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Molecular Human Reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325127/inhibiting-trophoblast-par-1-overexpression-suppresses-sflt-1-induced-anti-angiogenesis-and-abnormal-vascular-remodeling-a-possible-therapeutic-approach-for-preeclampsia
#1
Yin Zhao, YanFang Zheng, XiaoXia Liu, QingQing Luo, Di Wu, XiaoPing Liu, Li Zou
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to improve vascular remodeling by inhibiting the excessive expression of protease activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) in trophoblast of abnormal placenta? SUMMARY ANSWER: Inhibition of trophoblast PAR-1 overexpression may promote placental angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, offering an alternative therapeutic approach for preeclampsia. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: PAR-1 is high-affinity receptor of thrombin. Thrombin increases sFlt-1 secretion in trophoblast via the activation of PAR-1...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315409/people-are-very-open-minded-about-new-things-as-long-as-they-are-exactly-like-the-old-ones
#2
Christopher L R Barratt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304256/dynamics-ultrastructure-and-gene-expression-of-human-in-vitro-organized-testis-cells-from-testicular-sperm-extraction-biopsies
#3
Kathrein von Kopylow, Wolfgang Schulze, Andrea Salzbrunn, Matthias Schaks, Elke Schäfer, Beate Roth, Stefan Schlatt, Andrej-Nikolai Spiess
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to induce in-vitro reorganization of primary human testis cells from testicular sperm extraction (TESE) biopsies, maintain their long-term cultivation in a 2D system and identify cellular compositions? SUMMARY ANSWER: In-vitro reorganization of primary human testis cells from TESE biopsies and their long-term cultivation on uncoated cell culture dishes is feasible and the cellular compositions can be uncovered through gene expression and microscopic analyses...
January 3, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294090/reassembly-of-adult-human-testicular-cells-can-testis-cord-like-structures-be-created-in-vitro
#4
M Mincheva, R Sandhowe-Klaverkamp, J Wistuba, K Redmann, J-B Stukenborg, S Kliesch, S Schlatt
STUDY QUESTION: Can enzymatically dispersed testicular cells from adult men reassemble into seminiferous cord-like structures in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER: Adult human testicular somatic cells reassembled into testicular cord-like structures via dynamic interactions of Sertoli and peritubular cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vitro approaches using dispersed single cell suspensions of human testes to generate seminiferous tubule structures and to initiate their functionality have as yet shown only limited success...
December 26, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329415/establishment-of-a-three-dimensional-model-to-study-human-uterine-angiogenesis
#5
Camille L Duran, Colette A Abbey, Kayla J Bayless
STUDY QUESTION: Can primary human uterine microvascular endothelial cells (UtMVECs) be used as a model to study uterine angiogenic responses in vitro that are relevant in pregnancy? SUMMARY ANSWER: UtMVECs demonstrated angiogenic responses when stimulated with proangiogenic factors, including sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), physiological levels of wall shear stress (WSS), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and various combinations of estrogen and progesterone...
December 21, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272530/formyl-peptide-receptor-2-is-decreased-in-fetal-growth-restriction-and-contributes-to-placental-dysfunction
#6
Martha Lappas, Sharon McCracken, Kelly McKelvey, Ratana Lim, Joanna James, Claire T Roberts, Thierry Fournier, Nadia Alfaidy, Katie L Powell, Anthony J Borg, Jonathan M Morris, Bryan Leaw, Harmeet Singh, Peter R Ebeling, Euan M Wallace, Laura J Parry, Evdokia Dimitriadis, Padma Murthi
STUDY QUESTION: What is the association between placental formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) and trophoblast and endothelial functions in pregnancies affected by fetal growth restriction (FGR)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Reduced FPR2 placental expression in idiopathic FGR results in significantly altered trophoblast differentiation and endothelial function in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FGR is associated with placental insufficiency, where defective trophoblast and endothelial functions contribute to reduced feto-placental growth...
December 20, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244172/human-in-vitro-spermatogenesis-from-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-need-of-a-stepwise-differentiation-protocol
#7
C Rombaut, H Mertes, B Heindryckx, E Goossens
Recently, complete in-vitro generation of male gametes starting from pluripotent stem cells was obtained in a mouse model with live offspring as a result. This breakthrough was probably due to the use of a stepwise differentiation protocol taking the tightly regulated in-vivo situation into account. As shown previously, factors of the TGFβ superfamily, metabolites of vitamin A, growth hormones, sex steroids and, most importantly, somatic cell support are major regulators of the development, survival, proliferation and differentiation of male gametes...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186618/semi-automatized-segmentation-method-using-image-based-flow-cytometry-to-study-sperm-physiology-the-case-of-capacitation-induced-tyrosine-phosphorylation
#8
Arturo Matamoros-Volante, Ayelen Moreno-Irusta, Paulina Torres-Rodriguez, Laura Giojalas, María G Gervasi, Pablo E Visconti, Claudia L Treviño
STUDY QUESTION: Is image-based flow cytometry a useful tool to study intracellular events in human sperm such as protein tyrosine phosphorylation or signaling processes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Image-based flow cytometry is a powerful tool to study intracellular events in a relevant number of sperm cells, which enables a robust statistical analysis providing spatial resolution in terms of the specific subcellular localization of the labeling. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Sperm capacitation is required for fertilization...
