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Molecular Human Reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932553/normalization-matters-tracking-the-best-strategy-for-sperm-mirna-quantification
#1
Celia Corral-Vazquez, Joan Blanco, Albert Salas-Huetos, Francesca Vidal, Ester Anton
STUDY QUESTION: What is the most reliable normalization strategy for sperm microRNA (miRNA) quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reactions (qRT-PCR) using singleplex assays? SUMMARY ANSWER: The use of the average expression of hsa-miR-100-5p and hsa-miR-30a-5p as sperm miRNA qRT-PCR data normalizer is suggested as an optimal strategy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mean-centering methods are the most reliable normalization strategies for miRNA high-throughput expression analyses...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932552/microfluidic-analysis-of-oocyte-and-embryo-biomechanical-properties-to-improve-outcomes-in-assisted-reproductive-technologies
#2
REVIEW
Livia Z Yanez, David B Camarillo
Measurement of oocyte and embryo biomechanical properties has recently emerged as an exciting new approach to obtain a quantitative, objective estimate of developmental potential. However, many traditional methods for probing cell mechanical properties are time consuming, labor intensive and require expensive equipment. Microfluidic technology is currently making its way into many aspects of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and is particularly well suited to measure embryo biomechanics due to the potential for robust, automated single-cell analysis at a low cost...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932551/antigen-unmasking-enhances-visualization-efficacy-of-the-oocyte-activation-factor-phospholipase-c-zeta-in-mammalian-sperm
#3
Junaid Kashir, Luke Buntwal, Michail Nomikos, Brian L Calver, Panagiotis Stamatiadis, Peter Ashley, Vyronia Vassilakopoulou, David Sanders, Paul Knaggs, Evangelia Livaniou, Adnan Bunkheila, Karl Swann, F Anthony Lai
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to improve clinical visualization of phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) as a diagnostic marker of sperm oocyte activation capacity and male fertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Poor PLCζ visualization efficacy using current protocols may be due to steric or conformational occlusion of native PLCζ, hindering antibody access, and is significantly enhanced using antigen unmasking/retrieval (AUM) protocols. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mammalian oocyte activation is mediated via a series of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) oscillations induced by sperm-specific PLCζ...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932550/spermaurin-an-la1-like-peptide-from-the-venom-of-the-scorpion-scorpio-maurus-palmatus-improves-sperm-motility-and-fertilization-in-different-mammalian-species
#4
Guillaume Martinez, Jean-Pascal Hograindleur, Sébastien Voisin, Roland Abi Nahed, Tarek M Abd El Aziz, Jessica Escoffier, Julien Bessonnat, Claire-Maëlle Fovet, Michel De Waard, Sylviane Hennebicq, Vincent Aucagne, Pierre F Ray, Eric Schmitt, Philippe Bulet, Christophe Arnoult
STUDY QUESTION: Is it possible to identify original compounds that are able to enhance sperm motility from the venom of the scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus? SUMMARY ANSWER: We identified a potent disulfide-rich peptide (DRP) of 73 amino acids that significantly improved the motility of fresh and frozen-thawed sperm in different mammalian species, including human, and improved fertilization outcome in mouse IVF experiments. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Any disturbance of sperm motility has a strong impact on fertilization and can lead to subfertility or infertility...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932549/proteolytic-degradation-of-heat-shock-protein-a2-occurs-in-response-to-oxidative-stress-in-male-germ-cells-of-the-mouse
#5
Elizabeth G Bromfield, R John Aitken, Eileen A McLaughlin, Brett Nixon
STUDY QUESTION: Does oxidative stress compromise the protein expression of heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2) in the developing germ cells of the mouse testis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Oxidative stress leads to the modification of HSPA2 by the lipid aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and initiates its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous work has revealed a deficiency in HSPA2 protein expression within the spermatozoa of infertile men that have failed fertilization in a clinical setting...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798275/progress-towards-human-primordial-germ-cell-specification-in-vitro
#6
REVIEW
S Canovas, R Campos, E Aguilar, J B Cibelli
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) have long been considered the link between one generation and the next. PGC specification begins in the early embryo as a result of a highly orchestrated combination of transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms. Understanding the molecular events that lead to proper PGC development will facilitate the development of new treatments for human infertility as well as species conservation. This article describes the latest, most relevant findings about the mechanisms of PGC formation, emphasizing human PGC...
