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Molecular Human Reproduction

David Mortimer
The Internet, magazine articles, and even biomedical journal articles, are full of cartoons of spermatozoa that bear minimal resemblance to real spermatozoa, especially human spermatozoa, and this had led to many misconceptions about what spermatozoa look like and how they are constituted. This review summarizes the historical and current state of knowledge of mammalian sperm ultrastructure, with particular emphasis on and relevance to human spermatozoa, combining information obtained from a variety of electron microscopic (EM) techniques...
September 12, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Giorgia Gioacchini, Valentina Notarstefano, Elena Sereni, Carlotta Zacà, Giovanni Coticchio, Elisabetta Giorgini, Lisa Vaccari, Oliana Carnevali, Andrea Borini
STUDY QUESTION: Does the molecular and metabolic profile of human mural granulosa cells (GCs) correlate with oocyte fate? SUMMARY ANSWER: A close relation between the metabolic profile of mural GCs and the fate of the corresponding oocyte was revealed by the analysis of selected biomarkers defined by GC Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) analysis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In ART, oocyte selection is mainly based on the subjective observation of its morphological features; despite recent efforts, the success rate of this practice is still unsatisfactory...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
H T Le, J Atif, D L Mara, B Castellana, J Treissman, J Baltayeva, A G Beristain
STUDY QUESTION: Does A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 8 (ADAM8) control extravillous trophoblast (EVT) differentiation and migration in early human placental development? SUMMARY ANSWER: ADAM8 mRNA preferentially localizes to invasive HLA-G-positive trophoblasts, associates with the acquirement of an EVT phenotype, and promotes trophoblast migration through a mechanism requiring β1-integrin. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Placental establishment in the first trimester of pregnancy requires the differentiation of progenitor trophoblasts into invasive EVTs that produce a diverse repertoire of proteases that facilitate matrix remodeling and activation of signaling pathways important in controlling cell migration...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Meghan L Ruebel, Peter Z Schall, Uros Midic, Kailey A Vincent, Benjamin Goheen, Catherine A VandeVoort, Keith E Latham
STUDY QUESTION: Which different pathways and functions are altered in rhesus monkey oocytes that fail to mature after an ovulatory stimulus? SUMMARY ANSWER: FTM oocytes complete a large portion of the transition in transcriptome composition associated with normal maturation, but also manifest numerous differences that indicate incomplete transcriptional repression and cytoplasmic maturation affecting multiple processes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Oocyte maturation defects contribute to unexplained female infertility...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
L C Morley, J Shi, H J Gaunt, A J Hyman, P J Webster, C Williams, K Forbes, J J Walker, N A B Simpson, D J Beech
STUDY QUESTION: Does the shear stress sensing ion channel subunit Piezo1 have an important mechanotransduction role in human fetoplacental endothelium? SUMMARY ANSWER: Piezo1 is present and functionally active in human fetoplacental endothelial cells, and disruption of Piezo1 prevents the normal response to shear stress. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Shear stress is an important stimulus for maturation and function of placental vasculature but the molecular mechanisms by which the force is detected and transduced are unclear...
August 2, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Christopher L R Barratt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Yu Wang, Eugenie R Lumbers, Anya L Arthurs, Celine Corbisier de Meaultsart, Andrea Mathe, Kelly A Avery-Kiejda, Claire T Roberts, Fiona Broughton Pipkin, Francine Z Marques, Brian J Morris, Kirsty G Pringle
STUDY QUESTION: Are any microRNAs (miRNAs) that target the placental renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the human placenta suppressed in early gestation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Overall, 21 miRNAs with predicted RAS mRNA targets were less abundant in early versus term placentae and nine were more highly expressed. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Regulation of human placental RAS expression could alter placental development and therefore normal pregnancy outcome...
September 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Rui Yang, James A Browne, Scott E Eggener, Shih-Hsing Leir, Ann Harris
STUDY QUESTION: What is the transcriptional network governed by the androgen receptor (AR) in human epididymis epithelial (HEE) cells from the caput region and if the network is tissue-specific, how is this achieved? SUMMARY ANSWER: About 200 genes are differentially expressed in the caput HEE cells after AR activation; the AR transcriptional network is tissue-specific and may be mediated in part by distinct AR co-factors including CAAT-enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB) and runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1)...
September 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Jing Li, Ziqiang Fu, Hua Jiang, Liping Chen, Xian Wu, Hongjuan Ding, Yankai Xia, Xinru Wang, Qiuqin Tang, Wei Wu
STUDY QUESTION: What is the role of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)-derived miR-483-3p in macrosomia? SUMMARY ANSWER: IGF2-derived intronic miR-483-3p is overexpressed in macrosomia placentas, and miR-483-3p prompts HTR-8/SVneo extravillous trophoblast cell line proliferation through down-regulation of its target RB1 inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Macrosomia is a common pregnancy-associated disease and causes a number of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes...
September 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Claus Yding Andersen, Stine G Kristensen, Linn Salto Mamsen, Christopher L R Barratt
The generation of scientists and physicians that took part in starting the whole era of modern-assisted reproduction is currently close to retirement or has already left research. A new generation is about to take over and the profession is facing a massive transgenerational transition. Since current treatments have reached a plateau in success rates and costs, new research and development is required to further advance the field. Today, multi-disciplinary platforms including numerous research areas, not previously integrated in our field, are fundamental to achieve new clinical approaches...
