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Science and Engineering Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30182214/on-some-possible-ramifications-of-the-microplastics-in-fish-case
#1
Bor Luen Tang
Cases of research misconduct in the ecological and environmental sciences appear to be relatively rare. A controversial paper published in Science in 2016 documenting the effects of microplastics on the feeding and innate behaviours of fish larvae has recently been retracted, with the authors found guilty of scientific misconduct. In addition to the expected fallout, such as individual and institutional reputational damage from a research misconduct finding, this case has two possibly wider-ranging ramifications...
September 4, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30143956/the-ethics-of-technology-response-to-critics
#2
REVIEW
Martin Peterson
The Ethics of Technology: A Geometric Analysis of Five Moral Principles proposes five moral principles for analyzing ethical issues related to engineering and technology. The objections raised by several authors to the multidimensional scaling technique used in the book reveal a lack of familiarity with this widely used technique.
August 24, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117107/critiquing-the-concept-of-bci-illiteracy
#3
Margaret C Thompson
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a form of technology that read a user's neural signals to perform a task, often with the aim of inferring user intention. They demonstrate potential in a wide range of clinical, commercial, and personal applications. But BCIs are not always simple to operate, and even with training some BCI users do not operate their systems as intended. Many researchers have described this phenomenon as "BCI illiteracy," and a body of research has emerged aiming to characterize, predict, and solve this perceived problem...
August 16, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855866/working-with-research-integrity-guidance-for-research-performing-organisations-the-bonn-printeger-statement
#4
Ellen-Marie Forsberg, Frank O Anthun, Sharon Bailey, Giles Birchley, Henriette Bout, Carlo Casonato, Gloria González Fuster, Bert Heinrichs, Serge Horbach, Ingrid Skjæggestad Jacobsen, Jacques Janssen, Matthias Kaiser, Inge Lerouge, Barend van der Meulen, Sarah de Rijcke, Thomas Saretzki, Margit Sutrop, Marta Tazewell, Krista Varantola, Knut Jørgen Vie, Hub Zwart, Mira Zöller
This document presents the Bonn PRINTEGER Consensus Statement: Working with Research Integrity-Guidance for research performing organisations. The aim of the statement is to complement existing instruments by focusing specifically on institutional responsibilities for strengthening integrity. It takes into account the daily challenges and organisational contexts of most researchers. The statement intends to make research integrity challenges recognisable from the work-floor perspective, providing concrete advice on organisational measures to strengthen integrity...
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940133/ethical-design-of-intelligent-assistive-technologies-for-dementia-a-descriptive-review
#5
REVIEW
Marcello Ienca, Tenzin Wangmo, Fabrice Jotterand, Reto W Kressig, Bernice Elger
The use of Intelligent Assistive Technology (IAT) in dementia care opens the prospects of reducing the global burden of dementia and enabling novel opportunities to improve the lives of dementia patients. However, with current adoption rates being reportedly low, the potential of IATs might remain under-expressed as long as the reasons for suboptimal adoption remain unaddressed. Among these, ethical and social considerations are critical. This article reviews the spectrum of IATs for dementia and investigates the prevalence of ethical considerations in the design of current IATs...
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815460/developing-a-system-for-processing-health-data-of-children-using-digitalized-toys-ethical-and-privacy-concerns-for-the-internet-of-things-paradigm
#6
REVIEW
María Luisa Martín-Ruíz, Celia Fernández-Aller, Eloy Portillo, Javier Malagón, Cristina Del Barrio
EDUCERE (Ubiquitous Detection Ecosystem to Care and Early Stimulation for Children with Developmental Disorders) is a government funded research and development project. EDUCERE objectives are to investigate, develop, and evaluate innovative solutions for society to detect changes in psychomotor development through the natural interaction of children with toys and everyday objects, and perform stimulation and early attention activities in real environments such as home and school. In the EDUCERE project, an ethical impact assessment is carried out linked to a minors' data protection rights...
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812222/ethics-and-phishing-experiments
#7
David B Resnik, Peter R Finn
Phishing is a fraudulent form of email that solicits personal or financial information from the recipient, such as a password, username, or social security or bank account number. The scammer may use the illicitly obtained information to steal the victim's money or identity or sell the information to another party. The direct costs of phishing on consumers are exceptionally high and have risen substantially over the past 12 years. Phishing experiments that simulate real world conditions can provide cybersecurity experts with valuable knowledge they can use to develop effective countermeasures and prevent people from being duped by phishing emails...
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808881/a-proposal-to-detect-the-double-submission-of-a-manuscript-sent-for-review
#8
Manjur Kolhar, Abdalla Alameen, Safar Bin Bkhit AlMudara
Along with the rapid growth of editorial systems and publishers, the number of research articles is increasing, which creates a need for an effective dissemination strategy. Researchers commonly use editorial systems in a candid manner. However, when researchers concurrently submit the same contribution in more than one editorial system, it is considered unethical. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called DeMSum for detecting such duplicate submissions. DeMSum verifies a manuscript (MS) by processing the MS attributes that are accessed through the editorial system...
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776148/establishing-sensible-and-practical-guidelines-for-desk-rejections
#9
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Aceil Al-Khatib, Vedran Katavić, Helmar Bornemann-Cimenti
Publishing has become, in several respects, more challenging in recent years. Academics are faced with evolving ethics that appear to be more stringent in a bid to reduce scientific fraud, the emergence of science watchdogs that are now scrutinizing the published literature with critical eyes to hold academics, editors and publishers more accountable, and a barrage of checks and balances that are required between when a paper is submitted and eventually accepted, to ensure quality control. Scientists are often under increasing pressure to produce papers in an increasingly stringent publishing environment...
