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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913275/dietary-fish-oil-replacement-by-linseed-oil-effect-on-growth-nutrient-utilization-tissue-fatty-acid-composition-and-desaturase-gene-expression-in-silver-barb-puntius-gonionotus-fingerlings
#1
Madhusmita Nayak, Ashis Saha, Avinash Pradhan, Mrinal Samanta, Shiba Shankar Giri
Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. This study in silver barb was carried out to evaluate the effects of total or partial substitution of dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, nutrient utilization, whole-body composition, muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Fish (12.1±0.4g of initial body weight) were fed for 60days with five experimental iso-proteinous, iso-lipidic and iso-caloric diets in which FO (control diet) was replaced by 33...
November 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913274/two-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-5-genes-exhibit-different-yet-conserved-functions-in-development-and-growth
#2
Guo-Dong Zheng, Chun-Xue Zhou, Si-Tong Lin, Jie Chen, Xia-Yun Jiang, Shu-Ming Zou
Insulin-like growth factor binding-protein 5 (igfbp5), the most conserved member of the IGFBP family in vertebrates, plays a critical role in controlling cell survival, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we characterized the expression patterns of igfbp5a and igfbp5b in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which are retained in many fish species, likely from the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication. Both igfbp5a and igfbp5b encode 268- and 263-aa peptides, respectively, which share a sequence identity of 71%...
November 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888064/molecular-cloning-and-nutrient-regulation-analysis-of-long-chain-acyl-coa-synthetase-1-gene-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-l
#3
Han-Liang Cheng, Shuai Chen, Jian-He Xu, Le-Fei Yi, Yong-Xing Peng, Qian Pan, Xin Shen, Zhi-Guo Dong, Xia-Qing Zhang, Wen-Xiang Wang
Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1), a key regulatory enzyme of fatty acid metabolism, catalyzes the conversion of long-chain fatty acids to acyl-coenzyme A. The full-length cDNAs of ACSL1a and ACSL1b were cloned from the liver of a grass carp. Both cDNAs contained a 2094bp open reading frame encoding 697 amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that ACSL1a shared 73.5% sequence identity with ACSL1b. Each of the two ACSL1s proteins had a transmembrane domain, a P-loop domain, and L-, A-, and G-motifs, which were relatively conserved in comparison to other vertebrates...
November 23, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871949/cloning-and-characterization-of-fatty-acid-binding-proteins-fabps-from-japanese-seabass-lateolabraxjaponicus-liver-and-their-gene-expressions-in-response-to-dietary-arachidonic-acid-ara
#4
Houguo Xu, Yuanqin Zhang, Chengqiang Wang, Yuliang Wei, Keke Zheng, Mengqing Liang
In the present study, putative cDNA of five fabp isoforms, i.e., fabp1, fabp2, fabp3, fabp4, and fabp7, was cloned and characterized from the liver of Japanese seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus), and their expression in response to diets with different arachidonic acid (ARA) levels (0.05%, 0.22%, 0.37%, 0.60%, 1.38% and 2.32% of dry matter) was investigated following a feeding trial. The Japanese seabass fabps showed high identity to their orthologs in other fish species and mammals. However, a specific fabp of Japanese seabass showed much lower identity to other Japanese seabass fabps...
November 15, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840242/comparative-study-on-fatty-acid-metabolism-of-early-stages-of-two-crustacean-species-artemia-sp-metanauplii-and-grapsus-adscensionis-zoeae-as-live-prey-for-marine-animals
#5
Diana B Reis, Nieves G Acosta, Eduardo Almansa, Juan C Navarro, Douglas R Tocher, José P Andrade, António V Sykes, Covadonga Rodríguez
The present study compared the lipid composition and in vivo capability of Artemia sp. metanauplii (the main live prey used in aquaculture) and Grapsus adscensionis zoeae (as a wild zooplankton model) to metabolise unsaturated fatty acids. The two species were incubated in vivo with 0.3μM of individual [1-(14)C]fatty acids (FA) including 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:4n-6 (ARA), 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 22:6n-3 (DHA) bound to bovine serum albumin (BSA). Compared to metanauplii, zoeae contained twice the content of polar lipids (PL) and eight-fold the content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA)...
