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Molecular Human Reproduction

Allan Pacey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Yusuke Marikawa, Vernadeth B Alarcon
STUDY QUESTION: What molecular signals are required to maintain the functional trophectoderm (TE) during blastocyst expansion of the late stage of preimplantation development? SUMMARY ANSWER: The activity of ras homology family member A (RHOA) GTPases is necessary to retain the expanded blastocyst cavity and also to sustain the gene expression program specific to TE. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: At the early stages of preimplantation development, the precursor of the TE lineage is generated through the molecular signals that integrate RHOA, RHO-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK), the apicobasal cell polarity, and the HIPPO-Yes-associated protein (YAP) signaling pathway...
November 5, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Katharina Proestling, Iveta Yotova, Susanne Gamperl, Christoph Hauser, Rene Wenzl, Christian Schneeberger, Ladislaus Szabo, Mario Mairhofer, Heinrich Husslein, Lorenz Kuessel
STUDY QUESTION: Are increased sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels associated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE) activity in endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Here we provide the first functional evidence that induced TACE activity in human endometriotic epithelial cells is at least in part responsible for the enhanced release of sVCAM-1 from these cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: We and others have shown that serum-soluble (s)VCAM-1 levels are significantly higher in women with endometriosis, compared to disease-free controls...
November 3, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
S J Calvert, S Reynolds, M N Paley, S J Walters, A A Pacey
STUDY QUESTION: Can 13C-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) of selected metabolites provide useful information about human sperm metabolism and how glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation are used by different sperm populations? SUMMARY ANSWER: Sperm populations, prepared by density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and incubated with either 13Cu-glucose, 13Cu-fructose or 13C1-pyruvate, showed consistent evidence of metabolism generating principally lactate and more intermittently bicarbonate, and significantly more lactate was produced from 13Cu-glucose by vital or motile sperm recovered from the 40/80% interface compared to those from the pellet, which could not be accounted for by differences in the non-sperm cells present...
November 3, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Ying Li, Yu-Dong Liu, Shi-Ling Chen, Xin Chen, De-Sheng Ye, Xing-Yu Zhou, Jing Zhe, Jun Zhang
STUDY QUESTION: Is there a specific mechanism underlying the association between lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) and endometriosis-related infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: The down-regulation of MALAT1 in endometriosis granulosa cells (GCs) may have an adverse effect on the growth and development of oocytes by inhibiting GC proliferation, due to cell cycle-dependent mechanisms that enhance P21 expression through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway...
October 27, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
James Warren, Michelle Im, Angela Ballesteros, Cam Ha, Tom Moore, Fanny Lambert, Sophie Lucas, Boris Hinz, Gabriela Dveksler
STUDY QUESTION: Do all 10 human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoproteins (PSGs) and murine PSG23 activate latent transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)? SUMMARY ANSWER: All human PSGs and murine PSG23 activated latent TGF-β1. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Two of the 10 members of the PSG1 family, PSG1 and PSG9, were previously shown to activate the soluble small latent complex of TGF-β1, a cytokine with potent immune suppressive functions. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Recombinant PSGs were generated and tested for their ability to activate the small latent complex of TGF-β1 in a cell-free ELISA-based assay and in a bioassay...
October 27, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Tzu-Hsuan Chuang, Jhih-Yuan Hsieh, Meng-Ju Lee, Hsing-Hua Lai, Chia-Lin Hsieh, Huai-Lin Wang, Yu-Jen Chang, Shee-Uan Chen
STUDY QUESTION: In PGS, does chromosomal constitution differ among trophectoderm (TE) biopsy sites and between them and the inner cell mass (ICM)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The ploidy concordance between ICM and TE was independent of whether the biopsy site in the TE was near to or far from the ICM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: TE biopsies are considered less harmful to developing embryos than blastomere biopsies. Removal of multi-cellular samples permits high-resolution next-generation sequencing (Veriseq NGS) to detect aneuploidy present in a minority of cells (mosaicism of diploid and aneuploid cells)...
October 27, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
David Mortimer
The Internet, magazine articles, and even biomedical journal articles, are full of cartoons of spermatozoa that bear minimal resemblance to real spermatozoa, especially human spermatozoa, and this had led to many misconceptions about what spermatozoa look like and how they are constituted. This review summarizes the historical and current state of knowledge of mammalian sperm ultrastructure, with particular emphasis on and relevance to human spermatozoa, combining information obtained from a variety of electron microscopic (EM) techniques...
September 12, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
J B H Mello, M C Barros-Filho, F B Abreu, P D R Cirilo, M A C Domingues, A Pontes, S R Rogatto
STUDY QUESTION: Can the mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) mutation and high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) overexpression co-occurrence be explained by the alternative mechanism of HMGA2 dysregulation in uterine leiomyomas (UL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The co-occurrence of MED12 mutation and HMGA2 overexpression, and a negative correlation of five validated or predicted microRNAs that target HMGA2 were reported. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The recent stratification of UL, according to recurrent and mutually exclusive genomic alterations affecting HMGA2, MED12, fumarate hydratase (FH) and collagen type IV alpha 5-alpha 6 (COL4A5-COL4A6) pointed out the involvement of distinct molecular pathways...
