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Science and Engineering Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185142/print-me-an-organ-ethical-and-regulatory-issues-emerging-from-3d-bioprinting-in-medicine
#1
Frederic Gilbert, Cathal D O'Connell, Tajanka Mladenovska, Susan Dodds
Recent developments of three-dimensional printing of biomaterials (3D bioprinting) in medicine have been portrayed as demonstrating the potential to transform some medical treatments, including providing new responses to organ damage or organ failure. However, beyond the hype and before 3D bioprinted organs are ready to be transplanted into humans, several important ethical concerns and regulatory questions need to be addressed. This article starts by raising general ethical concerns associated with the use of bioprinting in medicine, then it focuses on more particular ethical issues related to experimental testing on humans, and the lack of current international regulatory directives to guide these experiments...
February 9, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155097/gene-editing-enhancing-and-women-s-role
#2
Frida Simonstein
A recent article on the front page of The Independent (September 18, 2015) reported that the genetic 'manipulation' of IVF embryos is to start in Britain, using a new revolutionary gene-editing technique, called Crispr/Cas9. About three weeks later (Saturday 10, October 2015), on the front page of the same newspaper, it was reported that the National Health Service (NHS) faces a one billion pound deficit only 3 months into the new year. The hidden connection between these reports is that gene editing could be used to solve issues related to health care allocation...
February 2, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155096/effect-of-unprofessional-supervision-on-durability-of-buildings
#3
LETTER
Javad Yahaghi
The durability of buildings which depends on the nature of the supervisory system used in their construction is an important feature of the construction industry. This article tries to draw the readers' attention to the effect of untrained and unprofessional building supervisors and their unethical performance on the durability of buildings.
February 2, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155095/publishers-save-authors-time
#4
LETTER
Khaled Moustafa
Scientific journals ask authors to put their manuscripts, at the submission stage, sometimes in a complex style and a specific pagination format that are time consuming while it is unclear yet that the submitted manuscripts will be accepted. In the case of rejections, authors need to submit to another journal most likely with a different style and formatting that require additional work and time. To save authors' time, publishers should allow authors to submit their manuscripts in any format and to comply with the style required by the targeted journal only in revised versions, but not at the submission step when the manuscripts are not yet approved for publication...
February 2, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155094/ethical-implications-of-user-perceptions-of-wearable-devices
#5
REVIEW
L H Segura Anaya, Abeer Alsadoon, N Costadopoulos, P W C Prasad
Health Wearable Devices enhance the quality of life, promote positive lifestyle changes and save time and money in medical appointments. However, Wearable Devices store large amounts of personal information that is accessed by third parties without user consent. This creates ethical issues regarding privacy, security and informed consent. This paper aims to demonstrate users' ethical perceptions of the use of Wearable Devices in the health sector. The impact of ethics is determined by an online survey which was conducted from patients and users with random female and male division...
February 2, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155093/should-authors-be-requested-to-suggest-peer-reviewers
#6
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Aceil Al-Khatib
As part of a continuous process to explore the factors that might weaken or corrupt traditional peer review, in this paper, we query the ethics, fairness and validity of the request, by editors, of authors to suggest peer reviewers during the submission process. One of the reasons for the current crisis in science pertains to a loss in trust as a result of a flawed peer review which is by nature biased unless it is open peer review. As we indicate, the fact that some editors and journals rely on authors' suggestions in terms of who should peer review their paper already instills a potential way to abuse the trust of the submission and publishing system...
February 2, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155092/business-ethics-for-mobile-network-operators
#7
LETTER
Shahryar Sorooshian
The letter is highlighting a case of Business Ethics for Mobile Network Operators based on the recent news.
February 2, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150177/a-meta-analytic-comparison-of-face-to-face-and-online-delivery-in-ethics-instruction-the-case-for-a-hybrid-approach
#8
E Michelle Todd, Logan L Watts, Tyler J Mulhearn, Brett S Torrence, Megan R Turner, Shane Connelly, Michael D Mumford
Despite the growing body of literature on training in the responsible conduct of research, few studies have examined the effectiveness of delivery formats used in ethics courses (i.e., face-to-face, online, hybrid). The present effort sought to address this gap in the literature through a meta-analytic review of 66 empirical studies, representing 106 ethics courses and 10,069 participants. The frequency and effectiveness of 67 instructional and process-based content areas were also assessed for each delivery format...
February 1, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084579/who-what-and-where-www-problems-in-scientific-communities
#9
LETTER
Hong Gao, Wei Liu, Jinlan Nie
The results of the National Higher Education Entrance Examination (Gaokao, in Chinese) have a life-long effect on most Chinese by labeling them clever or not. Some of the following rules of the Gaokao enhance the damage, for example, the rule of Who, What and Where. In general, Who you are and What you have done are of secondary importance, but Where you graduated from, especially the college of first-record is the most important, but discriminatory criterion in the recruitment courses of most of scientific communities and social organizations in China...
