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Science and Engineering Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052107/aspects-of-morality-and-law-enforcement-in-today-s-science-in-post-soviet-countries
#1
Jana Kliestikova, Tomas Kliestik, Maria Misankova, Tatiana Corejova, Anna Krizanova
Many reports independently confirm that even more than a quarter of a century after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the results of research and development in those countries that were under its influence are insufficient in comparison to the rest of the world. Given that human intelligence is not distributed unevenly and that science is a powerful driving force for the future of an economy, there is a hidden problem, which, if it can be resolved, may release great economic potential. The first generation of researchers from Armenia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Slovakia and Ukraine, who successfully completed their education after the political revolution, were surveyed...
October 20, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019058/devices-of-responsibility-over-a-decade-of-responsible-research-and-innovation-initiatives-for-nanotechnologies
#2
Clare Shelley-Egan, Diana M Bowman, Douglas K R Robinson
Responsible research and innovation (RRI) has come to represent a change in the relationship between science, technology and society. With origins in the democratisation of science, and the inclusion of ethical and societal aspects in research and development activities, RRI offers a means of integrating society and the research and innovation communities. In this article, we frame RRI activities through the lens of layers of science and technology governance as a means of characterising the context in which the RRI activity is positioned and the goal of those actors promoting the RRI activities in shaping overall governance patterns...
October 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971354/scientists-still-behaving-badly-a-survey-within-industry-and-universities
#3
Simon Godecharle, Steffen Fieuws, Ben Nemery, Kris Dierickx
Little is known about research misconduct within industry and how it compares to universities, even though a lot of biomedical research is performed by-or in collaboration with-commercial entities. Therefore, we sent an e-mail invitation to participate in an anonymous computer-based survey to all university researchers having received a biomedical research grant or scholarship from one of the two national academic research funders of Belgium between 2010 and 2014, and to researchers working in large biomedical companies or spin-offs in Belgium...
October 2, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952071/the-food-warden-an-exploration-of-issues-in-distributing-responsibilities-for-safe-by-design-synthetic-biology-applications
#4
Zoë Robaey, Shannon L Spruit, Ibo van de Poel
The Safe-by-Design approach in synthetic biology holds the promise of designing the building blocks of life in an organism guided by the value of safety. This paves a new way for using biotechnologies safely. However, the Safe-by-Design approach moves the bulk of the responsibility for safety to the actors in the research and development phase. Also, it assumes that safety can be defined and understood by all stakeholders in the same way. These assumptions are problematic and might actually undermine safety...
September 26, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942536/the-ethics-of-virtual-reality-technology-social-hazards-and-public-policy-recommendations
#5
James S Spiegel
This article explores four major areas of moral concern regarding virtual reality (VR) technologies. First, VR poses potential mental health risks, including Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder. Second, VR technology raises serious concerns related to personal neglect of users' own actual bodies and real physical environments. Third, VR technologies may be used to record personal data which could be deployed in ways that threaten personal privacy and present a danger related to manipulation of users' beliefs, emotions, and behaviors...
September 23, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940133/ethical-design-of-intelligent-assistive-technologies-for-dementia-a-descriptive-review
#6
REVIEW
Marcello Ienca, Tenzin Wangmo, Fabrice Jotterand, Reto W Kressig, Bernice Elger
The use of Intelligent Assistive Technology (IAT) in dementia care opens the prospects of reducing the global burden of dementia and enabling novel opportunities to improve the lives of dementia patients. However, with current adoption rates being reportedly low, the potential of IATs might remain under-expressed as long as the reasons for suboptimal adoption remain unaddressed. Among these, ethical and social considerations are critical. This article reviews the spectrum of IATs for dementia and investigates the prevalence of ethical considerations in the design of current IATs...
September 22, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939945/fairness-in-knowing-science-communication-and-epistemic-justice
#7
Fabien Medvecky
Science communication, as a field and as a practice, is fundamentally about knowledge distribution; it is about the access to, and the sharing of knowledge. All distribution (science communication included) brings with it issues of ethics and justice. Indeed, whether science communicators acknowledge it or not, they get to decide both which knowledge is shared (by choosing which topic is communicated), and who gets access to this knowledge (by choosing which audience it is presented to). As a result, the decisions of science communicators have important implications for epistemic justice: how knowledge is distributed fairly and equitably...
