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New Microbiologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072892/use-of-statins-and-aspirin-to-prevent-cardiovascular-disease-among-hiv-positive-patients-a-survey-among-italian-hiv-physicians
#1
Paolo Maggi, Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Stefania Cicalini, Maurizio D'Abbraccio, Gabriella D'Ettorre, Antonio Di Biagio, Canio Martinelli, Giuseppe Nunnari, Stefano Rusconi, Laura Sighinolfi, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Nicola Squillace
We conducted a survey among Italian HIV specialists to study the utilization of statins and aspirin, administering a questionnaire aimed at investigating their use, the use of guidelines and scores, and the management of interactions. The answers were uniform in the different geographic areas. The majority directly prescribe statins and 43% of them prescribe aspirin. The majority follows guidelines and utilize scores to calculate the CV risk. Our survey demonstrates the commitment and autonomy in prescribing statins and aspirin of Italian physicians...
10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072890/candida-albicans-survival-growth-and-biofilm-formation-are-differently-affected-by-mouthwashes-an-in-vitro-study
#2
Simona Paulone, Giulia Malavasi, Andrea Ardizzoni, Carlotta Francesca Orsi, Samuele Peppoloni, Rachele Giovanna Neglia, Elisabetta Blasi
Candida albicans is the most common cause of oral mycoses. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the susceptibility of C. albicans to mouthwashes, in terms of growth, survival and biofilm formation. Candida albicans, laboratory strain SC5314, and 7 commercial mouthwashes were employed: 3 with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate; 1 with 0.06% chlorhexidine digluconate and 250 ppm F- sodium fluoride; 3 with fluorine-containing molecules. None of the mouthwashes contained ethanol in their formulations...
January 9, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217817/a-high-pct-level-correlates-with-disease-severity-in-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-children
#3
Novella Carannante, Marco Rossi, Fiorentino Fraganza, Grazia Coppola, Daniela Chiesa, Vittorio Attanasio, Francesco Sbrana, Antonio Corcione, Carlo Tascini
Most clinicians in developed countries have limited experience in making clinical assessments of malaria disease severity and/or monitoring high-level parasitemia in febrile patients with imported malaria. Hyperparasitemia is a risk factor for severe P. falciparum malaria, and procalcitonin (PCT) has recently been related to the severity of malaria. In developed countries, where not all hospital have skilled personnel to count parasitemia, a rapid test might be useful for the prompt diagnosis of malaria but unfortunately these tests are not able to count the number of parasites...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217816/candida-albicans-survival-growth-and-biofilm-formation-are-differently-affected-by-mouthwashes-an-in-vitro-study
#4
Simona Paulone, Giulia Malavasi, Andrea Ardizzoni, Carlotta Francesca Orsi, Samuele Peppoloni, Rachele Giovanna Neglia, Elisabetta Blasi
Candida albicans is the most common cause of oral mycoses. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the susceptibility of C. albicans to mouthwashes, in terms of growth, survival and biofilm formation. Candida albicans, laboratory strain SC5314, and 7 commercial mouthwashes were employed: 3 with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate; 1 with 0.06% chlorhexidine digluconate and 250 ppm F- sodium fluoride; 3 with fluorine-containing molecules. None of the mouthwashes contained ethanol in their formulations...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217815/hiv-and-kidney-a-dangerous-liaison
#5
Alessia Bertoldi, Elisa De Crignis, Anna Miserocchi, Isabella Bon, Giuseppina Musumeci, Serena Longo, Vanessa D'Urbano, Gaetano La Manna, Leonardo Calza, Maria Carla Re
Kidney disease represents an important health concern among HIV-infected individuals, with an estimated prevalence ranging between 2.4 and 17%. The widespread use of antiretroviral drugs has changed the epidemiology of kidney disease in the HIV positive population, drastically reducing the percentage of patients affected by HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), a complication characterized by apoptosis and de-differentiation of renal epithelial cells and podocytes. However, impaired kidney function remains an important issue among HIV-infected patients because of their long-term exposure to antiretroviral drugs and the growing burden of traditional risk factors associated with chronic renal disease...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072891/molecular-epidemiology-and-resistome-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-st11-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strain-containing-multiple-copies-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#6