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726028/should-we-all-be-scientists-re-thinking-laboratory-research-as-a-calling
#10
Louise Bezuidenhout, Nathaniel A Warne
In recent years there have been major shifts in how the role of science-and scientists-are understood. The critical examination of scientific expertise within the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) are increasingly eroding notions of the "otherness" of scientists. It would seem to suggest that anyone can be a scientist-when provided with the appropriate training and access to data. In contrast, however, ethnographic evidence from the scientific community tells a different story. Scientists are quick to recognize that not everyone can-or should-be a scientist...
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721642/a-social-responsibility-guide-for-engineering-students-and-professionals-of-all-faith-traditions-an-overview
#11
Vito L Punzi
The development of the various themes of Catholic Social Teaching (CST) is based on numerous papal documents and ecclesiastical statements. While this paper provides a summary of a number of these documents, this paper focuses on two themes: the common good and care of the environment, and on three documents authored by Pope John Paul II in 1990, by Pope Benedict XVI in 2010, and by Pope Francis in 2015. By analyzing these documents from an engineer's perspective, the author proposes a model for Socially Responsible Engineering...
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721641/attributing-agency-to-automated-systems-reflections-on-human-robot-collaborations-and-responsibility-loci
#12
Sven Nyholm
Many ethicists writing about automated systems (e.g. self-driving cars and autonomous weapons systems) attribute agency to these systems. Not only that; they seemingly attribute an autonomous or independent form of agency to these machines. This leads some ethicists to worry about responsibility-gaps and retribution-gaps in cases where automated systems harm or kill human beings. In this paper, I consider what sorts of agency it makes sense to attribute to most current forms of automated systems, in particular automated cars and military robots...
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677028/why-nudges-coerce-experimental-evidence-on-the-architecture-of-regulation
#13
Adam Hill
Critics frequently argue that nudges are more covert, less transparent, and more difficult to monitor than traditional regulatory tools. Edward Glaeser, for example, argues that "[p]ublic monitoring of soft paternalism is much more difficult than public monitoring of hard paternalism". As one of the leading proponents of soft paternalism, Cass Sunstein, acknowledges, while "[m]andates and commands are highly visible", soft paternalism, "and some nudges in particular[,] may be invisible"...
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674931/why-we-should-create-artificial-offspring-meaning-and-the-collective-afterlife
#14
John Danaher
This article argues that the creation of artificial offspring could make our lives more meaningful (i.e. satisfy more meaning-relevant conditions of value). By 'artificial offspring' I mean beings that we construct, with a mix of human and non-human-like qualities. Robotic artificial intelligences are paradigmatic examples of the form. There are two reasons for thinking that the creation of such beings could make our lives more meaningful and valuable. The first is that the existence of a collective afterlife-i...
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660386/environmental-decision-making-on-acid-mine-drainage-issues-in-south-africa-an-argument-for-the-precautionary-principle
#15
T J Morodi, Charles Mpofu
This paper examines the issue of acid mine drainage in South Africa and environmental decision making processes that could be taken to mitigate the problem in the context of both conventional risk assessment and the precautionary principle. It is argued that conventional risk assessment protects the status quo and hence cannot be entirely relied upon as an effective tool to resolve environmental problems in the context of South Africa, a developing country with complex environmental health concerns. The complexity of the environmental issues is discussed from historical and political perspectives...
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653170/should-internet-researchers-use-ill-gotten-information
#16
David M Douglas
This paper describes how the ethical problems raised by scientific data obtained through harmful and immoral conduct (which, following Stan Godlovitch, is called ill-gotten information) may also emerge in cases where data is collected from the Internet. It describes the major arguments for and against using ill-gotten information in research, and shows how they may be applied to research that either collects information about the Internet itself or which uses data from questionable or unknown sources on the Internet...
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653169/trust-in-science-crispr-cas9-and-the-ban-on-human-germline-editing
#17
Stephan Guttinger
In 2015 scientists called for a partial ban on genome editing in human germline cells. This call was a response to the rapid development of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, a molecular tool that allows researchers to modify genomic DNA in living organisms with high precision and ease of use. Importantly, the ban was meant to be a trust-building exercise that promises a 'prudent' way forward. The goal of this paper is to analyse whether the ban can deliver on this promise. To do so the focus will be put on the precedent on which the current ban is modelled, namely the Asilomar ban on recombinant DNA technology...
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653168/science-as-a-matter-of-honour-how-accused-scientists-deal-with-scientific-fraud-in-japan
#18
Pablo A Pellegrini
Practices related to research misconduct seem to have been multiplied in recent years. Many cases of scientific fraud have been exposed publicly, and journals and academic institutions have deployed different measures worldwide in this regard. However, the influence of specific social and cultural environments on scientific fraud may vary from society to society. This article analyzes how scientists in Japan deal with accusations of scientific fraud. For such a purpose, a series of scientific fraud cases that took place in Japan has been reconstructed through diverse sources...
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653167/why-frankenstein-is-a-stigma-among-scientists
#19
Peter Nagy, Ruth Wylie, Joey Eschrich, Ed Finn
As one of the best known science narratives about the consequences of creating life, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818) is an enduring tale that people know and understand with an almost instinctive familiarity. It has become a myth reflecting people's ambivalent feelings about emerging science: they are curious about science, but they are also afraid of what science can do to them. In this essay, we argue that the Frankenstein myth has evolved into a stigma attached to scientists that focalizes the public's as well as the scientific community's negative reactions towards certain sciences and scientific practices...
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653165/living-donor-kidney-transplantation-in-developing-countries-walking-sometimes-the-tightrope-without-a-net%C3%A2
#20
LETTER
Ahmed Fouad Bouras, Noureddine Bettahar, Hadjar Toumi, Nassim Kazitani, Lamia Kara, Mustapha Benmansour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
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