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Science and Engineering Ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905083/who-should-decide-how-machines-make-morally-laden-decisions
#1
Dominic Martin
Who should decide how a machine will decide what to do when it is driving a car, performing a medical procedure, or, more generally, when it is facing any kind of morally laden decision? More and more, machines are making complex decisions with a considerable level of autonomy. We should be much more preoccupied by this problem than we currently are. After a series of preliminary remarks, this paper will go over four possible answers to the question raised above. First, we may claim that it is the maker of a machine that gets to decide how it will behave in morally laden scenarios...
November 30, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900659/territorial-rights-and-carbon-sinks
#2
Steve Vanderheiden
Scholars concerned with abuses of the "resource privilege" by the governments of developing states sometimes call for national sovereignty over the natural resources that lie within its borders. While such claims may resist a key driver of the "resource curse" when applied to mineral resources in the ground, and are often recognized as among a people's territorial rights, their implications differ in the context of climate change, where they are invoked on behalf of a right to extract and combust fossil fuels that is set in opposition to global climate change mitigation imperatives...
November 29, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896613/new-issues-for-new-methods-ethical-and-editorial-challenges-for-an-experimental-philosophy
#3
Andrea Polonioli
This paper examines a constellation of ethical and editorial issues that have arisen since philosophers started to conduct, submit and publish empirical research. These issues encompass concerns over responsible authorship, fair treatment of human subjects, ethicality of experimental procedures, availability of data, unselective reporting and publishability of research findings. This study aims to assess whether the philosophical community has as yet successfully addressed such issues. To do so, the instructions for authors, submission process and published research papers of 29 main journals in philosophy have been considered and analyzed...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896612/why-tu-youyou-makes-less-money-than-zhang-ziyi
#4
Qinghui Suo, Yang Liu, Daming Zhang
Scientists normally earn less money than many other professions which require a similar amount of training and qualification. The economic theory of marginal utility and cost-benefit analysis can be applied to explain this phenomenon. Although scientists make less money than entertainment stars, the scientists do research work out of their interest and they also enjoy a much higher reputation and social status in some countries.
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896611/is-ignorance-of-climate-change-culpable
#5
Philip Robichaud
Sometimes ignorance is an excuse. If an agent did not know and could not have known that her action would realize some bad outcome, then it is plausible to maintain that she is not to blame for realizing that outcome, even when the act that leads to this outcome is wrong. This general thought can be brought to bear in the context of climate change insofar as we think (a) that the actions of individual agents play some role in realizing climate harms and (b) that these actions are apt targets for being considered right or wrong...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896610/limited-awareness-of-the-essences-of-certification-or-compliance-markings-on-medical-devices
#6
REVIEW
Jong Yong Abdiel Foo, Xin Ji Alan Tan
Medical devices have been long used for odiagnostic, therapeutic or rehabilitation purposes. Currently, they can range from a low-cost portable device that is often used for personal health monitoring to high-end sophisticated equipment that can only be operated by trained professionals. Depending on the functional purposes, there are different certification or compliance markings on the device when it is sold. One common certification marking is the Conformité Européenne affixation but this has a range of certification mark numbering for a variety of functional purposes...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896609/moral-polemics-of-far-reaching-economic-consequences-of-antibiotics-overuse
#7
Marek Vochozka, Anna Maroušková, Petr Šuleř
The unethical overuse of antibiotics to seek to achieve a shortening of the treatment period raises the cost of health services and poses a threat to humanity due to the gradual development of antibiotic resistance. Other consequences of our modern passion for antibiotics have appeared. Small concentrations of antibiotic residues in sewage waters slow down the metabolism of anaerobic microorganism thereby reducing the overall performance of the anaerobic fermentation used to detoxify and digest sewage and other collected organic wastes...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896608/developing-tools-to-counteract-and-prevent-suicide-bomber-incidents-a-case-study-in-value-sensitive-design
