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Science and Engineering Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726028/should-we-all-be-scientists-re-thinking-laboratory-research-as-a-calling
#1
Louise Bezuidenhout, Nathaniel A Warne
In recent years there have been major shifts in how the role of science-and scientists-are understood. The critical examination of scientific expertise within the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) are increasingly eroding notions of the "otherness" of scientists. It would seem to suggest that anyone can be a scientist-when provided with the appropriate training and access to data. In contrast, however, ethnographic evidence from the scientific community tells a different story. Scientists are quick to recognize that not everyone can-or should-be a scientist...
July 19, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726027/how-accused-scientists-deal-with-scientific-fraud-view-from-a-different-culture
#2
LETTER
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726026/euthanasia-global-scenario-and-its-status-in-india
#3
REVIEW
Raghvendra Singh Shekhawat, Tanuj Kanchan, Puneet Setia, Alok Atreya, Kewal Krishan
The legal and moral validity of euthanasia has been questioned in different situations. In India, the status of euthanasia is no different. It was the Aruna Ramachandra Shanbaug case that got significant public attention and led the Supreme Court of India to initiate detailed deliberations on the long ignored issue of euthanasia. Realising the importance of this issue and considering the ongoing and pending litigation before the different courts in this regard, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India issued a public notice on May 2016 that invited opinions from the citizens and the concerned stakeholders on the proposed draft bill entitled The Medical Treatment of Terminally Ill Patients (Protection of Patients and Medical Practitioners) Bill...
July 19, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721644/understanding-engineers-responsibilities-a-prerequisite-to-designing-engineering-education-commentary-on-educating-engineers-for-the-public-good-through-international-internships-evidence-from-a-case-study-at-universitat-polit%C3%A3-cnica-de-val%C3%A3-ncia
#4
Colleen Murphy, Paolo Gardoni
The development of the curriculum for engineering education (course requirements as well as extra-curricular activities like study abroad and internships) should be based on a comprehensive understanding of engineers' responsibilities. The responsibilities that are constitutive of being an engineer include striving to fulfill the standards of excellence set by technical codes; to improve the idealized models that engineers use to predict, for example, the behavior of alternative designs; and to achieve the internal goods such as safety and sustainability as they are reflected in the design codes...
July 18, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721643/the-scientific-self-reclaiming-its-place-in-the-history-of-research-ethics
#5
Herman Paul
How can the history of research ethics be expanded beyond the standard narrative of codification-a story that does not reach back beyond World War II-without becoming so broad as to lose all distinctiveness? This article proposes a history of research ethics focused on the "scientific self," that is, the role-specific identity of scientists as typically described in terms of skills, competencies, qualities, or dispositions. Drawing on three agenda-setting texts from nineteenth-century history, biology, and sociology, the article argues that the "revolutions" these books sought to unleash were, among other things, revolts against inherited conceptions of scientific selfhood...
July 18, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721642/a-social-responsibility-guide-for-engineering-students-and-professionals-of-all-faith-traditions-an-overview
#6
Vito L Punzi
The development of the various themes of Catholic Social Teaching (CST) is based on numerous papal documents and ecclesiastical statements. While this paper provides a summary of a number of these documents, this paper focuses on two themes: the common good and care of the environment, and on three documents authored by Pope John Paul II in 1990, by Pope Benedict XVI in 2010, and by Pope Francis in 2015. By analyzing these documents from an engineer's perspective, the author proposes a model for Socially Responsible Engineering...
July 18, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721641/attributing-agency-to-automated-systems-reflections-on-human-robot-collaborations-and-responsibility-loci
#7
Sven Nyholm
Many ethicists writing about automated systems (e.g. self-driving cars and autonomous weapons systems) attribute agency to these systems. Not only that; they seemingly attribute an autonomous or independent form of agency to these machines. This leads some ethicists to worry about responsibility-gaps and retribution-gaps in cases where automated systems harm or kill human beings. In this paper, I consider what sorts of agency it makes sense to attribute to most current forms of automated systems, in particular automated cars and military robots...
July 18, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721640/erratum-to-world-map-of-scientific-misconduct
#8
Behzad Ataie-Ashtiani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677028/why-nudges-coerce-experimental-evidence-on-the-architecture-of-regulation
#9
Adam Hill
Critics frequently argue that nudges are more covert, less transparent, and more difficult to monitor than traditional regulatory tools. Edward Glaeser, for example, argues that "[p]ublic monitoring of soft paternalism is much more difficult than public monitoring of hard paternalism". As one of the leading proponents of soft paternalism, Cass Sunstein, acknowledges, while "[m]andates and commands are highly visible", soft paternalism, "and some nudges in particular[,] may be invisible". In response to this challenge, proponents of nudging argue that invisibility for any given individual in a particular choice environment is compatible with "careful public scrutiny" of the nudge...
July 4, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674931/why-we-should-create-artificial-offspring-meaning-and-the-collective-afterlife
#10
John Danaher
This article argues that the creation of artificial offspring could make our lives more meaningful (i.e. satisfy more meaning-relevant conditions of value). By 'artificial offspring' I mean beings that we construct, with a mix of human and non-human-like qualities. Robotic artificial intelligences are paradigmatic examples of the form. There are two reasons for thinking that the creation of such beings could make our lives more meaningful and valuable. The first is that the existence of a collective afterlife-i...