November 25, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186554/preclinical-validation-of-a-targeted-next-generation-sequencing-based-comprehensive-chromosome-screening-methodology-in-human-blastocysts
#9
R S Zimmerman, X Tao, D Marin, M Werner, K Hong, A Lonczak, J Landis, D Taylor, Y Zhan, R T Scott, N R Treff
STUDY QUESTION: Can a novel targeted next generation sequencing (tNGS) platform accurately detect whole chromosome aneuploidy in a trophectoderm biopsy and provide additional information to improve testing? SUMMARY ANSWER: Karyotypes obtained by tNGS were concordant with other validated platforms and SNP genotyping information obtained can be used for improved detection and quality control. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: qPCR-based whole chromosome aneuploidy screening is highly accurate in comparison to other common methods and has been shown to improve IVF success in two randomized clinical trials...
November 25, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177442/increased-27-hydroxycholesterol-production-during-luteolysis-may-mediate-the-progressive-decline-in-progesterone-secretion
#10
Yafei Xu, Scot M Hutchison, José J Hernández-Ledezma, Randy L Bogan
STUDY QUESTION: Does 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OH) actively facilitate the progression of luteolysis? SUMMARY ANSWER: There is increased mRNA expression of the enzyme that produces 27OH during luteolysis in vivo in rhesus macaques and sheep, and 27OH reduces progesterone secretion from human luteinized granulosa cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is an increase in mRNA expression of liver x receptor (LXR) and a decrease in sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP2) target genes during spontaneous luteolysis in primates, which could result in reduced cholesterol availability for steroidogenesis...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126233/endothelin-1-promotes-human-germinal-vesicle-stage-oocyte-maturation-by-downregulating-connexin-26-expression-in-cumulus-cells
#11
Long Cui, Jiajie Shen, Li Fang, Xiaodan Mao, Hanzhi Wang, Yinghui Ye
STUDY QUESTION: Does endothelin-1 (ET-1) promote human oocyte maturation and by what mechanism? SUMMARY ANSWER: Addition of ET-1 to the medium in which human germinal vesicle (GV)-stage immature oocytes are cultured enhances the GV breakdown (GVBD) rate; the resumption of meiosis may be initiated by ET-1 downregulating the expression of connexin-26 (Cx26) in cumulus cells via endothelin receptor type B (ETRB), leading to decreased cAMP levels in the oocyte. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The paracrine factor ET-1 is secreted by ovarian somatic cells in pre-ovulatory follicles and regulates oocyte maturation in mice...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126204/proteomic-analysis-of-germinal-vesicles-in-the-domestic-cat-model-reveals-candidate-nuclear-proteins-involved-in-oocyte-competence-acquisition
#12
P-C Lee, D E Wildt, P Comizzoli
STUDY QUESTION: Do nuclear proteins in the germinal vesicle (GV) contribute to oocyte competence acquisition during folliculogenesis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Proteomic analysis of GVs identified candidate proteins for oocyte competence acquisition, including a key RNA processing protein - heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNPA2B1). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The domestic cat GV, which is physiologically similar to the human GV, gains the intrinsic ability to resume meiosis and support early embryo development during the pre-antral-to-antral follicle transition...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121349/naringenin-induces-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-by-regulating-mapk-and-akt-signal-transduction-pathways-in-endometriosis-cells
#13
Sunwoo Park, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
STUDY QUESTION: Does the flavonoid naringenin inhibit proliferation of human endometriosis cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: Naringenin suppresses proliferation and increases apoptosis via depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human endometriosis cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: For management of endometriosis, hormonal therapy is commonly used to decrease production of estrogens by the ovaries, but that has limitations including undesirable side effects with long-term therapies...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126140/zona-pellucida-binding-protein-2-zpbp2-and-several-proteins-containing-bx7b-motifs-in-human-sperm-may-have-hyaluronic-acid-binding-or-recognition-properties
#14
F Torabi, O A Bogle, J M Estanyol, R Oliva, D Miller
STUDY QUESTION: Are there novel hyaladherins in human sperm? SUMMARY ANSWER: Zona pellucida-binding protein 2 (ZPBP2), containing a Link-like hyaluronic acid (HA)-binding domain, and several other proteins containing BX7B motifs, such as ADAM32 and Midkine, may be novel hyaladherins with HA-binding properties. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: HA-binding proteins (hyaladherins), which can bind HA surrounding the cumulus-oophorus complex, are distinct from hyases such as PH 20 (SPAM1) and are expressed by mature spermatozoa...
