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New Microbiologica

Paolo Antonio Grossi, Elena Percivalle, Giulia Campanini, Antonella Sarasini, Marta Premoli, Maurizio Zavattoni, Alessia Girello, Daniela Dalla Gasperina, Maria Luisa Balsamo, Fausto Baldanti, Francesca Rovida
We describe two cases of Zika virus infection involving an Italian patient returning from the Dominican Republic and his wife, who remained in Italy and had not travelled to Zika virus endemic areas in the previous months. The infection was transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse after the man's return to Italy.
November 7, 2017: New Microbiologica
Grazia Brunetti, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Alessandra Giordano, Anna Sara Navazio, Pietro Vittozzi, Mario Venditti, Giammarco Raponi
Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency needing quick and timely diagnosis. Even though meningitis caused by Acinetobacter baumannii is relatively rare, it is associated with high mortality rates especially in neurosurgery patients and represents a serious therapeutic problem due to the limited penetration of effective antibiotics into the cerebrospinal fluid. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) has been effectively used as a rapid method for microbial identification...
November 7, 2017: New Microbiologica
Mirella Biava, Claudia Caglioti, Concetta Castilletti, Licia Bordi, Fabrizio Carletti, Francesca Colavita, Serena Quartu, Emanuele Nicastri, Marco Iannetta, Francesco Vairo, Giuseppina Liuzzi, Fabrizio Taglietti, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Eleonora Lalle
As asymptomatic infections represent 80% of ZIKV-infected individuals, sexual transmission is a rising concern. Recent studies highlighted a preferential association of ZIKV with the cellular fraction (CF) of different specimen types. Our aim was to evaluate the presence of ZIKV-RNA in different body fluids, focusing on semen specimens to assess the ZIKV-RNA content in either the unfractionated sample, its CF or seminal plasma (SP). In addition, to establish if the presence of ZIKV genome was associated with active virus replication, we measured the levels of negative-strand ZIKV-RNA...
November 7, 2017: New Microbiologica
Antonio Riccardo Buonomo, Riccardo Scotto, Biagio Pinchera, Nicola Coppola, Caterina Monari, Margherita Macera, Guglielmo Borgia, Ivan Gentile
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is globally widespread. Southern Italy is a high prevalence region where the distribution of the HCV genotypes (GTs) is changing. Intravenous drug abuse is the only risk factor associated with a specific HCV GT (GT3). The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution and the risk factors for specific HCV GTs. A total of 682 patients with measurable serum HCV-RNA were enrolled between January and March 2017. We recorded clinical information and the presence of risk factors for HCV...
November 7, 2017: New Microbiologica
Tamás Kardos, Qasem Saleh, Renátó Kovács, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Gábor Kardos, Aliz Bozó, Zoltán Tóth, László Majoros
We compared the micafungin killing rate and postantifungal effect (PAFE) at 4, 16 and 32 mg/L in RPMI-1640 and in 50% serum against the C. albicans complex. In RPMI-1640 PAFEs were 1.5 - >19.4, 9.7 - >20.1 and 15.9 - >18.5 hours for C. albicans, C. africana and C. dubliniensis, respectively. In 50% serum PAFEs decreased sharply to 0 - 1.7 hours for all three species; killing rates were always negative. Short growth inhibition without killing in 50% serum suggests that micafungin PAFE has a limited role in the eradication of the C...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
Paolo Gaibani, Erika Scaltriti, Chiara Benni, Stefano Pongolini, Simone Ambretti, Maria Paola Landini, PierLuigi Viale, Maddalena Giannella, Maria Carla Re
Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of a 49.257-bp IncL/M conjugative plasmid (pRAY) carrying the blaOXA-48 gene collected from a Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strain isolated in Italy. The genetic environment of pRAY plasmid revealed that the blaOXA-48 gene was located within a Tn1999.2 transposon. The pRAY plasmid differed from blaOXA-48-harboring IncL/M plasmids by genetic context and size. Comparative analysis demonstrated that pRAY plasmid lacked a region of 15 kb carrying genes encoding proteins involved in pilus assembly and plasmid conjugative apparatus...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
Raffaele Del Prete, Luigi Ronga, Grazia Addati, Raffaella Magrone, Giuseppe Miragliotta
Clostridium difficile is an emerging cause of healthcare-associated infections. The increasing frequency and severity is attributed to highly virulent ribotypes such as 027. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of CDI and ribotype 027 in 481 clinical samples collected from hospitalized patients and sent to the laboratory of molecular biology, UOC Microbiology and Virology, Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria, Policlinico of Bari, Italy. Toxins A+B and DNA C. difficile detections were performed using immunochromatographic test and a multiplex real-time PCR assay, respectively...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
