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New Microbiologica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368078/genotyping-of-toxoplasma-gondii-strain-directly-from-human-csf-samples-of-congenital-toxoplasmosis-clinical-case
#1
Chiara Pagliuca, Gabiria Pastore, Elena Scaglione, Annalisa Migliucci, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Annunziata Gaetana Cicatiello, Elena Salvatore, Marco Picardi, Josè Camilla Sammartino, Maria Consiglio Buonocore, Pasquale Martinelli, Emilia Iaccarino, Roberta Colicchio, Paola Salvatore
This report describes a case of congenital toxoplasmosis in a newborn in Southern Italy. A pregnant mother had been admitted at the 20th week of her pregnancy on account of pharyngodynia and laterocervical lymphadenopathy. Although serological testing of the mother's serum documented a seroconversion with positive IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies during II trimester, the woman refused to perform prenatal diagnosis for congenital toxoplasmosis. Fetal ultrasound scan already showed mild asymmetrical triventricular hydrocephaly and cerebral calcifications...
April 3, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368077/cowpox-virus-infection-in-a-child-after-contact-with-a-domestic-cat-a-case-report
#2
Ryszard Żaba, Magdalena Jałowska, Michał J Kowalczyk, Monika Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Zygmunt Adamski, Andrzej Szkaradkiewicz
Human cowpox represents a seldom diagnosed zoonosis but this diagnosis should be considered more frequently as the number of cases has increased in recent years. We describe a case of cowpox in an 11-year-old boy following regular direct daily contact with a domestic cat. The 11-year-old patient, an otherwise healthy boy, demonstrated skin ulceration located at his chin, with enlargement of regional lymph nodes and fever reaching 39°C. The diagnosis of cowpox was made on the basis of PCR involving DNA isolated from a scab covering the skin lesion...
April 3, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368076/antimicrobial-consumption-and-antimicrobial-resistance-a-snapshot-of-an-italian-neuromuscular-rehabilitation-center
#3
Giuseppina Barberi, Maria Cristina De Cola, De Cola Dell'Utri, Sara Melardi, Bernardo Alagna, Placido Bramanti, Antonio Cascio
The paper presents a snapshot of the incidence of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms and antimicrobial consumption in an Italian rehabilitation center over a two-year period (2014-2015). Data on microorganism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were obtained from the diagnostic laboratory of the hospital. A set of indicators was assessed, including the incidence density of resistant isolates per 1000 patient-days (IDRI). Data on antimicrobial consumption, semi-annually, obtained from the hospital pharmacy, were expressed as Defined Daily Dose (DDD) per 1000 patient-days...
April 3, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368075/clinical-features-and-outcome-of-hospitalized-patients-with-hsv-1-dna-in-the-lower-respiratory-tract
#4
Francesca Pica, Marco Ciotti, Massimo Maurici, Cristina Buè, Paolo Nardi, Gabriella Lucà, Gabriella Moroni, Paola Rogliani, Carlo Federico Perno, Antonio Volpi
The aim of this study was to define the clinical impact of Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) DNA detection in the low respiratory tract of hospitalized patients. Forty-nine patients admitted to the University Hospital Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy, from May 2013 to June 2014, were analysed. Inclusion criteria were the presence or absence of HSV-1 DNA in clinical routine bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens. Nineteen individuals were positive (cases) and 30 negative (controls) for the presence of HSV-1 DNA. The two groups were matched for age, gender and month of BAL collection...
April 3, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368074/management-of-carbapenem-resistant-k-pneumoniae-in-allogenic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-the-turin-bundle
#5
Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa, Silvia Corcione, Stefania Raviolo, Benedetto Bruno, Alessandro Busca
Carbapenem resistance has evolved rapidly since 2001 and the distribution of Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) is currently a public health concern worldwide. In the haematological setting, especially in allogenic transplant, CR-KP infections were associated with a mortality up to 65%. Aim of this report is to describe the management of patients colonized by CR-Kp and undergoing allo-HSCT with a multiple-step intervention strategy: the "Turin bundle". Steps included oral gentamicin (GO) within 20 days before allo-HSCT, avoidance of levofloxacin prophylaxis during neutropenia, treatment of febrile neutropenia with tigecycline 100 mg bid and piperacillin-tazobactam at standard dosages and early appropriate combination therapy for patients with severe sepsis...
