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Molecular Human Reproduction

Vivian Lobo, Priyanka Parte
Glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is expressed on cell surface in exceptional conditions as seen in cancer cells and macrophages. We have reported its membrane localization in sperm. The functional significance of its surface localization in sperm is an enigma. Alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M) reportedly binds surface GRP78, regulating macrophage motility. Additionally, seminal plasma α2M levels are low in cases of asthenozoospermia. We investigated the functional relevance of sperm surface GRP78 and α2M crosstalk using testicular sperm (Tsp; immature) and caudal sperm (Cdsp; mature) from adult Holtzman rats...
December 24, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Paula Aliberti, Rahil Sethi, Alicia Belgorosky, Uma R Chandran, Tony M Plant, William H Walker
Molecular mechanisms responsible for initiation of primate spermatogenesis remain poorly characterized. Previously, 48 h stimulation of the testes of three juvenile rhesus monkeys with pulsatile LH and FSH resulted in down-regulation of a cohort of genes recognized to favor spermatogonia stem cell renewal. This change in genetic landscape occurred in concert with amplification of Sertoli cell proliferation and the commitment of undifferentiated spermatogonia to differentiate. In this report, the non-protein coding small RNA transcriptomes of the same testes were characterized using RNAsequencing: 537 mature micro-RNAs (miRNAs), 322 small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and 49 small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) were identified...
December 24, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Sonia DaSilva-Arnold, Che-Ying Kuo, Viralkumar Davra, Yvonne Remache, Peter C W Kim, John P Fisher, Stacy Zamudio, Abdulla Al-Khan, Raymond B Birge, Nicholas P Illsley
STUDY QUESTION: Does the upregulation of the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2) transcription factor in human trophoblast cells lead to alterations in gene expression consistent with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a consequent increase in invasiveness? SUMMARY ANSWER: Overexpression of ZEB2 results in an epithelial-mesenchymal shift in gene expression accompanied by a substantial increase in invasive capacity of human trophoblast cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In-vivo results have shown that cytotrophoblast differentiation into extravillous trophoblast involves an epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
November 21, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Ludmila A Gerlinskaya, Ekaterina A Litvinova, Galina V Kontsevaya, Natalia A Feofanova, Ksenia M Achasova, Margarita V Anisimova, Svetlana O Maslennikova, Maria A Zolotykh, Yuri M Moshkin, Mikhail P Moshkin
STUDY QUESTION: Does the genotype of the surrogate mother modulate the body composition and immunity of her offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: C57BL/6J (B6) progenies carried by immunodeficient NOD SCID (NS) mothers had increased adaptive, but decreased innate, immune responsiveness in comparison with the same genotype offspring carried by immunocompetent mothers, B6 and BALB/c (C); the B6 progenies carried by the same genotype mothers also showed higher body fat than the others...
November 16, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Yusuke Marikawa, Vernadeth B Alarcon
STUDY QUESTION: What molecular signals are required to maintain the functional trophectoderm (TE) during blastocyst expansion of the late stage of preimplantation development? SUMMARY ANSWER: The activity of ras homology family member A (RHOA) GTPases is necessary to retain the expanded blastocyst cavity and also to sustain the gene expression program specific to TE. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: At the early stages of preimplantation development, the precursor of the TE lineage is generated through the molecular signals that integrate RHOA, RHO-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK), the apicobasal cell polarity, and the HIPPO-Yes-associated protein (YAP) signaling pathway...
November 5, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Katharina Proestling, Iveta Yotova, Susanne Gamperl, Christoph Hauser, Rene Wenzl, Christian Schneeberger, Ladislaus Szabo, Mario Mairhofer, Heinrich Husslein, Lorenz Kuessel
STUDY QUESTION: Are increased sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels associated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE) activity in endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Here we provide the first functional evidence that induced TACE activity in human endometriotic epithelial cells is at least in part responsible for the enhanced release of sVCAM-1 from these cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: We and others have shown that serum-soluble (s)VCAM-1 levels are significantly higher in women with endometriosis, compared to disease-free controls...
November 3, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
S J Calvert, S Reynolds, M N Paley, S J Walters, A A Pacey
STUDY QUESTION: Can 13C-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) of selected metabolites provide useful information about human sperm metabolism and how glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation are used by different sperm populations? SUMMARY ANSWER: Sperm populations, prepared by density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and incubated with either 13Cu-glucose, 13Cu-fructose or 13C1-pyruvate, showed consistent evidence of metabolism generating principally lactate and more intermittently bicarbonate, and significantly more lactate was produced from 13Cu-glucose by vital or motile sperm recovered from the 40/80% interface compared to those from the pellet, which could not be accounted for by differences in the non-sperm cells present...
November 3, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Ying Li, Yu-Dong Liu, Shi-Ling Chen, Xin Chen, De-Sheng Ye, Xing-Yu Zhou, Jing Zhe, Jun Zhang
STUDY QUESTION: Is there a specific mechanism underlying the association between lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) and endometriosis-related infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: The down-regulation of MALAT1 in endometriosis granulosa cells (GCs) may have an adverse effect on the growth and development of oocytes by inhibiting GC proliferation, due to cell cycle-dependent mechanisms that enhance P21 expression through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway...
