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Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919473/atorvastatin-alters-gene-expression-and-cholesterol-synthesis-in-primary-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-hepatocytes
#1
Aziz A Al-Habsi, Andrey Massarsky, Thomas W Moon
The liver is a key metabolic organ contributing significantly to both lipid and cholesterol homeostasis in vertebrates. This study examines whether the human pharmaceutical atorvastatin (ATV), which is designed to lower cholesterol biosynthesis, could disrupt lipid dynamics in fish. The study investigates the effects of ATV at a physiologically relevant exposure regimen (concentration and duration) on gene transcripts and the biosynthesis of cholesterol and other lipid and non-lipid molecules in primary rainbow trout hepatocytes...
September 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899845/upwelling-derived-oceanographic-conditions-impact-growth-performance-and-growth-related-gene-expression-in-intertidal-fish
#2
Eduardo N Fuentes, Rodrigo Zuloaga, Oscar Almarza, Katterinne Mendez, Juan Antonio Valdés, Alfredo Molina, Jose Pulgar
Growth is one of the main biological processes in aquatic organisms that is affected by environmental fluctuations such as upwelling (characterized by food-rich waters). In fish, growth is directly related with skeletal muscle increase; which represents the largest tissue of body mass. However, the effects of upwelling on growth, at the physiological and molecular level, are unknown. This study used Girella laevifrons (one of the most abundant intertidal fish in Eastern South Pacific) as a biological model, considering animals from upwelling (U) and non-upwelling (NU) areas...
September 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893645/a-novel-toll-like-receptor-from-the-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata-martensii-is-induced-in-response-to-stress
#3
Yuyuan Wu, Haiying Liang, Zhixin Wang, Qiannan Lei, Liqun Xia
Graft rejection due to immune incompatibility is a common occurrence in pearl culture, which often cause death to the host oyster. To improve cultured pearl production, host mortality and bead rejection rates must be reduced. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in innate immunity, and may be related to allograft rejection. Here, we cloned the TLR4 cDNA from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata martensii (PmTLR4). PmTLR4 cDNA was 3138bp, including a 2625bp open reading frame encoding 874 amino acids...
September 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882453/molecular-cloning-biochemical-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-two-glutathione-s-transferase-paralogs-from-the-big-belly-seahorse-hippocampus-abdominalis
#4
M D Neranjan Tharuka, S D N K Bathige, Jehee Lee
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) are important Phase II detoxifying enzymes that catalyze hydrophobic, electrophilic xenobiotic substance with the conjugation of reduced glutathione (GSH). In this study, GSTμ and GSTρ paralogs of GST in the big belly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis; HaGSTρ, HaGSTμ) were biochemically, molecularly, functionally characterized to determine their detoxification range and protective capacities upon different pathogenic stresses. HaGSTρ and HaGSTμ are composed of coding sequences of 681bp and 654bp, which encode proteins 225 and 217 amino acids, with predicted molecular masses of 26...
September 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864221/a-start-domain-containing-protein-is-a-novel-marker-of-nervous-system-components-of-the-sea-cucumber-holothuria-glaberrima
#5
Edwin A Rosado-Olivieri, Gibram A Ramos-Ortiz, Josué Hernández-Pasos, Carlos A Díaz-Balzac, Edwin Vázquez-Rosa, Griselle Valentín-Tirado, Irving E Vega, José E García-Arrarás
One of the main challenges faced by investigators studying the nervous system of members of the phylum Echinodermata is the lack of markers to identify nerve cells and plexi. Previous studies have utilized an antibody, RN1, that labels most of the nervous system structures of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima and other echinoderms. However, the antigen recognized by RN1 remained unknown. In the present work, the antigen has been characterized by immunoprecipitation, tandem mass spectrometry, and cDNA cloning...
August 31, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803129/low-plasma-glucose-limits-glucose-metabolism-by-rbcs-and-heart-in-some-species-of-teleosts
#6
William R Driedzic
Within teleosts there is a species range in plasma glucose levels from undetectable to 20mM. At low plasma glucose levels the gradient from the extracellular to the intracellular space is decreased. The impact of this on glucose metabolism by RBCs and heart from species with different steady state levels of plasma glucose (Atlantic cod ~5mM; Atlantic salmon ~5mM, cunner ~1mM, lumpfish <1mM; short-horned sculpin <1mM) is the subject of this review. Under normoxia, at physiological levels of extracellular glucose, RBCs and heart produce lactate although the contribution of anaerobic metabolism to ATP production is small...
August 9, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797654/do-differences-in-the-activities-of-carbohydrate-metabolism-enzymes-between-lake-whitefish-ecotypes-match-predictions-from-transcriptomic-studies
#7
Anne C Dalziel, Martin Laporte, Helga Guderley, Louis Bernatchez
Transcriptomic studies are facilitating the search for the molecular bases of adaptation in natural populations, but the impact of these differences in mRNA content on animal physiology are often unknown. One way to determine if molecular changes have the potential to influence animal physiology and performance is to test for correlated changes at higher levels of biological organization, including enzyme activity. Here, we measure the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes to test if previously documented genetic and transcriptomic variation between 'dwarf' and 'normal' Lake Whitefish ecotypes are associated with corresponding changes in enzyme activity (measured as maximal rate, Vmax) in liver and skeletal muscle...
