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Science and Engineering Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30617665/pragmatism-and-care-in-engineering-ethics
#1
Indira Nair, William M Bulleit
Engineering is a practice that must function in an environment of incomplete and uncertain knowledge. This environment has become even more difficult in an increasingly complex world. Engineering ethics has to be framed and taught in a way that addresses these realities. This paper proposes a combination of the philosophy of pragmatism and the ethic of care as a possible framework for the practice of engineering ethics that can provide flexibility and openness to address engineering ethics problems more realistically within the ethos and culture of engineering...
January 7, 2019: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30607699/self-focused-emotions-and-ethical-decision-making-comparing-the-effects-of-regulated-and-unregulated-guilt-shame-and-embarrassment
#2
Cory Higgs, Tristan McIntosh, Shane Connelly, Michael Mumford
Research has examined various cognitive processes underlying ethical decision-making, and has recently begun to focus on the differential effects of specific emotions. The present study examines three self-focused moral emotions and their influence on ethical decision-making: guilt, shame, and embarrassment. Given the potential of these discrete emotions to exert positive or negative effects in decision-making contexts, we also examined their effects on ethical decisions after a cognitive reappraisal emotion regulation intervention...
January 3, 2019: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30604356/what-explains-associations-of-researchers-nation-of-origin-and-scores-on-a-measure-of-professional-decision-making-exploring-key-variables-and-interpretation-of-scores
#3
Alison L Antes, Tammy English, Kari A Baldwin, James M DuBois
Researchers encounter challenges that require making complex professional decisions. Strategies such as seeking help and anticipating consequences support decision-making in these situations. Existing evidence on a measure of professional decision-making in research (the PDR) that assesses the use of decision-making strategies revealed that NIH-funded researchers born outside of the U.S. tended to score below their U.S. counterparts. To examine potential explanations for this association, this study recruited 101 researchers born in the United States and 102 born internationally to complete the PDR and measures of basic personal values, values in scientific work, discrimination between the seriousness of rules in research, exposure to unprofessional research practices, and acculturation to American culture...
January 2, 2019: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30604355/good-scientific-practice-developing-a-curriculum-for-medical-students-in-germany
#4
Katharina Fuerholzer, Maximilian Schochow, Florian Steger
German medical schools have not yet sufficiently introduced students to the field of good scientific practice (GSP). In order to prevent scientific misconduct and to foster scientific integrity, courses on GSP must be an integral part of the curriculum of medical students. Based on a review of the literature, teaching units and materials for two courses on GSP were developed and tested in a pilot course. The pilot course was accompanied by a pre-post evaluation that assessed students' knowledge and attitudes towards scientific integrity and scientific misconduct...
January 2, 2019: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30604354/assessment-of-doctors-knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-confidentiality-in-hospital-care
#5
Cristina M Beltran-Aroca, Fernando Labella, Pilar Font-Ugalde, Eloy Girela-Lopez
The physician's duty of confidentiality is based on the observance of the patient's privacy and intimacy and on the importance of respecting both of these rights, thus creating a relationship of confidence and collaboration between doctor and patient. The main objective of this work consists of analyzing the aspects that are related to the confidentiality of patients' data with respect to the training, conduct and opinions of doctors from different Clinical Management Units of a third-level hospital via a questionnaire...
January 2, 2019: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30604353/what-crisis-management-researchers-experiences-with-and-views-of-scholarly-misconduct
#6
Christian Hopp, Gary A Hoover
This research presents the results of a survey regarding scientific misconduct and questionable research practices elicited from a sample of 1215 management researchers. We find that misconduct (research that was either fabricated or falsified) is not encountered often by reviewers nor editors. Yet, there is a strong prevalence of misrepresentations (method inadequacy, omission or withholding of contradictory results, dropping of unsupported hypotheses). When it comes to potential methodological improvements, those that are skeptical about the empirical body of work being published see merit in replication studies...
