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Science and Engineering Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084579/who-what-and-where-www-problems-in-scientific-communities
#1
LETTER
Hong Gao, Wei Liu, Jinlan Nie
The results of the National Higher Education Entrance Examination (Gaokao, in Chinese) have a life-long effect on most Chinese by labeling them clever or not. Some of the following rules of the Gaokao enhance the damage, for example, the rule of Who, What and Where. In general, Who you are and What you have done are of secondary importance, but Where you graduated from, especially the college of first-record is the most important, but discriminatory criterion in the recruitment courses of most of scientific communities and social organizations in China...
January 13, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078630/-data-not-shown-is-no-longer-excusable-in-biomedical-publishing
#2
LETTER
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074377/reflection-on-the-fazlul-sarkar-versus-pubpeer-john-doe-case
#3
LETTER
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074376/synthetic-biology-genome-editing-and-the-risk-of-bioterrorism
#4
Marko Ahteensuu
The SynBioSecurity argument says that synthetic biology introduces new risks of intentional misuse of synthetic pathogens and that, therefore, there is a need for extra regulations and oversight. This paper provides an analysis of the argument, sets forth a new version of it, and identifies three developments that raise biosecurity risks compared to the situation earlier. The developments include (1) a spread of the required know-how, (2) improved availability of the techniques, instruments and biological parts, and (3) new technical possibilities such as "resurrecting" disappeared pathogens...
January 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074375/identity-theft-in-the-academic-world-leads-to-junk-science
#5
Mehdi Dadkhah, Mohammad Lagzian, Glenn Borchardt
In recent years, identity theft has been growing in the academic world. Cybercriminals create fake profiles for prominent scientists in attempts to manipulate the review and publishing process. Without permission, some fraudulent journals use the names of standout researchers on their editorial boards in the effort to look legitimate. This opinion piece, highlights some of the usual types of identity theft and their role in spreading junk science. Some general guidelines that editors and researchers can use against such attacks are presented...
January 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058620/holding-the-project-accountable-research-governance-ethics-and-democracy
#6
Matthias Leese
This paper seeks to address research governance by highlighting the notion of public accountability as a complementary tool for the establishment of an ethical resonance space for emerging technologies. Public accountability can render development and design process of emerging technologies transparent through practices of holding those in charge of research accountable for their actions, thereby fostering ethical engagement with their potential negative consequences or side-effects. Through practices such as parliamentary questions, audits, and open letters emerging technologies could be effectively rendered transparent and opened up to broader levels of scrutiny and debate, thereby contributing to a greater adherence of emerging technologies to ethics and moral consensus...
January 5, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058619/cyber-attacks-and-terrorism-a-twenty-first-century-conundrum
#7
Marwan Albahar
In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear...
January 5, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039612/investigating-the-underlying-factors-of-corruption-in-the-public-construction-sector-evidence-from-china
#8
Ming Shan, Yun Le, Kenneth T W Yiu, Albert P C Chan, Yi Hu
Over recent years, the issue of corruption in the public construction sector has attracted increasing attention from both practitioners and researchers worldwide. However, limited efforts are available for investigating the underlying factors of corruption in this sector. Thus, this study attempted to bridge this knowledge gap by exploring the underlying factors of corruption in the public construction sector of China. To achieve this goal, a total of 14 structured interviews were first carried out, and a questionnaire survey was then administered to 188 professionals in China...
December 30, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028778/ethics-and-the-un-sustainable-development-goals-the-case-for-comprehensive-engineering-commentary-on-using-student-engagement-to-relocate-ethics-to-the-core-of-the-engineering-curriculum
#9
Jeroen van den Hoven
In the twenty-first century, the urgent problems the world is facing (the UN Sustainable Development Goals) are increasingly related to vast and intricate 'systems of systems', which comprise both socio-technical and eco-systems. In order for engineers to adequately and responsibly respond to these problems, they cannot focus on only one technical or any other aspect in isolation, but must adopt a wider and multidisciplinary perspective of these systems, including an ethical and social perspective. Engineering curricula should therefore focus on what we call 'comprehensive engineering'...
December 27, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005255/the-roles-of-implicit-understanding-of-engineering-ethics-in-student-teams-discussion
#10
Eun Ah Lee, Magdalena Grohman, Nicholas R Gans, Marco Tacca, Matthew J Brown
Following previous work that shows engineering students possess different levels of understanding of ethics-implicit and explicit-this study focuses on how students' implicit understanding of engineering ethics influences their team discussion process, in cases where there is significant divergence between their explicit and implicit understanding. We observed student teams during group discussions of the ethical issues involved in their engineering design projects. Through the micro-scale discourse analysis based on cognitive ethnography, we found two possible ways in which implicit understanding influenced the discussion...
December 22, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000093/engineering-students-views-of-corporate-social-responsibility-a-case-study-from-petroleum-engineering
#11
Jessica M Smith, Carrie J McClelland, Nicole M Smith
The mining and energy industries present unique challenges to engineers, who must navigate sometimes competing responsibilities and codes of conduct, such as personal senses of right and wrong, professional ethics codes, and their employers' corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the current dominant framework used by industry to conceptualize firms' responsibilities to their stakeholders, yet has it plays a relatively minor role in engineering ethics education...