October 27, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
J E Schjenken, K Panir, S A Robertson, M L Hull
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2019: Molecular Human Reproduction
Huihui Sun, Dong Li, Ming Yuan, Qiuju Li, Qianwei Zhen, Ni Li, Guoyun Wang
STUDY QUESTION: Do exosomes play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis in a murine model? SUMMARY ANSWER: Exosomes from endometriosis (EMS) can alternatively activate macrophages and thus contribute to the development of lesions in mice. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The pathogenesis of endometriosis, an inflammatory disease, possibly involves peritoneal macrophages. Exosomes are recognized as a new communicator among cells and a key modulator in several inflammatory diseases...
January 1, 2019: Molecular Human Reproduction
Allan Pacey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
James Warren, Michelle Im, Angela Ballesteros, Cam Ha, Tom Moore, Fanny Lambert, Sophie Lucas, Boris Hinz, Gabriela Dveksler
STUDY QUESTION: Do all 10 human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoproteins (PSGs) and murine PSG23 activate latent transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)? SUMMARY ANSWER: All human PSGs and murine PSG23 activated latent TGF-β1. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Two of the 10 members of the PSG1 family, PSG1 and PSG9, were previously shown to activate the soluble small latent complex of TGF-β1, a cytokine with potent immune suppressive functions. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Recombinant PSGs were generated and tested for their ability to activate the small latent complex of TGF-β1 in a cell-free ELISA-based assay and in a bioassay...
December 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Tzu-Hsuan Chuang, Jhih-Yuan Hsieh, Meng-Ju Lee, Hsing-Hua Lai, Chia-Lin Hsieh, Huai-Lin Wang, Yu-Jen Chang, Shee-Uan Chen
STUDY QUESTION: In PGS, does chromosomal constitution differ among trophectoderm (TE) biopsy sites and between them and the inner cell mass (ICM)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The ploidy concordance between ICM and TE was independent of whether the biopsy site in the TE was near to or far from the ICM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: TE biopsies are considered less harmful to developing embryos than blastomere biopsies. Removal of multi-cellular samples permits high-resolution next-generation sequencing (Veriseq NGS) to detect aneuploidy present in a minority of cells (mosaicism of diploid and aneuploid cells)...
December 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
David Mortimer
The Internet, magazine articles, and even biomedical journal articles, are full of cartoons of spermatozoa that bear minimal resemblance to real spermatozoa, especially human spermatozoa, and this had led to many misconceptions about what spermatozoa look like and how they are constituted. This review summarizes the historical and current state of knowledge of mammalian sperm ultrastructure, with particular emphasis on and relevance to human spermatozoa, combining information obtained from a variety of electron microscopic (EM) techniques...
December 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
J B H Mello, M C Barros-Filho, F B Abreu, P D R Cirilo, M A C Domingues, A Pontes, S R Rogatto
STUDY QUESTION: Can the mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) mutation and high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) overexpression co-occurrence be explained by the alternative mechanism of HMGA2 dysregulation in uterine leiomyomas (UL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The co-occurrence of MED12 mutation and HMGA2 overexpression, and a negative correlation of five validated or predicted microRNAs that target HMGA2 were reported. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The recent stratification of UL, according to recurrent and mutually exclusive genomic alterations affecting HMGA2, MED12, fumarate hydratase (FH) and collagen type IV alpha 5-alpha 6 (COL4A5-COL4A6) pointed out the involvement of distinct molecular pathways...
November 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Jessie M Sutherland, Emily R Frost, Emmalee A Ford, Alexandra E Peters, Natalie L Reed, Alexandra N Seldon, Bettina P Mihalas, Darryl L Russel, Kylie R Dunning, Eileen A McLaughlin
STUDY QUESTION: Is the Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signalling pathway involved in ovarian follicle development and primordial follicle activation? SUMMARY ANSWER: JAK1 is a key factor involved in the regulation of primordial follicle activation and maintenance of the ovarian reserve. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A series of integrated, intrinsic signalling pathways (including PI3K/AKT, mTOR and KITL) are responsible for regulating the ovarian reserve of non-growing primordial follicles and ultimately female fertility...
November 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
S Warrier, J Taelman, L Tilleman, M Van der Jeught, G Duggal, S Lierman, M Popovic, A Van Soom, L Peelman, F Van Nieuwerburgh, D Deforce, S M Chuva de Sousa Lopes, P De Sutter, B Heindryckx
STUDY QUESTION: What are the transcriptional changes occurring during the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derivation process, from the inner cell mass (ICM) to post-ICM intermediate stage (PICMI) to hESC stage, that have downstream effects on pluripotency states and differentiation? SUMMARY ANSWER: We reveal that although the PICMI is transcriptionally similar to the hESC profile and distinct from ICM, it exhibits upregulation of primordial germ cell (PGC) markers, dependence on leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling, upregulation of naïve pluripotency-specific signaling networks and appears to be an intermediate switching point from naïve to primed pluripotency...
November 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Giorgia Gioacchini, Valentina Notarstefano, Elena Sereni, Carlotta Zacà, Giovanni Coticchio, Elisabetta Giorgini, Lisa Vaccari, Oliana Carnevali, Andrea Borini
STUDY QUESTION: Does the molecular and metabolic profile of human mural granulosa cells (GCs) correlate with oocyte fate? SUMMARY ANSWER: A close relation between the metabolic profile of mural GCs and the fate of the corresponding oocyte was revealed by the analysis of selected biomarkers defined by GC Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) analysis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In ART, oocyte selection is mainly based on the subjective observation of its morphological features; despite recent efforts, the success rate of this practice is still unsatisfactory...
November 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Keith T Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
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