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Science and Engineering Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218543/does-studying-ethics-improve-engineering-students-meta-moral-cognitive-skills
#1
Reena Cheruvalath
This study examines the assumption that training in professional ethics is a predictor of the meta-moral cognitive ability of engineering students. The main purpose of the study was to check the difference in the meta-moral cognitive abilities between those students who studied a course on professional ethics, as part of the engineering curriculum, and those who did not undertake such a course. Using the survey method, the author conducted a pilot study amongst 243 engineering undergraduates. The meta-moral cognitive awareness inventory developed on the basis of the meta-cognitive awareness inventory prepared by Schraw Gregory and Dennison Rayne Sperling was used to measure the meta-moral cognitive level of the respondents...
December 7, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143269/defining-information-security
#2
Björn Lundgren, Niklas Möller
This article proposes a new definition of information security, the 'Appropriate Access' definition. Apart from providing the basic criteria for a definition-correct demarcation and meaning concerning the state of security-it also aims at being a definition suitable for any information security perspective. As such, it bridges the conceptual divide between so-called 'soft issues' of information security (those including, e.g., humans, organizations, culture, ethics, policies, and law) and more technical issues...
November 15, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134429/self-driving-cars-and-engineering-ethics-the-need-for-a-system-level-analysis
#3
Jason Borenstein, Joseph R Herkert, Keith W Miller
The literature on self-driving cars and ethics continues to grow. Yet much of it focuses on ethical complexities emerging from an individual vehicle. That is an important but insufficient step towards determining how the technology will impact human lives and society more generally. What must complement ongoing discussions is a broader, system level of analysis that engages with the interactions and effects that these cars will have on one another and on the socio-technical systems in which they are embedded...
November 13, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129014/causal-factors-of-corruption-in-construction-project-management-an-overview
#4
REVIEW
Emmanuel Kingsford Owusu, Albert P C Chan, Ming Shan
The development of efficient and strategic anti-corruption measures can be better achieved if a deeper understanding and identification of the causes of corruption are established. Over the past years, many studies have been devoted to the research of corruption in construction management (CM). This has resulted in a significant increase in the body of knowledge on the subject matter, including the causative factors triggering these corrupt practices. However, an apropos systematic assessment of both past and current studies on the subject matter which is needful for the future endeavor is lacking...
November 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129013/-blue-whale-challenge-a-game-or-crime
#5
LETTER
Richa Mukhra, Neha Baryah, Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan
A bewildering range of games are emerging every other day with newer elements of fun and entertainment to woo youngsters. Games are meant to reduce stress and enhance the cognitive development of children as well as adults. Teenagers are always curious to indulge in newer games; and e-gaming is one such platform providing an easy access and quicker means of entertainment. The particular game challenge which has taken the world by storm is the dangerous "Blue Whale Challenge" often involving vulnerable teenagers...
November 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129012/need-for-controlling-of-the-filter-bubble-effect
#6
LETTER
Marko Curkovic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129011/embodiment-and-estrangement-results-from-first-in-human-intelligent-bci-trial
#7
F Gilbert, M Cook, T O'Brien, J Illes
While new generations of implantable brain computer interface (BCI) devices are being developed, evidence in the literature about their impact on the patient experience is lagging. In this article, we address this knowledge gap by analysing data from the first-in-human clinical trial to study patients with implanted BCI advisory devices. We explored perceptions of self-change across six patients who volunteered to be implanted with artificially intelligent BCI devices. We used qualitative methodological tools grounded in phenomenology to conduct in-depth, semi-structured interviews...
November 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129010/social-simulation-models-at-the-ethical-crossroads
#8
Pawel Sobkowicz
Computational models of group opinion dynamics are one of the most active fields of sociophysics. In recent years, advances in model complexity and, in particular, the possibility to connect these models with detailed data describing individual behaviors, preferences and activities, have opened the way for the simulations to describe quantitatively selected, real world social systems. The simulations could be then used to study 'what-if' scenarios for opinion change campaigns, political, ideological or commercial...
November 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127673/technology-development-as-a-normative-practice-a-meaning-based-approach-to-learning-about-values-in-engineering-damming-as-a-case-study
#9
Mahdi G Nia, Mehdi F Harandi, Marc J de Vries
Engineering, as a complex and multidimensional practice of technology development, has long been a source of ethical concerns. These concerns have been approached from various perspectives. There are ongoing debates in the literature of the philosophy of engineering/technology about how to organize an optimized view of the values entailed in technology development processes. However, these debates deliver little in the way of a concrete rationale or framework that could comprehensively describe different types of engineering values and their multi-aspect interrelations in real engineering practices...
November 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127672/responsible-conduct-of-human-subjects-research-in-islamic-communities
#10
Aceil Al-Khatib, Michael Kalichman
In order to increase understanding of the ethical implications of biomedical, behavioral and clinical research, the Fogarty International Center, part of the United States National Institutes of Health, established an International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development Award (R25) to support programs in low- and middle-income countries. To develop research ethics expertise in Jordan, the University of California San Diego fellowship program in collaboration with Jordan University of Science and Technology provides courses that enable participants to develop skills in varied research ethics topics, including research with human subjects...
November 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127671/the-frequency-of-reporting-ethical-issues-in-human-subject-articles-published-in-iranian-medical-journals-2009-2013
#11
Behrooz Astaneh, Parisa Khani
Researchers should strictly consider the participants' rights. They are required to document such protections as an ethical approval of the study proposal, the obtaining "informed consent", the authors' "conflict of interests", and the source of "financial support" in the published articles. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of reporting ethical issues in human subject articles published in Iranian medical journals during 2009-2013. In this cross-sectional study, we randomly reviewed 1460 human subject articles published in Iranian medical journals during 2009-2013 in two Persian and English language groups...
