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New Microbiologica

Aurora Piazza, Francesco Comandatore, Francesca Romeri, Cristina Pagani, Vittoria Mattioni Marchetti, Matteo Brilli, Simona Panelli, Roberta Migliavacca, Annalisa Ridolfo, Pietro Olivieri, Maria Rita Gismondo, Claudio Bandi, Sara Giordana Rimoldi
We describe two multi drug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates from an acute hospital in Milan. Both strains, isolated from a surgical wound sample and a surveillance rectal swab respectively, were positive for a blaNDM-type gene by Xpert Carba-R test. The whole-genome sequence characterization disclosed several resistance determinants: blaNDM-5, blaCMY-42, blaTEM-198, rmtB, mphA. The two isolates belonged to phylogenetic group A, sequence type (ST) 1702 and serotype O89:H9...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Cristiano Salata, Paola Lisotto, Caterina Boldrin, Ettore De Canale, Alessandra Piccirillo, Arianna Calistri, Giorgio Palù
Listeriosis is a disease usually associated with the consumption of low-processed ready-to-eat food products contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes. In Italy, listeriosis has an incidence of 0.19-0.27 cases per 100000 persons. Since detailed information concerning the molecular characterization of listeriosis in the Italian Veneto region is currently lacking, we analyzed 36 L. monocytogenes clinical isolates collected between 2009 and 2014. Results show that the serotype 1/2a was the most represented among the tested samples...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Elisa Gabanti, Daniele Lilleri, Lucia Scaramuzzi, Paola Zelini, Teresa Rampino, Giuseppe Gerna
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-specific T-cell response in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) helps to identify patients at risk for severe infection. To assess the T-cell response, this study compared our in-house developed reference test, based on T-cell (both CD4+ and CD8+) stimulation by autologous HCMV-infected dendritic cells (iDC) and subsequent detection by cytokine flow cytometry (CFC-iDC), with the Quanti-FERON-CMV (QF-CMV) assay. Fifty-three HCMV-seropositive KTR were enrolled. At the DNAemia peak, 33 (62%) had low viral load (LVL, <3x105 DNA copies/mL) self-resolving infection, 19 (36%) high viral load (HVL, >3x105 DNA copies/mL) infection treated with antivirals, and one LVL patient (2%) tissue-invasive disease alone...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
David Redi, Chiara Spertilli Raffaelli, Barbara Rossetti, Andrea De Luca, Francesca Montagnani
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in both community and hospital settings. It is a significant etiological agent to treat in healthcare-related infections due to both its ability to cause invasive infection as well as to form biofilm on biomaterials and the high prevalence of resistance to first line antibiotics. The most challenging preventive strategy is vaccine development to guarantee a full and durable protection from staphylococcal diseases in all different high-risk populations, even if the lack of a known correlate of protection from S...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Filippo Murina, Franco Vicariotto, Stefania Di Francesco
The aim of this non-interventional, observational, multicentre, open-label study was to assess the effectiveness of a vaginal gel containing extracts of Thymus vulgaris and Eugenia caryophyllus in conjunction with two specific lactobacilli strains (Lactobacillus fermentum LF10 and Lactobacillus plantarum LP02) specifically formulated in slow-release vaginal capsules, in treating bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) or recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis disease (RVVC) [Estromineral Probiogel (EPB) in Italy, or Saugella Probiogel; Meda Pharma - Mylan Group]...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Francesca Montagnani, Barbara Rossetti, Alessandro Vannoni, Maria Grazia Cusi, Andrea De Luca
An etiological diagnosis of respiratory infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is particularly challenging due to the lack of a definite standard test. This study aimed to analyse the correlation and combination of diagnostic results obtained from direct and indirect assays (Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA by PCR and serology) in use at a first level diagnostic laboratory. Samples from patients with respiratory infections tested for M. pneumoniae during routine clinical practice were retrospectively analysed...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Francesca Bonvicini, Mariacaterina Lianza, Manuela Mandrone, Ferruccio Poli, Giovanna Angela Gentilomi, Fabiana Antognoni
Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) cause several clinically relevant syndromes in both adults and neonates. Despite the availability of efficient anti-HSV agents, the search for new therapeutic approaches is highly encouraged due to the increasing drug resistance of virus strains. Medicinal plants represent a source of potential bioactive compounds. In this context we evaluated the anti-herpetic activity of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br., a plant widely used in traditional Indian medicine. The hydroalcoholic extract prepared from roots was characterized by NMR and HPLC analysis and assayed in vitro by CPE reduction and virus infectivity assays to define its anti-viral effect...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Gonca Erkose Genc, Melda Demir, Görkem Yaman, Begum Kayar, Fatih Koksal, Dilek Satana