April 3, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368073/molecular-analysis-of-the-ramra-locus-in-clinical-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-with-reduced-susceptibility-to-tigecycline
#6
Cristina Belmar Campos, Martin Aepfelbacher, Moritz Hentschke
Mutations in ramR, a negative regulator of ramA which stimulates transcription of acrA/-B encoding the multidrug efflux pump AcrAB-TolC, were recently shown to result in reduced susceptibility to tigecycline in Klebsiella pneumoniae. We analysed six non-duplicate K. pneumoniae isolates with elevated MICs to tigecycline. All isolates showed transcriptional up-regulation of ramA and acrB as demonstrated by Northern blot and quantitative real-time PCR. Sequencing of the ramR gene revealed deletions in five of the isolates and a premature stop codon in one isolate...
April 3, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368072/review-of-hpv-related-diseases-and-cancers
#7
Pina Brianti, Eduardo De Flammineis, Santo Raffaele Mercuri
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a double-stranded circular DNA virus belonging to the papillomavirus family. It is transmitted by skin-to-skin or mucosa-to-mucosa contact and enters the body via cutaneous or mucosal trauma. HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease, although it is usually cured by the immune system. Worldwide, the risk of being infected at least once in a lifetime among both men and women is 50%. HPV infection causes common and anogenital warts, as well as other non-dermatological diseases...
April 3, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368071/long-acting-agents-for-hiv-infection-biological-aspects-role-in-treatment-and-prevention-and-patient-s-perspective
#8
Stefano Rusconi, Simone Marcotullio, Antonella Cingolani
Current cART regimens are highly potent and well tolerated, but long-term toxicities, drug-drug interactions, lifetime costs and scarce option for multiclass failed patients could limit the efficacy of treatment itself. Long-acting formulations of antiretrovirals, which could potentially replace daily tablets, have been developed and are under investigation for prevention and treatment of HIV infection. Cabotegravir and rilpivirine represent the first drugs studied in this context. The aim of this review is to summarize the biological bases, the available information on completed and ongoing clinical trials and the potential development of long-acting regimens for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection...
April 3, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255605/an-epidemiological-study-on-vaginitis-in-6-150-women-of-reproductive-age-in-shanghai
#9
Haixia Wang, Zhonghua Huang, Zhaoxia Wu, Xulin Qi, Dongfang Lin
The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for vaginitis, the proportion of pathogens, and cognition of reproductive age patients on the harmful effects of vaginitis, its risk factors, and treatment. This retrospective study enrolled 6,150 patients admitted to the Shanghai Jinshan Central Hospital from 2011 to 2015 with a chief complaint of abnormal vaginal discharge. A questionnaire was designed to survey the cognition of patients on the harmful effects of vaginitis. Routine gynecological examinations and laboratory tests were performed and the risk factors for contracting vaginitis were analyzed by multi-factor logistic regression analysis...
March 3, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255604/detection-of-a-new-jcv-strain-of-genotype-a-in-a-subpopulation-of-colorectal-adenocarcinomas-in-tunisia
#10
Wafa Toumi, Alessandro Ripalti, Luigi Ricciardiello, Abderraouf Cherif, Dalila Gargouri, Ahmed Bouhafa, Jamel Kharrat, Slim Jarboui, Hichem Benrhouma, Mohamed Zili, Ridha Khelifa
The etiology of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains elusive in spite of major advances in knowledge of this disease and related risk factors. Several studies report the detection of human polyomavirus JC (JCV) in colorectal tumors and some suggest its association with CRC. Since many known human virus associations with cancer are linked to factors such as ethnic and geographical origin, it is interesting to search for the postulated association of JCV with CRC in different populations and regions. In this perspective, the present work was undertaken to assess the presence of JCV in CRC tumors in Tunisia...