August 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
N Balaguer, I Moreno, M Herrero, M González, C Simón, F Vilella
STUDY QUESTION: Is there a specific mechanism to load the microRNA (miRNA), hsa-miR-30d, into exosomes to facilitate maternal communication with preimplantation embryos? SUMMARY ANSWER: The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C1 (hnRNPC1) is involved in the internalization of endometrial miR-30d into exosomes to prepare for its subsequent incorporation into trophectoderm cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Our group previously described a novel cell-to-cell communication mechanism involving the delivery of endometrial miRNAs from the maternal endometrium to the trophectoderm cells of preimplantation embryos...
August 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
N Schmid, J B Stöckl, F Flenkenthaler, K-G Dietrich, J U Schwarzer, F-M Köhn, C Drummer, T Fröhlich, G J Arnold, R Behr, A Mayerhofer
STUDY QUESTION: Are monkey testicular peritubular cells (MKTPCs) from the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) a suitable translational model for the study of human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs)? SUMMARY ANSWER: MKTPCs can be isolated and propagated in vitro, retain characteristic markers for testicular peritubular cells and their proteome strongly (correlation coefficient of 0.78) overlaps with the proteome of HTPCs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Smooth-muscle-like peritubular cells form the wall of seminiferous tubules, transport sperm, are immunologically active, secrete a plethora of factors and may contribute to the spermatogonial stem cell niche...
August 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
A Aberkane, W Essahib, C Spits, C De Paepe, K Sermon, T Adriaenssens, S Mackens, H Tournaye, J J Brosens, H Van de Velde
STUDY QUESTION: What are the changes in human embryos, in terms of morphology and gene expression, upon attachment to endometrial epithelial cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: Apposition and adhesion of human blastocysts to endometrial epithelial cells are predominantly initiated at the embryonic pole and these steps are associated with changes in expression of adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM) genes in the embryo. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Both human and murine embryos have been co-cultured with Ishikawa cells, although embryonic gene expression associated with attachment has not yet been investigated in an in vitro implantation model...
July 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Xin Fang, Nan Ni, Yang Gao, David F Vincent, Laurent Bartholin, Qinglei Li
STUDY QUESTION: What is the role of dysregulated transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling in the development of sex cord-stromal tumors in the testis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Overactivation of TGFB signaling results in the development of testicular tumors resembling granulosa cell tumors (GrCTs). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In an earlier study, we demonstrated that constitutively active TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1) in ovarian somatic cells promotes the development of ovarian GrCTs...
July 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Michele Boiani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
E Casser, S Israel, S Schlatt, V Nordhoff, M Boiani
STUDY QUESTION: What is the prevalence, reproducibility and biological significance of transcriptomic differences between sister blastomeres of the mouse 2-cell embryo? SUMMARY ANSWER: Sister 2-cell stage blastomeres are distinguishable from each other by mRNA analysis, attesting to the fact that differentiation starts mostly early in the mouse embryo; however, the interblastomere differences are poorly reproducible and invoke the combinatorial effects of known and new mechanisms of blastomere diversification...
July 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Yang Yang, Laiyang Cheng, Xiaohui Deng, Hongling Yu, Lan Chao
STUDY QUESTION: Is aberrant expression of gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality-19 (GRIM-19) associated with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA)? SUMMARY ANSWER: GRIM-19 deficiency may regulate regulatory T cell/T helper 17 cell (Treg/Th17) balance partly through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling axis in URSA. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Immunological disorders may cause impaired maternal immune tolerance to the fetus and result in fetal rejection...
July 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Di Wu, Pan Lu, Xue Mi, Jinwei Miao
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to improve fibrosis in endometriosis by microRNA-214 delivery in exosomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Upregulation of miR-214 may inhibit fibrogenesis and its delivery by exosomes derived from ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), offers an alternative therapeutic approach for endometriosis fibrosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fibrosis is the primary pathological feature of endometriosis. MiR-214 plays an important role in fibrotic disease...
July 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
A L Caldeira-Brant, L Eras-Garcia, D Alves-Freitas, F R C L Almeida, H Chiarini-Garcia
STUDY QUESTION: Could a more detailed evaluation of marmoset spermatogonial morphology, kinetics and niches using high-resolution light microscopy (HRLM) lead to new findings? SUMMARY ANSWER: Three subtypes of marmoset undifferentiated spermatogonia, which were not evenly distributed in terms of number and position along the basal membrane, and an extra premeiotic cell division not present in humans were identified using HRLM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The seminiferous epithelium cycle (SEC) of marmosets is divided into nine stages when based on the acrosome system, and several spermatogenic stages can usually be recognized within the same tubular cross-section...
June 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Sara Stigliani, Stefano Moretti, Ida Casciano, Pierandrea Canepa, Valentino Remorgida, Paola Anserini, Paola Scaruffi
STUDY QUESTION: Does the presence of aggregates of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SERa) impact the transcriptome of human metaphase II (MII) oocytes?. SUMMARY ANSWER: The presence of SERa alters the molecular status of human metaphase II oocytes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Oocytes presenting SERa are considered dysmorphic. Oocytes with SERa (SERa+) have been associated with reduced embryological outcome and increased risk of congenital anomalies, although some authors have reported that SERa+ oocytes can lead to healthy newborns...
June 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
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