November 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119411/systematic-assessment-of-research-on-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-and-mercury-reveals-conflicts-of-interest-and-the-need-for-transparency-in-autism-research
#12
Janet K Kern, David A Geier, Richard C Deth, Lisa K Sykes, Brian S Hooker, James M Love, Geir Bjørklund, Carmen G Chaigneau, Boyd E Haley, Mark R Geier
Historically, entities with a vested interest in a product that critics have suggested is harmful have consistently used research to back their claims that the product is safe. Prominent examples are: tobacco, lead, bisphenol A, and atrazine. Research literature indicates that about 80-90% of studies with industry affiliation found no harm from the product, while only about 10-20% of studies without industry affiliation found no harm. In parallel to other historical debates, recent studies examining a possible relationship between mercury (Hg) exposure and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a similar dichotomy...
November 8, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079912/mind-the-gap-how-the-digital-turn-upsets-intellectual-property
#13
Constantin Vică, Emanuel-Mihail Socaciu
Intellectual property is one of the highly divisive issues in contemporary philosophical and political debates. The main objective of this paper is to explore some sources of tension between the formal rules of intellectual property (particularly copyright and patents) and the emerging informal norms of file sharing and open access in online environments. We look into the file sharing phenomena not only to illustrate the deepening gap between the two sets of norms, but to cast some doubt on the current regime of intellectual property as an adequate frame for the new type of interactions in online environments...
October 27, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079911/the-game-between-a-biased-reviewer-and-his-editor
#14
J A García, Rosa Rodriguez-Sánchez, J Fdez-Valdivia
This paper shows that, for a large range of parameters, the journal editor prefers to delegate the choice to review the manuscript to the biased referee. If the peer review process is informative and the review reports are costly for the reviewers, even biased referees with extreme scientific preferences may choose to become informed about the manuscript's quality. On the contrary, if the review process is potentially informative but the reviewer reports are not costly for the referees, the biased reviewer has no incentive to become informed about the manuscript...
October 27, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076055/the-conception-of-synthetic-entities-from-a-personalist-perspective
#15
Lucía Gómez-Tatay, José Miguel Hernández-Andreu, Justo Aznar
Synthetic biology opens up the possibility of producing new entities not found in nature, whose classification as organisms or machines has been debated. In this paper we are focusing on the delimitation of the moral value of synthetic products, in order to establish the ethically right way to behave towards them. In order to do so, we use personalism as our ethical framework. First, we examine how we can distinguish between organisms and machines. Next, we discuss whether the products of synthetic biology can be considered organisms at all and assess what their moral value is and how should we behave towards them...
October 26, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071573/a-systems-approach-to-understanding-and-improving-research-integrity
#16
Dennis M Gorman, Amber D Elkins, Mark Lawley
Concern about the integrity of empirical research has arisen in recent years in the light of studies showing the vast majority of publications in academic journals report positive results, many of these results are false and cannot be replicated, and many positive results are the product of data dredging and the application of flexible data analysis practices coupled with selective reporting. While a number of potential solutions have been proposed, the effects of these are poorly understood and empirical evaluation of each would take many years...
October 25, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071572/tri-parent-baby-technology-and-preservation-of-lineage-an-analysis-from-the-perspective-of-maqasid-al-shari-ah-based-islamic-bioethics
#17
Abdul Halim Ibrahim, Noor Naemah Abdul Rahman, Shaikh Mohd Saifuddeen, Madiha Baharuddin
Tri-parent baby technology is an assisted reproductive treatment which aims to minimize or eliminate maternal inheritance of mutated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The technology became popular following the move by the United Kingdom in granting license to a group of researchers from the Newcastle Fertility Centre, Newcastle University to conduct research on the symptoms of defective mtDNA. This technology differs from other assisted reproductive technology because it involves the use of gamete components retrieved from three different individuals...
October 25, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071571/perceptions-of-ethical-climate-and-research-pressures-in-different-faculties-of-a-university-cross-sectional-study-at-the-university-of-split-croatia
#18
Mario Malički, Vedran Katavić, Domagoj Marković, Matko Marušić, Ana Marušić
We determined the prevailing ethical climate at three different schools of a single university, in order to explore possible differences in the ethical climate related to different research fields: the School of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Naval Architecture; the School of Humanities and Social Sciences; and the School of Medicine. We used the Ethical Climate Questionnaire to survey the staff (teachers and administration) at the three schools, and used the research integrity and organizational climate (RIOC) survey for early-stage researchers at the three schools...
October 25, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071570/p-hacking-a-wake-up-call-for-the-scientific-community
#19
LETTER
A Thirumal Raj, Shankargouda Patil, Sachin Sarode, Ziad Salameh
P-hacking or data dredging involves manipulation of the research data in order to obtain a statistically significant result. The reasons behind P-hacking and the consequences of the same are discussed in the present manuscript.
October 25, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067625/central-europe-ethical-overlaps-of-environmental-and-economic-interests-in-coming-years
#20
Zdeněk Caha
Despite the size and thanks to the rich brown coal reserves, the Czech Republic is one of the leading energy producers in Europe, and the 7th biggest exporter of electricity in the world. However, following the climate change mitigation, the novel energy policy that enhances the reduction of coal mining is about to be implemented. A preliminary material flow analysis of the Czech energy sector was carried out. The data obtained confirmed that this government act would result in a dramatic reduction of revenues from electricity sales...
October 25, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
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