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Molecular Human Reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093458/single-cell-gene-expression-analysis-reveals-diversity-among-human-spermatogonia
#1
N Neuhaus, J Yoon, N Terwort, S Kliesch, J Seggewiss, A Huge, R Voss, S Schlatt, R V Grindberg, H R Schöler
STUDY QUESTION: Is the molecular profile of human spermatogonia homogeneous or heterogeneous when analysed at the single-cell level? SUMMARY ANSWER: Heterogeneous expression profiles may be a key characteristic of human spermatogonia, supporting the existence of a heterogeneous stem cell population. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Despite the fact that many studies have sought to identify specific markers for human spermatogonia, the molecular fingerprint of these cells remains hitherto unknown...
January 15, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062807/junctional-adhesion-molecule-a-expression-in-the-murine-epididymal-tract-and-accessory-organs-and-acquisition-by-maturing-sperm
#2
Kathie Z Wu, Kun Li, Deni S Galileo, Patricia A Martin-DeLeon
STUDY QUESTION: Is junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), a sperm protein essential for normal motility, expressed in the murine post-testicular pathway and involved in sperm maturation? SUMMARY ANSWER: JAM-A is present in the prostate and seminal vesicles and in all three regions of the epididymis where it is secreted in epididymosomes in the luminal fluid and can be delivered to sperm in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: JAM-A shares with the plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase 4 (PMCA4, the major Ca(2+) efflux pump in murine sperm) a common interacting partner, CASK (Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent serine kinase)...
January 6, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025393/peroxiredoxins-prevent-oxidative-stress-during-human-sperm-capacitation
#3
Donghyun Lee, Adel R Moawad, Tania Morielli, Maria C Fernandez, Cristian O'Flaherty
STUDY QUESTION: Do peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) control reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during human sperm capacitation? SUMMARY ANSWER: PRDXs are necessary to control the levels of ROS generated during capacitation allowing spermatozoa to achieve fertilizing ability. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Sperm capacitation is an oxidative event that requires low and controlled amounts of ROS to trigger phosphorylation events. PRDXs are antioxidant enzymes that not only act as scavengers but also control ROS action in somatic cells...
December 26, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986932/placental-specific-sflt-1-role-in-pre-eclamptic-pathophysiology-and-its-translational-possibilities-for-clinical-prediction-and-diagnosis
#4
REVIEW
K R Palmer, S Tong, T J Kaitu'u-Lino
Pre-eclampsia is a common obstetric complication globally responsible for a significant burden of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Central to its pathophysiology is the anti-angiogenic protein, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1). sFLT-1 is released from a range of tissues into the circulation, where it antagonizes the activity of vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor leading to endothelial dysfunction. It is this widespread endothelial dysfunction that produces the clinical features of pre-eclampsia including hypertension and proteinuria...
December 16, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986931/bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-regulates-cell-cell-communication-by-down-regulating-connexin43-expression-in-luteinized-human-granulosa-cells
#5
Yan-Ting Wu, Hsun-Ming Chang, He-Feng Huang, Jian-Zhong Sheng, Peter C K Leung
STUDY QUESTION: Does bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) regulate connexin43 (Cx43) and modulate cell-cell communication in luteinized human granulosa cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: BMP2 decreases gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) of luteinized human granulosa cells by down-regulating Cx43 expression through an activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)2/ALK3-mediated Sma- and Mad-related protein (SMAD)-dependent signaling pathway. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: BMP2 and its putative receptors are highly expressed in the human corpus luteum and are involved in the process of luteolysis...
