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New Microbiologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620791/feasibility-of-all-oral-anti-hcv-treatment-during-dhap-chemotherapy-and-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-for-t-cell-lymphoma
#1
Roberto Rossotti, Chiara Rusconi, Chiara Baiguera, Vittorio Ruggero Zilioli, Giovanni Grillo, Marco Merli, Emanuele Ravano, Massimo Puoti
The role of anti-HCV direct-acting agents (DAAs) is well described in HCV-related lymphoproliferative disorders, whereas few data are available on their use in other malignancies, such as aggressive T-cell lymphomas requiring autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). We describe two oncologic cirrhotic patients treated with DAAs who underwent ASCT achieving cure for both diseases. Co-administration of sofosbuvir with cisplatin led an unexpected severe kidney impairment that did not resolve 30 weeks after drug exposure...
April 5, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620790/john-cunningham-virus-an-overview-on-biology-and-disease-of-the-etiological-agent-of-the-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#2
Valeria Pietropaolo, Carla Prezioso, Francesca Bagnato, Guido Antonelli
John Cunningham virus (JCV), the etiological agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), is the first human polyomavirus described. After asymptomatic primary infection which occurs in childhood, the virus spreads by the hematogenous route from the primary site of infection to secondary sites including kidneys, lymphoid tissues, peripheral blood leukocytes, and brain to establish latent infection. During immunosuppression the virus undergoes molecular rearrangements that allow it to replicate in glial tissues causing PML...
April 5, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620789/infectious-meningitis-encephalitis-evaluation-of-a-rapid-and-fully-automated-multiplex-pcr-in-the-microbiological-diagnostic-workup
#3
Giulia Piccirilli, Angela Chiereghin, Liliana Gabrielli, Maddalena Giannella, Diego Squarzoni, Gabriele Turello, Silvia Felici, Caterina Vocale, Roberta Zuntini, Dino Gibertoni, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Simone Ambretti, Tiziana Lazzarotto
Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) such as meningitis/encephalitis (ME) require rapid identification of causative pathogens for effective treatment. This study evaluated the analytical performance and clinical utility of a fully automated multiplex PCR test to improve the microbiological diagnostic workup of ME. Seventy-seven cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 77 patients with suspected ME were studied. The samples were tested by FilmArray™ (FA) ME Panel test and the results were compared with those obtained using conventional microbiological procedures (CMP)...
April 5, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620788/susceptibility-of-clinical-isolates-of-campylobacter-jejuni-and-campylobacter-coli-to-colistin
#4
Antonio Sorlózano-Puerto, José Antonio Carrillo-Ávila, Miguel Gutiérrez-Soto, José María Navarro-Marí, José Gutiérrez-Fernández
Campylobacter spp. are one of the most frequent causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Although severe diarrhea is not highly prevalent, the risk of a fatal outcome is increased when infection is caused by strains resistant to macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and/or tetracyclines. It is therefore necessary to test the susceptibility of these bacteria to other antibiotics such as colistin, which may serve as an alternative therapeutic option in these situations. The E-test was used to investigate the activity of erythromycin and colistin against 30 clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp...
April 5, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620787/distribution-of-genital-mollicutes-in-the-vaginal-ecosystem-of-women-with-different-clinical-conditions
#5
Claudio Foschi, Melissa Salvo, Antonietta D'Antuono, Valeria Gaspari, Nicoletta Banzola, Roberto Cevenini, Antonella Marangoni
Ureaplasma urelayticum (UU), Ureaplasma parvum (UP), Mycoplasma hominis (MH) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are the most common Mollicutes of the female genital tract. Although many studies have addressed their possible role in the vaginal ecosystem, many aspects remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vaginal presence of ureaplasmas/mycoplasmas in women with different clinical conditions. By means of quantitative PCR assays, the prevalence and load of each Mollicute were assessed in different groups of pre-menopausal women: 'healthy' (n=29), women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) (n=21), patients with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection (n=25) and subjects with vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (VVC) (n=23)...
April 5, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498745/molecular-typing-of-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-isolated-from-patients-attending-an-italian-cystic-fibrosis-centre
#6
Antonio Teri, Samantha Sottotetti, Arianna Biffi, Daniela Girelli, Monica D'Accico, Milena Arghittu, Carla Colombo, Fabiola Corti, Giovanna Pizzamiglio, Lisa Cariani
Bacteria from the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are capable of causing severe infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Bcc infection is often extremely difficult to treat due to its intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics. In addition, it seems to speed up the decline of lung function and is considered a contraindication for lung transplantation in CF. This study investigates the species of the Bcc strains recovered from chronically infected CF subjects by means of: isolation, identification methods and complete recA nucleotide sequences of 151 samples...
March 2, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498744/behaviour-of-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-in-the-presence-of-gram-positive-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Fabrizio Pantanella, Valerio Iebba, Francesco Mura, Luciana Dini, Valentina Totino, Bruna Neroni, Giulia Bonfiglio, Trancassini Maria, Claudio Passariello, Serena Schippa
The present study aimed to characterize the behavior of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. B. bacteriovorus was co-cultured with S. aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus mutans, in planktonic and sessile conditions. Co-cultures were studied by Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), turbidimetry, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and sequencing of gene Bd0108 of B. bacteriovorus. Results indicated that B. bacteriovorus comparably inhibited planktonic growth of P...