August 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723590/cardioprotective-mitochondrial-binding-by-hexokinase-i-is-induced-by-a-hyperoxic-acute-thermal-insult-in-the-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#8
Neal Ingraham Callaghan, Kenneth Javier Williams, Tyson James MacCormack
Due to the substantial photosynthetic biomass in their habitat, salmonids such as the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) can be subject to hyperoxia in addition to high temperatures associated with climate change. Both stressful conditions increase the incidence of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). The mitochondrial association of hexokinase has been shown to increase in the hearts of certain fish experiencing hypoxia in a putative cardioprotective response to oxidative stress. In this study, the mitochondrial association of hexokinase I (HKI) and markers of oxidative damage and metabolic stress were probed to elucidate the cardioprotective role of hexokinase in the rainbow trout...
July 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844908/differential-regulation-of-the-duplicated-fabp7-fabp10-and-fabp11-genes-of-zebrafish-by-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors
#9
Robert B Laprairie, Eileen M Denovan-Wright, Jonathan M Wright
In the duplication-degeneration-complementation model, duplicated gene-pairs undergo nonfunctionalization (loss from the genome), subfunctionalization (the functions of the ancestral gene are sub-divided between duplicate genes), or neofunctionalization (one of the duplicate genes acquires a new function). These processes occur by loss or gain of regulatory elements in gene promoters. Fatty acid-binding proteins (Fabp) belong to a multigene family composed of orthologous proteins that are highly conserved in sequence and function, but differ in their gene regulation...
November 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760718/crocodylian-nuclear-factor-kappa-b
#10
REVIEW
Mark Merchant, Vasileios Morkotinis, Amber Hale, Mary White, Chris Moran
We deduced the amino acid (aa) sequence of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) protein from genomic data for the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), the estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), and the Indian gharial (Gavialis gangeticus). A 105kDa protein, NFκB1 exhibits complex post-translational processing, multiple mechanisms of activation, and acts as precursor for a p50, a Rel homology transcription factor which influences the expression of key genes for developmental processes, apoptosis, and immune function...
November 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754315/insights-into-the-phosphatidylcholine-and-phosphatidylethanolamine-biosynthetic-pathways-in-leishmania-parasites-and-characterization-of-a-choline-kinase-from-leishmania-infantum
#11
Sergio A Pulido, Victoria H Nguyen, Juan F Alzate, David L Cedeño, Monika A Makurath, Amalia Ríos-Vásquez, Sandra M Duque-Benítez, Marjorie A Jones, Sara M Robledo, Jon A Friesen
The protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum is a causative agent of the disease visceral leishmaniasis, which can be fatal if not properly treated. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) biosynthesis pathways are attractive targets for new antileishmanial compounds since these Leishmania cell membrane phospholipids are important for parasite morphology and physiology. In this work we observed Leishmania synthesize PC and PE from extracellular choline and ethanolamine, respectively, suggesting the presence of CDP-choline and CDP-ethanolamine pathways...
November 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735975/molecular-characterization-and-expression-profiles-of-myosin-essential-light-chain-gene-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#12
Hong Yu, Huijuan Li, Qi Li
In molluscs, muscle contraction is triggered by a direct binding of Ca(2+) to myosin. The myosin essential light chain (MELC) provides the Ca(2+) binding site and is of importance for motor function and regulation. In this study, the complete cDNA sequence of MELC gene of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, was obtained, and the expression profiles were performed in different tissues and different embryo-larval development stages. The results showed that the full length of C. gigas MELC (CgMELC) cDNA was 659bp, containing a 5'-untranslated region of 73 bp, a 3'-untranslated region of 112bp...
November 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735974/characteristics-of-six-small-heat-shock-protein-genes-from-bactrocera-dorsalis-diverse-expression-under-conditions-of-thermal-stress-and-normal-growth
#13
Wei Dou, Yi Tian, Hong Liu, Yan Shi, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
To explore the functions of small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in relation to thermal stress and development in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most economically important pest species attacking a wide range of fruits and vegetables, six full-length cDNAs of sHsp genes (BdHsp17.7, 18.4, 20.4, 20.6, 21.6 and 23.8) were cloned, and the expression patterns in different developmental stages and tissues, as well as in response to both thermal and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) exposures, were examined using real time quantitative PCR...
November 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735973/in-vitro-study-on-the-regulation-of-cellular-mrna-levels-by-changes-in-transcription-rate-and-transcript-stability-in-fish-red-blood-cells
#14
Miriam Götting, Mikko Nikinmaa
The interplay of transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes in the regulation of gene expression has been extensively studied in mammals but little is known in other vertebrates so far. Most non-mammalian vertebrates are faced with environmental cues and stressors distinct from those experienced by mammals and thus it is likely that the gene expression strategies differ from those of mammals. Here we performed experiments to study in vitro the various levels of gene expression regulation in nucleated fish red blood cells...
