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New Microbiologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994449/postantifungal-effect-of-micafungin-against-candida-albicans-candida-dubliniensis-and-candida-africana-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-serum
#1
Tamás Kardos, Qasem Saleh, Renátó Kovács, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Gábor Kardos, Aliz Bozó, Zoltán Tóth, László Majoros
We compared the micafungin killing rate and postantifungal effect (PAFE) at 4, 16 and 32 mg/L in RPMI-1640 and in 50% serum against the C. albicans complex. In RPMI-1640 PAFEs were 1.5 - >19.4, 9.7 - >20.1 and 15.9 - >18.5 hours for C. albicans, C. africana and C. dubliniensis, respectively. In 50% serum PAFEs decreased sharply to 0 - 1.7 hours for all three species; killing rates were always negative. Short growth inhibition without killing in 50% serum suggests that micafungin PAFE has a limited role in the eradication of the C...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994448/characterization-of-an-incl-m-plasmid-carrying-blaoxa-48-in-a-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strain-from-italy
#2
Paolo Gaibani, Erika Scaltriti, Chiara Benni, Stefano Pongolini, Simone Ambretti, Maria Paola Landini, PierLuigi Viale, Maddalena Giannella, Maria Carla Re
Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of a 49.257-bp IncL/M conjugative plasmid (pRAY) carrying the blaOXA-48 gene collected from a Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strain isolated in Italy. The genetic environment of pRAY plasmid revealed that the blaOXA-48 gene was located within a Tn1999.2 transposon. The pRAY plasmid differed from blaOXA-48-harboring IncL/M plasmids by genetic context and size. Comparative analysis demonstrated that pRAY plasmid lacked a region of 15 kb carrying genes encoding proteins involved in pilus assembly and plasmid conjugative apparatus...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994447/prevalence-of-clostridium-difficile-and-ribotype-027-infection-in-patients-with-nosocomial-diarrhoea-in-southern-italy
#3
Raffaele Del Prete, Luigi Ronga, Grazia Addati, Raffaella Magrone, Giuseppe Miragliotta
Clostridium difficile is an emerging cause of healthcare-associated infections. The increasing frequency and severity is attributed to highly virulent ribotypes such as 027. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of CDI and ribotype 027 in 481 clinical samples collected from hospitalized patients and sent to the laboratory of molecular biology, UOC Microbiology and Virology, Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria, Policlinico of Bari, Italy. Toxins A+B and DNA C. difficile detections were performed using immunochromatographic test and a multiplex real-time PCR assay, respectively...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994446/colonization-of-residents-and-staff-of-an-italian-long-term-care-facility-and-an-adjacent-acute-care-hospital-geriatric-unit-by-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#4
Albert March, Richard Aschbacher, Ferisa Sleghel, Gertrud Soelva, Malgorzata Kaczor, Roberta Migliavacca, Aurora Piazza, Vittoria Mattioni Marchetti, Laura Pagani, Katia Scalzo, Valentina Pasquetto, Elisabetta Pagani
In 2016, we undertook a point prevalence screening study for Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), high-level AmpC cephalosporinases and carbapenemases, and also methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in a long-term care facility (LTCF) and the associated acute care hospital geriatric unit in Bolzano, Northern Italy. Urine samples and rectal, inguinal, oropharyngeal and nasal swabs were plated on selective agars. Demographic data were collected...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994445/diagnostic-performance-of-hepatitis-e-virus-antigen-assay-in-hepatitis-e-virus-acute-infection
#5
Daniele Lapa, Carla Brega, Alessia Mammone, Mauro Zaccarelli, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Anna Rosa Garbuglia
The aim of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of hepatitis E virus antigen (HEV-Ag) to determine acute E hepatitis. Ninety-four serum samples resulting anti-HEV IgM by DIA.PRO assay were analyzed with Wantai assay to check for HEV-Ag. Thirty samples were anti-HEV IgM positive and HEV-RNA positive, 19 samples harbored genotype 3, whereas 11 samples were genotype 1. Overall, 16% of anti-HEV IgM samples resulted HEV-Ag positive and 33.3% of HEV-RNA positive were also HEV-Ag positive. Among 64 HEV-RNA negative samples, 5 (7...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994444/biomarkers-of-monitoring-and-functional-reserve-of-physiological-systems-over-time-in-hiv-expert-opinions-for-effective-secondary-prevention
