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Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458326/in-their-own-voices-breaking-the-vicious-cycle-of-addiction-treatment-and-criminal-justice-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-ukraine
#1
Alyona Mazhnaya, Martha J Bojko, Ruthanne Marcus, Sergii Filippovych, Zahedsul Islam, Sergey Dvoriak, Frederick L Altice
AIMS: To understand how perceived law enforcement policies and practices contribute to the low rates of utilization of opioid agonist therapies (OAT) among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Ukraine. METHODS: Qualitative data from 25 focus groups (FGs) with 199 opioid-dependent PWIDs in Ukraine examined domains related to lived or learned experiences with OAT, police, arrest, incarceration, and criminal activity were analyzed using grounded theory principles. FINDINGS: Most participants were male (66%), in their late 30s, and previously incarcerated (85%) mainly for drug-related activities...
2016: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26692658/questions-of-fairness-and-anti-doping-in-us-cycling-the-contrasting-experiences-of-professionals-and-amateurs
#2
April D Henning, Paul Dimeo
The focus of researchers, media and policy on doping in cycling is often limited to the professional level of the sport. However, anti-doping test results since 2001 demonstrate that banned substances are also used by US cyclists at lower levels of the sport, necessitating a broader view of the patterns and motivations of substance use within the sport. In this article, we describe and explain the doping culture that has emerged in domestic US cycling among amateur and semi-professionals. Through analysis of records from sports governing bodies and journalistic reports, we assess the range of violation types and discuss the detection and punishing of riders who were not proven to have intended to cheat but became "collateral damage" in the war on doping...
September 3, 2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26045640/understanding-english-alcohol-policy-as-a-neoliberal-condemnation-of-the-carnivalesque
#3
William Haydock
Much academic work has argued that alcohol policy in England over the past 25 years can be characterised as neoliberal, particularly in regard to the night-time economy and attempts to address "binge" drinking. Understanding neoliberalism as a particular "mentality of government" that circumscribes the range of policy options considered appropriate and practical for a government to take, this article notes how the particular application of policy can vary by local context. This article argues that the approach of successive governments in relation to alcohol should be seen as based on a fear and condemnation of the carnivalesque, understood as a time when everyday norms and conventions are set aside, and the world is - for a limited period only - turned inside out...
April 2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26045639/how-did-policy-actors-use-mass-media-to-influence-the-scottish-alcohol-minimum-unit-pricing-debate-comparative-analysis-of-newspapers-evidence-submissions-and-interviews
#4
Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Shona Hilton
Aims: To explore how policy actors attempted to deliberately frame public debate around alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) in the UK by comparing and contrasting their constructions of the policy in public (newspapers), semi-public (evidence submissions) and private (interviews). Methods: Content analysis was conducted on articles published in ten national newspapers between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2012. Newsprint data were contrasted with alcohol policy documents, evidence submissions to the Scottish Parliament's Health and Sport Committee and 36 confidential interviews with policy stakeholders (academics, advocates, industry representatives, politicians and civil servants)...
April 2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25995608/injection-and-sexual-risk-practices-among-young-heroin-users-in-hanoi-vietnam
#5
Lloyd A Goldsamt, Michael C Clatts, Giang Le, Gary Yu
Epidemiological data in Vietnam shows high HIV prevalence rates among injection drug users, especially in urban centres. However, there are limited data on specific practices used to prepare and inject drugs or on sexual practices among Vietnamese injectors. A street-based cross-sectional interview was conducted with 862 heroin injectors in Hanoi, Vietnam, to collect such data. Variability was seen in both injection and sexual risk, with 12.9% of current injectors reporting at least one unsafe method of drug sharing and 57...
April 2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26045638/take-home-naloxone-to-prevent-fatalities-from-opiate-overdose-protocol-for-scotland-s-public-health-policy-evaluation-and-a-new-measure-to-assess-impact
#6
Sheila M Bird, Mahesh K B Parmar, John Strang
Aims: Scotland was the first country to adopt take-home naloxone (THN) as a funded public health policy. We summarise the background and rigorous set-up for before/after monitoring to assess the impact on high-risk opiate-fatalities. Methods: Evidence-synthesis of prospectively monitored small-scale THN schemes led to a performance indicator for distribution of THN-kits relative to opiate-related deaths. Next, we explain the primary outcome and statistical power for Scotland's before/after monitoring. Results: Fatality-rate at opiate overdoses witnessed by THN-trainees was 6% (9/153, 95% CI: 2-11%)...