Albert March, Richard Aschbacher, Ferisa Sleghel, Gertrud Soelva, Malgorzata Kaczor, Roberta Migliavacca, Aurora Piazza, Vittoria Mattioni Marchetti, Laura Pagani, Katia Scalzo, Valentina Pasquetto, Elisabetta Pagani
In 2016, we undertook a point prevalence screening study for Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), high-level AmpC cephalosporinases and carbapenemases, and also methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in a long-term care facility (LTCF) and the associated acute care hospital geriatric unit in Bolzano, Northern Italy. Urine samples and rectal, inguinal, oropharyngeal and nasal swabs were plated on selective agars. Demographic data were collected...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
Daniele Lapa, Carla Brega, Alessia Mammone, Mauro Zaccarelli, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Anna Rosa Garbuglia
The aim of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of hepatitis E virus antigen (HEV-Ag) to determine acute E hepatitis. Ninety-four serum samples resulting anti-HEV IgM by DIA.PRO assay were analyzed with Wantai assay to check for HEV-Ag. Thirty samples were anti-HEV IgM positive and HEV-RNA positive, 19 samples harbored genotype 3, whereas 11 samples were genotype 1. Overall, 16% of anti-HEV IgM samples resulted HEV-Ag positive and 33.3% of HEV-RNA positive were also HEV-Ag positive. Among 64 HEV-RNA negative samples, 5 (7...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
Massimo Andreoni, Chiara Mussi, Rita Bellagamba, Francesco Di Campli, Vincenzo Montinaro, Claudio Babiloni
HIV-positive individuals are more vulnerable to poor health than HIV-negative individuals. This vulnerability is characterized by a higher risk of several common, age-related health problems, even after adjustment for established risk factors. This expert opinion report aims at identifying the optimal biomarkers for monitoring the structural integrity and function of physiological systems at risk across aging in HIV-seropositive subjects. These biomarkers, readily available locally and relatively cost-effective for clinicians in primary and secondary care, should allow early detection of the first preclinical structural and functional changes in renal, brain, cardiovascular, and skeleton systems or apparatus in HIV subjects across aging (Table 8)...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
Lucia Taramasso, Giovanni Cenderello, Niccolò Riccardi, Simone Tunesi, Antonio Di Biagio
Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are the preferred third agent in first-line antiretroviral therapies. Raltegravir (RAL) was the first INSTI to be approved and used in naïve and experienced patients. Due to its good tolerability and low side effects, RAL has been largely used also in hepatitis co-infected patients. Many years of experience in RAL use now allow literature evidence to be gathered on its safety in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients pre, during and post direct acting agents (DAA) treatment, at all possible stages...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
Cristina Costa, Alessia Di Nauta, Massimo Rittà, Franca Sinesi, Gabriele Bianco, Francesca Sidoti, Paolo Solidoro, Rossana Cavallo
Cellular immunity plays a major role in the control of HSV-1 infection/reactivation with a potential impact on the clinical-therapeutic management of immunocompromised patients, such as transplant recipients. Herein, we quantitatively evaluated T-cell response directed at HSV-1 by a newly developed IFN-γ EliSPOT assay in 53 patients (including 45 lung transplant recipients and eight subjects in waiting list). Overall, 62.2% of transplant patients and 62.5% of subjects on the waiting list showed a response to HSV-1 with no significant difference in the level of virus-specific cellular immunity...
October 2017: New Microbiologica
Alessandra Amendola, Giulia Bibbolino, Assunta Navarra, Maria Pisciotta, Patrizia Marsella, Carmela Pinnetti, Isabella Abbate, Gabriella Rozera, Annalisa Mondi, Andrea Antinori, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Enrico Girardi, Adriana Ammassari
Persistent residual viremia (RV) has been demonstrated in 70-90% of patients under successful cART. We analyzed the RV trend during the first year following cART-induced virological suppression (VS; HIVRNA <50 copies/ml) to identify predictors of achievement and maintenance of ultra-deep RV suppression (URVS; HIV-RNA <5 copies/ml) in 60 naïve patients. These patients were aligned at the time of reaching VS and were longitudinally tested with an ultrasensitive HIV-RNA assay. The influence of demographics, primary/chronic infection, pre-therapy HIV-RNA and CD4, cART regimen and time to reach VS on RV trends was evaluated...
