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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331522/nanos3-not-nanos1-and-nanos2-is-a-germ-cell-marker-gene-in-large-yellow-croaker-during-embryogenesis
#1
Kunhuang Han, Shihai Chen, Mingyi Cai, Yonghua Jiang, Ziping Zhang, Yilei Wang
In this study, three nanos gene subtypes (Lcnanos1, Lcnanos2 and Lcnanos3) from Larimichthys crocea, were cloned and characterized. We determined the spatio-temporal expression patterns of each subtype in tissues as well as the cellular localization of mRNA in embryos. Results showed that deduced Nanos proteins have two main homology domains: N-terminal CCR4/NOT1 deadenylase interaction domain and highly conserved carboxy-terminal region bearing two conserved CCHC zinc-finger motifs. The expression levels of Lcnanos1 in testis were significantly higher than other tissues, followed by heart, brain, eye, and ovary...
January 10, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331521/increased-transcript-levels-and-kinetic-function-of-pyruvate-kinase-during-severe-dehydration-in-aestivating-african-clawed-frogs-xenopus-laevis
#2
Neal J Dawson, Yulia Biggar, Amal I Malik, Kenneth B Storey
The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, can withstand extremely arid conditions through aestivation, resulting in dehydration and urea accumulation. Aestivating X. laevis reduce their metabolic rate, and rely on anaerobic glycolysis to meet reduced ATP demands. The present study investigated how severe dehydration affected the transcript levels, kinetic profile, and phosphorylation state of the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK) in the liver and skeletal muscle of X. laevis. Compared to control frogs, severely dehydrated frogs showed an increase in the transcript abundance of both liver and muscle isoforms of PK...
January 10, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309913/hypoxia-induces-selective-modifications-to-the-acetylome-in-the-brain-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#3
Rashpal S Dhillon, Jeffrey G Richards
Reversible protein acetylation is an important regulatory mechanism for modulating protein function. The cellular protein acetylome is in large part dictated by the cellular redox balance, and in particular [NAD+]. While the relationship between hypoxia, redox balance, energy charge and resulting mitochondrial dysfunction has been examined in the context of hypoxia-linked pathologies, little is known about the direct effects of decreases in environmental oxygen on reversible lysine acetylation, and the resulting modifications to mitochondrial metabolism...
January 5, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309912/identification-and-characterization-of-opsin-gene-and-its-role-in-ovarian-maturation-in-the-oriental-river-prawn-macrobrachium-nipponense
#4
Fei Li, Hui Qiao, Hongtuo Fu, Shengming Sun, Wenyi Zhang, Shubo Jin, Sufei Jiang, Yongsheng Gong, Yiwei Xiong, Yan Wu, Yuning Hu, Dongyan Shan
Opsins are photoreceptors with important roles in reproductive regulation in birds and fishes. In the present study, we identified an opsin gene from the eyes of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense using expressed sequence tag analysis and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length transcript contained 1382 base pairs, encoding 375 amino acids. It was classified into the long-wavelength opsin group by phylogenetic analysis, and designated Mn-LW. Mn-LW expression demonstrated significant seasonal variation in somatic tissues from both male and female prawns, with the highest expression in the eyes, and expression also shown in the ovary...
January 5, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309911/altered-hemoglobin-co-factor-sensitivity-does-not-underlie-the-evolution-of-derived-fossorial-specializations-in-the-family-talpidae
#5
Kevin L Campbell, Michael J Gaudry, Kai He, Hitoshi Suzuki, Ya-Ping Zhang, Xue-Long Jiang, Roy E Weber
The high O2 affinity of European mole (Talpa europaea) blood is postulated to largely arise from the presence of two β-globin chain residues (β4 Ser and β5 Gly) that weaken the interaction of its hemoglobin (Hb) with the red cell organophosphate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG). This latter trait is generally accepted to be an 'adaptation to subterranean life', despite the fact that no data are available for more basal mole lineages that have no evolutionary history of fossoriality (i.e. the ambulatory, high-elevation shrew-like moles and the semi-aquatic desmans), and which may similarly benefit from an elevated blood O2 affinity...