#8
Lambèr Royakkers, Marc Steen
Developers and designers make all sorts of moral decisions throughout an innovation project. In this article, we describe how teams of developers and designers engaged with ethics in the early phases of innovation based on case studies in the SUBCOP project (SUBCOP stands for 'SUicide Bomber COunteraction and Prevention'). For that purpose, Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be used as a reference. Specifically, we focus on the following two research questions: How can researchers/developers learn about users' perspectives and values during the innovation process? and How can researchers/developers take into account these values, and related design criteria, in their decision-making during the innovation process? Based on a case study of several innovation processes in this project, we conclude the researchers/developers involved are able to do something similar to VSD (without them knowing about VSD or calling it 'VSD'), supported by relatively simple exercises in the project, e...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896607/obsolete-laws-economic-and-moral-aspects-case-study-composting-standards
#9
Marek Vochozka, Anna Maroušková, Petr Šuleř
From the early days of philosophy, ethics and justice, there is wide consensus that the constancy of the laws establishes the legal system. On the other hand, the rate at which we accumulate knowledge is gaining speed like never before. Due to the recently increased attention of academics to climate change and other environmental issues, a lot of new knowledge has been obtained about carbon management, its role in nature and mechanisms regarding the formation and degradation of organic matter. A multidisciplinary techno-economic assessment of current composting standards and laws that took into account the current state of knowledge about carbon management was carried out as a case study...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896606/a-knowledge-ecologies-analysis-of-co-designing-water-and-sanitation-services-in-alaska
#10
Dena Fam, Zoë Sofoulis
Willingness to collaborate across disciplinary boundaries is necessary but not sufficient for project success. This is a case study of a transdisciplinary project whose success was constrained by contextual factors that ultimately favoured technical and scientific forms of knowledge over the cultural intelligence that might ensure technical solutions were socially feasible. In response to Alaskan Water and Sewer Challenge (AWSC), an international team with expertise in engineering, consultative design and public health formed in 2013 to collaborate on a two-year project to design remote area water and sanitation systems in consultation with two native Alaskan communities...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896605/personalized-medicine-in-a-new-genomic-era-ethical-and-legal-aspects
#11
Maria Shoaib, Mansoor Ali Merchant Rameez, Syed Ather Hussain, Mohammed Madadin, Ritesh G Menezes
The genome of two completely unrelated individuals is quite similar apart from minor variations called single nucleotide polymorphisms which contribute to the uniqueness of each and every person. These single nucleotide polymorphisms are of great interest clinically as they are useful in figuring out the susceptibility of certain individuals to particular diseases and for recognizing varied responses to pharmacological interventions. This gives rise to the idea of 'personalized medicine' as an exciting new therapeutic science in this genomic era...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896604/plagiarism-in-student-research-responsibility-of-the-supervisors-and-suggestions-to-ensure-plagiarism-free-research
#12
LETTER
Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan, Neha Baryah, Richa Mukhra
Plagiarism is a serious threat plaguing the research in publication of science globally. There is an increasing need to address the issue of plagiarism especially among young researchers in the developing part of the world. Plagiarism needs to be earnestly discouraged to ensure a plagiarism free research environment. We provide further suggestions to combat student plagiarism at Master's level and the regulations/guidelines regarding plagiarism in India.
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896603/unethical-admissions-academic-integrity-in-question
#13
LETTER
Richard Hannis Ansah, Daniel O Aikhuele, Liu Yao
The increasing unethical practices of graduates' admissions have heightened concerns about the integrity of the academy. This article informs this important subject that affects the students, admission systems, and the entire scientific community, thus, representing an approach against scholarly black market activities including falsified documents and unethical practices by consultants and students' recruitment agencies.