December 16, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932553/normalization-matters-tracking-the-best-strategy-for-sperm-mirna-quantification
#6
Celia Corral-Vazquez, Joan Blanco, Albert Salas-Huetos, Francesca Vidal, Ester Anton
STUDY QUESTION: What is the most reliable normalization strategy for sperm microRNA (miRNA) quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reactions (qRT-PCR) using singleplex assays? SUMMARY ANSWER: The use of the average expression of hsa-miR-100-5p and hsa-miR-30a-5p as sperm miRNA qRT-PCR data normalizer is suggested as an optimal strategy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mean-centering methods are the most reliable normalization strategies for miRNA high-throughput expression analyses...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932552/microfluidic-analysis-of-oocyte-and-embryo-biomechanical-properties-to-improve-outcomes-in-assisted-reproductive-technologies
#7
REVIEW
Livia Z Yanez, David B Camarillo
Measurement of oocyte and embryo biomechanical properties has recently emerged as an exciting new approach to obtain a quantitative, objective estimate of developmental potential. However, many traditional methods for probing cell mechanical properties are time consuming, labor intensive and require expensive equipment. Microfluidic technology is currently making its way into many aspects of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and is particularly well suited to measure embryo biomechanics due to the potential for robust, automated single-cell analysis at a low cost...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932551/antigen-unmasking-enhances-visualization-efficacy-of-the-oocyte-activation-factor-phospholipase-c-zeta-in-mammalian-sperm
#8
Junaid Kashir, Luke Buntwal, Michail Nomikos, Brian L Calver, Panagiotis Stamatiadis, Peter Ashley, Vyronia Vassilakopoulou, David Sanders, Paul Knaggs, Evangelia Livaniou, Adnan Bunkheila, Karl Swann, F Anthony Lai
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to improve clinical visualization of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) as a diagnostic marker of sperm oocyte activation capacity and male fertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Poor PLCζ visualization efficacy using current protocols may be due to steric or conformational occlusion of native PLCζ, hindering antibody access, and is significantly enhanced using antigen unmasking/retrieval (AUM) protocols. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mammalian oocyte activation is mediated via a series of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) oscillations induced by sperm-specific PLCζ...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932550/spermaurin-an-la1-like-peptide-from-the-venom-of-the-scorpion-scorpio-maurus-palmatus-improves-sperm-motility-and-fertilization-in-different-mammalian-species
#9
Guillaume Martinez, Jean-Pascal Hograindleur, Sébastien Voisin, Roland Abi Nahed, Tarek M Abd El Aziz, Jessica Escoffier, Julien Bessonnat, Claire-Maëlle Fovet, Michel De Waard, Sylviane Hennebicq, Vincent Aucagne, Pierre F Ray, Eric Schmitt, Philippe Bulet, Christophe Arnoult
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to identify original compounds that are able to enhance sperm motility from the venom of the scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus? SUMMARY ANSWER: We identified a potent disulfide-rich peptide (DRP) of 73 amino acids that significantly improved the motility of fresh and frozen-thawed sperm in different mammalian species, including human, and improved fertilization outcome in mouse IVF experiments. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Any disturbance of sperm motility has a strong impact on fertilization and can lead to subfertility or infertility...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932549/proteolytic-degradation-of-heat-shock-protein-a2-occurs-in-response-to-oxidative-stress-in-male-germ-cells-of-the-mouse
#10
Elizabeth G Bromfield, R John Aitken, Eileen A McLaughlin, Brett Nixon
STUDY QUESTION: Does oxidative stress compromise the protein expression of heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2) in the developing germ cells of the mouse testis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Oxidative stress leads to the modification of HSPA2 by the lipid aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and initiates its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous work has revealed a deficiency in HSPA2 protein expression within the spermatozoa of infertile men that have failed fertilization in a clinical setting...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069932/call-for-papers-in-vitro-generated-germ-cells-facts-and-possibilities
#11
EDITORIAL
Michele Boiani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698028/a-grafted-ovarian-fragment-rescues-host-fertility-after-chemotherapy
#12
Iordan Stefanov Batchvarov, Rachel Williamson Taylor, Ximena Bustamante-Marín, Michael Czerwinski, Erika Segear Johnson, Sally Kornbluth, Blanche Capel
STUDY QUESTION: Can host fertility be rescued by grafting of a fragment of a healthy ovary soon after chemotherapy? SUMMARY ANSWER: We found that grafting a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive fragment from a healthy isogenic ovary to the left ovary of a chemo-treated host rescued function and fertility of the grafted host ovary, and resulted in the production of host-derived offspring as late as the sixth litter after chemotherapy (CTx) treatment, whereas none of the ungrafted controls produced a second litter...
December 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678485/uterosome-like-vesicles-prompt-human-sperm-fertilizing-capability
#13
A Franchi, M Cubilla, H A Guidobaldi, A A Bravo, L C Giojalas
STUDY QUESTION: Does the rapid transit through the uterine environment modulate the sperm physiological state? SUMMARY ANSWER: The uterosome-like vesicles (ULVs) secreted by endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) in vitro are able to fuse with human spermatozoa, prompting their fertilizing capacity. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Early studies suggest that sperm capacitation begins in the uterus and ends in the oviduct, and that a synergistic effect of both female organs may accelerate this process...
December 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671755/vitamin-a-prevents-round-spermatid-nuclear-damage-and-promotes-the-production-of-motile-sperm-during-in-vitro-maturation-of-vitrified-pre-pubertal-mouse-testicular-tissue
#14
L Dumont, A Oblette, C Rondanino, F Jumeau, A Bironneau, D Liot, V Duchesne, J Wils, N Rives
STUDY QUESTION: Does vitamin A (retinol, Rol) prevent round spermatid nuclear damage and increase the production of motile sperm during in vitro maturation of vitrified pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue? SUMMARY ANSWER: The supplementation of an in vitro culture of ~0.75 mm(3) testicular explants from pre-pubertal mice with Rol enhances spermatogenesis progression during the first spermatogenic wave. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The production of functional spermatozoa in vitro has only been achieved in the mouse model and remains a rare event...