February 2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25983401/the-educational-potential-of-alcohol-related-flushing-among-chinese-young-people
#7
Ian M Newman, Duane F Shell, Zhaoqing Huang, Ling Qian
: Aim: This paper describes Chinese university students' understanding of the meaning of the alcohol-related flushing response and how they reacted to their own and someone else's flushing in a group drinking situation. Method: The researcher surveyed 530 Chinese university students about their understanding of flushing and their perception of how people respond to a person who visibly flushes while drinking alcohol. Findings: Most students did not know about the physiological cause of flushing...
February 2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087758/-bureaucracy-beliefs-assessing-the-barriers-to-accessing-opioid-substitution-therapy-by-people-who-inject-drugs-in-ukraine
#8
Martha J Bojko, Alyona Mazhnaya, Iuliia Makarenko, Ruthanne Marcus, Sergii Dvoriak, Zahedul Islam, Frederick L Altice
AIMS: Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an evidence-based HIV prevention strategy for people who inject drugs (PWIDs). Yet, only 2.7% of Ukraine's estimated 310,000 PWIDs receive it despite free treatment since 2004. The multi-level barriers to entering OST among opioid dependent PWIDs have not been examined in Ukraine. METHODS: A multi-year mixed methods implementation science project included focus group discussions with 199 PWIDs in 5 major Ukrainian cities in 2013 covering drug treatment attitudes and beliefs and knowledge of and experiences with OST...
2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26709337/motivations-for-prescription-drug-misuse-among-young-adults-considering-social-and-developmental-contexts
#9
Amy LeClair, Brian C Kelly, Mark Pawson, Brooke E Wells, Jeffrey T Parsons
AIMS: As part of a larger study on prescription drug misuse among young adults active in urban nightlife scenes, we examined participants' motivations for misuse. Prescription painkillers, stimulants and sedatives were the primary substances of interest. METHODS: Participants were recruited from nightlife venues in New York using time-space sampling. Subjects completed a mixed-methods assessment at project research offices. The data presented here are from a subsample of 70 qualitative interviews conducted during the baseline assessment...
2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26617439/intra-group-stigma-examining-peer-relationships-among-women-in-recovery-for-addictions
#10
Alana J Gunn, Kelli E Canada
This grounded theory study explores how women with histories of addiction perceive stigma while in treatment. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 women participating in a residential drug treatment center. Previous research has found that support from peers during recovery can be critical to managing illnesses. In fact, researchers have postulated that peers can be a more effective form of support than even family. This study extends existing literature indicating that peer support systems can be supportive, however they can also can be perceived as negative support that impose stigmas...
2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25598589/associations-between-prescription-opioid-injection-and-hepatitis-c-virus-among-young-injection-drug-users
#11
Stephen Lankenau, Aleksandar Kecojevic, Karol Silva
OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence has been increasing among young injection drug users (IDUs). This analysis examined whether the emerging practice of prescription opioid (PO) injection is associated with self-reported HCV among young IDUs. METHODS: Young IDUs (n = 162) aged 18-25-years-old who indicated recent misuse of prescription drugs were sampled in New York and Los Angeles during 2009-2011. Participants reported lifetime PO injection history and results from their most recent HCV test as well as demographic characteristics and lifetime drug use...
2015: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962271/challenging-biopower-liquid-cuffs-and-the-junkie-habitus
#12
Camila Gelpi-Acosta
BACKGROUND: Methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) is associated with improved quality of life amongst many heroin users. Still, program adherence problems remain a fact. AIM: To improve our understanding of MMTP "adherence problems". METHODS: Using snowball sampling, two subgroups were recruited: MMTP enrollees and non-enrollees. A semi-structured questionnaire guided all in-depth interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, hand-coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach...
December 2014: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25552821/mother-s-little-helper-contrasting-accounts-of-benzodiazepine-and-methadone-use-among-drug-dependent-parents-in-the-uk
#13
Amy Chandler, Anne Whittaker, Nigel Williams, Kelly McGorm, Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Gillian Mathews
AIMS: To explore the ways in which opioid-dependent parents accounted for their use of opioids and benzodiazepines during and after pregnancy. METHODS: Longitudinal qualitative interviews [n = 45] with 19 opioid-dependent adults recruited in Scotland, UK, were held during the antenatal and post-natal period. Interviews focused on parenting and parenting support within the context of problem drug use and were analysed using a narrative informed, thematic analysis...