Roshan DSouza, Naina Adren Pinto, Insik Hwang, Hwang Younjee, YoungLag Cho, Hyunsoo Kim, Dongeun Yong, Jongrak Choi, Kyungwon Lee, Yunsop Chong
The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism responsible for multidrug resistance in ST11 Klebsiella pneumoniae YMC 2013/7/B3993 containing multiple copies of ESBL genes using multiple parallel sequencing technology. In-depth analysis of the strain revealed multiple copies of ESBL genes, 2 copies of blaSHV-12 and 1 copy of blaCTX-M-15. Furthermore, 1 copy of blaOXA-9 and 3 copies of blaTEM-1 were found. The insertion of Tn1331 was detected, which consisted of blaOXA-9, blaTEM-1, aac(6')-lb-cr, and aadA1 genes...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072889/in-depth-analysis-of-compartmentalization-of-hiv-1-matrix-protein-p17-in-pbmc-and-plasma
#7
Marina Selleri, Riccardo Dolcetti, Francesca Caccuri, Emanuela Giombini, Gabriella Rozera, Isabella Abbate, Alessia Mammone, Stefania Zanussi, Debora Martorelli, Simona Fiorentini, Arnaldo Caruso, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi
HIV-1 p17 plays an important role in the virus life-cycle and disease pathogenesis. Recent studies indicated a high heterogeneity of p17. A high number of insertions in the p17 carboxy-terminal region have been more frequently detected in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), suggesting a role of altered p17 in lymphomagenesis. Based on p17 heterogeneity, possible PBMC/plasma compartmentalization of p17 variants was explored by ultra-deep pyrosequencing in five NHL patients. The high variability of p17 with insertions at the carboxy-terminal region was confirmed in plasma and observed for the first time in proviral genomes...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072888/clinical-and-virological-predictors-of-sustained-response-with-an-interferon-based-simeprevir-regimen-for-patients-with-chronic-genotype-1-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#8
Gianpiero D'Offizi, Calogero Cammà, Chiara Taibi, Michael Schlag, Karin Weber, Maria Palma, Ralph DeMasi, Katrien Janssen, James Witek, Raffaella Lionetti
Simeprevir plus peg-interferon/ribavirin (PR) is approved to treat chronic hepatitis C (HCV) genotype 1 (GT1) and GT4 infection. This study aimed to assess baseline and on-treatment the factors predictive of sustained virologic response 12-weeks post-treatment (SVR12) in patients receiving 12 weeks of simeprevir plus PR followed by 12 or 36 weeks of PR. Data from participants in four studies (QUEST-1, QUEST-2, ATTAIN and PROMISE) were pooled to examine the efficacy and safety of simeprevir+PR in HCV GT1 patients...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072887/dengue-fever-in-travellers-and-risk-of-local-spreading-case-reports-from-southern-italy-and-literature-update
#9
Claudia Fabrizio, Luciana Lepore, Maria Chironna, Gioacchino Angarano, Annalisa Saracino
Dengue fever (DF), an arbovirosis caused by Dengue viruses (DV, serotypes 1-4), is responsible for an increasing number of travel-related acute febrile illnesses due to population growth, climate changes, spreading by viremic travellers, and improved laboratory diagnosis. The presence of efficient vectors (mosquito Aedes albopictus) has also been described in temperate regions including Italy which is considered the most heavily infected European country. Normally characterized by non-specific signs and symptoms, DF incidence is probably underestimated, especially in non-endemic countries, but the risk of severe forms is substantial...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072886/dynamic-change-in-the-ns3-protease-domain-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients-na%C3%A3-ve-to-anti-hcv-protease-inhibitors
#10
Simona Bagaglio, Emanuela Messina, Hamid Hasson, Mario Merli, Andrea Andolina, Adriano Lazzarin, Caterina Uberti-Foppa, Giulia Morsica
The genetic analysis of THE natural protease inhibitors (PI) resistance of HCV genotype (GT)1 involves subtypes 1a and 1b. NS3 protease domain was sequentially analysed in 10 HIV/HCV GT1-coinfected individuals naïve to HCV treatment. Analysis at different time points showed that 2/3 GT1b patients were infected by a GT1a clade1 during follow-up. In one patient a switch from clade1 to clade2 and in one other patient a switch from clade2 to clade1 was revealed. Four out of ten patients had resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) at baseline...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819399/cytomegalovirus-encephalitis-in-a-hemodialysis-patient-a-rare-association
#11
Alberto Vera, Pablo Ruano, Esther Ortega, Borja Quiroga