March 2, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498743/amiodarone-affects-ebola-virus-binding-and-entry-into-target-cells
#8
Cristiano Salata, Denis Munegato, Francesco Martelli, Cristina Parolin, Arianna Calistri, Aldo Baritussio, Giorgio Palù
Ebola Virus Disease is one of the most lethal transmissible infections characterized by a high fatality rate. Several research studies have aimed to identify effective antiviral agents. Amiodarone, a drug used for the treatment of arrhythmias, has been shown to inhibit filovirus infection in vitro by acting at the early step of the viral replication cycle. Here we demonstrate that amiodarone reduces virus binding to target cells and slows down the progression of the viral particles along the endocytic pathway...
March 2, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498742/potential-associations-between-atazanavir-exposure-and-clinical-outcome-a-pharmacokinetic-sub-study-from-the-modat-randomized-trial
#9
Elisa Colella, Dario Cattaneo, Laura Galli, Sara Baldelli, Emilio Clementi, Massimo Galli, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonella Castagna, Stefano Rusconi, Vincenzo Spagnuolo
The 96-week results of the Monotherapy Once a Day with Atazanavir/r (MODAt) study [NCT01511809] showed an inferior virological efficacy of atazanavir (ATV)/ritonavir monotherapy versus triple therapy, which was promptly retrieved by the reintroduction of nucleoside/nucleotide inhibitors of reverse transcriptase [N(n)RTIs]. We aimed to identify potential relationships between ATV exposure and clinical outcome in HIV-1 subjects treated with ATV/ritonavir monotherapy [ATV/r 300/100mg] versus ATV/ritonavir triple therapy [ATV/r 300/100mg+2NRTIs]...
March 2, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498741/metagenomic-analysis-of-bacterial-community-in-a-travertine-depositing-hot-spring
#10
Federica Valeriani, Silvia Crognale, Carmela Protano, Gianluca Gianfranceschi, Massimiliano Orsini, Matteo Vitali, Vincenzo Romano Spica
Several factors influence bacteria biodiversity in hot springs. The impact of biotic and abiotic pathways on travertine deposition plays a key role in microbial ecology and in the final composition of the waterborne microbiota. The metabolism of some bacterial groups such as photoautotrophs or lithoautotrophs influences water chemistry, favoring carbonate precipitation processes. The role of microbial mats in mineral precipitation processes is not fully clarified. For the first time, a comprehensive metagenomic analysis has been undertaken in the historical Bullicame hot spring...
March 2, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498740/varicella-zoster-virus-infection-natural-history-clinical-manifestations-immunity-and-current-and-future-vaccination-strategies
#11
Giulia Freer, Mauro Pistello
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is the etiologic agent of varicella (chicken pox), a childhood exanthematic disease that develops as a result of primary infection, and zoster (shingles), caused by reactivation of the virus persisting in a latent form in the dorsal sensory ganglia. Although varicella is generally a mild self-limiting illness, in immunocompromised subjects and adults it can have a serious clinical course that can lead to permanent damage of the central nervous system. In these and in most zoster cases, treatment with anti-herpetic drugs and/or immunotherapy is necessary...
March 2, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498739/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-genital-mollicutes-in-italy-over-a-two-year-period
#12
Claudio Foschi, Melissa Salvo, Silvia Galli, Alessandra Moroni, Roberto Cevenini, Antonella Marangoni
Knowledge of the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of genital Mollicutes is crucial to offer guidelines for empirical treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the resistance profile of Mycoplasma hominis (MH) and Ureaplasma urealyticum/Ureaplasma parvum (UU/UP) in genital samples over a two-year period in Bologna, Italy. From January 2015 to December 2016, data on all the subjects providing uro-genital specimens for Mollicutes detection by culture were analyzed. A total of 4660 subjects (84...
March 2, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498738/blastocystis-hominis-transmission-by-non-potable-water-a-case-report-in-italy
#13
Maria Cristina Angelici, Chiara Nardis, Riccardo Scarpelli, Paola Ade
In the reported case, a 41-year-old Italian man came to the clinician's observation reporting cramps, bloating and watery diarrhoea a few days after drinking water indicated as unpotable from a fountain in a farm area. The medical suspicion was directed at both gluten intolerance and enteric infection, eventually of waterborne origin. Gluten intolerance was investigated by intestinal biopsy and excluded, while stool analyses ruled out infective bacteriological or viral agents and parasites. Subsequently, a persistent eosinophilia was revealed and a parasitological analysis was again suggested, planning for a more sensitive molecular method...