#6
Massimo Andreoni, Chiara Mussi, Rita Bellagamba, Francesco Di Campli, Vincenzo Montinaro, Claudio Babiloni
HIV-positive individuals are more vulnerable to poor health than HIV-negative individuals. This vulnerability is characterized by a higher risk of several common, age-related health problems, even after adjustment for established risk factors. This expert opinion report aims at identifying the optimal biomarkers for monitoring the structural integrity and function of physiological systems at risk across aging in HIV-seropositive subjects. These biomarkers, readily available locally and relatively cost-effective for clinicians in primary and secondary care, should allow early detection of the first preclinical structural and functional changes in renal, brain, cardiovascular, and skeleton systems or apparatus in HIV subjects across aging (Table 8)...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994443/role-of-raltegravir-in-patients-co-infected-with-hiv-and-hcv-in-the-era-of-direct-antiviral-agents
#7
Lucia Taramasso, Giovanni Cenderello, Niccolò Riccardi, Simone Tunesi, Antonio Di Biagio
Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are the preferred third agent in first-line antiretroviral therapies. Raltegravir (RAL) was the first INSTI to be approved and used in naïve and experienced patients. Due to its good tolerability and low side effects, RAL has been largely used also in hepatitis co-infected patients. Many years of experience in RAL use now allow literature evidence to be gathered on its safety in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients pre, during and post direct acting agents (DAA) treatment, at all possible stages...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825446/application-of-maldi-tof-ms-fingerprinting-as-a-quick-tool-for-identification-and-clustering-of-foodborne-pathogens-isolated-from-food-products
#8
Ayman Elbehiry, Eman Marzouk, Mohamed Hamada, Musaad Al-Dubaib, Essam Alyamani, Ihab M Moussa
Foodborne pathogens can be associated with a wide variety of food products and it is very important to identify them to supply safe food and prevent foodborne infections. Since traditional techniques are time-consuming and laborious, this study was designed for rapid identification and clustering of foodborne pathogens isolated from various restaurants in Al-Qassim region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Sixty-nine bacterial and thirty-two fungal isolates isolated from 80 food samples were used in this study...
August 21, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825445/candida-albicans-biofilm-development-under-increased-temperature
#9
Potjaman Pumeesat, Watcharamat Muangkaew, Sumate Ampawong, Natthanej Luplertlop
C. albicans is one of the most important species of fungi known to produce biofilms on installed medical devices. The environment surrounding the fungi influences the development of the biofilm. Temperature is known to affect the yeast-to-hypha transition of C. albicans, but the impact of this factor on biofilm formation is still not understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of temperature (42 °C versus 37 °C) on the formation of C. albicans biofilms. Three reference C. albicans strains were used: SC 5314, ATCC 90028, and ATCC 96901...
August 21, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825444/lymphoproliferative-disease-with-mixed-cryoglobulinemia-and-hyperviscosity-syndrome-in-an-hiv-infected-patient-hcv-is-the-only-culprit
#10
Paola Zanotti, Ilaria Izzo, Salvatore Casari, Chiara Cattaneo, Serena Zaltron, Angiola Spinetti, Silvia Odolini, Claudia Chirico, Cecilia Grecchi, Elena Festa, Francesco Castelli
The availability of direct antiviral agents (DAAs) offers the possibility to treat HCV-infected patients with a high rate of efficacy and a good safety profile. Little is known about the benefit of DAAs on HCV-related hematological diseases and their complications. We describe the case of an HIV/HCV-infected patient with HCV-related chronic lymphoproliferative disease, mixed cryoglobulinemia and hyperviscosity syndrome. Treatment with direct antiviral agents (DAAs) cured HCV infection and its complications, while HCV re-infection caused recrudescence of the associated diseases...