Haemodialysis patients are at greater risk of infections than individuals not on dialysis due to their immunosuppressive state caused by several factors (uraemia, vascular access, inflammation, malnutrition). However, infections affecting the central nervous system are not frequent in this population. We present the case of a 77-year-old man with end-stage renal disease who was admitted to the emergency department for a decreased level of consciousness and fever. Although the initial clinical suspicion oriented to a urinary infection, the lack of improvement forced us to perform a lumbar puncture...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819398/genomic-polymorphisms-in-a-laboratory-isolate-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-reference-strain-h37rv-atcc27294
#12
Francesco Santoro, Valentina Guerrini, Elisa Lazzeri, Francesco Iannelli, Gianni Pozzi
The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reference strain H37Rv (ATCC27294) was determined on an isolate carried in our laboratory collection for almost 20 years and named H37RvSiena. DNA sequence analysis showed that the genome of H37RvSiena was 4,410,911 bp in size and contained 101 genetic polymorphisms compared to H37Rv: 83 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 10 insertions, and 8 deletions of which one was 617-bp long and seven ranged from 1 to 7 bp. Comparison with the genomes of two other H37Rv derivatives allowed identification of 28 polymorphisms specific for H37RvSiena...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819397/investigation-into-usutu-and-west-nile-viruses-in-ticks-from-wild-birds-in-northwestern-italy-2012-2014
#13
Isis Victoriano Llopis, Laura Tomassone, Elena Grego, Fabrizio Silvano, Luca Rossi
To assess the potential role of ticks as carriers of West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), we tested 1721 ticks from 379 wild birds in Northwestern Italy between 2012 and 2014. Ticks were analyzed in pools using a pan-flavivirus real-time RT-PCR and positive pools were subjected to RT-PCR for USUV and WNV genome detection. All the tested samples resulted negative, suggesting that Ixodes spp. ticks, at least in our study area, are not competent vectors and not even exploitable sentinels for USUV and WNV...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819396/lack-of-association-of-chlamydia-pneumoniae-with-cardiovascular-diseases-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-patients
#14
Rosa Sessa, Marisa Di Pietro, Simone Filardo, Alessia Bressan, Laura Mazzuti, Sara Serafino, Alessandra Fantauzzi, Ombretta Turriziani
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health problem in developed countries with over 17 million deaths per year. In the last decade, several infectious agents rather than any single pathogen, including Chlamydia pneumoniae and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have been shown to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular events by inducing systemic inflammation and/or acting directly on the vascular wall. For the first time, we evaluated C. pneumonia DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV patients by real-time polymerase chain reaction in order to shed light on C...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819395/apoptosis-and-inflammatory-response-in-human-astrocytes-are-induced-by-a-transmissible-cytotoxic-agent-of-neurological-origin
#15
Francesca Beretti, Andrea Ardizzoni, Claudio Cermelli, Marianna Guida, Tullia Maraldi, Paola Pietrosemoli, Simona Paulone, Anto De Pol, Elisabetta Blasi, Marinella Portolani
We demonstrated the presence of an in vitro transmissible cytotoxic agent (TCA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with different acute neurological diseases. The nature of this agent is still a matter of study since repeated attempts have failed to identify it as a conventional infectious agent. Here, we describe the mechanisms through which TCA affects human astrocytes, demonstrating: a late apoptotic process, mediated by caspases 9 and 3 activation, involving the Bcl2-Bak-axis; an early and late p38 MAPK activation; an interference with the IL-8 and MCP-1 secretory response...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004846/short-term-economic-impact-of-the-zika-virus-outbreak
#16
Daniele Macciocchi, Simone Lanini, Francesco Vairo, Alimuddin Zumla, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Francesco Nicola Lauria, Gino Strada, Philippe Brouqui, Vincenzo Puro, Sanjeev Krishna, Peter Kremsner, Paola Scognamiglio, Carsten Köhler, Emanuele Nicastri, Antonino Di Caro, Rodolfo Maria Cieri, John P A Ioannidis, Gary Kobinger, Marcelo Nascimento Burattini, Giuseppe Ippolito
Zika virus (ZIKV) is mainly transmitted by mosquitoes bites. However, transmission by sexual contacts has been reported in 11 non endemic countries. The rapid spread of ZIKV in Latin American and Caribbean Countries (LCR), person-to-person transmission and perceived risk on people's well being can affect the emerging economies of LCR which historically dependent on truism. Here we present an analysis on economic outputs for assessing the current impact of ZIKV on markets. Our analysis show an unexpected resilience of LCR markets to international alerts...