November 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735972/pyrimidine-metabolism-in-schistosomes-a-comparison-with-other-parasites-and-the-search-for-potential-chemotherapeutic-targets
#15
REVIEW
Mahmoud H El Kouni
Schistosomes are responsible for the parasitic disease schistosomiasis, an acute and chronic parasitic ailment that affects >240 million people in 70 countries worldwide. It is the second most devastating parasitic disease after malaria. At least 200,000 deaths per year are associated with the disease. In the absence of the availability of vaccines, chemotherapy is the main stay for combating schistosomiasis. The antischistosomal arsenal is currently limited to a single drug, Praziquantel, which is quite effective with a single-day treatment and virtually no host-toxicity...
November 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729066/the-effect-of-high-fat-diet-on-daily-rhythm-of-the-core-clock-genes-and-muscle-functional-genes-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-chinese-soft-shelled-turtle-trionyx-sinensis
#16
Li Liu, Guomin Jiang, Zhitao Peng, Yulong Li, Jinlong Li, Li Zou, Zhigang He, Xiaoqing Wang, Wuying Chu
In the present study, we sought to investigate the influence of high fat diet on the core clock genes and the muscle functional genes daily expression in the skeletal muscle of Chinese soft-shelled turtle. The turtles were fed by two diets including a control fat diet (the CON treatment, 7.98% lipid) and a high fat diet (the HFD treatment, 13.86% lipid) for six weeks and administrated by the photophase regimen of 24h light/dark (12L:12D) cycle. After the feeding trial experiment, we measured the daily expression levels of 17 core clock genes (Clock, Bmal1/2, NPAS2, Tim, Cry1/2, Per1/2, DBP, AANAT, NIFL3, BHLHE40, NR1D2, RORA, RORB, RORC) and 12 muscle functional genes (FBXO32, MBNL1, MSTN, Myf5, Myf6, MyoD, MyoG, MyoM1, PPARa, PDK4, Trim63, UCP3) in the skeletal muscle of the two treatments...
November 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723591/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-the-myostatin-gene-and-its-association-with-growth-traits-in-noble-scallop-chlamys-nobilis
#17
Sigang Fan, Youhou Xu, Baosuo Liu, Wenyao He, Bo Zhang, Jiaqi Su, Dahui Yu
Myostatin (MSTN), also called growth and differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8), is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and an inhibitor of muscle differentiation and growth. In this report, we identified and characterized a MSTN gene (CnMSTN) from the scallop Chlamys nobilis. The open reading frame of CnMSTN was 1374bp in length, encoding 457 amino acids. The structure of CnMSTN included a putative signal peptide, a TGF-β propeptide domain, and a conserved TGF-β domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the CnMSTN gene was clustered in the same subgroup with the MSTN gene found in Mollusca...
October 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687361/combined-effects-of-diets-and-temperature-on-mitochondrial-function-growth-and-nutrient-efficiency-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#18
Jonathan C Eya, Rodrigue Yossa, Dayan Perera, Olasupo Okubajo, Ann Gannam
A 4×3 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two dietary protein sources (mixed fishmeal/plant protein-, and plant protein- based diet), two dietary lipid levels (10% and 20%) and three water temperatures (10°C, 14°C, and 18°C) on the growth performance, nutrient utilization efficiencies and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (average weight±SD, 39.5±5g) over a 180day rearing period. At the end of the experiment, weight gain (WG), condition factor (CF), and feed efficiency (FE) were significantly affected by diet×temperature interaction (P<0...
October 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687360/extracellular-matrix-remodeling-and-matrix-metalloproteinases-ajmmp-2-like-and-ajmmp-16-like-characterization-during-intestine-regeneration-of-sea-cucumber-apostichopus-japonicus
#19
Ting Miao, Zixuan Wan, Lina Sun, Xiaoni Li, Lili Xing, Yucen Bai, Fang Wang, Hongsheng Yang
Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is essential for tissue regeneration. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques against ECM components to reveal changes of ECM during intestine regeneration of Apostichopus japonicus. The expression of collagen I and laminin reduced apparently from the eviscerated intestine, while fibronectin exhibited continuous expression in all regeneration stages observed. Meanwhile, we cloned two MMP genes from A...
October 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669662/characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-the-paralichthys-olivaceus-prdm1-gene-promoter
#20
Peizhen Li, Bo Wang, Dandan Cao, Yuezhong Liu, Quanqi Zhang, Xubo Wang
PR domain containing protein 1 (Prdm1) is a transcriptional repressor identified in various species and plays multiple important roles in immune response and embryonic development. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the prdm1 gene. This study aims to characterize the promoter of Paralichthys olivaceus prdm1 (Po-prdm1) gene and determine the regulatory mechanism of Po-prdm1 expression. A 2000bp-long 5'-flanking region (translation initiation site designated as +1) of the Po-prdm1 gene was isolated and characterized...
October 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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