August 21, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825443/point-of-care-testing-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-at-alternative-and-high-risk-sites-an-italian-pilot-study-in-a-dental-clinic
#11
Maria Rita Parisi, Simona Tecco, Giorgio Gastaldi, Elisabetta Polizzi, Teresa D'Amicantonio, Silvia Negri, Ivan Gardini, Karin Schlusnus, Enrico Gherlone, Paolo Capparè, Adriano Lazzarin
The Infectious Diseases Department and the Department of Dentistry of San Raffaele Scientific Institute in Milan conducted a screening and prevention program, the "EASY HCV-test Program," at a dental clinic to increase the identification of unrecognized infections. Using a cross-sectional community-based study design, hygienists in the dental clinic offered patients a hepatitis C virus (HCV) rapid salivary test (OraQuick ADVANCE® Rapid HCV Antibody Test) with pre- and post-test counseling prior to initiation of their oral hygiene routine...
August 21, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675248/quick-bacteriophage-mediated-bioluminescence-assay-for-detecting-staphylococcus-spp-in-sonicate-fluid-of-orthopaedic-artificial-joints
#12
Katja Šuster, Aleš Podgornik, Andrej Cör
Staphylococcus spp. accounts for up to two thirds of all microorganisms causing prosthetic joint infections, with Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis being the major cause. The present study describes a diagnostic model to detect staphylococci using a specific bacteriophage and bioluminescence detection, exploring the possibility of its use on sonicate fluid of orthopaedic artificial joints. Intracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate release by bacteriophage mediated lysis of staphylococci was assessed to determine optimal parameters for detection...
July 4, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675247/protection-by-humoral-elements-independent-of-virus-neutralization-activity-against-an-influenza-virus-challenge
#13
Julia Sarkadi, David Kuti, Mate Jankovics, Eva Pallinger, Kinga Fodor, Zoltan Kis, Eva Gonczol, Ildiko Visontai, Istvan Jankovics
To investigate the protective efficacy of a seasonal trivalent inactivated whole virion influenza vaccine (TIV) adjuvanted with aluminum phosphate (Fluval AB, referred to here as TIV+Al), we immunized mice with the TIV+Al, and as controls, with TIV, TIV+Al combined with Freund adjuvant (TIV+Al+F), inactivated A/PR/8/34(H1N1) (PR8) strain or PBS, and challenged them with a lethal dose of a mouse-adapted PR8 virus. Serum pools from immunized mice were passively transferred to recipient mice that were then challenged similarly...
July 4, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675245/plasmodium-knowlesi-malaria-in-a-traveller-returning-from-the-philippines-to-italy-2016
#14
Ettore De Canale, Dino Sgarabotto, Giulia Marini, Nicola Menegotto, Serena Masiero, Wassim Akkouche, Maria Angela Biasolo, Luisa Barzon, Giorgio Palù
Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian parasite responsible for most human cases of malaria in Malaysian Borneo. A timely recognition of infection is crucial because of the risk of severe disease due to the rapid increase in parasitemia. We report a case of P. knowlesi infection in a traveller who developed fever and thrombocytopenia after returning from the Philippines in 2016. Rapid antigen test was negative, microscopy examination showed parasites similar to Plasmodium malariae, with a parasite count of 10,000 parasites per μL blood, while molecular testing identified P...
July 4, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675244/a-catheter-related-bloodstream-infection-caused-by-chryseobacterium-indologenes-successfully-treated-with-antibiotic-lock-rescue-therapy
#15
Marta Corbella, Micaela Brandolini, Patrizia Cambieri, Nunzia Decembrino, Michele Pagani, Andrea Bottazzi, Alba Muzzi, Marco Zecca, Bianca Mariani, Piero Marone
We report the case of a catheter-related bloodstream infection caused by Chryseobacterium indologenes, an uncommon and multi-resistant pathogen, in a pediatric patient with a long-term vascular access device placed for chemotherapy treatment. The infection was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin antibiotic-lock therapy. This is the first report on successful salvage of a long-term device colonized by multi-resistant Chryseobacterium indologenes.