January 5, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288744/metabolic-suppression-in-the-pelagic-crab-pleuroncodes-planipes-in-oxygen-minimum-zones
#6
Brad A Seibel, Bryan E Luu, Shannon N Tessier, Trisha Towanda, Kenneth B Storey
The pelagic red crab, Pleuroncodes planipes, is abundant throughout the Eastern Tropical Pacific in both benthic and pelagic environments to depths of several hundred meters. The oxygen minimum zones in this region reaches oxygen levels as low as 0.1kPa at depths within the crabs vertical range. Crabs maintain aerobic metabolism to a critical PO2 of ~0.27±0.2kPa (10°C), in part by increasing ventilation as oxygen declines. At subcritical oxygen levels, they enhance anaerobic ATP production slightly as indicated by modest increases in lactate levels...
December 27, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277642/cloning-tissue-distribution-and-nutritional-regulation-of-a-fatty-acyl-elovl4-like-elongase-in-mud-crab-scylla-paramamosain-estampador-1949
#7
Zhideng Lin, Meilin Hao, Yisheng Huang, Weiguang Zou, Hua Rong, Xiaobo Wen
In this report, the full-length cDNA of fatty acyl Elovl4-like elongase was cloned from the hepatopancreas of Scylla paramamosain by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Elovl4-like elongase in crustaceans. The full-length cDNA of Elovl4-like was 1119bp, which included a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 58bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 44bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1017bp encoding a polypeptide of 338 amino acids. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that Elovl4-like transcripts are widely distributed in various organs, with high mRNA levels in the hepatopancreas and cranial ganglia...
December 22, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277605/the-kinetic-properties-of-hexokinases-in-african-trypanosomes-of-the-subgenus-trypanozoon-match-the-blood-glucose-levels-of-mammal-hosts
#8
S Andrea Moreno, Gabriela V Cantos
We hypothesize that the hexokinases of trypanosomes of the subgenus Trypanozoon match the blood glucose levels of hosts. We studied the kinetic properties of purified hexokinase in T. equiperdum (specific activity=302U/mg), and compare with other members of Trypanozoon. With ATP (Km=104.7μM) as phosphate donor, hexokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose (Km=24.9μM) and mannose (Km=8.8μM). With respect to glucose, mannose and inorganic pyrophosphate respectively are a competitive, and a mixed inhibitor of hexokinase...
December 20, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277606/characterization-of-2-cys-peroxiredoxin-3-and-4-in-common-carp-and-the-immune-response-against-bacterial-infection
#9
Yu Zhu Yang, Yan Zhao, Ling Yang, Lan Ping Yu, Hui Wang, Xiang Shan Ji
Accumulating evidence suggests that peroxiredoxins (Prxs) eliminate excessive cellular H2O2 and are important factors in redox signaling pathways. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNAs and genomic sequences of Prx3 and Prx4 from common carp. The common carp Prx3 and Prx4 open reading frames were 753 base pairs (bp) and 783bp in length, respectively, and contained seven exons and six introns. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the common carp Prx1-4 proteins share high identities and similar characteristics with other known animal Prxs...
December 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277604/tolerance-to-hypometabolism-and-arousal-induced-by-hibernation-in-the-apple-snail-pomacea-canaliculata-caenogastropoda-ampullariidae
#10
Maximiliano Giraud-Billoud, Alfredo Castro-Vazquez, Alejandra D Campoy-Diaz, Pablo M Giuffrida, Israel A Vega
Pomacea canaliculata may serve as a model organism for comparative studies of oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in active, hibernating and arousing snails. Oxidative damage (as TBARS), free radical scavenging capacity (as ABTS+ oxidation), uric acid (UA) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and the protein expression levels of heat shock proteins (Hsp70, Hsc70, Hsp90) were studied in digestive gland, kidney and foot. Tissue TBARS of hibernating snails (45days) was higher than active snails...
