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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158057/the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-contributes-to-the-regulation-of-adipocyte-development-induced-by-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idellus
#1
Pin Liu, Jing-Jing Tian, Hong Ji, Jian Sun, Chao Li, Ji-Qin Huang, Yang Li, Hai-Bo Yu, Er-Meng Yu, Jun Xie
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been suggested to inhibit adipogenesis in fish; the mechanism behind this observation remains largely unknown. The present study was to investigate the effects of DHA on the adipocyte differentiation of grass carp by using transcriptomic technology. Confluent primary cultured differentiating adipocytes were co-incubated with either 0μM or 100μM DHA for 2days (early phase of differentiation) and 7days (late phase). The results showed that 100μM DHA promoted adipogenesis at 2days but decreased lipid accumulation at 7days of treatment compared to that of the control...
November 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155008/-alternative-fuels-contributing-to-mitochondrial-electron-transport-importance-of-non-classical-pathways-in-the-diversity-of-animal-metabolism
#2
REVIEW
Allison E McDonald, Nicolas Pichaud, Charles-A Darveau
The study of glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation in animals has yielded a wealth of information about bioenergetics. Less is known about how animals use fuels other than glucose and less characterized enzymes that are also used to provide electrons to the electron transport system. It has become clear that bioenergetic flexibility is employed by a wide variety of animals in order to successfully grow, maintain cells, and reproduce, and has contributed to the exploitation of new environments and ecological niches through evolution...
November 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128643/transcriptional-profiles-of-plasticity-for-desiccation-stress-in-drosophila
#3
Allannah S Clemson, Carla M Sgrò, Marina Telonis-Scott
We examined the transcriptional responses of desiccation resistance candidate genes in populations of Drosophila melanogaster divergent for desiccation resistance and in capacity to improve resistance via phenotypic plasticity. Adult females from temperate and tropical eastern Australian populations were exposed to a rapid desiccation hardening (RDH) treatment, and groups without RDH to acute desiccation stress, and temporally profiled transcript expression of 12 candidate desiccation genes during, and in recovery from stress...
November 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128642/the-evolution-of-metabolic-regulation-in-animals
#4
Frank Seebacher
Energy metabolism is determined by a suite of regulatory mechanism, and their increasing complexity over evolutionary time provides the key to understanding the emergence of different metabolic phenotypes. Energy metabolism is at the core of biological processes because all organisms must maintain energy balance against thermodynamic gradients. Energy metabolism is regulated by a bewildering array of interacting molecular mechanisms, and much of what is known about metabolic regulation comes from the medical literature...
November 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128641/cell-loss-by-apoptosis-is-involved-in-the-intestinal-degeneration-that-occurs-during-aestivation-in-the-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#5
Ke Xu, Qiuhan Yu, Jianshe Zhang, Zhenming Lv, Wandong Fu, Tianming Wang
The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) commonly undergoes aestivation in response to high water temperatures. This process is accompanied by tissue regression and body mass reduction. Previous studies have suggested that apoptosis may play a role in the tissue remodeling that occurs during aestivation, although this has not definitively been shown. To investigate this hypothesis, the present study used A. japonicus as a model organism to examine cell loss through apoptosis in intestinal degeneration during aestivation...
November 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127075/evidence-of-high-transport-and-phosphorylation-capacity-for-both-glucose-and-fructose-in-the-ruby-throated-hummingbird-archilochus-colubris
#6
Alexander M Myrka, Kenneth C Welch
Hummingbirds are able to fuel hovering flight entirely with recently ingested glucose or fructose. Among vertebrates, several steps of sugar flux from circulation to skeletal muscle are potentially rate-limiting, including transport into muscle and subsequent phosphorylation. While capacities for glucose flux are substantial, capacities for fructose flux are comparatively low. The mechanisms underlying apparent high rates of glucose and fructose oxidation in hummingbird flight muscle remain unclear. We examined relative expression of facilitative sugar transporters (GLUTs) and enzymes of fructolysis in ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) tissues involved in energy homeostasis and flight, via qPCR and measured hexokinase activity in pectoralis in vitro...
November 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127074/sensing-and-responding-to-energetic-stress-evolution-of-the-ampk-network
#7
Paul M Craig, Christopher D Moyes, Christophe M R LeMoine
AMP-activated protein kinase is an enzyme that mediates communication between cellular energy status and diverse effector proteins, particularly those that play roles in determining the metabolic phenotype. By phosphorylating metabolic enzymes, transcriptional regulators and proteins involved in cellular structure, it can modify energy metabolism in both the short term and long term. Its basic features are highly conserved, with homologues in all eukaryotes. Gene and/or genome duplications endowed early vertebrates with paralogs of AMPK subunits, though the nature of their subfunctionalization remains uncertain, even in mammals...
