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Evolutionary Computation

Mojgan Pourhassan, Frank Neumann
The generalized travelling salesperson problem is an important NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem for which meta-heuristics, such as local search and evolutionary algorithms, have been used very successfully. Two hierarchical approaches with different neighbourhood structures, namely a Cluster-Based approach and a Node-Based approach, have been proposed by Hu and Raidl (2008) for solving this problem. In this paper, local search algorithms and simple evolutionary algorithms based on these approaches are investigated from a theoretical perspective...
June 22, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Michaela Drahosova, Lukas Sekanina, Michal Wiglasz
In genetic programming (GP), computer programs are often coevolved with training data subsets that are known as fitness predictors. In order to maximize performance of GP, it is important to find the most suitable parameters of coevolution, particularly the fitness predictor size. This is a very time consuming process as the predictor size depends on a given application and many experiments have to be performed to find its suitable size. A new method is proposed which enables us to automatically adapt the predictor and its size for a given problem and thus to reduce not only the time of evolution, but also the time needed to tune the evolutionary algorithm...
June 4, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Su Nguyen, Yi Mei, Bing Xue, Mengjie Zhang
Designing effective dispatching rules for production systems is a difficult and timeconsuming task if it is done manually. In the last decade, the growth of computing power, advanced machine learning, and optimisation techniques has made the automated design of dispatching rules possible and automatically discovered rules are competitive or outperform existing rules developed by researchers. Genetic programming is one of the most popular approaches to discovering dispatching rules in the literature, especially for complex production systems...
June 4, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Leticia Hernando, Alexander Mendiburu, Jose A Lozano
Solving combinatorial optimization problems efficiently requires the development of algorithms that consider the specific properties of the problems. In this sense, local search algorithms are designed over a neighborhood structure that partially accounts for these properties. Considering a neighborhood, the space is usually interpreted as a natural landscape, with valleys and mountains. Under this perception, it is commonly believed that, if maximizing, the solutions located in the slopes of the same mountain belong to the same attraction basin, with the peaks of the mountains being the local optima...
May 22, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Edgar Covantes Osuna, Dirk Sudholt
Clearing is a niching method inspired by the principle of assigning the available resources among a niche to a single individual. The clearing procedure supplies these resources only to the best individual of each niche: the winner. So far, its analysis has been focused on experimental approaches that have shown that clearing is a powerful diversity-preserving mechanism. Using rigorous runtime analysis to explain how and why it is a powerful method, we prove that a mutation-based evolutionary algorithm with a large enough population size, and a phenotypic distance function always succeeds in optimising all functions of unitation for small niches in polynomial time, while a genotypic distance function requires exponential time...
May 10, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
William La Cava, Thomas Helmuth, Lee Spector, Jason H Moore
Lexicase selection is a parent selection method that considers training cases individually, rather than in aggregate, when performing parent selection. Whereas previous work has demonstrated the ability of lexicase selection to solve difficult problems in program synthesis and symbolic regression, the central goal of this article is to develop the theoretical underpinnings that explain its performance. To this end, we derive an analytical formula that gives the expected probabilities of selection under lexicase selection, given a population and its behavior...
May 10, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Yifan Li, Hai-Lin Liu, E D Goodman
For a many-objective optimization problem with redundant objectives, we propose two novel objective reduction algorithms for linearly and, nonlinearly degenerate Pareto fronts. They are called LHA and NLHA respectively. The main idea of the proposed algorithms is to use a hyperplane with non-negative sparse coefficients to roughly approximate the structure of the PF. This approach is quite different from the previous objective reduction algorithms that are based on correlation or dominance structure. Especially in NLHA, in order to reduce the approximation error, we transform a nonlinearly degenerate Pareto front into a nearly linearly degenerate Pareto front via a power transformation...
May 1, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Katherine M Malan, I Moser
The notion and characterisation of fitness landscapes has helped us understand the performance of heuristic algorithms on complex optimisation problems. Many practical problems, however, are constrained, and when significant areas of the search space are infeasible, researchers have intuitively resorted to a variety of constraint-handling techniques intended to help the algorithm manoeuvre through infeasible areas and toward feasible regions of better fitness. It is clear that providing constraint-related feedback to the algorithm to influence its choice of solutions overlays the violation landscape with the fitness landscape in unpredictable ways whose effects on the algorithm cannot be directly measured...
March 12, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Michael Fenton, David Lynch, David Fagan, Stepan Kucera, Holger Claussen, Michael O'Neill
Evolutionary computation is used to automatically evolve small cell schedulers on a realistic simulation of a 4G-LTE heterogeneous cellular network. Evolved schedulers are then further augmented by human design to improve robustness. Extensive analysis of evolved solutions and their performance across a wide range of metrics reveals evolution has uncovered a new human-competitive scheduling technique which generalises well across cells of varying sizes. Furthermore, evolved methods are shown to conform to accepted scheduling frameworks without the evolutionary process being explicitly told the form of the desired solution...
March 12, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
José Luis Soncco-Álvarez, Daniel M Muñoz, Mauricio Ayala-Rincón
Sorting unsigned permutations by reversals is a difficult problem; indeed, it was proved to be NP-hard by Caprara (1997). Because of its high complexity, many approximation algorithms to compute the minimal reversal distance were proposed until reaching the nowadays best-known theoretical ratio of 1.375. In this article, two memetic algorithms to compute the reversal distance are proposed. The first one uses the technique of opposition-based learning leading to an opposition-based memetic algorithm; the second one improves the previous algorithm by applying the heuristic of two breakpoint elimination leading to a hybrid approach...
