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New Microbiologica

Ali Nawaz, Anna Mäkinen, Pirjo Pärnänen, Jukka H Meurman
Oral Candida infections can be life-threatening in medically compromised patients. In particular non-albicans Candida strains are virulent. However, our knowledge is sparse on how proteolytic these strains are in patients with oral cancer. Our study aimed to investigate differences in proteolytic activity of non-albicans Candida and Candida albicans isolated from oral cancer patients. The hypothesis was based on anticipated different invasive capacity of the strains. Clinical and reference yeast samples from our laboratory were used for analyses...
October 12, 2018: New Microbiologica
Caroline Loïez, Frédéric Wallet
The aim of this study was to evaluate the new commercial Unyvero i60 ITI multiplex PCR system (Curetis, Holzgerlingen, Germany) on native cardiac valves in comparison with made in-house 16S rRNA PCR amplification (91E/13BS primers) and conventional microbiological techniques. Forty-four patients (30 men, 14 women) with suspected infective endocarditis (IE) were included in this evaluation corresponding to 30 aortic valves and 14 mitral valves. IE was definite for 40 patients using the modified Duke criteria...
October 12, 2018: New Microbiologica
Massimiliano Lanzafame, Stefano Nicole, Sebastiano Rizzardo, Daniela Piacentini, Sheila Chiesi, Emanuela Lattuada, Erica Diani, Maria Carelli, Sandro Vento, Davide Gibellini
Combination abacavir/lamivudine/dolutegravir (ABC/3TC/DTG) is approved as a first-line treatment for antiretroviral naïve patients. This report investigated the immunovirological outcome and total HIV-1 DNA decay in a small cohort of naïve HIV-1-positive patients treated with this regimen. In the presence of viral suppression and increased lymphocyte T CD4+ cells, the quantitative analysis of total HIV-1 DNA content revealed a significant decay after 12 months of treatment. Subsequently, we deintensificated the treatment of these patients from (ABC/3TC/DTG) to lamivudine plus dolutegravir (3TC/DTG) after 12 months of virological suppression, as a strategy of "induction-maintenance" therapy...
October 12, 2018: New Microbiologica
Battistina A V Cama, Manuela Ceccarelli, Emmanuele Venanzi Rullo, Federica Ferraiolo, Ivana A Paolucci, Daniela Maranto, Placido Mondello, Maria R Lo Presti Costantino, Fernanda Marano, Giuseppa D'Andrea, Vincenzo Di Marco, Giovanni Puglisi, Mariella Valenzise, Gabriella D'Angelo, Lorenzo Mondello, Giuseppe Strano, Fabrizio Condorelli, Daria Spicola, Giuseppe Nunnari, Giovanni F Pellicanò
Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonoses in the world, especially in Southern Italy, where many cases are still recorded every year. 128 cases of brucellosis were observed in Messina (Sicily) in 2016, representing a tenfold increase in the number of cases of brucellosis expected. The aim of this multicenter retrospective study was to analyze clinical and microbiological aspects of a brucellosis outbreak in the province of Messina in 2016, the incidence of its complications and the treatment combinations applied...
October 12, 2018: New Microbiologica
Ilaria Vicenti, Barbara Rossetti, Sara Mariano, Francesco Saladini, Francesca Montagnani, Maurizio Zazzi, Andrea De Luca
Few studies have documented hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We developed real-time PCR methods for differential amplification of covalently closed circular (cccDNA) and total HBV DNA (tDNA). The different distribution of cccDNA and tDNA in plasma and PBMCs was evaluated in 37 patients with low or undetectable viremia. Plasma tDNA measured by the Abbott reference system and the in-house assay correlated well (Spearman rho = 0.804; P<0.0001). tDNA was detected in four PBMC samples, all from patients with detectable plasma viremia (range 633-6,406 IU/ml), cccDNA was not detected in any sample...
September 25, 2018: New Microbiologica
Monica Sañé Schepisi, Ilaria Motta, Simone Dore, Cecilia Costa, Giovanni Sotgiu, Enrico Girardi
Children, especially those aged <5 years, and adolescents are at increased risk of progression to active TB disease when infected. Management of childhood TB outbreaks is crucial for TB elimination especially in low burden countries. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE-CINHAL-EMBASE up to July 2017 for primary studies reporting on TB incidents which involved teacher/child-caregiver, relative or students diagnosed with TB in a school/childcare setting or in other congregate settings attended by children and adolescents...