October 26, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756855/inhibin-b-secretion-and-fsh-isoform-distribution-may-play-an-integral-part-of-follicular-selection-in-the-natural-menstrual-cycle
#7
REVIEW
C Yding Andersen
The aim of the present paper is to expand the concept on how follicular selection takes place in the follicular phase of the natural menstrual cycle. It is suggested that inhibin-B exerts a more intimate role in this process than previously understood. Inhibin-B shows a peak in the circulation around cycle day 7, simultaneous with selection of the dominant follicle, whereas levels of estradiol and inhibin-A only start to increase a few days later suggesting that inhibin-B is mainly responsible for downregulating pituitary FSH release...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733489/recombinant-fetuin-b-protein-maintains-high-fertilization-rate-in-cumulus-cell-free-mouse-oocytes
#8
E Dietzel, J Floehr, E Van de Leur, R Weiskirchen, W Jahnen-Dechent
STUDY QUESTION: Does fetuin-B inhibit premature zona pellucida (ZP) hardening in mouse oocytes in vitro and thus increase IVF rate? SUMMARY ANSWER: Supplementation of oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) media with recombinant mouse fetuin-B (rmFetuB) increased fertilization rate without affecting mouse embryo development into blastocysts. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mice deficient in fetuin-B are infertile owing to premature ZP hardening. Premature ZP hardening also occurs during oocyte IVM leading to decreased fertilization rate...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733488/down-regulation-of-the-liver-derived-plasma-protein-fetuin-b-mediates-reversible-female-infertility
#9
J Floehr, E Dietzel, C Schmitz, A Chappell, W Jahnen-Dechent
STUDY QUESTION: Does antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-mediated down-regulation of serum fetuin-B cause an infertility-like fetuin-B gene deficiency in female mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: Pharmacological fetuin-B down-regulation by ASO therapy results in reversible infertility in female mice. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Female fetuin-B deficient (Fetub(-/-)) mice are infertile owing to premature zona pellucida (ZP) hardening. Enzyme activity studies demonstrated that fetuin-B is a potent and highly specific inhibitor of the zona proteinase ovastacin, which cleaves ZP protein 2 (ZP2) and thus mediates definitive ZP hardening...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698028/a-grafted-ovarian-fragment-rescues-host-fertility-after-chemotherapy
#10
Iordan Stefanov Batchvarov, Rachel Williamson Taylor, Ximena Bustamante-Marín, Michael Czerwinski, Erika Segear Johnson, Sally Kornbluth, Blanche Capel
STUDY QUESTION: Can host fertility be rescued by grafting of a fragment of a healthy ovary soon after chemotherapy? SUMMARY ANSWER: We found that grafting a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive fragment from a healthy isogenic ovary to the left ovary of a chemo-treated host rescued function and fertility of the grafted host ovary, and resulted in the production of host-derived offspring as late as the sixth litter after chemotherapy (CTx) treatment, whereas none of the ungrafted controls produced a second litter...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678485/uterosome-like-vesicles-prompt-human-sperm-fertilizing-capability
#11
A Franchi, M Cubilla, H A Guidobaldi, A A Bravo, L C Giojalas
STUDY QUESTION: Does the rapid transit through the uterine environment modulate the sperm physiological state? SUMMARY ANSWER: The uterosome-like vesicles (ULVs) secreted by endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) in vitro are able to fuse with human spermatozoa, prompting their fertilizing capacity. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Early studies suggest that sperm capacitation begins in the uterus and ends in the oviduct, and that a synergistic effect of both female organs may accelerate this process...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678484/microfluidics-for-mammalian-embryo-culture-and-selection-where-do-we-stand-now
#12
Séverine Le Gac, Verena Nordhoff
The optimization of in-vitro culture conditions and the selection of the embryo(s) with the highest developmental competence are essential components in an ART program. Culture conditions are manifold and they underlie not always evidence-based research but also trends entering the IVF laboratory. At the moment, the idea of using sequential media according to the embryo requirements has been given up in favor of the use of single step media in an uninterrupted manner due to practical issues such as time-lapse incubators...
September 27, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671755/vitamin-a-prevents-round-spermatid-nuclear-damage-and-promotes-the-production-of-motile-sperm-during-in-vitro-maturation-of-vitrified-pre-pubertal-mouse-testicular-tissue
#13
L Dumont, A Oblette, C Rondanino, F Jumeau, A Bironneau, D Liot, V Duchesne, J Wils, N Rives
STUDY QUESTION: Does vitamin A (retinol, Rol) prevent round spermatid nuclear damage and increase the production of motile sperm during in vitro maturation of vitrified pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue? SUMMARY ANSWER: The supplementation of an in vitro culture of ~0.75 mm(3) testicular explants from pre-pubertal mice with Rol enhances spermatogenesis progression during the first spermatogenic wave. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The production of functional spermatozoa in vitro has only been achieved in the mouse model and remains a rare event...
