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Science and Engineering Ethics

Stephanie J Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 29, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Željana Bašić, Ivana Kružić, Ivan Jerković, Ivan Buljan, Ana Marušić
Plagiarism is one of the most severe academic integrity issues. This study examined students' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism, tested their ability to recognize plagiarism, and explored the association of study levels and attendance in courses dealing with referencing rules and plagiarism with students' attitudes and knowledge. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted at the University of Split, comprising the students of all schools and study levels (n = 388). Overall, results indicate the students were not very familiar with referencing rules and did not perform well on either theoretical questions or practical examples...
October 24, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Ulrike Felt, Susanne Öchsner
The aim of this study is to investigate radio frequency identification (RFID) tagging as a form of sociotechnical experimentation and the kinds of sociotechnical futures at stake in this experimentation. For this purpose, a detailed analysis of a publicly available promotional video by a tag producer for the fashion industry, a sector widely using RFID tags, was analysed in detail. The results of the study indicated that the sociotechnical imaginary of RFID tagging gravitates around the core value of perfect sociotechnical efficiency...
October 24, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Rachel L Mintz, John D Loike, Ruth L Fischbach
The bioethical principle of autonomy is problematic regarding the future of the embryo who lacks the ability to self-advocate but will develop this defining human capacity in time. Recent experiments explore the use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 for germline engineering in the embryo, which alters future generations. The embryo's inability to express an autonomous decision is an obvious bioethical challenge of germline engineering. The philosopher Joel Feinberg acknowledged that autonomy is developing in children...
October 24, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Bing Ye, Shehroz S Khan, Belkacem Chikhaoui, Andrea Iaboni, Lori Schindel Martin, Kristine Newman, Angel Wang, Alex Mihailidis
Agitation is one of the most common behavioural and psychological symptoms in people living with dementia (PLwD). This behaviour can cause tremendous stress and anxiety on family caregivers and healthcare providers. Direct observation of PLwD is the traditional way to measure episodes of agitation. However, this method is subjective, bias-prone and timeconsuming. Importantly, it does not predict the onset of the agitation. Therefore, there is a need to develop a continuous monitoring system that can detect and/or predict the onset of agitation...
October 24, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Bartek Chomanski
This paper argues that even though massive technological unemployment will likely be one of the results of automation, we will not need to institute mass-scale redistribution of wealth (such as would be involved in, e.g., instituting universal basic income) to deal with its consequences. Instead, reasons are given for cautious optimism about the standards of living the newly unemployed workers may expect in the (almost) fully-automated future. It is not claimed that these predictions will certainly bear out...
October 24, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Jenny Krutzinna, Mariarosaria Taddeo, Luciano Floridi
This article argues that personal medical data should be made available for scientific research, by enabling and encouraging individuals to donate their medical records once deceased, similar to the way in which they can already donate organs or bodies. This research is part of a project on posthumous medical data donation developed by the Digital Ethics Lab at the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford. Ten arguments are provided to support the need to foster posthumous medical data donation...
October 24, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Christopher B Freelance
Regulatory ethical frameworks governing animal experimentation are a hallmark of modern biology. While most countries have ethical standards regarding the use of animals for scientific purposes, experiments involving insects are not included in these standards. With studies in recent years suggesting that insects may possess faculties akin to emotive states, there is growing discussion surrounding the ethical implications of scientific experimentation involving insects. This paper explores some of the current evidence for the ability of insects to experience emotive states and highlights how current formal animal experimentation ethics frameworks are unnecessary for governing the use of insects for scientific purposes...
September 27, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Rayan H M Alkhawtani, Hugo J A Adams, Thomas C Kwee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Donald F Sacco, Mitch Brown, Samuel V Bruton
The current study sought to determine research scientists' sensitivity to various justifications for engaging in behaviors typically considered to be questionable research practices (QRPs) by asking them to evaluate the appropriateness and ethical defensibility of each. Utilizing a within-subjects design, 107 National Institutes of Health principal investigators responded to an invitation to complete an online survey in which they read a series of research behaviors determined, in prior research, to either be ambiguous or unambiguous in their ethical defensibility...
September 26, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Sarah R Davies
Research integrity and misconduct have recently risen to public attention as policy issues. Concern has arisen about divergence between this policy discourse and the language and concerns of scientists. This interview study, carried out in Denmark with a cohort of highly internationalised natural scientists, explores how researchers talk about integrity and good science. It finds, first, that these scientists were largely unaware of the Danish Code of Conduct for Responsible Conduct of Research and indifferent towards the value of such codes; second, that they presented an image of good science as nuanced and thereby as difficult to manage through abstracted, principle-based codes; and third, that they repeatedly pointed to systemic issues both as triggering misconduct and as ethical problems in and of themselves...