March 3, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255603/intraoperative-diagnosis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-coagulase-negative-staphylococcus-using-xpert-mrsa-sa-ssti-assay-in-prosthetic-joint-infection
#11
Andrea Sambri, Giovanni Pignatti, Matteo Romagnoli, Davide Donati, Maurilio Marcacci, Matteo Cadossi
The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the performance of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tool Xpert MRSA/SA SSTI test (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) on periprosthetic samples from a cohort of patients with suspected prosthetic joint infection (PJI). Seventy adult patients were included in this prospective study. On the basis of the preoperative evaluation, 39 patients were clinically considered to have a PJI, whereas 31 were presumed to suffer from an aseptic mobilization of the implant. Xpert MRSA/SA SSTI identified 4 out of 4 MRSA, 7 out of 7 MSSA, and 14 out of 16 methicillin resistant CoNS...
March 1, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255602/combination-of-thioridazine-and-dicloxacillin-as-a-possible-treatment-strategy-of-staphylococci
#12
Kristian Severin Rasmussen, Marianne Ø Poulsen, Kirstine Jacobsen, Marianne N Skov, Hans Jørn Kolmos, Birgitte H Kallipolitis, Janne K Klitgaard
We have previously shown that the phenothiazine, thioridazine, acts in synergy with the beta-lactam antibiotic, dicloxacillin, to kill methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we investigated whether synergy by combining these two drugs could also be observed in vancomycin intermediate susceptible S. aureus (VISA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE). Synergy was observed in three of four tested VISA strains, suggesting that the thickening of cell wall does not interfere with the effects of thioridazine...
March 1, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072892/use-of-statins-and-aspirin-to-prevent-cardiovascular-disease-among-hiv-positive-patients-a-survey-among-italian-hiv-physicians
#13
Paolo Maggi, Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Stefania Cicalini, Maurizio D'Abbraccio, Gabriella D'Ettorre, Antonio Di Biagio, Canio Martinelli, Giuseppe Nunnari, Stefano Rusconi, Laura Sighinolfi, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Nicola Squillace
We conducted a survey among Italian HIV specialists to study the utilization of statins and aspirin, administering a questionnaire aimed at investigating their use, the use of guidelines and scores, and the management of interactions. The answers were uniform in the different geographic areas. The majority directly prescribe statins and 43% of them prescribe aspirin. The majority follows guidelines and utilize scores to calculate the CV risk. Our survey demonstrates the commitment and autonomy in prescribing statins and aspirin of Italian physicians...
January 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072890/candida-albicans-survival-growth-and-biofilm-formation-are-differently-affected-by-mouthwashes-an-in-vitro-study
#14
Simona Paulone, Giulia Malavasi, Andrea Ardizzoni, Carlotta Francesca Orsi, Samuele Peppoloni, Rachele Giovanna Neglia, Elisabetta Blasi
Candida albicans is the most common cause of oral mycoses. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the susceptibility of C. albicans to mouthwashes, in terms of growth, survival and biofilm formation. Candida albicans, laboratory strain SC5314, and 7 commercial mouthwashes were employed: 3 with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate; 1 with 0.06% chlorhexidine digluconate and 250 ppm F- sodium fluoride; 3 with fluorine-containing molecules. None of the mouthwashes contained ethanol in their formulations...