September 25, 2018: New Microbiologica
Marta Ferranti, Elisabetta Schiaroli, Melissa Ida Palmieri, Antonella Repetto, Anna Vecchiarelli, Daniela Francisci, Antonella Mencacci, Claudia Monari
The global dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is of great concern for public health. These bacteria have the potential for rapid dissemination in healthcare settings and cause infections associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. A total of 221 carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates were collected from patients admitted to an Italian general hospital from January 2016 to March 2017. Among these isolates, 78.3% were carbapenemase producers: 96% were positive for the blaKPC gene and the remainder for the blaVIM gene (allelic variant VIM-1)...
September 25, 2018: New Microbiologica
Maria Teresa Mascellino, Alessandra Oliva, Massimiliano De Angelis, Stefano Pontone, Barbara Porowska
Forty patients infected by Helicobacter pylori were studied. The treatment was based on the positivity or negativity of cultures (tailored therapy or empiric therapy). The eradication rate was 68% and 82% respectively. Genotypic susceptibility testing proved very useful in case of heteroresistance or mixed infections that represent a real problem possibly leading to a resistance underestimation. Real-time PCR detected the resistant population at a very low concentration not detectable by phenotypic tests. Bismuth quadruple therapy (PPI, bismuth, metronidazole, tetracycline, PBMT) was effective in the Hp eradication rate consistent with a high level of clarithromycin resistance...
September 25, 2018: New Microbiologica
Nadia Galizzi, Laura Galli, Andrea Poli, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Antonella Castagna, Nicola Gianotti
As dolutegravir (DTG), rilpivirine (RPV) and cobicistat affect creatinine, but not cystatin C, tubular transport or serum concentration, the aim of the study was to compare estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) calculated by means of a standard creatinine formula with those calculated by means of the cystatin C formula in patients receiving these drugs. This was a cross-sectional study of HIV-1 infected patients with eGFR <90 ml/min/1.73m2 (CKD-EPI-creatinine formula) on-treatment with regimens including DTG, RVP or cobicistat; cystatin C was measured after the switch to these regimens...
September 25, 2018: New Microbiologica
Francesco Maria Fusco, Francesca Vichi, Simonetta Bisanzi, Cristina Sani, Anna Degli Esposti, Claudio Blè, Riccardo Rossi, Giampaolo Pompeo, Francesca Carozzi, Pierluigi Blanc
Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at higher risk for HPV-related malignancies. To estimate the factors associated to HPV infection and to pre-neoplastic cervical lesions, we observed 321 WLWH in an HIV care-centre in Florence, Italy. In 2006-2016, WLWH followed at S.Maria Annunziata Hospital underwent to gynaecological examination including HPV-test, Pap-smear, colposcopy and, if needed, cervical biopsy. Demographical and clinical information were collected and linear logistic regression was performed. Among 321 WLWH, 161 (50...
September 25, 2018: New Microbiologica
Aurora Piazza, Francesco Comandatore, Francesca Romeri, Cristina Pagani, Vittoria Mattioni Marchetti, Matteo Brilli, Simona Panelli, Roberta Migliavacca, Annalisa Ridolfo, Pietro Olivieri, Maria Rita Gismondo, Claudio Bandi, Sara Giordana Rimoldi
We describe two multi drug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates from an acute hospital in Milan. Both strains, isolated from a surgical wound sample and a surveillance rectal swab respectively, were positive for a blaNDM-type gene by Xpert Carba-R test. The whole-genome sequence characterization disclosed several resistance determinants: blaNDM-5, blaCMY-42, blaTEM-198, rmtB, mphA. The two isolates belonged to phylogenetic group A, sequence type (ST) 1702 and serotype O89:H9...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Cristiano Salata, Paola Lisotto, Caterina Boldrin, Ettore De Canale, Alessandra Piccirillo, Arianna Calistri, Giorgio Palù
Listeriosis is a disease usually associated with the consumption of low-processed ready-to-eat food products contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes. In Italy, listeriosis has an incidence of 0.19-0.27 cases per 100000 persons. Since detailed information concerning the molecular characterization of listeriosis in the Italian Veneto region is currently lacking, we analyzed 36 L. monocytogenes clinical isolates collected between 2009 and 2014. Results show that the serotype 1/2a was the most represented among the tested samples...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Elisa Gabanti, Daniele Lilleri, Lucia Scaramuzzi, Paola Zelini, Teresa Rampino, Giuseppe Gerna
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-specific T-cell response in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) helps to identify patients at risk for severe infection. To assess the T-cell response, this study compared our in-house developed reference test, based on T-cell (both CD4+ and CD8+) stimulation by autologous HCMV-infected dendritic cells (iDC) and subsequent detection by cytokine flow cytometry (CFC-iDC), with the Quanti-FERON-CMV (QF-CMV) assay. Fifty-three HCMV-seropositive KTR were enrolled. At the DNAemia peak, 33 (62%) had low viral load (LVL, <3x105 DNA copies/mL) self-resolving infection, 19 (36%) high viral load (HVL, >3x105 DNA copies/mL) infection treated with antivirals, and one LVL patient (2%) tissue-invasive disease alone...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