November 11, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838409/hctyr-and-hctyp-1-of-hyriopsis-cumingii-novel-tyrosinase-and-tyrosinase-related-protein-genes-involved-in-nacre-color-formation
#6
Xiajun Chen, Xiaojun Liu, Zhiyi Bai, Liting Zhao, Jiale Li
Tyrosinase is an important enzyme that is involved in biological processes such as pigmentation, wound healing, sclerotization of the cuticles, oxygen transport and innate immunity. As nacre color has an effect on pearl color, we studied the effect of tyrosinase on nacre color in Hyriopsis cumingii (an important freshwater pearl-producing mussel) by cloning novel tyrosinase protein and tyrosinase-related protein genes (HcTyr and HcTyp-1 respectively) from the mantle. The predicted amino acid sequences of HcTyr and HcTyp-1 contain conserved domains, and HcTyp-1 contains an additional chitin-binding domain...
November 10, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838410/role-of-cathepsins-d-in-the-midgut-of-dysdercus-peruvianus
#7
André C Pimentel, Felipe J Fuzita, Giuseppe Palmisano, Clélia Ferreira, Walter R Terra
Hemipteran ancestors probably lost their digestive serine peptidases on adapting to a plant sap diet. On returning to protein ingestion, these insects start using cathepsin (lysosomal) peptidases as digestive enzymes, from which the less known is cathepsin D. Nine of the ten cathepsin D transcribing genes found in Dysdercus peruvianus midgut are expressed exclusively in this tissue and only DpCatD10 is also expressed in other tissues. The main action of cathepsins D is in the first (V1) (from three, V1-3) midgut regions, where 40% of the total proteolytic activity was assigned to aspartic peptidases with an optimum pH of 3...
November 9, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836744/dynamic-expression-of-genes-encoding-subunits-of-inward-rectifier-potassium-kir-channels-in-the-yellow-fever-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#8
Zhongxia Yang, Bethanie-Michelle Statler, Travis L Calkins, Edna Alfaro, Carlos J Esquivel, Matthew F Rouhier, Jerod S Denton, Peter M Piermarini
Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play fundamental roles in neuromuscular, epithelial, and endocrine function in mammals. Recent research in insects suggests that Kir channels play critical roles in the development, immune function, and excretory physiology of fruit flies and/or mosquitoes. Moreover, our group has demonstrated that mosquito Kir channels may serve as valuable targets for the development of novel insecticides. Here we characterize the molecular expression of 5 mRNAs encoding Kir channel subunits in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti: Kir1, Kir2A-c, Kir2B, Kir2B', and Kir3...
November 9, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836743/characterization-of-mitochondrial-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase-in-notothenioid-fishes
#9
Kelly A Keenan, Theresa J Grove, Corey A Oldham, Kristin M O'Brien
Hearts of Antarctic icefishes (suborder Notothenioidei, family Channichthyidae) have higher densities of mitochondria, and mitochondria have higher densities of phospholipids, compared to red-blooded notothenioids. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycerolipid biosynthesis. There are four isoforms of GPAT in vertebrates; GPAT1 and GPAT2 are localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane, whereas GPAT3 and GPAT4 are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane...
November 9, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826036/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-chitinase-from-the-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata
#10
Haimei Li, Deqing Wang, Zhenghua Deng, Guiju Huang, Sigang Fan, Daizhi Zhou, Baosuo Liu, Bo Zhang, Dahui Yu
Chitinase is an enzyme that plays an important role in the chitin metabolism of a wide range of organisms. However, the function of chitinase in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is yet to be determined. In this study, a chitinase gene (named PfChi1) was cloned from P. fucata and its expression profiles were investigated. The full-length cDNA of PfChi1 was 2743 bp and consisted of a 2187-bp open reading frame encoding 728 amino acid residues, a 47-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 509-bp 3'-UTR. Similar to other known chitinases, the PfChi1 protein is composed of an N-terminal leading signal peptide, a catalytic domain, a linker region, and a C-terminal chitin-binding domain...