February 21, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Josu Ceberio, Borja Calvo, Alexander Mendiburu, Jose A Lozano
In the last decade, many works in combinatorial optimisation have shown that, due to the advances in multi-objective optimisation, the algorithms from this field could be used for solving single-objective problems as well. In this sense, a number of papers have proposed multi-objectivising single-objective problems in order to use multi-objective algorithms in their optimisation. In this article, we follow up this idea by presenting a methodology for multi-objectivising combinatorial optimisation problems based on elementary landscape decompositions of their objective function...
February 15, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Stephen Kelly, Malcolm I Heywood
Algorithms that learn through environmental interaction and delayed rewards, or reinforcement learning (RL), increasingly face the challenge of scaling to dynamic, high-dimensional, and partially observable environments. Significant attention is being paid to frameworks from deep learning, which scale to high-dimensional data by decomposing the task through multilayered neural networks. While effective, the representation is complex and computationally demanding. In this work, we propose a framework based on genetic programming which adaptively complexifies policies through interaction with the task...
2018: Evolutionary Computation
Adam Gaier, Alexander Asteroth, Jean-Baptiste Mouret
Design optimization techniques are often used at the beginning of the design process to explore the space of possible designs. In these domains illumination algorithms, such as MAP-Elites, are promising alternatives to classic optimization algorithms because they produce diverse, high-quality solutions in a single run, instead of only a single near-optimal solution. Unfortunately, these algorithms currently require a large number of function evaluations, limiting their applicability. In this article, we introduce a new illumination algorithm, Surrogate-Assisted Illumination (SAIL), that leverages surrogate modeling techniques to create a map of the design space according to user-defined features while minimizing the number of fitness evaluations...
2018: Evolutionary Computation
Iwo Błądek, Krzysztof Krawiec, Jerry Swan
Conventional genetic programming (GP) can guarantee only that synthesized programs pass tests given by the provided input-output examples. The alternative to such a test-based approach is synthesizing programs by formal specification, typically realized with exact, nonheuristic algorithms. In this article, we build on our earlier study on Counterexample-Based Genetic Programming (CDGP), an evolutionary heuristic that synthesizes programs from formal specifications. The candidate programs in CDGP undergo formal verification with a Satisfiability Modulo Theory (SMT) solver, which results in counterexamples that are subsequently turned into tests and used to calculate fitness...
2018: Evolutionary Computation
Hisao Ishibuchi, Ryo Imada, Yu Setoguchi, Yusuke Nojima
The hypervolume indicator has frequently been used for comparing evolutionary multi-objective optimization (EMO) algorithms. A reference point is needed for hypervolume calculation. However, its specification has not been discussed in detail from a viewpoint of fair performance comparison. A slightly worse point than the nadir point is usually used for hypervolume calculation in the EMO community. In this paper, we propose a reference point specification method for fair performance comparison of EMO algorithms...
2018: Evolutionary Computation
M R Przybylek, A Wierzbicki, Z Michalewicz
Real-world optimization problems have been studied in the past, but the work resulted in approaches tailored to individual problems that could not be easily generalized. The reason for this limitation was the lack of appropriate models for the systematic study of salient aspects of real-world problems. The aim of this article is to study one of such aspects: multi-hardness. We propose a variety of decomposition-based algorithms for an abstract multi-hard problem and compare them against the most promising heuristics...
2018: Evolutionary Computation
Hsien-Kuei Hwang, Alois Panholzer, Nicolas Rolin, Tsung-Hsi Tsai, Wei-Mei Chen
We give a detailed analysis of the optimization time of the [Formula: see text]-Evolutionary Algorithm under two simple fitness functions (OneMax and LeadingOnes). The problem has been approached in the evolutionary algorithm literature in various ways and with different degrees of rigor. Our asymptotic approximations for the mean and the variance represent the strongest of their kind. The approach we develop is based on an asymptotic resolution of the underlying recurrences and can also be extended to characterize the corresponding limiting distributions...
2018: Evolutionary Computation
Anton V Eremeev
In this article, we consider a fitness-level model of a non-elitist mutation-only evolutionary algorithm (EA) with tournament selection. The model provides upper and lower bounds for the expected proportion of the individuals with fitness above given thresholds. In the case of so-called monotone mutation, the obtained bounds imply that increasing the tournament size improves the EA performance. As corollaries, we obtain an exponentially vanishing tail bound for the Randomized Local Search on unimodal functions and polynomial upper bounds on the runtime of EAs on the 2-SAT problem and on a family of Set Cover problems proposed by E...
2018: Evolutionary Computation
Ngoc Hoang Luong, Han La Poutré, Peter A N Bosman
This article tackles the Distribution Network Expansion Planning (DNEP) problem that has to be solved by distribution network operators to decide which, where, and/or when enhancements to electricity networks should be introduced to satisfy the future power demands. Because of many real-world details involved, the structure of the problem is not exploited easily using mathematical programming techniques, for which reason we consider solving this problem with evolutionary algorithms (EAs). We compare three types of EAs for optimizing expansion plans: the classic genetic algorithm (GA), the estimation-of-distribution algorithm (EDA), and the Gene-pool Optimal Mixing Evolutionary Algorithm (GOMEA)...
2018: Evolutionary Computation
Elena Popovici
Co-optimization problems often involve settings in which the quality ( utility) of a potential solution is dependent on the scenario within which it is evaluated, and many such scenarios exist. Maximizing expected utility is simply the goal of finding the potential solution whose expected utility value over all possible scenarios is best. Such problems are often approached using coevolutionary algorithms. We are interested in the design of generally well-performing black-box algorithms for this problem, that is, algorithms which have access to the utility function only via input-output queries...
2018: Evolutionary Computation
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