November 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079225/digestive-enzymes-of-the-californian-two-spot-octopus-octopus-bimaculoides-pickford-and-mcconnaughey-1949
#8
Laura Elizabeth Ibarra-García, Dariel Tovar-Ramírez, Carlos Rosas, Ángel Isidro Campa-Córdova, José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui
Octopus bimaculoides is an important commercially fished species in the California Peninsula with aquaculture potential; however, to date limited information is available regarding its digestive physiology. The objective of this study was focused on biochemically characterizing the main enzymes involved in the digestion of O. bimaculoides. Optimum pH, temperature and thermostability were determined for amylases, lipases, trypsin and chymotrypsin; optimum pH and protease inhibitor effect were assessed for acidic and alkaline proteases, and the effect of divalent ions on trypsin and chymotrypsin activity was evaluated in enzymatic extracts from the digestive (DG) and salivary glands (SG) and crop gastric juices (GJ)...
October 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066397/molecular-cloning-and-analysis-of-pgrp-l1-and-imd-from-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#9
Ming-Yue Zhan, Pei-Jin Yang, Xiang-Jun Rao
Peptidoglycan is one of the major components of bacterial cell wall. The innate immune system of insects utilizes a group of peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) for the recognition of specific peptidoglycans and activating immune signaling pathways. In Drosophila melanogaster, PGRP-LC and IMD (immune deficiency) are two important signaling molecules of the IMD pathway. Here we cloned and characterized PGRP-L1 and IMD from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (BmPGRP-L1 and BmIMD). BmPGRP-L1 gene consists of five exons that encodes a polypeptide of 304 amino acids with a transmembrane region and an extracellular PGRP domain...
October 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032300/is-digestive-cathepsin-d-the-rule-in-decapod-crustaceans
#10
Diana Martínez-Alarcón, Reinhard Saborowski, Liliana Rojo-Arreola, Fernando García-Carreño
Cathepsin D is an aspartic endopetidase with typical characteristics of lysosomal enzymes. Cathepsin D activity has been reported in the gastric fluid of clawed lobsters where it acts as an extracellular digestive enzyme. Here we investigate whether cathepsin D is unique in clawed lobsters or, instead, common in decapod crustaceans. Eleven species of decapods belonging to six infraorders were tested for cathepsin D activity in the midgut gland, the muscle tissue, the gills, and when technically possible, in the gastric fluid...
October 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987822/metabolic-response-to-hypoxia-in-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax-displays-developmental-plasticity
#11
Laura Cadiz, José-Luis Zambonino-Infante, Patrick Quazuguel, Lauriane Madec, Herve Le Delliou, David Mazurais
Several physiological functions in fish are shaped by environmental stimuli received during early life. In particular, early-life hypoxia has been reported to have long-lasting effects on fish metabolism, with potential consequences for fish life history traits. In the present study, we examine whether the synergistic stressors hypoxia (40% and 100% air saturation) and temperature (15° and 20°C), encountered during early life, could condition later metabolic response in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles...
October 5, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982586/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-farnesoid-x-receptor-from-large-yellow-croaker-larimichthys-crocea-and-the-effect-of-dietary-cdca-on-the-expression-of-inflammatory-genes-in-intestine-and-spleen
#12
Jianlong Du, Xiaojun Xiang, Yongnan Li, Renlei Ji, Hanlin Xu, Kangsen Mai, Qinghui Ai
In the present study, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) was cloned and characterized from liver of large yellow croaker (L crocea) and the effects of dietary chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), a nature ligand of FXR, on the inflammatory genes expression in the intestine and spleen of large yellow croaker were investigated. Multiple alignments showed that FXR of large yellow croaker contained highly conserved DNA-binding domain and ligand binding domain compared with other species. The subcellular localization analysis showed that FXR-GFP fusion protein could target to the nucleus in HEK 293t...
October 2, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919473/atorvastatin-alters-gene-expression-and-cholesterol-synthesis-in-primary-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-hepatocytes
#13
Aziz A Al-Habsi, Andrey Massarsky, Thomas W Moon
The liver is a key metabolic organ contributing significantly to both lipid and cholesterol homeostasis in vertebrates. This study examines whether the human pharmaceutical atorvastatin (ATV), which is designed to lower cholesterol biosynthesis, could disrupt lipid dynamics in fish. The study investigates the effects of ATV at a physiologically relevant exposure regimen (concentration and duration) on gene transcripts and the biosynthesis of cholesterol and other lipid and non-lipid molecules in primary rainbow trout hepatocytes...