November 4, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816572/characterization-of-an-insect-heterodimeric-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-with-unique-alternative-splicing-mode
#11
Xuan-Zhao Jiang, Yu-Xia Pei, Wei Lei, Ke-Yi Wang, Feng Shang, Hong-Bo Jiang, Jin-Jun Wang
Recent discovery of the heterodimeric voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) in two aphid species, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae, aroused interest in exploring whether this kind of channel is conserved for aphids. Herewith, we aim to provide evidence for the conservation of heterodimeric Navs in aphids and investigate whether they have unique splicing patterns. We found that the only identifiable Nav from Toxoptera citricida consisted of two subunits, forming a heterodimeric Nav, which carried an atypical "DENS" ion selectivity filter and a conventional "MFM" inactivation gate, confirming the heterodimeric Navs' conservation within aphids...
November 2, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793716/sialic-acid-specific-lectin-participates-in-an-immune-response-and-ovarian-development-of-the-banana-shrimp-fenneropenaeus-merguiensis
#12
Prapaporn Utarabhand, Wanida Rittidach, Onnicha Rattanaporn, Phanthipha Runsaeng, Jerry L Hedrick
A sialic acid-specific lectin was purified from the hemolymph of Fenneropenaeus merguiensis by repetitive affinity fetuin-agarose column chromatography. The purified F. merguiensis lectin (called FmL) consisted of two distinct 30.9 and 32kDa subunits with identical N-terminal amino acid sequences of ten residues. FmL was also composed of sugar moieties; glucosamine, glucose, mannose and N-acetyl neuraminic acid but not N-glycolyl neuraminic acid. It was postulated to be a glycoprotein as it was positively stained by glycoprotein staining kit and detected by some bionylated plant lectins...
October 26, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789245/jak-family-members-molecular-cloning-expression-profiles-and-their-roles-in-leptin-influencing-lipid-metabolism-in-synechogobius-hasta
#13
Kun Wu, Xiao-Ying Tan, Yi-Huan Xu, Xi Shi, Yao-Fang Fan, Dan-Dan Li, Xu Liu
Janus kinase (JAK) is a family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases that participate in transducing cytokine signals from the external environment to the nucleus in various biological processes. Currently, information about their genes structure and evolutionary history has been extensively studied in mammals as well as in several fish species. By contrast, limited reports have addressed potential role of diverse JAK in signaling responses to leptin in fish. In this study, we identified and characterized five JAK members of Synechogobius hasta...
October 24, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773732/chicken-albumin-exhibits-natural-resistance-to-glycation
#14
Jessica Zuck, Chad R Borges, Eldon J Braun, Karen L Sweazea
Glycation of proteins and subsequent production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to compare the glycation of avian and human serum albumin to elucidate the mechanisms by which protein glycation in birds is prevented in the presence of naturally high plasma glucose concentrations. Solutions of purified chicken and human serum albumin (CSA and HSA) were prepared with four different glucose concentrations (0, 5...
October 20, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769881/characterization-of-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase-activity-erod-in-oyster-crassostrea-brasiliana
#15
Marilia N Siebert, Jacó J Mattos, Clei E Piazza, Daína de Lima, Carlos Henrique A M Gomes, Cláudio M R de Melo, Afonso C D Bainy
Cytochrome P450 family 1 (CYP1) is involved in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biotransformation. PAHs can induce CYP1 protein expression and enzyme activity, the latter being usually quantified as 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity (EROD). The aim of this study was to characterize EROD activity in the bivalve mollusk Crassostrea brasiliana. EROD activity was evaluated in cytosolic and microsomal fractions of gills, digestive gland and mantle of C. brasiliana. No EROD activity was detected in mantle, but it was present in microsomal fraction of gills and digestive gland with NADPH as coenzyme...