November 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Jessie M Sutherland, Emily R Frost, Emmalee A Ford, Alexandra E Peters, Natalie L Reed, Alexandra N Seldon, Bettina P Mihalas, Darryl L Russel, Kylie R Dunning, Eileen A McLaughlin
STUDY QUESTION: Is the Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signalling pathway involved in ovarian follicle development and primordial follicle activation? SUMMARY ANSWER: JAK1 is a key factor involved in the regulation of primordial follicle activation and maintenance of the ovarian reserve. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A series of integrated, intrinsic signalling pathways (including PI3K/AKT, mTOR and KITL) are responsible for regulating the ovarian reserve of non-growing primordial follicles and ultimately female fertility...
November 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
S Warrier, J Taelman, L Tilleman, M Van der Jeught, G Duggal, S Lierman, M Popovic, A Van Soom, L Peelman, F Van Nieuwerburgh, D Deforce, S M Chuva de Sousa Lopes, P De Sutter, B Heindryckx
STUDY QUESTION: What are the transcriptional changes occurring during the human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derivation process, from the inner cell mass (ICM) to post-ICM intermediate stage (PICMI) to hESC stage, that have downstream effects on pluripotency states and differentiation? SUMMARY ANSWER: We reveal that although the PICMI is transcriptionally similar to the hESC profile and distinct from ICM, it exhibits upregulation of primordial germ cell (PGC) markers, dependence on leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling, upregulation of naïve pluripotency-specific signaling networks and appears to be an intermediate switching point from naïve to primed pluripotency...
November 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Giorgia Gioacchini, Valentina Notarstefano, Elena Sereni, Carlotta Zacà, Giovanni Coticchio, Elisabetta Giorgini, Lisa Vaccari, Oliana Carnevali, Andrea Borini
STUDY QUESTION: Does the molecular and metabolic profile of human mural granulosa cells (GCs) correlate with oocyte fate? SUMMARY ANSWER: A close relation between the metabolic profile of mural GCs and the fate of the corresponding oocyte was revealed by the analysis of selected biomarkers defined by GC Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) analysis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In ART, oocyte selection is mainly based on the subjective observation of its morphological features; despite recent efforts, the success rate of this practice is still unsatisfactory...
November 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Keith T Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
M A J Smits, K M Wong, E Mantikou, C M Korver, A Jongejan, T M Breit, M Goddijn, S Mastenbroek, S Repping
STUDY QUESTION: What is the difference between the gene expression profiles of single human germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes from women of different ages? SUMMARY ANSWER: There were no statistically significant differences in gene expression profiles of human GV oocytes from women of different ages (range: 25-43). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: It is well established that reproductive capacity declines as women age, which is attributed to oocyte quality since this decline is counterbalanced in older women receiving young donor oocytes...
October 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
H T Le, J Atif, D L Mara, B Castellana, J Treissman, J Baltayeva, A G Beristain
STUDY QUESTION: Does A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 8 (ADAM8) control extravillous trophoblast (EVT) differentiation and migration in early human placental development? SUMMARY ANSWER: ADAM8 mRNA preferentially localizes to invasive HLA-G-positive trophoblasts, associates with the acquirement of an EVT phenotype and promotes trophoblast migration through a mechanism requiring β1-integrin. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Placental establishment in the first trimester of pregnancy requires the differentiation of progenitor trophoblasts into invasive EVTs that produce a diverse repertoire of proteases that facilitate matrix remodeling and activation of signaling pathways important in controlling cell migration...
October 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Meghan L Ruebel, Peter Z Schall, Uros Midic, Kailey A Vincent, Benjamin Goheen, Catherine A VandeVoort, Keith E Latham
STUDY QUESTION: Which different pathways and functions are altered in rhesus monkey oocytes that fail to mature after an ovulatory stimulus? SUMMARY ANSWER: Failed to mature (FTM) oocytes complete a large portion of the transition in transcriptome composition associated with normal maturation, but also manifest numerous differences that indicate incomplete transcriptional repression and cytoplasmic maturation affecting multiple processes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Oocyte maturation defects contribute to unexplained female infertility...
October 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
L C Morley, J Shi, H J Gaunt, A J Hyman, P J Webster, C Williams, K Forbes, J J Walker, N A B Simpson, D J Beech
STUDY QUESTION: Does the shear stress sensing ion channel subunit Piezo1 have an important mechanotransduction role in human fetoplacental endothelium? SUMMARY ANSWER: Piezo1 is present and functionally active in human fetoplacental endothelial cells, and disruption of Piezo1 prevents the normal response to shear stress. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Shear stress is an important stimulus for maturation and function of placental vasculature but the molecular mechanisms by which the force is detected and transduced are unclear...
October 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Christopher L R Barratt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Yu Wang, Eugenie R Lumbers, Anya L Arthurs, Celine Corbisier de Meaultsart, Andrea Mathe, Kelly A Avery-Kiejda, Claire T Roberts, Fiona Broughton Pipkin, Francine Z Marques, Brian J Morris, Kirsty G Pringle
STUDY QUESTION: Are any microRNAs (miRNAs) that target the placental renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the human placenta suppressed in early gestation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Overall, 21 miRNAs with predicted RAS mRNA targets were less abundant in early versus term placentae and nine were more highly expressed. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Regulation of human placental RAS expression could alter placental development and therefore normal pregnancy outcome...
September 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Rui Yang, James A Browne, Scott E Eggener, Shih-Hsing Leir, Ann Harris
STUDY QUESTION: What is the transcriptional network governed by the androgen receptor (AR) in human epididymis epithelial (HEE) cells from the caput region and if the network is tissue-specific, how is this achieved? SUMMARY ANSWER: About 200 genes are differentially expressed in the caput HEE cells after AR activation; the AR transcriptional network is tissue-specific and may be mediated in part by distinct AR co-factors including CAAT-enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB) and runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1)...
September 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
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