September 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951248/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-glycogen-synthase-in-eriocheir-sinensis
#14
Ran Li, Li-Na Zhu, Li-Qi Ren, Jie-Yang Weng, Jin-Sheng Sun
Glycogen plays an important role in glucose and energy homeostasis at cellular and organismal levels. In glycogen synthesis, glycogen synthase (GS) is a rate-limiting enzyme catalysing the addition of α-1,4-linked glucose units from (UDP)(3)-glucose to a nascent glycogen chain using glycogenin (GN) as a primer. While studies on mammalian liver GS (GYS2) are numerous, enzymes from crustaceans, which also use glycogen and glucose as their main energy source, have received less attention. In the present study, we amplified full-length GS cDNA from Eriocheir sinensis...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943298/cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-fads2-desaturase-and-elovl5-elongase-from-japanese-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#15
Naoki Kabeya, Mizumo Chiba, Yutaka Haga, Shuichi Satoh, Goro Yoshizaki
Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus has an essential requirement for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), particularly docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, but the enzymes involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis are thought to be absent or to have low activity. Teleost fish, in particular, have quite diversified substrate preference of these enzymes even among closely related species, implying that each species could have different LC-PUFA biosynthetic capabilities. Therefore, in the present study, we characterized Japanese flounder fatty acid desaturase 2 (Fads2) and elongation of very long-chain fatty acids protein 5 (Elovl5) in order to precisely characterize the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939196/molecular-identification-of-an-insulin-growth-factor-binding-protein-igfbp-and-its-potential-role-in-an-insulin-like-peptide-system-of-the-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata
#16
Hua Zhang, Yu Shi, Maoxian He
Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play critical roles in regulating metabolism, growth, and reproduction in invertebrates. IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) serve as major regulators of IGF activity and regulate endocrine system. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of an igfbp was identified from the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, using expressed sequence tag (EST) sequence. The 1124bp Pfigfbp cDNA contains a 465bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 154 amino acids, a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 238bp, and a 3'-UTR of 394bp (not including polyA+)...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899845/upwelling-derived-oceanographic-conditions-impact-growth-performance-and-growth-related-gene-expression-in-intertidal-fish
#17
Eduardo N Fuentes, Rodrigo Zuloaga, Oscar Almarza, Katterinne Mendez, Juan Antonio Valdés, Alfredo Molina, Jose Pulgar
Growth is one of the main biological processes in aquatic organisms that is affected by environmental fluctuations such as upwelling (characterized by food-rich waters). In fish, growth is directly related with skeletal muscle increase; which represents the largest tissue of body mass. However, the effects of upwelling on growth, at the physiological and molecular level, are unknown. This study used Girella laevifrons (one of the most abundant intertidal fish in Eastern South Pacific) as a biological model, considering animals from upwelling (U) and non-upwelling (NU) areas...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893645/a-novel-toll-like-receptor-from-the-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata-martensii-is-induced-in-response-to-stress
#18
Yuyuan Wu, Haiying Liang, Zhixin Wang, Qiannan Lei, Liqun Xia
Graft rejection due to immune incompatibility is a common occurrence in pearl culture, which often cause death to the host oyster. To improve cultured pearl production, host mortality and bead rejection rates must be reduced. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in innate immunity, and may be related to allograft rejection. Here, we cloned the TLR4 cDNA from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii (PmTLR4). PmTLR4 cDNA was 3138bp, including a 2625bp open reading frame encoding 874 amino acids...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882453/molecular-cloning-biochemical-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-two-glutathione-s-transferase-paralogs-from-the-big-belly-seahorse-hippocampus-abdominalis
#19
M D Neranjan Tharuka, S D N K Bathige, Jehee Lee
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are important Phase II detoxifying enzymes that catalyze hydrophobic, electrophilic xenobiotic substance with the conjugation of reduced glutathione (GSH). In this study, GSTμ and GSTρ paralogs of GST in the big belly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis; HaGSTρ, HaGSTμ) were biochemically, molecularly, functionally characterized to determine their detoxification range and protective capacities upon different pathogenic stresses. HaGSTρ and HaGSTμ are composed of coding sequences of 681bp and 654bp, which encode proteins 225 and 217 amino acids, with predicted molecular masses of 26...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864221/a-start-domain-containing-protein-is-a-novel-marker-of-nervous-system-components-of-the-sea-cucumber-holothuria-glaberrima
#20
Edwin A Rosado-Olivieri, Gibram A Ramos-Ortiz, Josué Hernández-Pasos, Carlos A Díaz-Balzac, Edwin Vázquez-Rosa, Griselle Valentín-Tirado, Irving E Vega, José E García-Arrarás
One of the main challenges faced by investigators studying the nervous system of members of the phylum Echinodermata is the lack of markers to identify nerve cells and plexi. Previous studies have utilized an antibody, RN1, that labels most of the nervous system structures of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima and other echinoderms. However, the antigen recognized by RN1 remained unknown. In the present work, the antigen has been characterized by immunoprecipitation, tandem mass spectrometry, and cDNA cloning...
December 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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