January 13, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078630/-data-not-shown-is-no-longer-excusable-in-biomedical-publishing
#10
LETTER
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074377/reflection-on-the-fazlul-sarkar-versus-pubpeer-john-doe-case
#11
LETTER
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074376/synthetic-biology-genome-editing-and-the-risk-of-bioterrorism
#12
Marko Ahteensuu
The SynBioSecurity argument says that synthetic biology introduces new risks of intentional misuse of synthetic pathogens and that, therefore, there is a need for extra regulations and oversight. This paper provides an analysis of the argument, sets forth a new version of it, and identifies three developments that raise biosecurity risks compared to the situation earlier. The developments include (1) a spread of the required know-how, (2) improved availability of the techniques, instruments and biological parts, and (3) new technical possibilities such as "resurrecting" disappeared pathogens...
January 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074375/identity-theft-in-the-academic-world-leads-to-junk-science
#13
Mehdi Dadkhah, Mohammad Lagzian, Glenn Borchardt
In recent years, identity theft has been growing in the academic world. Cybercriminals create fake profiles for prominent scientists in attempts to manipulate the review and publishing process. Without permission, some fraudulent journals use the names of standout researchers on their editorial boards in the effort to look legitimate. This opinion piece, highlights some of the usual types of identity theft and their role in spreading junk science. Some general guidelines that editors and researchers can use against such attacks are presented...
January 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058620/holding-the-project-accountable-research-governance-ethics-and-democracy
#14
Matthias Leese
This paper seeks to address research governance by highlighting the notion of public accountability as a complementary tool for the establishment of an ethical resonance space for emerging technologies. Public accountability can render development and design process of emerging technologies transparent through practices of holding those in charge of research accountable for their actions, thereby fostering ethical engagement with their potential negative consequences or side-effects. Through practices such as parliamentary questions, audits, and open letters emerging technologies could be effectively rendered transparent and opened up to broader levels of scrutiny and debate, thereby contributing to a greater adherence of emerging technologies to ethics and moral consensus...
January 5, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058619/cyber-attacks-and-terrorism-a-twenty-first-century-conundrum
#15
Marwan Albahar
In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear...
January 5, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039612/investigating-the-underlying-factors-of-corruption-in-the-public-construction-sector-evidence-from-china
#16
Ming Shan, Yun Le, Kenneth T W Yiu, Albert P C Chan, Yi Hu
Over recent years, the issue of corruption in the public construction sector has attracted increasing attention from both practitioners and researchers worldwide. However, limited efforts are available for investigating the underlying factors of corruption in this sector. Thus, this study attempted to bridge this knowledge gap by exploring the underlying factors of corruption in the public construction sector of China. To achieve this goal, a total of 14 structured interviews were first carried out, and a questionnaire survey was then administered to 188 professionals in China...
December 30, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028778/ethics-and-the-un-sustainable-development-goals-the-case-for-comprehensive-engineering-commentary-on-using-student-engagement-to-relocate-ethics-to-the-core-of-the-engineering-curriculum
#17
Jeroen van den Hoven
In the twenty-first century, the urgent problems the world is facing (the UN Sustainable Development Goals) are increasingly related to vast and intricate 'systems of systems', which comprise both socio-technical and eco-systems. In order for engineers to adequately and responsibly respond to these problems, they cannot focus on only one technical or any other aspect in isolation, but must adopt a wider and multidisciplinary perspective of these systems, including an ethical and social perspective. Engineering curricula should therefore focus on what we call 'comprehensive engineering'...
December 27, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005255/the-roles-of-implicit-understanding-of-engineering-ethics-in-student-teams-discussion
#18
Eun Ah Lee, Magdalena Grohman, Nicholas R Gans, Marco Tacca, Matthew J Brown
Following previous work that shows engineering students possess different levels of understanding of ethics-implicit and explicit-this study focuses on how students' implicit understanding of engineering ethics influences their team discussion process, in cases where there is significant divergence between their explicit and implicit understanding. We observed student teams during group discussions of the ethical issues involved in their engineering design projects. Through the micro-scale discourse analysis based on cognitive ethnography, we found two possible ways in which implicit understanding influenced the discussion...
December 22, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000093/engineering-students-views-of-corporate-social-responsibility-a-case-study-from-petroleum-engineering
#19
Jessica M Smith, Carrie J McClelland, Nicole M Smith
The mining and energy industries present unique challenges to engineers, who must navigate sometimes competing responsibilities and codes of conduct, such as personal senses of right and wrong, professional ethics codes, and their employers' corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the current dominant framework used by industry to conceptualize firms' responsibilities to their stakeholders, yet has it plays a relatively minor role in engineering ethics education...
December 20, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000092/the-slippery-slope-argument-in-the-ethical-debate-on-genetic-engineering-of-humans
#20
Douglas Walton
This article applies tools from argumentation theory to slippery slope arguments used in current ethical debates on genetic engineering. Among the tools used are argumentation schemes, value-based argumentation, critical questions, and burden of proof. It is argued that so-called drivers such as social acceptance and rapid technological development are also important factors that need to be taken into account alongside the argumentation scheme. It is shown that the slippery slope argument is basically a reasonable (but defeasible) form of argument, but is often flawed when used in ethical debates because of failures to meet the requirements of its scheme...
December 20, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
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