October 2017: New Microbiologica
Ayman Elbehiry, Eman Marzouk, Mohamed Hamada, Musaad Al-Dubaib, Essam Alyamani, Ihab M Moussa
Foodborne pathogens can be associated with a wide variety of food products and it is very important to identify them to supply safe food and prevent foodborne infections. Since traditional techniques are time-consuming and laborious, this study was designed for rapid identification and clustering of foodborne pathogens isolated from various restaurants in Al-Qassim region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Sixty-nine bacterial and thirty-two fungal isolates isolated from 80 food samples were used in this study...
August 21, 2017: New Microbiologica
Potjaman Pumeesat, Watcharamat Muangkaew, Sumate Ampawong, Natthanej Luplertlop
C. albicans is one of the most important species of fungi known to produce biofilms on installed medical devices. The environment surrounding the fungi influences the development of the biofilm. Temperature is known to affect the yeast-to-hypha transition of C. albicans, but the impact of this factor on biofilm formation is still not understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of temperature (42 °C versus 37 °C) on the formation of C. albicans biofilms. Three reference C. albicans strains were used: SC 5314, ATCC 90028, and ATCC 96901...
August 21, 2017: New Microbiologica
Paola Zanotti, Ilaria Izzo, Salvatore Casari, Chiara Cattaneo, Serena Zaltron, Angiola Spinetti, Silvia Odolini, Claudia Chirico, Cecilia Grecchi, Elena Festa, Francesco Castelli
The availability of direct antiviral agents (DAAs) offers the possibility to treat HCV-infected patients with a high rate of efficacy and a good safety profile. Little is known about the benefit of DAAs on HCV-related hematological diseases and their complications. We describe the case of an HIV/HCV-infected patient with HCV-related chronic lymphoproliferative disease, mixed cryoglobulinemia and hyperviscosity syndrome. Treatment with direct antiviral agents (DAAs) cured HCV infection and its complications, while HCV re-infection caused recrudescence of the associated diseases...
August 21, 2017: New Microbiologica
Maria Rita Parisi, Simona Tecco, Giorgio Gastaldi, Elisabetta Polizzi, Teresa D'Amicantonio, Silvia Negri, Ivan Gardini, Karin Schlusnus, Enrico Gherlone, Paolo Capparè, Adriano Lazzarin
The Infectious Diseases Department and the Department of Dentistry of San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Milan conducted a screening and prevention program, the "EASY HCV-test Program," at a dental clinic to increase the identification of unrecognized infections. Using a cross-sectional community-based study design, hygienists in the dental clinic offered patients a hepatitis C virus (HCV) rapid salivary test (OraQuick ADVANCE® Rapid HCV Antibody Test) with pre- and post-test counseling prior to initiation of their oral hygiene routine...
August 21, 2017: New Microbiologica
Ettore De Canale, Dino Sgarabotto, Giulia Marini, Nicola Menegotto, Serena Masiero, Wassim Akkouche, Maria Angela Biasolo, Luisa Barzon, Giorgio Palù
Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian parasite responsible for most human cases of malaria in Malaysian Borneo. A timely recognition of infection is crucial because of the risk of severe disease due to the rapid increase in parasitemia. We report a case of P. knowlesi infection in a traveller who developed fever and thrombocytopenia after returning from the Philippines in 2016. Rapid antigen test was negative, microscopy examination showed parasites similar to Plasmodium malariae, with a parasite count of 10,000 parasites per μL blood, while molecular testing identified P...
July 4, 2017: New Microbiologica
Pietro Pini, Carlotta F Orsi, Annunziata La Regina, Samuele Peppoloni, Federica Berrilli, Elisabetta Blasi, David Di Cave
Respiratory samples from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) cases collected at a tertiary-care university hospital in Modena were analyzed for the presence of specific polymorphisms in the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (mtLSU-rRNA). Retrospectively, 57 cases were selected in a six-year period and 34 out of the 57 processed BAL samples returned PCR positive results, thus allowing further molecular analysis. The following P.jirovecii genotype distribution was observed: genotype 3 (50%), genotype 2 (23%), genotype 1 (18%), genotypes 1 or 4 (9%)...
July 2017: New Microbiologica
Katja Šuster, Aleš Podgornik, Andrej Cör
Staphylococcus spp. accounts for up to two thirds of all microorganisms causing prosthetic joint infections, with Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis being the major cause. The present study describes a diagnostic model to detect staphylococci using a specific bacteriophage and bioluminescence detection, exploring the possibility of its use on sonicate fluid of orthopaedic artificial joints. Intracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate release by bacteriophage mediated lysis of staphylococci was assessed to determine optimal parameters for detection...
July 2017: New Microbiologica
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