September 25, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645281/sphingosine-1-phosphate-restores-endothelial-barrier-integrity-in-ovarian-hyperstimulation-syndrome
#14
L Scotti, M Di Pietro, N Pascuali, G Irusta, I de Zúñiga, M Gomez Peña, C Pomilio, F Saravia, M Tesone, D Abramovich, F Parborell
STUDY QUESTION: Are follicular fluid (FF) sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels in patients at risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) altered and in part responsible for the high vascular permeability observed in these patients. STUDY ANSWER: FF S1P levels are lower in FF from patients at risk of OHSS and treatment with S1P may reduce vascular permeability in these patients. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although advances have been made in the diagnosis, and management of OHSS and in basic knowledge of its development, complete prevention has proven difficult...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542947/human-fallopian-tube-epithelium-co-culture-with-murine-ovarian-follicles-reveals-crosstalk-in-the-reproductive-cycle
#15
Jie Zhu, Yuanming Xu, Alexandra S Rashedi, Mary Ellen Pavone, J Julie Kim, Teresa K Woodruff, Joanna E Burdette
STUDY QUESTION: Do interactions between human fallopian tube epithelium and murine follicles occur during an artificial reproductive cycle in a co-culture system in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER: In a co-culture system, human fallopian tissues responded to the menstrual cycle mimetic by changes in morphology and levels of secreted factors, and increasing murine corpus luteum progesterone secretion. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The entire fallopian tube epithelium, including ciliated and secretory cells, can be regulated in the reproductive cycle...
November 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445316/cystatin-related-epididymal-spermatogenic-subgroup-members-are-part-of-an-amyloid-matrix-and-associated-with-extracellular-vesicles-in-the-mouse-epididymal-lumen
#16
Sandra Whelly, Archana Muthusubramanian, Jonathan Powell, Seethal Johnson, Mary Catherine Hastert, Gail A Cornwall
STUDY QUESTION: Do the CRES (cystatin-related epididymal spermatogenic) subgroup members, including CRES2, CRES3 and cystatin E2, contribute to the formation of a nonpathological, functional amyloid matrix in the mouse epididymal lumen? SUMMARY ANSWER: CRES2, CRES3 and cystatin E2 self-assemble with different aggregation properties into amyloids in vitro, are part of a common amyloid matrix in the mouse epididymal lumen and are present in extracellular vesicles...
November 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645282/how-much-have-we-learned-from-time-lapse-in-clinical-ivf
#17
D Castelló, Y Motato, N Basile, J Remohí, M Espejo-Catena, M Meseguer
Can the time-lapse system (TLS) identify the best embryo for transfer? Although there are several studies that support this hypothesis, more research is required to improve the quality of the current evidence and also to assess live birth rate, miscarriage, stillbirth or clinical pregnancy in order to choose between a TLS or conventional incubation. In addition, although some authors report on effectiveness and safety in the use of TLS monitoring of embryo development in vitro, other authors that have not found relevant differences between the two systems for the culture and subsequence embryo selection...
October 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604459/cleavage-in-the-preimplantation-embryo-it-is-all-about-being-in-the-right-place-at-the-right-time
#18
Denny Sakkas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578774/assessment-of-human-embryo-development-using-morphological-criteria-in-an-era-of-time-lapse-algorithms-and-omics-is-looking-good-still-important
#19
David K Gardner, Basak Balaban
With the worldwide move towards single embryo transfer there has been a renewed focus on the requirement for reliable means of assessing embryo viability. In an era of 'OMICS' technologies, and algorithms created through the use of time-lapse microscopy, the actual appearance of the human embryo as it progresses through each successive developmental stage to the blastocyst appears to have been somewhat neglected in recent years. Here we review the key features of the human preimplantation embryo and consider the relationship between morphological characteristics and developmental potential...
October 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26660321/polarity-and-cell-division-orientation-in-the-cleavage-embryo-from-worm-to-human
#20
Anna Ajduk, Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz
Cleavage is a period after fertilization, when a 1-cell embryo starts developing into a multicellular organism. Due to a series of mitotic divisions, the large volume of a fertilized egg is divided into numerous smaller, nucleated cells-blastomeres. Embryos of different phyla divide according to different patterns, but molecular mechanism of these early divisions remains surprisingly conserved. In the present paper, we describe how polarity cues, cytoskeleton and cell-to-cell communication interact with each other to regulate orientation of the early embryonic division planes in model animals such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and mouse...
October 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
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