December 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269035/diversity-in-membrane-composition-is-associated-with-variation-in-thermoregulatory-capacity-in-hymenopterans
#11
Enrique Rodríguez, Jean-Michel Weber, Charles-A Darveau
Thermoregulatory capacity varies widely among bees and wasps, but the cellular physiology required to support such thermogenic ability remains unclear. Studies conducted on ectothermic species living in varying temperature show that cellular membrane composition is adjusted to remain functional, a process named homeoviscous adaptation. We show that the fatty acid composition of flight muscle membranes varies with thermogenic capacity in species of bees and wasps. The relative abundance of palmitate (16:0) and linoleate (18:2) decreased, while oleate (18:1) increased with increasing thoracic temperature...
December 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29269034/melanin-deposition-ruled-out-as-cause-of-color-changes-in-the-red-eared-sliders-trachemys-scripta-elegans
#12
Dainan Cao, Shiping Gong, Jiangbo Yang, Weiye Li, Yan Ge, Yufeng Wei
Animal coloration primarily depends on the presence of pigments and the mixing ratio of eumelanin and pheomelanin. The color of red-eared slider's carapace varies with age, from an olive green to a yellow green, and then to a yellow brown in juveniles, generally. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether this color change is related to the difference in melanin expression. Melanin deposition levels were examined in the carapace, skin, eye and muscle of the three color-types using hematoxylin and eosin staining...
December 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253629/multidimensional-mitochondrial-energetics-application-to-the-study-of-electron-leak-and-hydrogen-peroxide-metabolism
#13
Jason R Treberg, Kristen Braun, Pamela Zacharias, Kathryn Kroeker
Oxygen consumption is a valuable tool to link with measurements of mitochondrial electron leakage to form reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in mitochondria is predominantly superoxide and H2O2. However, oxygen consumption may respond differently to changes in conditions than superoxide/H2O2 production does, complicating the use of respiration as a sole indicator of mitochondrial energetics. The same equipment that is valuable for fluorescent monitoring of H2O2 efflux provides a straightforward means of estimating membrane potential (ΔΨ), thereby an alternative metric of mitochondrial energetics is readily added to complement studies on the link between mitochondrial energetics and electron leak...
December 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248591/strategies-of-biochemical-adaptation-for-hibernation-in-a-south-american-marsupial-dromiciops-gliroides-3-activation-of-pro-survival-response-pathways
#14
Bryan E Luu, Sanoji Wijenayake, Jing Zhang, Shannon N Tessier, Julian F Quintero-Galvis, Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Roberto F Nespolo, Kenneth B Storey
The South American marsupial, monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides) uses both daily torpor and multi-day hibernation to survive in its southern Chile native environment. The present study leverages multiplex technology to assess the contributions of key stress-inducible cell cycle regulators and heat shock proteins to hibernation in liver, heart, and brain of monito del monte in a comparison of control versus 4day hibernating conditions. The data indicate that MDM2, a stress-responsive ubiquitin ligase, plays a crucial role in marsupial hibernation since all three tissues showed statistically significant increases in MDM2 levels during torpor (1...
December 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247843/dietary-betaine-supplementation-in-hens-modulates-hypothalamic-expression-of-cholesterol-metabolic-genes-in-f1-cockerels-through-modification-of-dna-methylation
#15
Abdulrahman A Idriss, Yun Hu, Zhen Hou, Yan Hu, Qinwei Sun, Nagmeldin A Omer, Halima Abobaker, Yingdong Ni, Ruqian Zhao
Betaine is widely used in animal nutrition to promote growth, development and methyl donor during methionine metabolism through nutritional reprogramming via regulation of gene expression. Prenatal betaine exposure is reported to modulate hypothalamic cholesterol metabolism in chickens, yet it remains unknown whether feeding hens with betaine-supplemented diet may affect hypothalamic cholesterol metabolism in F1 offspring. In this study, hens were fed with basal or betaine-supplemented (0.5%) for 30days, and the eggs were collected for incubation...