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896602/a-review-of-the-scientific-misconduct-inquiry-process-ankara-chamber-of-medicine-turkey
#14
Banu Gökçay, Berna Arda
The aim of this study is to review the inquiry process used in scientific misconduct cases in the Ankara Chamber of Medicine between the years 1998 and 2012. The violations of the "Disciplinary Regulations of the Turkish Medical Association" have been examined by keeping the names of the people, institutions, associations and journals secret. In total, 31 files have been studied and 11 of these files have been identified as related to scientific misconduct. The methods of inquiry, the decisions about the need for an investigation process, the types of scientific misconduct, and the adjudication processes have all been reported...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896601/how-are-editors-selected-recruited-and-approved
#15
Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Aceil Al-Khatib
The editors of scholarly journals have a duty to uphold and promote the highest standards of ethical conduct of research. They also have a responsibility to maintain the integrity of the literature, and to promote transparency and honesty in reporting research findings. In the process of screening manuscripts they receive for possible publication, editors have the obligation to report infractions to the institutions of offending authors, and request an investigation. Since editors can reject a paper on ethical grounds, they can be considered to be the guardians of ethics who should express high ethical standards in conducting and publishing their own research...
November 28, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885544/do-you-ignore-information-security-in-your-journal-website
#16
Mehdi Dadkhah, Glenn Borchardt, Mohammad Lagzian
Nowadays, web-based applications extend to all businesses due to their advantages and easy usability. The most important issue in web-based applications is security. Due to their advantages, most academic journals are now using these applications, with papers being submitted and published through their websites. As these websites are resources for knowledge, information security is primary for maintaining their integrity. In this opinion piece, we point out vulnerabilities in certain websites and introduce the potential for future threats...
November 24, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885543/realism-and-impartiality-making-sustainability-effective-in-decision-making
#17
Miquel Bastons, Jaume Armengou
There is both individual and collective widespread concern in society about the impact of human activity and the effects of our decisions on the physical and social environment. This concern is included within the idea of sustainability. The meaning of the concept is still ambiguous and its practical effectiveness disputed. Like many other authors, this article uses as a starting point the definition proposed by the World Commission on Environment and Development (Our common future, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987), considering it to be a proposal for changing the assessment of the effects of decisions, from at least two perspectives: (1) what effects we should consider and (2) how we should assess them...
November 24, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882504/media-portrayal-of-a-landmark-neuroscience-experiment-on-free-will
#18
Eric Racine, Valentin Nguyen, Victoria Saigle, Veljko Dubljevic
The concept of free will has been heavily debated in philosophy and the social sciences. Its alleged importance lies in its association with phenomena fundamental to our understandings of self, such as autonomy, freedom, self-control, agency, and moral responsibility. Consequently, when neuroscience research is interpreted as challenging or even invalidating this concept, a number of heated social and ethical debates surface. We undertook a content analysis of media coverage of Libet's et al.'s (Brain 106(Pt 3):623-642, 1983) landmark study, which is frequently interpreted as posing a serious challenge to the existence of free will...
November 23, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882503/proving-that-china-has-a-profession-of-engineering-a-case-study-in-operationalizing-a-concept-across-a-cultural-divide
#19
Michael Davis, Hengli Zhang
This article assumes that a profession is a number of individuals in the same occupation voluntarily organized to earn a living by openly serving a moral ideal in a morally-permissible way (a discipline) beyond what law, market, morality, and public opinion would otherwise require. Our question is whether the concept of profession (so defined) may have a far wider range than the term, so that, for example, pointing out that a certain language lacks a word for "profession" in our sense, is not enough to show that those who speak the language also lack the concept...
November 23, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882502/institutional-responsibility-and-the-flawed-genomic-biomarkers-at-duke-university-a-missed-opportunity-for-transparency-and-accountability
#20
David L DeMets, Thomas R Fleming, Gail Geller, David F Ransohoff
When there have been substantial failures by institutional leadership in their oversight responsibility to protect research integrity, the public should demand that these be recognized and addressed by the institution itself, or the funding bodies. This commentary discusses a case of research failures in developing genomic predictors for cancer risk assessment and treatment at a leading university. In its review of this case, the Office of Research Integrity, an agency within the US Department of Health and Human Services, focused their report entirely on one individual faculty member and made no comment on the institution's responsibility and its failure to provide adequate oversight and investigation...
November 23, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
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