December 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645281/sphingosine-1-phosphate-restores-endothelial-barrier-integrity-in-ovarian-hyperstimulation-syndrome
#15
L Scotti, M Di Pietro, N Pascuali, G Irusta, I de Zúñiga, M Gomez Peña, C Pomilio, F Saravia, M Tesone, D Abramovich, F Parborell
STUDY QUESTION: Are follicular fluid (FF) sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels in patients at risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) altered and in part responsible for the high vascular permeability observed in these patients. STUDY ANSWER: FF S1P levels are lower in FF from patients at risk of OHSS and treatment with S1P may reduce vascular permeability in these patients. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although advances have been made in the diagnosis, and management of OHSS and in basic knowledge of its development, complete prevention has proven difficult...
December 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609758/identification-of-genes-differentially-expressed-in-menstrual-breakdown-and-repair
#16
Premila Paiva, Michelle G Lockhart, Jane E Girling, Moshe Olshansky, Nicole Woodrow, Jennifer L Marino, Martha Hickey, Peter A W Rogers
STUDY QUESTION: Does the changing molecular profile of the endometrium during menstruation correlate with the histological profile of menstruation. SUMMARY ANSWER: We identified several genes not previously associated with menstruation; on Day 2 of menstruation (early-menstruation), processes related to inflammation are predominantly up-regulated and on Day 4 (late-menstruation), the endometrium is predominantly repairing and regenerating. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Menstruation is induced by progesterone withdrawal at the end of the menstrual cycle and involves endometrial tissue breakdown, regeneration and repair...
December 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604460/improved-cryotolerance-and-developmental-potential-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-matured-mouse-oocytes-by-supplementing-with-a-glutathione-donor-prior-to-vitrification
#17
Tom Trapphoff, Martyna Heiligentag, Jenny Simon, Nora Staubach, Thorsten Seidel, Kathrin Otte, Thomas Fröhlich, Georg J Arnold, Ursula Eichenlaub-Ritter
STUDY QUESTION: Can supplementation of media with a glutathione (GSH) donor, glutathione ethyl ester (GEE), prior to vitrification protect the mouse oocyte from oxidative damage and critical changes in redox homeostasis, and thereby improve cryotolerance? SUMMARY ANSWER: GEE supplementation supported redox regulation, rapid recovery of spindle and chromosome alignment after vitrification/warming and improved preimplantation development of mouse metaphase II (MII) oocytes...
December 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559149/differences-in-cumulus-cell-gene-expression-indicate-the-benefit-of-a-pre-maturation-step-to-improve-in-vitro-bovine-embryo-production
#18
Cecilia Dieci, Valentina Lodde, Rémi Labreque, Isabelle Dufort, Irene Tessaro, Marc-André Sirard, Alberto M Luciano
STUDY QUESTION: Does the gene expression profile of cumulus cells (CC) accompanying oocytes with different degrees of chromatin compaction within the germinal vesicle (GV) reflect the oocyte's quality and response in culture during in-vitro embryo production (IVP). SUMMARY ANSWER: The transcriptomic profile of the CC is related to oocyte competence, setting the stage for the development of customized pre-maturation strategies to improve IVP. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Oocytes complete the acquisition of their competence during antral follicle development...
December 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542947/human-fallopian-tube-epithelium-co-culture-with-murine-ovarian-follicles-reveals-crosstalk-in-the-reproductive-cycle
#19
Jie Zhu, Yuanming Xu, Alexandra S Rashedi, Mary Ellen Pavone, J Julie Kim, Teresa K Woodruff, Joanna E Burdette
STUDY QUESTION: Do interactions between human fallopian tube epithelium and murine follicles occur during an artificial reproductive cycle in a co-culture system in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER: In a co-culture system, human fallopian tissues responded to the menstrual cycle mimetic by changes in morphology and levels of secreted factors, and increasing murine corpus luteum progesterone secretion. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The entire fallopian tube epithelium, including ciliated and secretory cells, can be regulated in the reproductive cycle...
November 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470502/irinotecan-metabolite-sn38-results-in-germ-cell-loss-in-the-testis-but-not-in-the-ovary-of-prepubertal-mice
#20
Federica Lopes, Rowena Smith, Sophie Nash, Rod T Mitchell, Norah Spears
STUDY QUESTION: Does the Irinotecan metabolite 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecan (SN38) damage the gonads of male and female prepubertal mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: The Irinotecan metabolite SN38 reduces germ cell numbers within the seminiferous tubules of mouse testes at concentrations that are relevant to cancer patients, while in contrast it has little if any effect on the female germ cell population. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Little is known about the role of the chemotherapeutic agent Irinotecan on female fertility, with only one article to date reporting menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women treated with Irinotecan, while no data are available either on adult male fertility or on the impact of Irinotecan on the subsequent fertility of prepubertal cancer patients, female or male...
November 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
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