January 2, 2019: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30465298/genetically-engineered-oil-seed-crops-and-novel-terrestrial-nutrients-ethical-considerations
#7
Chris MacDonald, Stefanie Colombo, Michael T Arts
Genetically engineered (GE) organisms have been at the center of ethical debates among the public and regulators over their potential risks and benefits to the environment and society. Unlike the currently commercial GE crops that express resistance or tolerance to pesticides or herbicides, a new GE crop produces two bioactive nutrients (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) that heretofore have largely been produced only in aquatic environments. This represents a novel category of risk to ecosystem functioning...
November 21, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374667/a-remembrance-of-raymond-e-spier-1938-2018
#8
Stephanie J Bird
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249021/in-their-own-words-research-misconduct-from-the-perspective-of-researchers-in-malaysian-universities
#9
Angelina P Olesen, Latifah Amin, Zurina Mahadi
Published data and studies on research misconduct, which focuses on researchers in Malaysia, is still lacking, therefore, we decided that this was an area for investigation. This study provides qualitative results for the examined issues through series of in-depth interviews with 21 researchers and lecturers in various universities in Malaysia. The aims of this study were to investigate the researchers' opinions and perceptions regarding what they considered to be research misconduct, their experience with such misconduct, and the factors that contribute to research misconduct...
December 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071570/p-hacking-a-wake-up-call-for-the-scientific-community
#10
LETTER
A Thirumal Raj, Shankargouda Patil, Sachin Sarode, Ziad Salameh
P-hacking or data dredging involves manipulation of the research data in order to obtain a statistically significant result. The reasons behind P-hacking and the consequences of the same are discussed in the present manuscript.
December 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067625/central-europe-ethical-overlaps-of-environmental-and-economic-interests-in-coming-years
#11
Zdeněk Caha
Despite the size and thanks to the rich brown coal reserves, the Czech Republic is one of the leading energy producers in Europe, and the 7th biggest exporter of electricity in the world. However, following the climate change mitigation, the novel energy policy that enhances the reduction of coal mining is about to be implemented. A preliminary material flow analysis of the Czech energy sector was carried out. The data obtained confirmed that this government act would result in a dramatic reduction of revenues from electricity sales...
December 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058118/the-dawning-of-the-ethics-of-environmental-robots
#12
Aimee van Wynsberghe, Justin Donhauser
Environmental scientists and engineers have been exploring research and monitoring applications of robotics, as well as exploring ways of integrating robotics into ecosystems to aid in responses to accelerating environmental, climatic, and biodiversity changes. These emerging applications of robots and other autonomous technologies present novel ethical and practical challenges. Yet, the critical applications of robots for environmental research, engineering, protection and remediation have received next to no attention in the ethics of robotics literature to date...
December 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052107/aspects-of-morality-and-law-enforcement-in-today-s-science-in-post-soviet-countries
#13
Jana Kliestikova, Tomas Kliestik, Maria Misankova, Tatiana Corejova, Anna Krizanova
Many reports independently confirm that even more than a quarter of a century after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the results of research and development in those countries that were under its influence are insufficient in comparison to the rest of the world. Given that human intelligence is not distributed unevenly and that science is a powerful driving force for the future of an economy, there is a hidden problem, which, if it can be resolved, may release great economic potential. The first generation of researchers from Armenia, Czech Republic, Georgia, Slovakia and Ukraine, who successfully completed their education after the political revolution, were surveyed...
December 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019058/devices-of-responsibility-over-a-decade-of-responsible-research-and-innovation-initiatives-for-nanotechnologies
#14
Clare Shelley-Egan, Diana M Bowman, Douglas K R Robinson
Responsible research and innovation (RRI) has come to represent a change in the relationship between science, technology and society. With origins in the democratisation of science, and the inclusion of ethical and societal aspects in research and development activities, RRI offers a means of integrating society and the research and innovation communities. In this article, we frame RRI activities through the lens of layers of science and technology governance as a means of characterising the context in which the RRI activity is positioned and the goal of those actors promoting the RRI activities in shaping overall governance patterns...