October 18, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720728/cloning-of-two-carboxylesterase-cdnas-from-the-swimming-crab-portunus-trituberculatus-molecular-evidences-for-their-putative-roles-in-methyl-farnesotae-degradation
#16
Tian Tao, Xi Xie, Mingxin Liu, Qinghua Jiang, Dongfa Zhu
The sesquiterpenoid methyl farnesoate (MF) is the unepoxidized form of insect juvenile hormone (JH) III, and is considered an equivalent of JH in crustaceans. Degradation of MF is similar to that of JH which occurs through ester hydrolysis by specific carboxylesterases (CXEs). In this study, the full-length cDNAs of two JH esterase-like CXEs were cloned from the swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus. The predicted amino acid sequences of the two PtCXEs contain the conserved motifs including catalytic triad and oxyanion hole, which are the hallmark of the CXE family proteins...
October 5, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693627/effects-of-fasting-and-refeeding-on-gene-expression-of-slc15a1a-a-gene-encoding-an-oligopeptide-transporter-pept1-in-the-intestine-of-mozambique-tilapia
#17
Zenith Gaye A Orozco, Satoshi Soma, Toyoji Kaneko, Soichi Watanabe
The tissue distribution of slc15a1a, a gene that encodes an oligopeptide transporter, PepT1, and its response to fasting and refeeding were investigated in the intestinal epithelium of Mozambique tilapia for a better understanding of its role on nutrient absorption. The slc15a1a was predominantly expressed in the absorptive epithelia of the anterior part of the intestine, suggesting that digested oligopeptides are primarily absorbed in the anterior intestine. The response of slc15a1a to fasting was evaluated at 1, 2, 4, 7 and 14days after the last feeding...
September 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693629/activation-of-the-tor-myc-signaling-axis-in-intestinal-stem-and-progenitor-cells-affects-longevity-stress-resistance-and-metabolism-in-drosophila
#18
Olha M Strilbytska, Uliana V Semaniuk, Kenneth B Storey, Bruce A Edgar, Oleh V Lushchak
The TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway and the transcriptional factor Myc play important roles in growth control. Myc acts, in part, as a downstream target of TOR to regulate the activity and functioning of stem cells. Here we explore the role of TOR-Myc axis in stem and progenitor cells in the regulation of lifespan, stress resistance and metabolism in Drosophila. We found that both overexpression of rheb and myc-rheb in midgut stem and progenitor cells decreased the lifespan and starvation resistance of flies...
September 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693628/molecular-and-functional-characterization-of-a-fads2-orthologue-in-the-amazonian-teleost-arapaima-gigas
#19
Mónica Lopes-Marques, Rodrigo Ozório, Ricardo Amaral, Douglas R Tocher, Óscar Monroig, L Filipe C Castro
The Brazilian teleost Arapaima gigas is an iconic species of the Amazon. In recent years a significant effort has been put into the farming of arapaima to mitigate overfishing threats. However, little is known regarding the nutritional requirements of A. gigas in particular those for essential fatty acids including the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The ability to biosynthesize LC-PUFA is dependent upon the gene repertoire of fatty acyl desaturases (Fads) and elongases (Elovl), as well as their fatty acid specificities...
September 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667707/identification-of-three-selenoprotein-t-paralogs-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus-and-expression-analysis-in-response-to-environmental-stressors
#20
Wenbo Chen, Zhen Zhang, Fangfang Yan, Xiaoxue Jiang, Shaozong Qin, Haiyan Dong
Selenoproteins, which contain the selenocysteine (Sec), play crucial roles in antioxidant protection. In the present study, we have identified and characterized three selenoprotein T paralogs (designated as gfSelT1a, gfSelT1b and gfSelT2) in goldfish, Carassius auratus. The SECIS element was found in the 3'-UTRs of gfSelT1a, gfSelT1b and gfSelT2 mRNA. Sequence analysis showed that they all possess the CxxU motif (where U represents Sec) in the N-terminal. Constitutive expressions of gfSelT1a, gfSelT1b and gfSelT2 were observed in all tissues studied...
September 22, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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