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Science and Engineering Ethics

Maria Pina Dore, Giovanni M Pes, Fabrizia Faustinella
The Italian law of December 2010 establishes new criteria and parameters for the evaluation of faculty members. The parameters are represented by the number of articles published in journals listed in the main international data banks, the total number of citations and the h index. Candidates with qualifications at least in two out of three parameters may access the national competitions for associate or full professor and apply for an academic appointment. This system developed with the aim to fight nepotism and promote meritocracy, progressively led to the deterioration of the Italian university system...
February 15, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Maryam Alsadat Hashemipour, Sepehr Pourmonajemzadeh, Shahrzad Zoghitavana, Nader Navabi
Conflict of interests is a situation when someone is in need of other people's trust on one the hand and has personal or general interests on the other hand, resulting in conflict with the given responsibility. In this research work, an attempt was made to find the relation between declarations of conflict of interests and reporting positive outcomes in the dental journals in Iran (2000-2016). In this analytical/cross-sectional study, first Health and Biomedical Information was searched and all the Persian and English dental journals published in Iran were collected...
February 13, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Freida Ozavize Ayodele, Liu Yao, Hasnah Haron
In the management academic research, academic advancement, job security, and the securing of research funds at one's university are judged mainly by one's output of publications in high impact journals. With bogus resumes filled with published journal articles, universities and other allied institutions are keen to recruit or sustain the appointment of such academics. This often places undue pressure on aspiring academics and on those already recruited to engage in research misconduct which often leads to research integrity...
February 13, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Alankrita Taneja, Siddhartha Das, Syed Ather Hussain, Mohammed Madadin, Stany Wilfred Lobo, Huda Fatima, Ritesh G Menezes
Being inherently different from any other lifesaving organ transplant, uterine transplantation does not aim at saving lives but supporting the possibility to generate life. Unlike the kidneys or the liver, the uterus is not specifically a vital organ. Given the non-lifesaving nature of this procedure, questions have been raised about its feasibility. The ethical dilemma revolves around whether it is worth placing two lives at risk related to surgery and immunosuppression, amongst others, to enable a woman with absolute uterine factor infertility to experience the presence of an organ enabling childbirth...
February 8, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Niels Mejlgaard, Malene Vinther Christensen, Roger Strand, Ivan Buljan, Mar Carrió, Marta Cayetano I Giralt, Erich Griessler, Alexander Lang, Ana Marušić, Gema Revuelta, Gemma Rodríguez, Núria Saladié, Milena Wuketich
Across the European research area and beyond, efforts are being mobilized to align research and innovation processes and products with societal values and needs, and to create mechanisms for inclusive priority setting and knowledge production. A central concern is how to foster a culture of "Responsible Research and Innovation" (RRI) among scientists and engineers. This paper focuses on RRI teaching at higher education institutions. On the basis of interviews and reviews of academic and policy documents, it highlights the generic aspects of teaching aimed at invoking a sense of care and societal obligation, and provides a set of exemplary cases of RRI-related teaching...
February 7, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Karina de Albuquerque Rocha, Sonia M R Vasconcelos
Ethics regulation for human-subject research (HSR) has been established for about 20 years in Brazil. However, compliance with this regulation is controversial for non-biomedical sciences, particularly for human and social sciences (HSS), the source of a recent debate at the National Commission for Research Ethics. We hypothesized that for these fields, formal requirements for compliance with HSR regulation in graduate programs, responsible for the greatest share of Brazilian science, would be small in number...
February 6, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Jean Paul Kamdem, Daniel Henrique Roos, Adekunle Adeniran Sanmi, Luciana Calabró, Amos Olalekan Abolaji, Cláudia Sirlene de Oliveira, Luiz Marivando Barros, Antonia Eliene Duarte, Nilda Vargas Barbosa, Diogo Onofre Souza, João Batista Teixeira Rocha
In Brazil, the CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development) provides grants, funds and fellowships to productive scientists to support their investigations. They are ranked and categorized into four hierarchical levels ranging from PQ 1A (the highest) to PQ 1D (the lowest). Few studies, however, report and analyse scientific productivity in different sub-fields of Biomedical Sciences (BS), e.g., Biochemistry, Pharmacology, Biophysics and Physiology. In fact, systematic comparisons of productivity among the PQ 1 categories within the above sub-fields are lacking in the literature...
February 5, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Barbara K Redman
A recent National Academy report on research integrity noted that policies are not evidence-based, with no formal entity responsible to attend to this deficit. Here we describe four areas of research misconduct (RM) regulations governing Public Health Service funded research that are empirically and/or ethically questionable. Policies for human subject protection, RM and conflict of interest are not harmonized, making it extremely difficult to deal with complex cases which often contain allegations in all of these areas...
