journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Science and Engineering Ethics

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616840/end-of-2016-can-we-save-research-from-predators-in-2017
#1
Aamir Raoof Memon
At the beginning of every year, we expect to see worthwhile improvements on the past. The end of 2016 showcased many important issues in the scientific world, ranging from criticisms of research misconduct and fraud to the introduction of new scientometrics. Despite the scientific community's continuing efforts, predatory journals and publishers are still on the rise, and the Beall's list calls attention to the need to take a firm action across the board. This short opinion piece highlights research conducted by the scholarly community on research publication predators during 2016, and offers suggestions as to how to bring about future improvements...
June 14, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616839/continuous-evaluation-in-ethics-education-a-case-study
#2
Tristan McIntosh, Cory Higgs, Michael Mumford, Shane Connelly, James DuBois
A great need for systematic evaluation of ethics training programs exists. Those tasked with developing an ethics training program may be quick to dismiss the value of training evaluation in continuous process improvement. In the present effort, we use a case study approach to delineate how to leverage formative and summative evaluation measures to create a high-quality ethics education program. With regard to formative evaluation, information bearing on trainee reactions, qualitative data from the comments of trainees, in addition to empirical findings, can ensure that the training program operates smoothly...
June 14, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608034/abortion-of-fetus-with-down-s-syndrome-india-joins-the-worldwide-controversy-surrounding-abortion-laws
#3
Alankrita Taneja, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Jagadish Rao Padubidri, Mohammed Madadin, Ritesh G Menezes
Abortion continues to be a moral and ethical dilemma in medicine. While abortions in general have always faced social stigmas, the abortion of fetuses with Down's syndrome in particular remains the subject of debate across the globe. In India, under the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, abortion is legal under prescribed circumstances only till 20 weeks of gestation. Laws for abortion after 20 week of gestation are ill defined. In a recent ruling of the Supreme Court in India, a woman was denied the right to abortion of her 26 week old fetus...
June 12, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608033/intervention-to-promote-responsible-conduct-of-research-mentoring
#4
Michael W Kalichman, Dena K Plemmons
Although much of the focus on responsible conduct in research has been defined by courses or online training, it is generally understood that this is less important than what happens in the research environment. On the assumption that providing faculty with tools and resources to address the ethical dimensions of the practice of research would be useful, a new workshop was convened ten times across seven academic institutions and at the annual meeting of a professional society. Workshops were attended by 91 faculty, 71 (78% response rate) of whom completed evaluations strongly supportive of the value of the workshop...
June 12, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597223/the-irrelevance-of-the-risk-uncertainty-distinction
#5
Dominic Roser
Precautionary Principles are often said to be appropriate for decision-making in contexts of uncertainty such as climate policy. Contexts of uncertainty are contrasted to contexts of risk depending on whether we have probabilities or not. Against this view, I argue that the risk-uncertainty distinction is practically irrelevant. I start by noting that the history of the distinction between risk and uncertainty is more varied than is sometimes assumed. In order to examine the distinction, I unpack the idea of having probabilities, in particular by distinguishing three interpretations of probability: objective, epistemic, and subjective probability...
June 8, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597222/development-and-preliminary-validation-of-a-new-measure-of-values-in-scientific-work
#6
Tammy English, Alison L Antes, Kari A Baldwin, James M DuBois
In this paper we describe the development and initial psychometric evaluation of a new measure, the values in scientific work (VSW). This scale assesses the level of importance that investigators attach to different VSW. It taps a broad range of intrinsic, extrinsic, and social values that motivate the work of scientists, including values specific to scientific work (e.g., truth and integrity) and more classic work values (e.g., security and prestige) in the context of science. Notably, the values represented in this scale are relevant to scientists regardless of their career stage and research focus...
June 8, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597221/editorial-board-self-publishing-rates-in-czech-economic-journals
#7
Radek Zdeněk
This article investigates whether editorial board members of selected economic journals publish their research papers in their 'own' journal. Journals were selected from the Journal Citation Report(®) from the categories Business; Business, Finance; and Economics. Only research articles published between 2012 and 2015 were included in the analysis. We recorded ratios concerning the share of articles authored by editorial board members, the share of editorial board members publishing in their own journals and ratios representing their publication output...
June 8, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597220/the-value-of-darkness-a-moral-framework-for-urban-nighttime-lighting
#8
Taylor Stone
The adverse effects of artificial nighttime lighting, known as light pollution, are emerging as an important environmental issue. To address these effects, current scientific research focuses mainly on identifying what is bad or undesirable about certain types and uses of lighting at night. This paper adopts a value-sensitive approach, focusing instead on what is good about darkness at night. In doing so, it offers a first comprehensive analysis of the environmental value of darkness at night from within applied ethics...
June 8, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597219/advocacy-science-explaining-the-term-with-case-studies-from-biotechnology
#9
Ksenia Gerasimova
The paper discusses the use of term 'advocacy science' which is communication of science which goes beyond simple reporting of scientific findings, using the case study of biotechnology. It argues that advocacy science should be used to distinguish the engagement of modern civil society organizations to interpret scientific knowledge for their lobbying. It illustrates how this new communicative process has changed political discourse in science and general perception of the role of science in contemporary society...
June 8, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597218/uncovering-a-new-moral-dilemma-of-economic-optimization-in-biotechnological-processing
#10
Marek Vochozka, Vojtěch Stehel, Anna Maroušková
The trend of emerging biorefineries is to process the harvest as efficiently as possible and without any waste. From the most valuable phytomass, refined medicines, enzymes, dyes and other special reactants are created. Functional foods, food ingredients, oils, alcohol, solvents, plastics, fillers and a wide variety of other chemical products follow. After being treated with nutrient recovery techniques (for fertilizer production), biofuels or soil improvers are produced from the leftovers. Economic optimization algorithms have confirmed that such complex biorefineries can be financially viable only when a high degree of feedstock concentration is included...