October 2016: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727405/resistance-to-linezolid-in-staphylococcus-spp-clinical-isolates-associated-with-ribosomal-binding-site-modifications-novel-mutation-in-domain-v-of-23s-rrna
#17
Rosario Musumeci, Enrico Calaresu, Jolanda Gerosa, Davide Oggioni, Simone Bramati, Patrizia Morelli, Ida Mura, Andrea Piana, Bianca Maria Are, Clementina Elvezia Cocuzza
Linezolid is the main representative of the oxazolidinones, introduced in 2000 in clinical practice to treat severe Gram-positive infections. This compound inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the peptidyl transferase centre of the 50S bacterial ribosomal subunit. The aim of this study was to characterize 12 clinical strains of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus spp. isolated in Northern Italy. All isolates of Staphylococcus spp. studied showed a multi-antibiotic resistance phenotype. In particular, all isolates showed the presence of the mecA gene associated with SSCmec types IVa, V or I...
October 2016: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727404/predictive-value-of-human-cytomegalovirus-hcmv-t-cell-response-in-the-control-of-hcmv-infection-by-seropositive-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-according-to-different-assays-and-stimuli
#18
Elisa Gabanti, Francesca Bruno, Lucia Scaramuzzi, Filippo Mangione, Paola Zelini, Giuseppe Gerna, Daniele Lilleri
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is still the most common viral infection in solid-organ transplant recipients (SOTR). Our study aimed to identify the predictive values of the T-cell response able to protect from HCMV disease, according to different assays. Viral DNA was determined by real-time PCR. The T-cell immune response to HCMV infection was investigated in SOTR according to the following assays and stimuli: cytokine flow cytometry (CFC) after peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) stimulation with autologous HCMV-infected dendritic cells (iDC) vs three ELISPOT assays using PBMCs stimulated with: 1...
October 2016: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727403/epidemiology-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-pavia-province-lombardy-northern-italy-1998-2013
#19
Elisa Fronti, Marco Vecchia, Luigia Scudeller, Liliana Praticò, Piero Marone, Alba Muzzi, Lorenzo Minoli, Elena Seminari
This study investigated the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the last 16 years in the province of Pavia, Lombardy, Northern Italy. The objective was to evaluate the clinical pattern of tuberculosis in immigrant groups compared with Italians in an observational retrospective study conducted from 1998 to 2013. In all, 615 tuberculosis cases were admitted, 354 males (57.3%), median age 47-years, 425 (69.1%) Italian-born patients, 190 (30.9%) immigrants. The ratio between the immigrant group and the Italian-born group of patients increased from 1...
October 2016: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727402/hiv-1-early-and-late-diagnosis-in-the-emilia-romagna-region-italy-a-three-year-study
#20
Giuseppina Musumeci, Giacomo Magnani, Isabella Bon, Serena Longo, Alessia Bertoldi, Anna Maria Degli Antoni, Maria Rita Rossi, Alessandro Ruggeri, Vittorio Sambri, Simona Semprini, Laura Sighinolfi, Maria Alessandra Ursitti, Alessandro Zerbini, Vincenzo Colangeli, Leonardo Calza, Alba Carola Finarelli, Erika Massimiliani, Maria Carla Re
It is crucial to establish the timing of infection and distinguish between early and long-lasting HIV-1 infections not only for partner notification and epidemiological surveillance, but also to offer early drug treatment and contain the spread of infection. This study analyzed serum and/or plasma samples with a first positive HIV antibody/antigen result coming from different Medical Centers in the Emilia Romagna Region, North East Italy, using the avidity assay, Western Blotting, RNA viral load, CD4 cell counts and genotyping assay...
October 2016: New Microbiologica
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