Laura Pagani, Katia Scalzo, Valentina Pasquetto, Elisabetta Pagani
In 2016, we undertook a point prevalence screening study for Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), high-level AmpC cephalosporinases and carbapenemases, and also methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in a long-term care facility (LTCF) and the associated acute care hospital geriatric unit in Bolzano, Northern Italy. Urine samples and rectal, inguinal, oropharyngeal and nasal swabs were plated on selective agars. Demographic data were collected...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994445/diagnostic-performance-of-hepatitis-e-virus-antigen-assay-in-hepatitis-e-virus-acute-infection
#17
Daniele Lapa, Carla Brega, Alessia Mammone, Mauro Zaccarelli, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Anna Rosa Garbuglia
The aim of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of hepatitis E virus antigen (HEV-Ag) to determine acute E hepatitis. Ninety-four serum samples resulting anti-HEV IgM by DIA.PRO assay were analyzed with Wantai assay to check for HEV-Ag. Thirty samples were anti-HEV IgM positive and HEV-RNA positive, 19 samples harbored genotype 3, whereas 11 samples were genotype 1. Overall, 16% of anti-HEV IgM samples resulted HEV-Ag positive and 33.3% of HEV-RNA positive were also HEV-Ag positive. Among 64 HEV-RNA negative samples, 5 (7...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994444/biomarkers-of-monitoring-and-functional-reserve-of-physiological-systems-over-time-in-hiv-expert-opinions-for-effective-secondary-prevention
#18
Massimo Andreoni, Chiara Mussi, Rita Bellagamba, Francesco Di Campli, Vincenzo Montinaro, Claudio Babiloni
HIV-positive individuals are more vulnerable to poor health than HIV-negative individuals. This vulnerability is characterized by a higher risk of several common, age-related health problems, even after adjustment for established risk factors. This expert opinion report aims at identifying the optimal biomarkers for monitoring the structural integrity and function of physiological systems at risk across aging in HIV-seropositive subjects. These biomarkers, readily available locally and relatively cost-effective for clinicians in primary and secondary care, should allow early detection of the first preclinical structural and functional changes in renal, brain, cardiovascular, and skeleton systems or apparatus in HIV subjects across aging (Table 8)...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994443/role-of-raltegravir-in-patients-co-infected-with-hiv-and-hcv-in-the-era-of-direct-antiviral-agents
#19
Lucia Taramasso, Giovanni Cenderello, Niccolò Riccardi, Simone Tunesi, Antonio Di Biagio
Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are the preferred third agent in first-line antiretroviral therapies. Raltegravir (RAL) was the first INSTI to be approved and used in naïve and experienced patients. Due to its good tolerability and low side effects, RAL has been largely used also in hepatitis co-infected patients. Many years of experience in RAL use now allow literature evidence to be gathered on its safety in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients pre, during and post direct acting agents (DAA) treatment, at all possible stages...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184964/development-of-an-elispot-assay-for-hsv-1-and-clinical-validation-in-lung-transplant-patients
#20
Cristina Costa, Alessia Di Nauta, Massimo Rittà, Franca Sinesi, Gabriele Bianco, Francesca Sidoti, Paolo Solidoro, Rossana Cavallo
Cellular immunity plays a major role in the control of HSV-1 infection/reactivation with a potential impact on the clinical-therapeutic management of immunocompromised patients, such as transplant recipients. Herein, we quantitatively evaluated T-cell response directed at HSV-1 by a newly developed IFN-γ EliSPOT assay in 53 patients (including 45 lung transplant recipients and eight subjects in waiting list). Overall, 62.2% of transplant patients and 62.5% of subjects on the waiting list showed a response to HSV-1 with no significant difference in the level of virus-specific cellular immunity...
October 2017: New Microbiologica
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