June 8, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536752/pharmacists-assessment-of-the-difficulty-and-frequency-of-ethical-issues-encountered-in-community-pharmacy-settings
#11
Tatjana Crnjanski, Dusanka Krajnovic, Mirko Savic
Researching ethical problems and their frequency could give us a complex picture and greater insight into the types of ethical issues that pharmacists face in providing health care. The overall aim of this study was to assess the pharmacist's perception of difficulty and frequency of selected ethical issues encountered by the community pharmacists in their everyday practice. A quantitative cross sectional multicenter study was performed using a validated survey instrument - Ethical Issue Scale for Community Pharmacy (EISP)...
May 23, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536751/models-with-men-and-women-representing-gender-in-dynamic-modeling-of-social-systems
#12
Erika Palmer, Benedicte Wilson
Dynamic engineering models have yet to be evaluated in the context of feminist engineering ethics. Decision-making concerning gender in dynamic modeling design is a gender and ethical issue that is important to address regardless of the system in which the dynamic modeling is applied. There are many dynamic modeling tools that operationally include the female population, however, there is an important distinction between females and women; it is the difference between biological sex and the social construct of gender, which is fluid and changes over time and geography...
May 23, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484906/the-ethics-of-anti-aging-clinical-trials
#13
Parker Crutchfield
Interventions aiming to slow, stop, or reverse the aging process are starting to enter clinical trials. Though this line of research is nascent, it has the potential to not only prevent prolonged human suffering, but also to extend human well-being. As this line of research develops, it is important to understand the ethical constraints of conducting such research. This paper discusses some of these constraints. In particular, it discusses the ethical difficulties of conducting this research in a way that would produce reliable data regarding the effectiveness of an anti-aging intervention...
May 8, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444569/a-new-science-publishing-system-for-a-budding-science-publishing-crisis
#14
Carlos Fernandez-Patron, Eugenio Hardy
The current science publishing system is in need of a positive transformation for the good of scientists and society as a whole. Herein, we propose features that, in our view, will distinguish the science publishing system of the future.
April 25, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405959/subsidies-to-increase-remote-pollution
#15
Jana Kliestikova, Anna Krizanova, Tatiana Corejova, Pavol Kral, Erika Spuchlakova
During the last decade, Central Europe became a cynosure for the world for its unparalleled public support for renewable energy. For instance, the production of electricity from purpose-grown biomass received approximately twice the amount in subsidies as that produced from biowaste. Moreover, the guaranteed purchase price of electricity from solar panels was set approximately five times higher than that from conventional sources. This controversial environmental donation policy led to the devastation of large areas of arable land, a worsening of food availability, unprecedented market distortions, and serious threats to national budgets, among other things...
April 12, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401510/a-systematic-literature-review-of-us-engineering-ethics-interventions
#16
Justin L Hess, Grant Fore
Promoting the ethical formation of engineering students through the cultivation of their discipline-specific knowledge, sensitivity, imagination, and reasoning skills has become a goal for many engineering education programs throughout the United States. However, there is neither a consensus throughout the engineering education community regarding which strategies are most effective towards which ends, nor which ends are most important. This study provides an overview of engineering ethics interventions within the U...
April 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401509/from-paper-to-practice-indexing-systems-and-ethical-standards
#17
Behrooz Astaneh, Sarah Masoumi
Currently one of the main goals of editors is to attain a higher visibility for their journals. On the other hand, authors strive to publish their research in journals indexed in eminent databases such as Scopus, Thompson Reuters' Web of Science (ISI), Medline, etc. Therefore, clarifying the standards of indexing is of great importance. One of the most important issues in publication is the ethical considerations, which are mainly described by organizations, such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors and the Committee on Publication Ethics...
April 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401508/on-effectiveness-and-legitimacy-of-shaming-as-a-strategy-for-combatting-climate-change
#18
Behnam Taebi, Azar Safari
While states have agreed to substantial reduction of emissions in the Paris Agreement, the success of the Agreement strongly depends on the cooperation of large Multinational Corporations. Short of legal obligations, we discuss the effectiveness and moral legitimacy of voluntary approaches based on naming and shaming. We argue that effectiveness and legitimacy are closely tied together; as voluntary approaches are the only alternative to legally imposed duties, they are most morally defensible particularly if they would be the most effective in reducing the harmful greenhouse gases...
April 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401507/improving-student-engagement-in-the-study-of-professional-ethics-concepts-and-an-example-in-cyber-security
#19
John D Bustard
In spite of the acknowledged importance of professional ethics, technical students often show little enthusiasm for studying the subject. This paper considers how such engagement might be improved. Four guiding principles for promoting engagement are identified: (1) aligning teaching content with student interests; (2) taking a pragmatic rather than a philosophical approach to issue resolution; (3) addressing the full complexity of real-world case studies; and (4) covering content in a way that students find entertaining...
April 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401506/the-ethical-and-academic-implications-of-the-jeffrey-beall-www-scholarlyoa-com-blog-shutdown
#20
LETTER
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva
A very important event took place on January 15, 2017. On that day, the Jeffrey Beall blog ( www.scholarlyoa.com ) was silently, and suddenly, shut down by Beall himself. A profoundly divisive and controversial site, the Beall blog represented an existential threat to those journals and publishers that were listed there. On the other hand, the Beall blog was a ray of hope to critics of bad publishing practices that a culture of public shaming was perhaps the only way to rout out those journals-and their editors-and publishers who did not respect basic publishing ethical principles and intrinsic academic values...
April 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
journal
journal
32383
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"