July 4, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675243/biotech-innovations-in-the-prevention-of-respiratory-infectious-diseases
#16
Valeria Cento, Silvia Barbaliscia, Carlo Federico Perno
review is the creation of a biocompatible, biogel-based nasal filter enriched with AgNPs. Compared to traditional personal protective equipment (PPE), this type of nasal filter has the advantage of combining the antibacterial and antiviral activity of AgNPs with the common filtration capacity shared by other PPEs. This dual mechanism means that AgNP-enriched nasal filters serve to reduce the infecting microbial-load and protect the lower airways, without interfering with the normal respiratory capacity (airflow-resistance <5%)...
July 4, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675242/the-sigma-factor-sigd-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-putatively-enhances-gene-expression-of-the-septum-site-determining-protein-under-stressful-environments
#17
Miguel A Ares, Nora Rios-Sarabia, Miguel A De la Cruz, Sandra Rivera-Gutiérrez, Lázaro García-Morales, Lizbel León-Solís, Clara Espitia, Sabino Pacheco, Jorge F Cerna-Cortés, Cecilia A Helguera-Repetto, María Jesús García, Jorge A González-Y-Merchand
This work examined the expression of the septum site determining gene (ssd) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CDC1551 and its ΔsigD mutant under different growing conditions. The results showed an up-regulation of ssd during stationary phase and starvation conditions, but not during in vitro dormancy, suggesting a putative role for SigD in the control of ssd expression mainly under lack-of-nutrients environments. Furthermore, we elucidated a putative link between ssd expression and cell elongation of bacilli at stationary phase...
July 4, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920631/pneumocystis-jirovecii-genotyping-experience-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-northern-italy
#18
Pietro Pini, Carlotta F Orsi, Annunziata La Regina, Samuele Peppoloni, Federica Berrilli, Elisabetta Blasi, David Di Cave
Respiratory samples from Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) cases collected at a tertiary-care university hospital in Modena were analyzed for the presence of specific polymorphisms in the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (mtLSU-rRNA). Retrospectively, 57 cases were selected in a six-year period and 34 out of the 57 processed BAL samples returned PCR positive results, thus allowing further molecular analysis. The following P.jirovecii genotype distribution was observed: genotype 3 (50%), genotype 2 (23%), genotype 1 (18%), genotypes 1 or 4 (9%)...
July 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675246/clinical-and-in-vitro-efficacy-of-colistin-plus-vancomycin-and-rifampin-against-colistin-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-causing-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#19
Alessandra Oliva, Alessia Cipolla, Vincenzo Vullo, Mario Venditti, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Marco Falcone
We present the case of a patient with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by a pan-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii successfully treated with the combination colistin plus vancomycin plus rifampin, whose in vitro activity was investigated by checkerboard method and killing testing. Furthermore, the serum bactericidal activity (SBA) was assessed. Our case shows that an innovative regimen consisting of colistin plus antimicrobials active only against Gram-positive microorganisms might represent a valid therapeutic option for severe infections caused by colistin-resistant A...
July 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513810/epstein-barr-virus-encephalitis-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#20
Jillian S Y S Y, Zhi Mei Low, Iain Abbott, Lani Shochet, John Kanellis, Richard A Kitching, Tony M Korman
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is typically associated with post transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after solid organ and stem cell transplantation. However, it is rarely associated with neurological complications. We report a case of severe encephalitis complicating primary EBV infection six months post renal transplantation, and review the literature on EBV encephalitis in solid organ transplantation in adults. A 55-year-old male presented 6 months post cadaveric renal transplant with headache, fever and confusion...
July 2017: New Microbiologica
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