September 22, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936795/the-ugly-truth-about-ourselves-and-our-robot-creations-the-problem-of-bias-and-social-inequity
#8
Ayanna Howard, Jason Borenstein
Recently, there has been an upsurge of attention focused on bias and its impact on specialized artificial intelligence (AI) applications. Allegations of racism and sexism have permeated the conversation as stories surface about search engines delivering job postings for well-paying technical jobs to men and not women, or providing arrest mugshots when keywords such as "black teenagers" are entered. Learning algorithms are evolving; they are often created from parsing through large datasets of online information while having truth labels bestowed on them by crowd-sourced masses...
September 21, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936786/normalized-paper-credit-assignment-a-solution-for-the-ethical-dilemma-induced-by-multiple-important-authors
#9
Hui Fang
With the growth of research collaborations, the average number of authors per article and the phenomenon of equally important authorships have increased. The essence of the phenomenon of equally important authorships is the approximately equal importance of authors, both because of the difficulties in comparing authors' contributions to a paper and some actual research evaluation practices, which (approximately) give full paper credit only to the most important authors. A mechanism for indicating that various authors contributed equally is required to maintain and strengthen collaboration...
September 21, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933023/to-whistleblow-or-not-to-whistleblow-affective-and-cognitive-differences-in-reporting-peers-and-advisors
#10
Tristan McIntosh, Cory Higgs, Megan Turner, Paul Partlow, Logan Steele, Alexandra E MacDougall, Shane Connelly, Michael D Mumford
Traditional whistleblowing theories have purported that whistleblowers engage in a rational process in determining whether or not to blow the whistle on misconduct. However, stressors inherent to whistleblowing often impede rational thinking and act as a barrier to effective whistleblowing. The negative impact of these stressors on whistleblowing may be made worse depending on who engages in the misconduct: a peer or advisor. In the present study, participants are presented with an ethical scenario where either a peer or advisor engages in misconduct, and positive and the negative consequences of whistleblowing are either directed to the wrongdoer, department, or university...
September 20, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916944/conflict-of-interest-and-the-create-x-trial-in-the-new-england-journal-of-medicine
#11
LETTER
Akihiko Ozaki
There is an increasing emphasis on clear disclosure of conflict of interest in medical communities, following repeated scientific frauds in clinical trials. However, incomplete COI statements continue to be prevalent in the medical community, as appears to have occurred in the Capecitabine for Residual Cancer as Adjuvant Therapy (CREATE-X) trial, which was recently published in the New England Journal of Medicine. The authors of the article did not clearly report the roles of the Japan Breast Cancer Research Group, a sponsor and funder of the study, although a majority of the Japanese authors served in important positions in the organization...
September 15, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913604/differing-perceptions-concerning-research-integrity-between-universities-and-industry-a-qualitative-study
#12
Simon Godecharle, Benoit Nemery, Kris Dierickx
Despite the ever increasing collaboration between industry and universities, the previous empirical studies on research integrity and misconduct excluded participants of biomedical industry. Hence, there is a lack of empirical data on how research managers and biomedical researchers active in industry perceive the issues of research integrity and misconduct, and whether or not their perspectives differ from those of researchers and research managers active in universities. If various standards concerning research integrity and misconduct are upheld between industry and universities, this might undermine research collaborations...
September 14, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905258/is-biomedical-research-protected-from-predatory-reviewers
#13
Aceil Al-Khatib, Jaime A Teixeira da Silva
Authors endure considerable hardship carrying out biomedical research, from generating ideas to completing their manuscripts and submitting their findings and data (as is increasingly required) to a journal. When researchers submit to journals, they entrust their findings and ideas to editors and peer reviewers who are expected to respect the confidentiality of peer review. Inherent trust in peer review is built on the ethical conduct of authors, editors and reviewers, and on the respect of this confidentiality...