December 20, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000092/the-slippery-slope-argument-in-the-ethical-debate-on-genetic-engineering-of-humans
#12
Douglas Walton
This article applies tools from argumentation theory to slippery slope arguments used in current ethical debates on genetic engineering. Among the tools used are argumentation schemes, value-based argumentation, critical questions, and burden of proof. It is argued that so-called drivers such as social acceptance and rapid technological development are also important factors that need to be taken into account alongside the argumentation scheme. It is shown that the slippery slope argument is basically a reasonable (but defeasible) form of argument, but is often flawed when used in ethical debates because of failures to meet the requirements of its scheme...
December 20, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995447/ethics-nanobiosensors-and-elite-sport-the-need-for-a-new-governance-framework
#13
Robert Evans, Michael McNamee, Owen Guy
Individual athletes, coaches and sports teams seek continuously for ways to improve performance and accomplishment in elite competition. New techniques of performance analysis are a crucial part of the drive for athletic perfection. This paper discusses the ethical importance of one aspect of the future potential of performance analysis in sport, combining the field of biomedicine, sports engineering and nanotechnology in the form of 'Nanobiosensors'. This innovative technology has the potential to revolutionise sport, enabling real time biological data to be collected from athletes that can be electronically distributed...
December 19, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995446/public-perceptions-of-ethical-legal-and-social-implications-of-pre-implantation-genetic-diagnosis-pgd-in-malaysia
#14
Angelina P Olesen, Siti Nurani Mohd Nor, Latifah Amin, Anisah Che Ngah
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) became well known in Malaysia after the birth of the first Malaysian 'designer baby', Yau Tak in 2004. Two years later, the Malaysian Medical Council implemented the first and only regulation on the use of Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis in this country. The birth of Yau Tak triggered a public outcry because PGD was used for non-medical sex selection thus, raising concerns about PGD and its implications for the society. This study aims to explore participants' perceptions of the future implications of PGD for the Malaysian society...
December 19, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995445/promoting-virtue-or-punishing-fraud-mapping-contrasts-in-the-language-of-scientific-integrity
#15
S P J M Horbach, W Halffman
Even though integrity is widely considered to be an essential aspect of research, there is an ongoing debate on what actually constitutes research integrity. The understanding of integrity ranges from the minimal, only considering falsification, fabrication and plagiarism, to the maximum, blending into science ethics. Underneath these obvious contrasts, there are more subtle differences that are not as immediately evident. The debate about integrity is usually presented as a single, universal discussion, with shared concerns for researchers, policymakers and 'the public'...
December 19, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995444/e-government-attempts-in-small-island-developing-states-the-rate-of-corruption-with-virtualization
#16
REVIEW
Arif Sari
In recent years, many Small Island Developing State (SIDS) governments have worked to increase openness and transparency of their transactions as a means to enhance efficiency and reduce corruption in their economies. In order to achieve a cost-effective and efficient strategy to implement a transparent government, Information Communication Technologies offer an opportunity of virtualization by deploying e-government services to promote transparency, accountability and consistency in the public sector and to minimize corruption...
December 19, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924446/educational-encounters-of-the-third-kind
#17
Gonzalo Génova, M Rosario González
An engineer who becomes an educator in a school of software engineering has the mission to teach how to design and construct software systems, therein applying his or her knowledge and expertise. However, due to their engineering background, engineers may forget that educating a person is not the same as designing a machine, since a machine has a well-defined goal, whilst a person is capable to self-propose his or her own objectives. The ethical implications are clear: educating a free person must leave space for creativity and self-determination in his or her own discovery of the way towards personal and professional fulfillment, which cannot consist only in achieving goals selected by others...
December 6, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913988/experience-and-attitudes-toward-informed-consent-in-pharmacy-practice-research-do-pharmacists-care
#18
Dušanka M Krajnović, Dragana D Jocić
The experience and attitudes of pharmacists towards research ethics through pharmacy practice research is largely unknown. This study sought to examine the pharmacists' experience if they were research participants and their attitudes on the importance of informed consent in research practice. A cross-sectional survey was employed to achieve the aims of this study. The majority of 433 participating pharmacists were female (86.1%); the average age was 43.2 ± 9.5 years, and their average working experience was 15...
December 2, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913987/a-moral-normative-framework-for-the-judgment-of-actions-and-decisions-in-the-construction-industry-and-engineering-part-ii
#19
Omar J Alkhatib
The construction industry is typically characterized as a fragmented, multi-organizational setting in which members from different technical backgrounds and moral values join together to develop a particular business or project. The most challenging obstacle in the construction process is to achieve a successful practice and to identify and apply an ethical framework to manage the behavior of involved specialists and contractors and to ensure the quality of all completed construction activities. The framework should reflect a common moral ground for myriad people involved in this process to survive and compete ethically in today's turbulent construction market...
December 2, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909954/fortifying-the-corrective-nature-of-post-publication-peer-review-identifying-weaknesses-use-of-journal-clubs-and-rewarding-conscientious-behavior
#20
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Aceil Al-Khatib, Judit Dobránszki
Most departments in any field of science that have a sound academic basis have discussion groups or journal clubs in which pertinent and relevant literature is frequently discussed, as a group. This paper shows how such discussions could help to fortify the post-publication peer review (PPPR) movement, and could thus fortify the value of traditional peer review, if their content and conclusions were made known to the wider academic community. Recently, there are some tools available for making PPPR viable, either as signed (PubMed Commons) or anonymous comments (PubPeer), or in a hybrid format (Publons)...
December 1, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
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