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Evolutionary Computation

Shauharda Khadka, Jen Jen Chung, Kagan Tumer
We present Modular Memory Units (MMUs), a new class of memory-augmented neural network. MMU builds on the gated neural architecture of Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs) and Long Short Term Memory (LSTMs), to incorporate an external memory block, similar to a Neural Turing Machine (NTM). MMU interacts with the memory block using independent read and write gates that serve to decouple the memory from the central feedforward operation. This allows for regimented memory access and update, administering our network the ability to choose when to read from memory, update it, or simply ignore it...
November 8, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Aymeric Blot, Marie-Éléonore Kessaci, Laetitia Jourdan, Holger H Hoos
Automatic algorithm configuration (AAC) is becoming a key ingredient in the design of high-performance solvers for challenging optimisation problems. However, most existing work on AAC deals with configuration procedures that optimise a single performance metric of a given, single-objective algorithm. Of course, these configurators can also be used to optimise the performance of multi-objective algorithms, as measured by a single performance indicator. In this work, we demonstrate that better results can be obtained by using a native, multi-objective algorithm configuration procedure...
November 8, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Sobia Saleem, Marcus Gallagher, Ian Wood
An important challenge in black-box optimization is to be able to understand the relative performance of different algorithms on problem instances. This challenge has motivated research in exploratory landscape analysis and algorithm selection, leading to a number of frameworks for analysis. However, these procedures often involve significant assumptions, or rely on information not typically available. In this paper we propose a new, model-based framework for the characterization of black-box optimization problems using Gaussian Process regression...
October 26, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Khulood Alyahya, Jonathan E Rowe
This paper presents an exploratory landscape analysis of three NP-hard combinatorial optimisation problems: the number partitioning problem, the binary knapsack problem, and the quadratic binary knapsack problem. In the paper, we examine empirically a number of fitness landscape properties of randomly generated instances of these problems. We believe that the studied properties give insight into the structure of the problem landscape and can be representative of the problem difficulty, in particular with respect to local search algorithms...
October 26, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Pascal Kerschke, Heike Trautmann
In this paper, we build upon previous work on designing informative and efficient Exploratory Landscape Analysis features for characterizing problems' landscapes and show their effectiveness in automatically constructing algorithm selection models in continuous black-box optimization problems. Focussing on algorithm performance results of the COCO platform of several years, we construct a representative set of high-performing complementary solvers and present an algorithm selection model that - compared to the portfolio's single best solver - on average requires less than half of the resources for solving a given problem...
October 26, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Benoît Groz, Silviu Maniu
The hypervolume subset selection problem (HSSP) aims at approximating a set of n multidimensional points in [Formula: see text] with an optimal subset of a given size. The size k of the subset is a parameter of the problem, and an approximation is considered best when it maximizes the hypervolume indicator. This problem has proved popular in recent years as a procedure for multiobjective evolutionary algorithms. Efficient algorithms are known for planar points [Formula: see text], but there are hardly any results on HSSP in larger dimensions [Formula: see text]...
October 26, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
P Kerschke, H Wang, M Preuss, C Grimme, A H Deutz, H Trautmann, M T M Emmerich
We continue recent work on the definition of multimodality in multi-objective optimization (MO) and the introduction of a test-bed for multimodal MO problems. This goes beyond well-known diversity maintenance approaches but instead focuses on the landscape topology induced by the objective functions. More general multimodal MO problems are considered by allowing ellipsoid contours for single-objective subproblems. An experimental analysis compares two MO algorithms, one that explicitly relies on hypervolume gradient approximation, and one that is based on local search, both on a selection of generated example problems...
September 28, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Mojgan Pourhassan, Frank Neumann
The generalized travelling salesperson problem is an important NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem for which metaheuristics, such as local search and evolutionary algorithms, have been used very successfully. Two hierarchical approaches with different neighbourhood structures, namely a cluster-based approach and a node-based approach, have been proposed by Hu and Raidl (2008) for solving this problem. In this article, local search algorithms and simple evolutionary algorithms based on these approaches are investigated from a theoretical perspective...