December 2014: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24954982/key-challenges-in-providing-services-to-people-who-use-drugs-the-perspectives-of-people-working-in-emergency-departments-and-shelters-in-atlantic-canada
#14
Lois A Jackson, Susan McWilliam, Fiona Martin, Julie Dingwell, Margaret Dykeman, Jacqueline Gahagan, Jeff Karabanow
AIMS: Many people who use drugs (PWUD) have multiple health and social needs, and research suggests that this population is increasingly accessing emergency departments (EDs) and shelters for health care and housing. This qualitative study explored the practices of those working in EDs and shelters when providing services to PWUD, with a particular focus on key challenges in service provision. METHODS: EDs and shelters were conceptualized as 'micro environments' with various components (i...
June 2014: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25368450/an-examination-of-the-first-oxford-house-in-the-uk-a-preliminary-investigation
#15
John M Majer, Kim Beers, Leonard A Jason
An exploratory investigation was conducted to examine the implementation of the first self-run, communal-living setting based on the Oxford House model, in the United Kingdom (UK). A cross-sectional, mixed methods design was used to examine the Oxford House model's total abstinence approach to recovery from substance use disorders among residents (n = 7) living in the first Oxford House established in the UK. Several measures commonly used in addiction research and personal narratives were used to assess residents' response to Oxford House living...
2014: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23864771/the-role-of-alcohol-price-in-young-adult-drinking-cultures-in-scotland
#16
Pete Seaman, Fiona Edgar, Theresa Ikegwuonu
Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) is one of the Scottish Government's key policy options to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm. Although strongly evidenced for efficacy in reducing headline population level consumption, efficacy in changing the role of alcohol in Scottish culture is unknown. Questions remain as to how MUP will play across population subgroups with different sensitivities to price. In this paper we explore the views of the young adult population and situate the influence of price paid for alcohol alongside broader cultural drivers of consumption...
August 2013: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23641127/legalization-of-medical-marijuana-and-marijuana-use-among-youths
#17
Bettina Friese, Joel W Grube
AIMS: This study examined the relationship of youth marijuana use and perceived ease of access with the number of medical marijuana cards at the county-level, and marijuana norms as indicated by percent of voters approving legalization of medical marijuana in 2004. METHODS: Survey data from 17,482 youths (ages 13 - 19) in Montana and county-level archival data, including votes for the legalization of medical marijuana and the number of medical marijuana cards were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling...
February 1, 2013: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26778896/transdisciplinary-collaboration-and-endorsement-of-pharmacological-and-psychosocial-evidence-based-practices-by-medical-and-psychosocial-substance-abuse-treatment-providers-in-the-united-states
#18
Rogério M Pinto, Anya Y Spector, Gary Yu, Aimee N C Campbell
AIMS: To examine the relative contribution of providers' professional affiliation (medical vs. non-medical), involvement in research, and training needs for associations with endorsement of the following evidence-based practices (EBPs): (1) pharmacological - buprenorphine treatment and (2) psychosocial - Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). METHODS: Secondary analysis from a 2008 survey of a national sample (n = 571) of substance abuse treatment providers (medical, social workers, psychologists and counsellors) affiliated with the United States National Institute on Drug Abuse's National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network...
2013: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24065869/consumption-drugs-and-style-constructing-intra-ethnic-boundaries-in-asian-american-youth-cultures
#19
Molly Moloney, Geoffrey P Hunt
Based on 250 qualitative interviews with Asian American young men and women in the dance/club scenes in the San Francisco area, we examine the interplay between consumption, style and taste cultures with issues of ethnic identity, gender and acculturation. We explore the ways that consumption and taste markers (e.g. fashion, cars, music and drugs) are used to establish or negotiate symbolic boundaries between groups in this youth culture. The picture they paint of the dance scene is one less about cohesiveness and unity and more about divisions and boundaries, not only between but also significantly within ethnic groupings...
December 1, 2012: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24049247/moving-beyond-the-gang-drug-violence-connection
#20
Karen Joe-Laidler, Geoffrey P Hunt
The aim of this article is to reflect on the conceptual and methodological developments of our gang research over the past 20 years. We have conducted a large number of consecutive qualitative studies on youth gangs, drugs and alcohol in one urban locale for over two decades and have amassed a data set of over 2000 qualitative interviews. We have kept pace with the social changes in San Francisco as they have impacted and shaped youth gangs and their members' lives. However, these changes have not only occurred in the social context of gang members' lives, but have also occurred in our own thinking about how to conceptualize research on gangs...
2012: Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy
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