January 9, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217817/a-high-pct-level-correlates-with-disease-severity-in-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-children
#15
Novella Carannante, Marco Rossi, Fiorentino Fraganza, Grazia Coppola, Daniela Chiesa, Vittorio Attanasio, Francesco Sbrana, Antonio Corcione, Carlo Tascini
Most clinicians in developed countries have limited experience in making clinical assessments of malaria disease severity and/or monitoring high-level parasitemia in febrile patients with imported malaria. Hyperparasitemia is a risk factor for severe P. falciparum malaria, and procalcitonin (PCT) has recently been related to the severity of malaria. In developed countries, where not all hospital have skilled personnel to count parasitemia, a rapid test might be useful for the prompt diagnosis of malaria but unfortunately these tests are not able to count the number of parasites...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217816/candida-albicans-survival-growth-and-biofilm-formation-are-differently-affected-by-mouthwashes-an-in-vitro-study
#16
Simona Paulone, Giulia Malavasi, Andrea Ardizzoni, Carlotta Francesca Orsi, Samuele Peppoloni, Rachele Giovanna Neglia, Elisabetta Blasi
Candida albicans is the most common cause of oral mycoses. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vitro the susceptibility of C. albicans to mouthwashes, in terms of growth, survival and biofilm formation. Candida albicans, laboratory strain SC5314, and 7 commercial mouthwashes were employed: 3 with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate; 1 with 0.06% chlorhexidine digluconate and 250 ppm F- sodium fluoride; 3 with fluorine-containing molecules. None of the mouthwashes contained ethanol in their formulations...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217815/hiv-and-kidney-a-dangerous-liaison
#17
Alessia Bertoldi, Elisa De Crignis, Anna Miserocchi, Isabella Bon, Giuseppina Musumeci, Serena Longo, Vanessa D'Urbano, Gaetano La Manna, Leonardo Calza, Maria Carla Re
Kidney disease represents an important health concern among HIV-infected individuals, with an estimated prevalence ranging between 2.4 and 17%. The widespread use of antiretroviral drugs has changed the epidemiology of kidney disease in the HIV positive population, drastically reducing the percentage of patients affected by HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), a complication characterized by apoptosis and de-differentiation of renal epithelial cells and podocytes. However, impaired kidney function remains an important issue among HIV-infected patients because of their long-term exposure to antiretroviral drugs and the growing burden of traditional risk factors associated with chronic renal disease...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072891/molecular-epidemiology-and-resistome-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-st11-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strain-containing-multiple-copies-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#18
Roshan DSouza, Naina Adren Pinto, Insik Hwang, Hwang Younjee, YoungLag Cho, Hyunsoo Kim, Dongeun Yong, Jongrak Choi, Kyungwon Lee, Yunsop Chong
The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism responsible for multidrug resistance in ST11 Klebsiella pneumoniae YMC 2013/7/B3993 containing multiple copies of ESBL genes using multiple parallel sequencing technology. In-depth analysis of the strain revealed multiple copies of ESBL genes, 2 copies of blaSHV-12 and 1 copy of blaCTX-M-15. Furthermore, 1 copy of blaOXA-9 and 3 copies of blaTEM-1 were found. The insertion of Tn1331 was detected, which consisted of blaOXA-9, blaTEM-1, aac(6')-lb-cr, and aadA1 genes...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072889/in-depth-analysis-of-compartmentalization-of-hiv-1-matrix-protein-p17-in-pbmc-and-plasma
#19
Marina Selleri, Riccardo Dolcetti, Francesca Caccuri, Emanuela Giombini, Gabriella Rozera, Isabella Abbate, Alessia Mammone, Stefania Zanussi, Debora Martorelli, Simona Fiorentini, Arnaldo Caruso, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi
HIV-1 p17 plays an important role in the virus life-cycle and disease pathogenesis. Recent studies indicated a high heterogeneity of p17. A high number of insertions in the p17 carboxy-terminal region have been more frequently detected in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), suggesting a role of altered p17 in lymphomagenesis. Based on p17 heterogeneity, possible PBMC/plasma compartmentalization of p17 variants was explored by ultra-deep pyrosequencing in five NHL patients. The high variability of p17 with insertions at the carboxy-terminal region was confirmed in plasma and observed for the first time in proviral genomes...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072888/clinical-and-virological-predictors-of-sustained-response-with-an-interferon-based-simeprevir-regimen-for-patients-with-chronic-genotype-1-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#20
Gianpiero D'Offizi, Calogero Cammà, Chiara Taibi, Michael Schlag, Karin Weber, Maria Palma, Ralph DeMasi, Katrien Janssen, James Witek, Raffaella Lionetti
Simeprevir plus peg-interferon/ribavirin (PR) is approved to treat chronic hepatitis C (HCV) genotype 1 (GT1) and GT4 infection. This study aimed to assess baseline and on-treatment the factors predictive of sustained virologic response 12-weeks post-treatment (SVR12) in patients receiving 12 weeks of simeprevir plus PR followed by 12 or 36 weeks of PR. Data from participants in four studies (QUEST-1, QUEST-2, ATTAIN and PROMISE) were pooled to examine the efficacy and safety of simeprevir+PR in HCV GT1 patients...
January 2017: New Microbiologica
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