Nowadays, there is a rising worldwide incidence of diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species, especially in immunocompromised patients and those with underlying chronic pulmonary diseases. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) became a method of choice for the identification of NTM species. The aim of this study was to evaluate MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of NTM isolates compared to the PCR-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA)-hsp65 method...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Maria Pia Conte, Fabiana Superti, Mariagrazia Moio, Maria Grazia Ammendolia, Catia Longhi, Marta Aleandri, Massimiliano Marazzato, Paola Goldoni, Paola Parisi, Zachary Borab, Anna Teresa Palamara, Bruno Carlesimo
Capsular contracture is one of the most common complications of implant-based breast augmentation. Despite its prevalence, the etiology of capsular contracture remains controversial although the surface texture of the breast implant, the anatomical position of the prosthesis and the presence of bacterial biofilm could be considered trigger factors. In fact, all medical implants are susceptible to bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. The present study demonstrated the presence of microbial biofilm constituted by cocci in a breast implant obtained from a patient with Baker grade II capsular contracture...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Roberto Rossotti, Chiara Rusconi, Chiara Baiguera, Vittorio Ruggero Zilioli, Giovanni Grillo, Marco Merli, Emanuele Ravano, Massimo Puoti
The role of anti-HCV direct-acting agents (DAAs) is well described in HCV-related lymphoproliferative disorders, whereas few data are available on their use in other malignancies, such as aggressive T-cell lymphomas requiring autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). We describe two oncologic cirrhotic patients treated with DAAs who underwent ASCT achieving cure for both diseases. Co-administration of sofosbuvir with cisplatin led an unexpected severe kidney impairment that did not resolve 30 weeks after drug exposure...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Valeria Pietropaolo, Carla Prezioso, Francesca Bagnato, Guido Antonelli
John Cunningham virus (JCV), the etiological agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), is the first human polyomavirus described. After asymptomatic primary infection which occurs in childhood, the virus spreads by the hematogenous route from the primary site of infection to secondary sites including kidneys, lymphoid tissues, peripheral blood leukocytes, and brain to establish latent infection. During immunosuppression the virus undergoes molecular rearrangements that allow it to replicate in glial tissues causing PML...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Antonio Sorlózano-Puerto, José Antonio Carrillo-Ávila, Miguel Gutiérrez-Soto, José María Navarro-Marí, José Gutiérrez-Fernández
Campylobacter spp. are one of the most frequent causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Although severe diarrhea is not highly prevalent, the risk of a fatal outcome is increased when infection is caused by strains resistant to macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and/or tetracyclines. It is therefore necessary to test the susceptibility of these bacteria to other antibiotics such as colistin, which may serve as an alternative therapeutic option in these situations. The E-test was used to investigate the activity of erythromycin and colistin against 30 clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Claudio Foschi, Melissa Salvo, Antonietta D'Antuono, Valeria Gaspari, Nicoletta Banzola, Roberto Cevenini, Antonella Marangoni
Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Ureaplasma parvum (UP), Mycoplasma hominis (MH) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are the most common Mollicutes of the female genital tract. Although many studies have addressed their possible role in the vaginal ecosystem, many aspects remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vaginal presence of ureaplasmas/mycoplasmas in women with different clinical conditions. By means of quantitative PCR assays, the prevalence and load of each Mollicute were assessed in different groups of pre-menopausal women: 'healthy' (n=29), women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) (n=21), patients with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection (n=25) and subjects with vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (VVC) (n=23)...
July 2018: New Microbiologica
Fulvia Mazzaferri, Maddalena Cordioli, Edoardo Segato, Irene Adami, Laura Maccacaro, Piersandro Sette, Angelo Cazzadori, Ercole Concia, Anna Maria Azzini
This study was conducted reviewing clinical records of 14 patients affected by nocardiosis over 5 years in a tertiary care hospital. Nocardia abscessus was responsible for one third of infections, deviating significantly from the results reported by other epidemiological investigations and highlighting the key role of molecular identification tests. Indeed, a precise identification of species is crucial for the determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns and, consequently, for the choice of antibiotic treatment...
