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Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation

Mark S Nash, Suzanne L Groah, David R Gater, Trevor A Dyson-Hudson, Jesse A Lieberman, Jonathan Myers, Sunil Sabharwal, Allen J Taylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Jillian M Swaine, William Breidahl, D L Bader, C W J Oomens, Edmond O'Loughlin, Nick Santamaria, Michael C Stacey
Background: Ultrasonography may have potential as an effective diagnostic tool for deep tissue injury (DTI) in tissues overlying bony prominences that are vulnerable when under sustained loading in sitting. Methods: Three cases of DTI in the fat and muscle layers overlying the ischial tuberosity of the pelvis in 3 persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) with different medical histories and abnormal tissue signs are described. Conclusion: There is a need for prospective studies using a reliable standardized ultrasonography protocol to diagnose DTI and to follow its natural history to determine its association with the development of pressure injuries...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Alicia M January, Suzanne Kirk, Kathy Zebracki, Kathleen M Chlan, Lawrence C Vogel
Objective: To describe the psychosocial and medical outcomes of individuals with pediatric-onset spinal cord injury (SCI) as a result of violent injuries. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study assessing adult outcomes associated with pediatric-onset SCI. Participants completed measures assessing demographics, injury characteristics, secondary conditions, and psychosocial functioning. Results: Participants included 483 adults (ages 19-51 years; M = 32.89, SD = 6.81) who sustained an SCI prior to age 19 (0-18 years; M = 14...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Joshua Wiener, Jane Hsieh, Amanda McIntyre, Robert Teasell
Background: Spasticity is a common secondary complication of spinal cord injury (SCI), which can severely impact functional independence and quality of life. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is a potassium channel blocker that has been studied as an intervention for spasticity in individuals with SCI. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the available evidence regarding the effectiveness of 4-AP for the management of spasticity in individuals with SCI. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on five electronic databases for articles published in English up to January 2017...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Whitley J Stone, Sandra L Stevens, Dana K Fuller, Jennifer L Caputo
Background: Individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often experience general weakness in the lower extremities that undermines daily step activity. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of eccentrically biased resistance training on lower extremity strength and physical activity of individuals with spinal injuries. Methods: Individuals with long-standing incomplete SCIs ( N = 11) capable of completing a 10-meter walk assessment were included. All participants who completed the familiarization period finished the training...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Michael Juszczak, Estelle Gallo, Tamara Bushnik
Background: Secondary impairments associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) limit one's independent functionality and negatively impact quality of life (QoL). Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore changes in secondary health conditions that may result from using a powered exoskeleton as well as their potential impact on QoL. Methods: Forty-five participants presenting with SCI ranging from T3-L2 were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported assessments of pain, spasticity, bladder/bowel function, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS)...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Bridget A Cotner, Lisa Ottomanelli, Danielle R O'Connor, Eni N Njoh, Scott D Barnett, Edward J Miech
Background: Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is an evidence-based practice that helps persons with mental and/or physical disabilities, including spinal cord injury, find meaningful employment in the community. While employment is associated with positive rehabilitation outcomes, more research is needed on the impact of IPS participation on non-vocational outcomes, particularly quality of life (QOL). Objective : To identity QOL outcomes experienced with (1) IPS participation and (2) IPS participation leading to employment...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Alyse Lennox, Belinda Gabbe, Andrew Nunn, Sandra Braaf
Background: People living with spinal cord injury (SCI) have reported difficulties managing information in the community, which can negatively impact their functional independence and ability to prevent secondary complications. Objective: This exploratory qualitative study aimed to describe the experiences of people living with SCI with navigating and managing information in the community from their perspective. Methods: Participants were recruited through the Australian Quadriplegic Association. Twenty-two semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively selected participants to ensure representation of age, gender, SCI level, and compensation status...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Kikelomo Olawunmi Atobatele, Olubukola Adebisi Olaleye, Francis A Fatoye, Talhatu Kolapo Hamzat
Background: The bio-psychosocial model for comprehensive understanding of community reintegration among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) varies across communities. Yet, information about community reintegration in Nigeria is not available. Objective: To investigate the association between community reintegration and clinical and psychosocial attributes among Nigerians with SCI. Methods: Fifty individuals (31 females; 19 males) with SCI aged 38.6 ± 11.1 years participated in this longitudinal survey...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Sherri L LaVela, Salva Balbale, Jennifer N Hill
Background: There is a need to engage persons with spinal cord injuries/disorders (SCI/D) in research methodologies beyond traditional approaches. This provides an opportunity for individuals to convey their perspectives in a variety of ways. Photovoice empowers people to share their perspectives through photographs and narrative; this is well-suited for individuals who are less comfortable speaking up when other methods are used, such as focus groups. Objective: To examine photovoice methodology in US Veterans with SCI/D to describe their experiences with and the utility of photovoice...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Christina Calhoun Thielen, Ralph J Marino, Susan Duff, Gary Kaplan, M J Mulcahey