March 2, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384559/neurobrucellosis-diagnostic-and-clinical-management-of-an-atypical-case
#14
Marco Rossi, Carlo Tascini, Novella Carannante, Giovanni Di Caprio, Sonia Sofia, Carmelo Iacobello
Brucellosis is the most common zoonosis in the world and it is caused by ingestion of foods contaminated by Brucella spp. that is able to avoid the immune system and can involve every organ system. The bacteria may affect the Central Nervous System (CNS) directly or using phagocytic cells with the way of the "Trojan Horse Model". Meningitis is the most common form of neuro-brucellosis (NB) but other neurological manifestation, with variable onset, such as severe encephalic involvement, neuropathy, vascular damage, radiculitis and hydrocephalus might happened...
January 31, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384558/the-human-cytomegalovirus-tegument-protein-pp65-pul83-a-key-player-in-innate-immune-evasion
#15
Matteo Biolatti, Valentina Dell'Oste, Marco De Andrea, Santo Landolfo
The germline encoded proteins serving as "pattern recognition receptors" (PRRs) constitute the earliest step in the innate immune response by recognizing the "pathogen-associated molecular patterns" (PAMPs) that comprise microbe nucleic acids and proteins usually absent from healthy hosts. Upon detection of exogenous nucleic acid two different innate immunity signaling cascades are activated. The first culminates in the production of chemokines, cytokines, and type I interferons (IFN-I), while the second leads to inflammasome complex formation...
January 31, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313868/pets-as-potential-carriers-of-multidrug-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-of-significance-to-public-health
#16
Giorgia Dotto, Michele Berlanda, Daniela Pasotto, Alessandra Mondin, Giorgio Zambotto, Maria Luisa Menandro
Enterococci are important opportunistic pathogens for humans and animals and have recently become one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, raising concerns about their virulence and antimicrobial traits. This study describes a multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from a case of feline urinary tract infection. This strain was characterized for virulence and antimicrobial resistance markers, phylogenetic group and sensitivity to antimicrobial agents used routinely in veterinary and human practice...
January 9, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313866/extensively-drug-resistant-arma-producing-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-an-italian-intensive-care-unit
#17
Carla Caio, Gaetano Maugeri, Tiziana Zingali, Floriana Gona, Stefania Stefani, Maria Lina Mezzatesta
We describe the spread of 12 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in hospitalized patients. All strains showed an extensively drug-resistant phenotype and high-level of aminoglycoside resistance, harboring the ArmA gene and blaoxa-23 downstream of ISAba1 (transposon Tn2008 arrangement) where both were located on the chromosome. These strains carry a class 1 integrone containing the gene cassette aacA4-catB8-aadA1. Molecular analysis revealed that all isolates belonged to the same sequence type (ST) 2 clone...
January 9, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505068/regional-spread-of-contact-lens-related-acanthamoeba-keratitis-in-italy
#18
Alberto Antonelli, Eleonora Favuzza, Angelo Galano, Margherita Montalbano Di Filippo, Nunziata Ciccone, Federica Berrilli, Rita Mencucci, David Di Cave, Gian Maria Rossolini
Acanthamoeba ocular infections, known as Acanthamoeba keratitis, are an emerging problem among contact lens wearers. Infections mediated by Acanthamoeba are uncommon, but they can be underestimated due to poor awareness and delayed diagnosis. The routine use of rapid and cost-effective molecular methods like Real Time PCR for the diagnosis of this important pathogen could improve diagnosis and therapy outcome. This report describes the detection by Real Time PCR assay of six T4 and one T3 Acanthamoeba infections, as the first reported cases in Tuscany, Italy...
January 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505067/emergence-of-novel-recombinant-gii-p16_gii-2-and-gii-p16_gii-4-sydney-2012-norovirus-strains-in-italy-winter-2016-2017
#19
Maria Cristina Medici, Fabio Tummolo, Vito Martella, Flora De Conto, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Federica Pinardi, Francesca Ferraglia, Carlo Chezzi, Adriana Calderaro
In the winter season 2014/15, the GII.P17_GII.17 norovirus strain Kawasaki 2014 emerged in Italy, cocirculating with pandemic GII.4 strains. In March 2016, molecular investigation identified novel GII.P16 recombinant noroviruses in children with gastroenteritis in Italy. In 43.10% of the genotyped noroviruses GII.P16 strains were identified: 12 were characterized as GII.2 and 13 as GII.4 Sydney 2012 capsid genotypes. The GII.P16 genotype became predominant in January- February 2017 along with an increase in norovirus activity...
January 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505066/evaluation-of-real-time-pcr-aspergillus-spp-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-samples
#20
Anna Grancini, Anna Orlandi, Giovanna Lunghi, Dario Consonni, Cristina Pozzi, Valeria Rossetti, Alessandro Palleschi, Nicola Fracchiolla, Ernesto Melada, Monica Savioli, Milena Arghittu, Rita Maiavacca, Anna Prigitano
The present study investigated the improvement in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) adding a molecular test on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to the routine diagnostic approach including microscopy, culture and galactomannan (GM) immunoassay. A total of 133 BAL samples were retrospectively tested for the Aspergillus DNA: 112 samples were from immunocompromised patients at risk of invasive fungal infection and 21 were from patients not at risk and without clinical evidence of IPA. The latter samples were used to identify the cut-off of positivity for the molecular test...
January 2018: New Microbiologica
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