April 2018: New Microbiologica
Marco Borderi, Gioacchino Angarano, Andrea Antinori, Antonio Chirianni, Paola Cinque, Antonella D'Arminio Monforte, Antonio Di Biagio, Giovanni Di Perri, Massimo Galli, Andrea Gori, Adriano Lazzarin, Cristina Mussini, Carlo Federico Perno, Tiziana Quirino, Giuliano Rizzardini, Leonardo Calza, Pierluigi Viale, Benedetto Acone, Massimo Andreoni
We propose a multidimensional first-level diagnostic assessment easy to use in routine clinical practice to allow infectious disease specialists to have a general and complete overview of persons living with HIV. Following the Delphi method, articles published from January 1, 2011 on controlled trials, clinical reports and observational studies dealing specifically with HIV and its co-morbidities were selected for review by the authors. Participants in the poll were selected among clinicians and infectious diseases specialists, working in 38 different dedicated HIV centres in Italy...
April 2018: New Microbiologica
Giulia Piccirilli, Angela Chiereghin, Liliana Gabrielli, Maddalena Giannella, Diego Squarzoni, Gabriele Turello, Silvia Felici, Caterina Vocale, Roberta Zuntini, Dino Gibertoni, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Simone Ambretti, Tiziana Lazzarotto
Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) such as meningitis/encephalitis (ME) require rapid identification of causative pathogens for effective treatment. This study evaluated the analytical performance and clinical utility of a fully automated multiplex PCR test to improve the microbiological diagnostic workup of ME. Seventy-seven cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 77 patients with suspected ME were studied. The samples were tested by FilmArray™ (FA) ME Panel test and the results were compared with those obtained using conventional microbiological procedures (CMP)...
April 2018: New Microbiologica
Antonio Teri, Samantha Sottotetti, Arianna Biffi, Daniela Girelli, Monica D'Accico, Milena Arghittu, Carla Colombo, Fabiola Corti, Giovanna Pizzamiglio, Lisa Cariani
Bacteria from the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are capable of causing severe infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Bcc infection is often extremely difficult to treat due to its intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics. In addition, it seems to speed up the decline of lung function and is considered a contraindication for lung transplantation in CF. This study investigates the species of the Bcc strains recovered from chronically infected CF subjects by means of: isolation, identification methods and complete recA nucleotide sequences of 151 samples...
April 2018: New Microbiologica
Fabrizio Pantanella, Valerio Iebba, Francesco Mura, Luciana Dini, Valentina Totino, Bruna Neroni, Giulia Bonfiglio, Trancassini Maria, Claudio Passariello, Serena Schippa
The present study aimed to characterize the behavior of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. B. bacteriovorus was co-cultured with S. aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus mutans, in planktonic and sessile conditions. Co-cultures were studied by Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), turbidimetry, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and sequencing of gene Bd0108 of B. bacteriovorus. Results indicated that B. bacteriovorus comparably inhibited planktonic growth of P...
April 2018: New Microbiologica
Cristiano Salata, Denis Munegato, Francesco Martelli, Cristina Parolin, Arianna Calistri, Aldo Baritussio, Giorgio Palù
Ebola Virus Disease is one of the most lethal transmissible infections characterized by a high fatality rate. Several research studies have aimed to identify effective antiviral agents. Amiodarone, a drug used for the treatment of arrhythmias, has been shown to inhibit filovirus infection in vitro by acting at the early step of the viral replication cycle. Here we demonstrate that amiodarone reduces virus binding to target cells and slows down the progression of the viral particles along the endocytic pathway...
April 2018: New Microbiologica
Elisa Colella, Dario Cattaneo, Laura Galli, Sara Baldelli, Emilio Clementi, Massimo Galli, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonella Castagna, Stefano Rusconi, Vincenzo Spagnuolo
The 96-week results of the Monotherapy Once a Day with Atazanavir/r (MODAt) study [NCT01511809] showed an inferior virological efficacy of atazanavir (ATV)/ritonavir monotherapy versus triple therapy, which was promptly retrieved by the reintroduction of nucleoside/nucleotide inhibitors of reverse transcriptase [N(n)RTIs]. We aimed to identify potential relationships between ATV exposure and clinical outcome in HIV-1 subjects treated with ATV/ritonavir monotherapy [ATV/r 300/100 mg] versus ATV/ritonavir triple therapy [ATV/r 300/100 mg+2NRTIs]...
April 2018: New Microbiologica
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