Introduction: A scoping review provides a means to synthesize and present a large body of literature on a broad topic, such as methods for various upper extremity activity-based therapy (ABT) interventions. Objectives: To describe our scoping review protocol to evaluate peer-reviewed articles focused on ABT interventions for individuals with neurologically impaired upper extremities. Methods: At Jefferson College of Health Professions and Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Jefferson, Philadelphia, the authors will follow this protocol to conduct a scoping review by establishing a research question and conducting a search of bibliographic databases to identify relevant studies...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Ida K Fox, Amanda K Miller, Catherine M Curtin
Background: Recent adaption of nerve transfer surgery to improve upper extremity function in cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is an exciting development. Tendon transfer procedures are well established, reliable, and can significantly improve function. Despite this, few eligible surgical candidates in the United States undergo these restorative surgeries. Evidence Acquisition: The literature on these procedures was reviewed. Results: Options to improve function include surgery to restore elbow extension, wrist extension, and hand opening and closing function...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Jirapat Likitlersuang, Ryan Koh, Xinyi Gong, Lazar Jovanovic, Isabel Bolivar-Tellería, Matthew Myers, José Zariffa, César Márquez-Chin
Background: Functional electrical stimulation therapy (FEST) is a promising intervention for the restoration of upper extremity function after cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objectives: This study describes and evaluates a novel FEST system designed to incorporate voluntary movement attempts and massed practice of functional grasp through the use of brain-computer interface (BCI) and computer vision (CV) modules. Methods: An EEG-based BCI relying on a single electrode was used to detect movement initiation attempts...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Kevin L Kilgore, Anne Bryden, Michael W Keith, Harry A Hoyen, Ronald L Hart, Gregory A Nemunaitis, P Hunter Peckham
Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurring at the cervical levels can result in significantly impaired arm and hand function. People with cervical-level SCI desire improved use of their arms and hands, anticipating that regained function will result in improved independence and ultimately improved quality of life. Neuroprostheses provide the most promising method for significant gain in hand and arm function for persons with cervical-level SCI. Neuroprostheses utilize small electrical currents to activate peripheral motor nerves, resulting in controlled contraction of paralyzed muscles...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Kathryn Dent, Namrata Grampurohit, Christina Calhoun Thielen, Cristina Sadowsky, Loren Davidson, Heather B Taylor, Jackie Bultman, John Gaughan, Ralph J Marino, M J Mulcahey
Background: The Capabilities of Upper Extremity Test (CUE-T) is a spinal cord injury (SCI)-specific instrument based on the CUE Questionnaire (CUE-Q). Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of CUE-T in children with cervical SCI and determine the lowest age appropriate for test administration. Method: In this repeated measures multicenter study, 39 youths, mean age 12.3 years and mean time post injury 5.14 years, completed two administrations of the CUE-T. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and known groups validity were measured...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Ralph J Marino, Rebecca Sinko, Anne Bryden, Deborah Backus, David Chen, Gregory A Nemunaitis, Benjamin E Leiby
Background: The Capabilities of Upper Extremity Test (CUE-T) and the Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility and Prehension (GRASSP) were both developed to detect change in upper extremity (UE) function in persons with tetraplegia. Objective: To compare the responsiveness and minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of the CUE-T and the quantitative prehension (QtP) scale of the GRASSP. Methods: Subjects included 69 persons with tetraplegia: 60 with acute and 9 with chronic injuries. Subjects were assessed twice 3 months apart using the CUE-T, QtP-GRASSP, and upper extremity motor scores (UEMS)...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Lynn A Worobey, Christina K Zigler, Randall Huzinec, Stephanie K Rigot, JongHun Sung, Laura A Rice
Background: Proper transfer technique is associated with improved biomechanics and decreased pain and pathology. However, many users do not use proper technique, and appropriate assessment and training are needed to address these deficits. The transfer assessment instrument (TAI) 4.0 was designed to meet those needs and improve on past versions by removing the need for clinician training, shortening administration time, and simplifying question content. Objectives: Evaluate the psychometric properties of the TAI 4...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Anne Bryden, Kevin L Kilgore, Gregory A Nemunaitis
Background: More than half of all individuals who sustain a spinal cord injury (SCI) experience some degree of impairment in the upper limb. Functional use of the arm and hand is of paramount importance to these individuals. Fortunately, the number of clinical trials and advanced interventions targeting upper limb function are increasing, generating optimism for improved recovery and restoration after SCI. New interventions for restoring function and improving recovery require more detailed examination of the motor capacities of the upper limb...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Laura Krisa, Madeline Runyen, Megan Ryan Detloff
There are approximately 17,500 new spinal cord injury (SCI) cases each year in the United States, with the majority of cases resulting from a traumatic injury. Damage to the spinal cord causes either temporary or permanent changes in sensorimotor function. Given that the majority of human SCIs occur in the cervical spinal level, the experimental animal models of forelimb dysfunction play a large role in the ability to translate basic science research to clinical application. However, the variation in the design of clinical and basic science studies of forelimb/upper extremity (UE) function prevents the ease of translation...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Libak Abou, Gabriel Ribeiro de Freitas, Juliete Palandi, Jocemar Ilha
Background: Evidence of intervention effectiveness depends on, among other things, the use of a common set of valid and reliable measures that are responsive to change and reflect clinically important outcomes. Objective: To identify clinical assessment instruments with properties for measuring unsupported sitting balance in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Bibliographic databases (PubMed, Science Direct, CINAHL, and Central) were searched for articles with the key words "spinal cord injury," "unsupported sitting," and "outcome assessment" in combination with a specific methodological search filter for each database...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
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