December 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247846/strategies-of-biochemical-adaptation-for-hibernation-in-a-south-american-marsupial-dromiciops-gliroides-2-control-of-the-akt-pathway-and-protein-translation-machinery
#16
Bryan E Luu, Sanoji Wijenayake, Jing Zhang, Shannon N Tessier, Julian F Quintero-Galvis, Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Roberto F Nespolo, Kenneth B Storey
When faced with harsh environmental conditions, the South American marsupial, monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides), reduces its body temperature and uses either daily torpor or multiday hibernation to survive. This study used ELISA and multiplex assays to characterize the responses to hibernation by three regulatory components of protein translation machinery [p-eIF2α(S51), p-eIF4E(S209), p-4EBP(Thr37/46)] and eight targets involved in upstream signaling control of translation [p-IGF-1R(Tyr1135/1136), PTEN(S380), p-Akt(S473), p-GSK-3α(S21), p-GSK-3β(S9), p-TSC2(S939), p-mTOR(S2448), and p70S6K(T412)]...
December 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247845/strategies-of-biochemical-adaptation-for-hibernation-in-a-south-american-marsupial-dromiciops-gliroides-1-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-and-the-cell-stress-response
#17
Sanoji Wijenayake, Bryan E Luu, Jing Zhang, Shannon N Tessier, Julian F Quintero-Galvis, Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Roberto F Nespolo, Kenneth B Storey
Hibernation is a period of torpor and heterothermy that is typically associated with a strong reduction in metabolic rate, global suppression of transcription and translation, and upregulation of various genes/proteins that are central to the cellular stress response such as protein kinases, antioxidants, and heat shock proteins. The current study examined cell signaling cascades in hibernating monito del monte, Dromiciops gliroides, a South American marsupial of the Order Microbiotheria. Responses to hibernation by members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, and their roles in coordinating hibernator metabolism were examined in liver, kidney, heart and brain of control and versus hibernating (4days continuous torpor) D...
December 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247844/strategies-of-biochemical-adaptation-for-hibernation-in-a-south-american-marsupial-dromiciops-gliroides-4-regulation-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-complex-and-metabolic-fuel-selection
#18
Sanoji Wijenayake, Bryan E Luu, Jing Zhang, Shannon N Tessier, Julian F Quintero-Galvis, Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Roberto F Nespolo, Kenneth B Storey
Mammalian hibernation is characterized by extensive adjustments to metabolism that typically include suppression of carbohydrate catabolism and a switch to triglycerides as the primary fuel during torpor. A crucial locus of control in this process is the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex that gates carbohydrate entry into the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Within the complex, the E1 enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the main regulatory site and is subject to inhibitory phosphorylation at three serine residues (S232, S293, S300)...
December 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246783/the-response-of-glutathione-peroxidase-1-and-glutathione-peroxidase-7-under-different-oxidative-stresses-in-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon
#19
Wei Liu, Chao Zhao, Pengfei Wang, Shu Wang, Heizhao Lin, Lihua Qiu
Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is part of the enzymatic antioxidant system that can eliminate the peroxides produced as effect of reactions of molecules with reactive oxygen species (ROS). We cloned two different GPx genes from Penaeus monodon (black tiger shrimp). Bioinformatics sequence analysis showed that PmGPx1 and PmGPx7 encoded polypeptides of 207 and 208 amino acids, respectively. PmGPx1 has a selenocysteine residue that is encoded by an opal codon 187TGA189. The PmGPx1 and PmGPx7 expression profiles were detected in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimps under osmotic stress, heavy metal exposure and bacterial infection, and the results suggested that PmGPx1 and PmGPx7 are involved in the responses to these stimuli...
December 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237575/acclimation-capacity-of-the-cardiac-hsp70-and-hsp90-response-to-thermal-stress-in-lake-trout-salvelinus-namaycush-a-stenothermal-ice-age-relict
#20
Nicholas I Kelly, Chris C Wilson, Suzanne Currie, Gary Burness
The ability of cold-adapted species to persist in the face of climate change will depend on the capacity of individuals for thermal acclimation, adaptation, and the degree of physiological variation that exists among populations. We tested the acclimation capacity of cardiac HSP70 and HSP90 in four populations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), a cold-adapted salmonid. We acclimated fish to four temperatures (8°C, 11°C, 15°C, and 19°C) and measured cardiac HSP70 and HSP90 levels by western blot prior to and following an acute (1h) heat shock at 23°C...
December 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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