September 24, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Bor Luen Tang
Cases of research misconduct in the ecological and environmental sciences appear to be relatively rare. A controversial paper published in Science in 2016 documenting the effects of microplastics on the feeding and innate behaviours of fish larvae has recently been retracted, with the authors found guilty of scientific misconduct. In addition to the expected fallout, such as individual and institutional reputational damage from a research misconduct finding, this case has two possibly wider-ranging ramifications...
September 4, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Martin Peterson
The Ethics of Technology: A Geometric Analysis of Five Moral Principles proposes five moral principles for analyzing ethical issues related to engineering and technology. The objections raised by several authors to the multidimensional scaling technique used in the book reveal a lack of familiarity with this widely used technique.
October 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
James S Spiegel
This article explores four major areas of moral concern regarding virtual reality (VR) technologies. First, VR poses potential mental health risks, including Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder. Second, VR technology raises serious concerns related to personal neglect of users' own actual bodies and real physical environments. Third, VR technologies may be used to record personal data which could be deployed in ways that threaten personal privacy and present a danger related to manipulation of users' beliefs, emotions, and behaviors...
October 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Fabien Medvecky
Science communication, as a field and as a practice, is fundamentally about knowledge distribution; it is about the access to, and the sharing of knowledge. All distribution (science communication included) brings with it issues of ethics and justice. Indeed, whether science communicators acknowledge it or not, they get to decide both which knowledge is shared (by choosing which topic is communicated), and who gets access to this knowledge (by choosing which audience it is presented to). As a result, the decisions of science communicators have important implications for epistemic justice: how knowledge is distributed fairly and equitably...
October 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Ayanna Howard, Jason Borenstein
Recently, there has been an upsurge of attention focused on bias and its impact on specialized artificial intelligence (AI) applications. Allegations of racism and sexism have permeated the conversation as stories surface about search engines delivering job postings for well-paying technical jobs to men and not women, or providing arrest mugshots when keywords such as "black teenagers" are entered. Learning algorithms are evolving; they are often created from parsing through large datasets of online information while having truth labels bestowed on them by crowd-sourced masses...
October 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Hui Fang
With the growth of research collaborations, the average number of authors per article and the phenomenon of equally important authorships have increased. The essence of the phenomenon of equally important authorships is the approximately equal importance of authors, both because of the difficulties in comparing authors' contributions to a paper and some actual research evaluation practices, which (approximately) give full paper credit only to the most important authors. A mechanism for indicating that various authors contributed equally is required to maintain and strengthen collaboration...
October 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Simon Godecharle, Benoit Nemery, Kris Dierickx
Despite the ever increasing collaboration between industry and universities, the previous empirical studies on research integrity and misconduct excluded participants of biomedical industry. Hence, there is a lack of empirical data on how research managers and biomedical researchers active in industry perceive the issues of research integrity and misconduct, and whether or not their perspectives differ from those of researchers and research managers active in universities. If various standards concerning research integrity and misconduct are upheld between industry and universities, this might undermine research collaborations...
October 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Wessel Reijers, David Wright, Philip Brey, Karsten Weber, Rowena Rodrigues, Declan O'Sullivan, Bert Gordijn
This paper provides a systematic literature review, analysis and discussion of methods that are proposed to practise ethics in research and innovation (R&I). Ethical considerations concerning the impacts of R&I are increasingly important, due to the quickening pace of technological innovation and the ubiquitous use of the outcomes of R&I processes in society. For this reason, several methods for practising ethics have been developed in different fields of R&I. The paper first of all presents a systematic search of academic sources that present and discuss such methods...
October 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Syed Bilal Pasha, Tooba Fatima Qadir, Huda Fatima, Mohammed Madadin, Syed Ather Hussain, Ritesh G Menezes
Health care ethics is a sensitive domain, which if ignored, can lead to patient dissatisfaction, weakened doctor-patient interaction and episodes of violence. Little importance has been paid to medical ethics within undergraduate medical education in developing countries such as Pakistan. Three doctors in Pakistan are currently facing an official police complaint and arrest charges, following the death of a sanitary worker, who fell unconscious while cleaning a drain and was allegedly refused treatment as he was covered in sewage filth...
October 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
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