February 5, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Marzieh Maghrouni, Omid Mahian, Somchai Wongwises
Some researchers, even professors in universities, sometimes do unethical actions unintentionally due to lack of a mentor in their academic life. In this opinion piece, we aim to show that journals and publishers can play the role of a mentor for authors of scientific articles, especially young M.Sc. and Ph.D. students, to teach them the ethics in research and publishing. In this way, both journals and researchers will benefit from such a plan.
February 5, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Eric Berling, Chet McLeskey, Michael O'Rourke, Robert T Pennock
Drawing on Pennock's theory of scientific virtues, we are developing an alternative curriculum for training scientists in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) that emphasizes internal values rather than externally imposed rules. This approach focuses on the virtuous characteristics of scientists that lead to responsible and exemplary behavior. We have been pilot-testing one element of such a virtue-based approach to RCR training by conducting dialogue sessions, modeled upon the approach developed by Toolbox Dialogue Initiative, that focus on a specific virtue, e...
February 3, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Christabel Man-Fong Ho, Olugbenga Timo Oladinrin
Due to the economic globalization which is characterized with business scandals, scholars and practitioners are increasingly engaged with the implementation of codes of ethics as a regulatory mechanism for stimulating ethical behaviours within an organization. The aim of this study is to examine various organizational practices regarding the effective implementation of codes of ethics within construction contracting companies. Views on ethics management in construction organizations together with the recommendations for improvement were gleaned through 19 semi-structured interviews, involving construction practitioners from various construction companies in Hong Kong...
January 30, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Raheleh Heidari Feidt, Marcello Ienca, Bernice Simone Elger, Marc Folcher
The author group of above-mentioned review paper was incorrectly published in the online article.
January 24, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Anja K Faulhaber, Anke Dittmer, Felix Blind, Maximilian A Wächter, Silja Timm, Leon R Sütfeld, Achim Stephan, Gordon Pipa, Peter König
Ethical thought experiments such as the trolley dilemma have been investigated extensively in the past, showing that humans act in utilitarian ways, trying to cause as little overall damage as possible. These trolley dilemmas have gained renewed attention over the past few years, especially due to the necessity of implementing moral decisions in autonomous driving vehicles (ADVs). We conducted a set of experiments in which participants experienced modified trolley dilemmas as drivers in virtual reality environments...
January 22, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Marko Curkovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Weishu Liu, Junwen Zhu, Chao Zuo, Haiyan Wang
By following a recently published paper entitled "The effect of publishing a highly cited paper on a journal's impact factor: a case study of the Review of Particle Physics" in Learned Publishing, we argue that it is not suitable for journals to bid for the right to publish a review that is likely to be highly cited. A few suggestions are also provided to deal with the special case of the Review of Particle Physics phenomenon.
January 20, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Gert-Jan C Lokhorst
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Guangyuan Hu, Yuhan Yang, Li Tang
This article draws the attention of research managers and policy makers to the issue that to become a science power curtailing misconduct is the daunting challenge that emerging countries simply cannot ignore. Systematic and orchestrated efforts are needed to foster and institutionalize research integrity education among all stakeholders.
January 19, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Gonzalo Génova, José Luis de la Vara
The publication of scientific papers has become increasingly problematic in the last decades. Even if we agree that a renewed model is needed for peer-reviewed scientific publication, we think the problem does not essentially lie in professional publishing-with economic incentives-but in the publish-or-perish culture that dominates the lives of researchers and academics.
January 19, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Christopher Kampe, Gwendolynne Reid, Paul Jones, Colleen S, Sean S, Kathleen M Vogel
Academia-intelligence agency collaborations are on the rise for a variety of reasons. These can take many forms, one of which is in the classroom, using students to stand in for intelligence analysts. Classrooms, however, are ethically complex spaces, with students considered vulnerable populations, and become even more complex when layering multiple goals, activities, tools, and stakeholders over those traditionally present. This does not necessarily mean one must shy away from academia-intelligence agency partnerships in classrooms, but that these must be conducted carefully and reflexively...
January 9, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Dianne Quigley, Alana Levine, David A Sonnenfeld, Phil Brown, Qing Tian, Xiaofan Wei
Researchers of the Northeast Ethics Education Partnership (NEEP) at Brown University sought to improve an understanding of the ethical challenges of field researchers with place-based communities in environmental studies/sciences and environmental health by disseminating a questionnaire which requested information about their ethical approaches to these researched communities. NEEP faculty sought to gain actual field guidance to improve research ethics and cultural competence training for graduate students and faculty in environmental sciences/studies...
January 3, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
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