December 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117333/oleic-acid-stimulation-of-motility-of-human-extravillous-trophoblast-cells-is-mediated-by-stearoyl-coa-desaturase-1-activity
#15
Changwon Yang, Whasun Lim, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
STUDY QUESTION: Do fatty acids regulate development and motility of human extravillous trophoblast cells (EVTs)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Oleic acid is a promising lipid molecule that has beneficial effects on motility and development of human EVTs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fatty acid uptake into trophoblast cells is important for maintaining cellular events during pregnancy, but the molecular mechanisms of action of various fatty acids, including trans fatty acids, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids, in EVT cell lines are not clear...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040674/evaluation-of-apoptotic-and-autophagic-related-protein-expressions-before-and-after-ivm-of-fresh-slow-frozen-and-vitrified-pre-pubertal-mouse-testicular-tissue
#16
L Dumont, F Chalmel, A Oblette, B Berby, A Rives, V Duchesne, C Rondanino, N Rives
STUDY QUESTION: Do freezing and in vitro culture procedures enhance the expression of proteins involved in apoptotic or autophagic pathways in murine pre-pubertal testicular tissue? SUMMARY ANSWER: IVM strongly modified apoptosis- and autophagy-related relative protein levels in mice testicular tissue whereas the impact of cryopreservation procedures was minimal at the end of the culture. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vitro spermatogenesis remains a challenging technical issue as it imposes to find a very close balance between survival and death of germ cell natural precursors (i...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040664/coumestrol-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-by-stimulating-ros-production-and-calcium-ion-influx-into-mitochondria-in-human-placental-choriocarcinoma-cells
#17
Whasun Lim, Changwon Yang, Muhah Jeong, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
STUDY QUESTION: Does coumestrol inhibit proliferation of human placental choriocarcinoma cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: Coumestrol promotes cell death in the choriocarcinoma cells by regulating ERK1/2 MAPK and JNK MAPK signaling pathways and through disruption of Ca2+ and ROS homeostasis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A number of patients who suffer from choriocarcinomas fail to survive due to delayed diagnosis or a recurrent tumor and resistance to traditional chemotherapy using platinum-based agents and methotrexate...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962017/treatment-with-aicar-inhibits-blastocyst-development-trophectoderm-differentiation-and-tight-junction-formation-and-function-in-mice
#18
Michele D Calder, Nicole A Edwards, Dean H Betts, Andrew J Watson
STUDY QUESTION: What is the impact of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation on blastocyst formation, gene expression, and tight junction formation and function? SUMMARY ANSWER: AMPK activity must be tightly controlled for normal preimplantation development and blastocyst formation to occur. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: AMPK isoforms are detectable in oocytes, cumulus cells and preimplantation embryos. Cultured embryos are subject to many stresses that can activate AMPK...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961924/glycerol-and-testicular-activity-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#19
Luís Crisóstomo, Marco G Alves, Giuseppe Calamita, Mário Sousa, Pedro F Oliveira
Over the past decades, there have been several studies suggesting that semen quality is declining. Interestingly, these observations are paired with a significant increase in the number of individuals diagnosed with metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is tempting to hypothesize that obesity and its associated comorbidities and risk factors (such as a hypercaloric diets) impair the homeostasis of the male reproductive health, with a possible direct effect on the testes. The blood and interstitial fluids of obese individuals usually have increased levels of glycerol, notably due to triglyceride and phospholipid catabolism and high fructose intake...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069483/protein-profile-of-mouse-ovarian-follicles-grown-in-vitro
#20
Amandine Anastácio, Kenny A Rodriguez-Wallberg, Solenne Chardonnet, Cédric Pionneau, Christian Fédérici, Teresa Almeida Santos, Catherine Poirot
STUDY QUESTION: Could the follicle proteome be mapped by identifying specific proteins that are common or differ between three developmental stages from the secondary follicle to the antrum-like stage? SUMMARY ANSWER: From a total of 1401 proteins identified in the follicles, 609 were common to the three developmental stages investigated and 444 were found uniquely at one of the stages. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The importance of the follicle as a functional structure has been recognized; however, up-to-date the proteome of the whole follicle has not been described...
October 23, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
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