December 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971354/scientists-still-behaving-badly-a-survey-within-industry-and-universities
#15
Simon Godecharle, Steffen Fieuws, Ben Nemery, Kris Dierickx
Little is known about research misconduct within industry and how it compares to universities, even though a lot of biomedical research is performed by-or in collaboration with-commercial entities. Therefore, we sent an e-mail invitation to participate in an anonymous computer-based survey to all university researchers having received a biomedical research grant or scholarship from one of the two national academic research funders of Belgium between 2010 and 2014, and to researchers working in large biomedical companies or spin-offs in Belgium...
December 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952071/the-food-warden-an-exploration-of-issues-in-distributing-responsibilities-for-safe-by-design-synthetic-biology-applications
#16
Zoë Robaey, Shannon L Spruit, Ibo van de Poel
The Safe-by-Design approach in synthetic biology holds the promise of designing the building blocks of life in an organism guided by the value of safety. This paves a new way for using biotechnologies safely. However, the Safe-by-Design approach moves the bulk of the responsibility for safety to the actors in the research and development phase. Also, it assumes that safety can be defined and understood by all stakeholders in the same way. These assumptions are problematic and might actually undermine safety...
December 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916944/conflict-of-interest-and-the-create-x-trial-in-the-new-england-journal-of-medicine
#17
LETTER
Akihiko Ozaki
There is an increasing emphasis on clear disclosure of conflict of interest in medical communities, following repeated scientific frauds in clinical trials. However, incomplete COI statements continue to be prevalent in the medical community, as appears to have occurred in the Capecitabine for Residual Cancer as Adjuvant Therapy (CREATE-X) trial, which was recently published in the New England Journal of Medicine. The authors of the article did not clearly report the roles of the Japan Breast Cancer Research Group, a sponsor and funder of the study, although a majority of the Japanese authors served in important positions in the organization...
December 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30357562/attitudes-and-knowledge-about-plagiarism-among-university-students-cross-sectional-survey-at-the-university-of-split-croatia
#18
Željana Bašić, Ivana Kružić, Ivan Jerković, Ivan Buljan, Ana Marušić
Plagiarism is one of the most severe academic integrity issues. This study examined students' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism, tested their ability to recognize plagiarism, and explored the association of study levels and attendance in courses dealing with referencing rules and plagiarism with students' attitudes and knowledge. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted at the University of Split, comprising the students of all schools and study levels (n = 388). Overall, results indicate the students were not very familiar with referencing rules and did not perform well on either theoretical questions or practical examples...
October 24, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30357561/reordering-the-world-of-things-the-sociotechnical-imaginary-of-rfid-tagging-and-new-geographies-of-responsibility
#19
Ulrike Felt, Susanne Öchsner
The aim of this study is to investigate radio frequency identification (RFID) tagging as a form of sociotechnical experimentation and the kinds of sociotechnical futures at stake in this experimentation. For this purpose, a detailed analysis of a publicly available promotional video by a tag producer for the fashion industry, a sector widely using RFID tags, was analysed in detail. The results of the study indicated that the sociotechnical imaginary of RFID tagging gravitates around the core value of perfect sociotechnical efficiency...
October 24, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30357560/will-crispr-germline-engineering-close-the-door-to-an-open-future
#20
Rachel L Mintz, John D Loike, Ruth L Fischbach
The bioethical principle of autonomy is problematic regarding the future of the embryo who lacks the ability to self-advocate but will develop this defining human capacity in time. Recent experiments explore the use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 for germline engineering in the embryo, which alters future generations. The embryo's inability to express an autonomous decision is an obvious bioethical challenge of germline engineering. The philosopher Joel Feinberg acknowledged that autonomy is developing in children...
October 24, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
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