September 13, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900898/methods-for-practising-ethics-in-research-and-innovation-a-literature-review-critical-analysis-and-recommendations
#14
Wessel Reijers, David Wright, Philip Brey, Karsten Weber, Rowena Rodrigues, Declan O'Sullivan, Bert Gordijn
This paper provides a systematic literature review, analysis and discussion of methods that are proposed to practise ethics in research and innovation (R&I). Ethical considerations concerning the impacts of R&I are increasingly important, due to the quickening pace of technological innovation and the ubiquitous use of the outcomes of R&I processes in society. For this reason, several methods for practising ethics have been developed in different fields of R&I. The paper first of all presents a systematic search of academic sources that present and discuss such methods...
September 12, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900845/sanitary-worker-s-death-unnerves-pakistan-s-health-care-ethics-to-the-core
#15
LETTER
Syed Bilal Pasha, Tooba Fatima Qadir, Huda Fatima, Mohammed Madadin, Syed Ather Hussain, Ritesh G Menezes
Health care ethics is a sensitive domain, which if ignored, can lead to patient dissatisfaction, weakened doctor-patient interaction and episodes of violence. Little importance has been paid to medical ethics within undergraduate medical education in developing countries such as Pakistan. Three doctors in Pakistan are currently facing an official police complaint and arrest charges, following the death of a sanitary worker, who fell unconscious while cleaning a drain and was allegedly refused treatment as he was covered in sewage filth...
September 12, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895055/maqasid-al-shariah-as-a-complementary-framework-for-conventional-bioethics-application-in-malaysian-assisted-reproductive-technology-art-fatwa
#16
Abdul Halim Ibrahim, Noor Naemah Abdul Rahman, Shaikh Mohd Saifuddeen
Rapid development in the area of assisted reproductive technology (ART), has benefited mankind by addressing reproductive problems. However, the emergence of new technologies and techniques raises various issues and discussions among physicians and the masses, especially on issues related to bioethics. Apart from solutions provided using conventional bioethics framework, solutions can also be derived via a complementary framework of bioethics based on the Higher Objectives of the Divine Law (Maqasid al-Shariah) in tackling these problems...
September 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889402/social-freezing-in-medical-practice-experiences-and-attitudes-of-gynecologists-in-germany
#17
Maximilian Schochow, Giovanni Rubeis, Grit Büchner-Mögling, Hansjakob Fries, Florian Steger
Surveys of the German public have revealed a high acceptance of social freezing, i.e. oocyte conservation without medical indication. Up to now, there are no investigations available on the experiences and attitudes of health professionals towards social freezing. Between August 2015 and January 2016, we surveyed gynecologists Germany-wide on the topic social freezing. Five gynecologists specialized in reproductive medicine and five office-based gynecologists in standard care were chosen for the survey. The survey was conducted with an explorative, qualitative research design...
September 9, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889369/interlocking-editorships-in-scientific-journals
#18
LETTER
Mohammadamin Erfanmanesh, Marzieh Morovati
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889332/introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-climate-ethics-uncertainty-values-and-policy
#19
Sabine Roeser
Climate change is a pressing phenomenon with huge potential ethical, legal and social policy implications. Climate change gives rise to intricate moral and policy issues as it involves contested science, uncertainty and risk. In order to come to scientifically and morally justified, as well as feasible, policies, targeting climate change requires an interdisciplinary approach. This special issue will identify the main challenges that climate change poses from social, economic, methodological and ethical perspectives by focusing on the complex interrelations between uncertainty, values and policy in this context...
September 9, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889329/lack-of-improvement-in-scientific-integrity-an-analysis-of-wos-retractions-by-chinese-researchers-1997-2016
#20
Lei Lei, Ying Zhang
This study investigated the status quo of article retractions by Chinese researchers. The bibliometric information of 834 retractions from the Web of Science SCI-expanded database were downloaded and analysed. The results showed that the number of retractions increased in the past two decades, and misconduct such as plagiarism, fraud, and faked peer review explained approximately three quarters of the retractions. Meanwhile, a large proportion of the retractions seemed typical of deliberate fraud, which might be evidenced by retractions authored by repeat offenders of data fraud and those due to faked peer review...
September 9, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
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