David Redi, Chiara Spertilli Raffaelli, Barbara Rossetti, Andrea De Luca, Francesca Montagnani
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in both community and hospital settings. It is a significant etiological agent to treat in healthcare-related infections due to both its ability to cause invasive infection as well as to form biofilm on biomaterials and the high prevalence of resistance to first line antibiotics. The most challenging preventive strategy is vaccine development to guarantee a full and durable protection from staphylococcal diseases in all different high-risk populations, even if the lack of a known correlate of protection from S...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Filippo Murina, Franco Vicariotto, Stefania Di Francesco
The aim of this non-interventional, observational, multicentre, open-label study was to assess the effectiveness of a vaginal gel containing extracts of Thymus vulgaris and Eugenia caryophyllus in conjunction with two specific lactobacilli strains (Lactobacillus fermentum LF10 and Lactobacillus plantarum LP02) specifically formulated in slow-release vaginal capsules, in treating bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) or recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis disease (RVVC) [Estromineral Probiogel (EPB) in Italy, or Saugella Probiogel; Meda Pharma - Mylan Group]...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Francesca Montagnani, Barbara Rossetti, Alessandro Vannoni, Maria Grazia Cusi, Andrea De Luca
An etiological diagnosis of respiratory infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is particularly challenging due to the lack of a definite standard test. This study aimed to analyse the correlation and combination of diagnostic results obtained from direct and indirect assays (Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA by PCR and serology) in use at a first level diagnostic laboratory. Samples from patients with respiratory infections tested for M. pneumoniae during routine clinical practice were retrospectively analysed...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Francesca Bonvicini, Mariacaterina Lianza, Manuela Mandrone, Ferruccio Poli, Giovanna Angela Gentilomi, Fabiana Antognoni
Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) cause several clinically relevant syndromes in both adults and neonates. Despite the availability of efficient anti-HSV agents, the search for new therapeutic approaches is highly encouraged due to the increasing drug resistance of virus strains. Medicinal plants represent a source of potential bioactive compounds. In this context we evaluated the anti-herpetic activity of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., a plant widely used in traditional Indian medicine. The hydroalcoholic extract prepared from roots was characterized by NMR and HPLC analysis and assayed in vitro by CPE reduction and virus infectivity assays to define its anti-viral effect...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Gonca Erkose Genc, Melda Demir, Görkem Yaman, Begum Kayar, Fatih Koksal, Dilek Satana
Nowadays, there is a rising worldwide incidence of diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species, especially in immunocompromised patients and those with underlying chronic pulmonary diseases. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) became a method of choice for the identification of NTM species. The aim of this study was to evaluate MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of NTM isolates compared to the PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA)-hsp65 method...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Maria Pia Conte, Fabiana Superti, Mariagrazia Moio, Maria Grazia Ammendolia, Catia Longhi, Marta Aleandri, Massimiliano Marazzato, Paola Goldoni, Paola Parisi, Zachary Borab, Anna Teresa Palamara, Bruno Carlesimo
Capsular contracture is one of the most common complications of implant-based breast augmentation. Despite its prevalence, the etiology of capsular contracture remains controversial although the surface texture of the breast implant, the anatomical position of the prosthesis and the presence of bacterial biofilm could be considered trigger factors. In fact, all medical implants are susceptible to bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. The present study demonstrated the presence of microbial biofilm constituted by cocci in a breast implant obtained from a patient with Baker grade II capsular contracture...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Roberto Rossotti, Chiara Rusconi, Chiara Baiguera, Vittorio Ruggero Zilioli, Giovanni Grillo, Marco Merli, Emanuele Ravano, Massimo Puoti
The role of anti-HCV direct-acting agents (DAAs) is well described in HCV-related lymphoproliferative disorders, whereas few data are available on their use in other malignancies, such as aggressive T-cell lymphomas requiring autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). We describe two oncologic cirrhotic patients treated with DAAs who underwent ASCT achieving cure for both diseases. Co-administration of sofosbuvir with cisplatin led an unexpected severe kidney impairment that did not resolve 30 weeks after drug exposure...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
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