July 3, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660387/3d-bioprinting-technology-scientific-aspects-and-ethical-issues
#11
REVIEW
Sara Patuzzo, Giada Goracci, Rosagemma Ciliberti, Luca Gasperini
The scientific development of 3D bioprinting is rapidly advancing. This innovative technology involves many ethical and regulatory issues, including theoretical, source, transplantation and enhancement, animal welfare, economic, safety and information arguments. 3D bioprinting technology requires an adequate bioethical debate in order to develop regulations in the interest both of public health and the development of research. This paper aims to initiate and promote ethical debate. The authors examine scientific aspects of 3D bioprinting technology and explore related ethical issues, with special regard to the protection of individual rights and transparency of research...
June 28, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660386/environmental-decision-making-on-acid-mine-drainage-issues-in-south-africa-an-argument-for-the-precautionary-principle
#12
T J Morodi, Charles Mpofu
This paper examines the issue of acid mine drainage in South Africa and environmental decision making processes that could be taken to mitigate the problem in the context of both conventional risk assessment and the precautionary principle. It is argued that conventional risk assessment protects the status quo and hence cannot be entirely relied upon as an effective tool to resolve environmental problems in the context of South Africa, a developing country with complex environmental health concerns. The complexity of the environmental issues is discussed from historical and political perspectives...
June 28, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653170/should-internet-researchers-use-ill-gotten-information
#13
David M Douglas
This paper describes how the ethical problems raised by scientific data obtained through harmful and immoral conduct (which, following Stan Godlovitch, is called ill-gotten information) may also emerge in cases where data is collected from the Internet. It describes the major arguments for and against using ill-gotten information in research, and shows how they may be applied to research that either collects information about the Internet itself or which uses data from questionable or unknown sources on the Internet...
June 26, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653169/trust-in-science-crispr-cas9-and-the-ban-on-human-germline-editing
#14
Stephan Guttinger
In 2015 scientists called for a partial ban on genome editing in human germline cells. This call was a response to the rapid development of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, a molecular tool that allows researchers to modify genomic DNA in living organisms with high precision and ease of use. Importantly, the ban was meant to be a trust-building exercise that promises a 'prudent' way forward. The goal of this paper is to analyse whether the ban can deliver on this promise. To do so the focus will be put on the precedent on which the current ban is modelled, namely the Asilomar ban on recombinant DNA technology...
June 26, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653168/science-as-a-matter-of-honour-how-accused-scientists-deal-with-scientific-fraud-in-japan
#15
Pablo A Pellegrini
Practices related to research misconduct seem to have been multiplied in recent years. Many cases of scientific fraud have been exposed publicly, and journals and academic institutions have deployed different measures worldwide in this regard. However, the influence of specific social and cultural environments on scientific fraud may vary from society to society. This article analyzes how scientists in Japan deal with accusations of scientific fraud. For such a purpose, a series of scientific fraud cases that took place in Japan has been reconstructed through diverse sources...
June 26, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653167/why-frankenstein-is-a-stigma-among-scientists
#16
Peter Nagy, Ruth Wylie, Joey Eschrich, Ed Finn
As one of the best known science narratives about the consequences of creating life, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus (1818) is an enduring tale that people know and understand with an almost instinctive familiarity. It has become a myth reflecting people's ambivalent feelings about emerging science: they are curious about science, but they are also afraid of what science can do to them. In this essay, we argue that the Frankenstein myth has evolved into a stigma attached to scientists that focalizes the public's as well as the scientific community's negative reactions towards certain sciences and scientific practices...
June 26, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653166/world-map-of-scientific-misconduct
#17
LETTER
Behzad Ataie-Ashtiani
A comparative world map of scientific misconduct reveals that countries with the most rapid growth in scientific publications also have the highest retraction rate. To avoid polluting the scientific record further, these nations must urgently commit to enforcing research integrity among their academic communities.
June 26, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653165/living-donor-kidney-transplantation-in-developing-countries-walking-sometimes-the-tightrope-without-a-net%C3%A2
#18
LETTER
Ahmed Fouad Bouras, Noureddine Bettahar, Hadjar Toumi, Nassim Kazitani, Lamia Kara, Mustapha Benmansour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 26, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653164/should-dbs-for-psychiatric-disorders-be-considered-a-form-of-psychosurgery-ethical-and-legal-considerations
#19
Devan Stahl, Laura Cabrera, Tyler Gibb
Deep brain stimulation (DBS), a surgical procedure involving the implantation of electrodes in the brain, has rekindled the medical community's interest in psychosurgery. Whereas many researchers argue DBS is substantially different from psychosurgery, we argue psychiatric DBS-though a much more precise and refined treatment than its predecessors-is nevertheless a form of psychosurgery, which raises both old and new ethical and legal concerns that have not been given proper attention. Learning from the ethical and regulatory failures of older forms of psychosurgery can help shed light on how to address the regulatory gaps that exist currently in DBS research...
June 26, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643185/keeping-disability-in-mind-a-case-study-in-implantable-brain-computer-interface-research
#20
Laura Specker Sullivan, Eran Klein, Tim Brown, Matthew Sample, Michelle Pham, Paul Tubig, Raney Folland, Anjali Truitt, Sara Goering
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research is an interdisciplinary area of study within Neural Engineering. Recent interest in end-user perspectives has led to an intersection with user-centered design (UCD). The goal of user-centered design is to reduce the translational gap between researchers and potential end users. However, while qualitative studies have been conducted with end users of BCI technology, little is known about individual BCI researchers' experience with and attitudes towards UCD. Given the scientific, financial, and ethical imperatives of UCD, we sought to gain a better understanding of practical and principled considerations for researchers who engage with end users...
June 22, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
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