June 22, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Michaela Drahosova, Lukas Sekanina, Michal Wiglasz
In genetic programming (GP), computer programs are often coevolved with training data subsets that are known as fitness predictors. In order to maximize performance of GP, it is important to find the most suitable parameters of coevolution, particularly the fitness predictor size. This is a very time-consuming process as the predictor size depends on a given application, and many experiments have to be performed to find its suitable size. A new method is proposed which enables us to automatically adapt the predictor and its size for a given problem and thus to reduce not only the time of evolution, but also the time needed to tune the evolutionary algorithm...
June 4, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Su Nguyen, Yi Mei, Bing Xue, Mengjie Zhang
Designing effective dispatching rules for production systems is a difficult and time-consuming task if it is done manually. In the last decade, the growth of computing power, advanced machine learning, and optimisation techniques has made the automated design of dispatching rules possible and automatically discovered rules are competitive or outperform existing rules developed by researchers. Genetic programming is one of the most popular approaches to discovering dispatching rules in the literature, especially for complex production systems...
June 4, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Leticia Hernando, Alexander Mendiburu, Jose A Lozano
Solving combinatorial optimization problems efficiently requires the development of algorithms that consider the specific properties of the problems. In this sense, local search algorithms are designed over a neighborhood structure that partially accounts for these properties. Considering a neighborhood, the space is usually interpreted as a natural landscape, with valleys and mountains. Under this perception, it is commonly believed that, if maximizing, the solutions located in the slopes of the same mountain belong to the same attraction basin, with the peaks of the mountains being the local optima...
May 22, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Edgar Covantes Osuna, Dirk Sudholt
Clearing is a niching method inspired by the principle of assigning the available resources among a niche to a single individual. The clearing procedure supplies these resources only to the best individual of each niche: the winner. So far, its analysis has been focused on experimental approaches that have shown that clearing is a powerful diversity-preserving mechanism. Using rigorous runtime analysis to explain how and why it is a powerful method, we prove that a mutation-based evolutionary algorithm with a large enough population size, and a phenotypic distance function always succeeds in optimising all functions of unitation for small niches in polynomial time, while a genotypic distance function requires exponential time...
May 10, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
William La Cava, Thomas Helmuth, Lee Spector, Jason H Moore
Lexicase selection is a parent selection method that considers training cases individually, rather than in aggregate, when performing parent selection. Whereas previous work has demonstrated the ability of lexicase selection to solve difficult problems in program synthesis and symbolic regression, the central goal of this article is to develop the theoretical underpinnings that explain its performance. To this end, we derive an analytical formula that gives the expected probabilities of selection under lexicase selection, given a population and its behavior...
May 10, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Yifan Li, Hai-Lin Liu, E D Goodman
For a many-objective optimization problem with redundant objectives, we propose two novel objective reduction algorithms for linearly and, nonlinearly degenerate Pareto fronts. They are called LHA and NLHA respectively. The main idea of the proposed algorithms is to use a hyperplane with non-negative sparse coefficients to roughly approximate the structure of the PF. This approach is quite different from the previous objective reduction algorithms that are based on correlation or dominance structure. Especially in NLHA, in order to reduce the approximation error, we transform a nonlinearly degenerate Pareto front into a nearly linearly degenerate Pareto front via a power transformation...
May 1, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Katherine M Malan, I Moser
The notion and characterisation of fitness landscapes has helped us understand the performance of heuristic algorithms on complex optimisation problems. Many practical problems, however, are constrained, and when significant areas of the search space are infeasible, researchers have intuitively resorted to a variety of constraint-handling techniques intended to help the algorithm manoeuvre through infeasible areas and toward feasible regions of better fitness. It is clear that providing constraint-related feedback to the algorithm to influence its choice of solutions overlays the violation landscape with the fitness landscape in unpredictable ways whose effects on the algorithm cannot be directly measured...
March 12, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Michael Fenton, David Lynch, David Fagan, Stepan Kucera, Holger Claussen, Michael O'Neill
Evolutionary computation is used to automatically evolve small cell schedulers on a realistic simulation of a 4G-LTE heterogeneous cellular network. Evolved schedulers are then further augmented by human design to improve robustness. Extensive analysis of evolved solutions and their performance across a wide range of metrics reveals evolution has uncovered a new human-competitive scheduling technique which generalises well across cells of varying sizes. Furthermore, evolved methods are shown to conform to accepted scheduling frameworks without the evolutionary process being explicitly told the form of the desired solution...
March 12, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
José Luis Soncco-Álvarez, Daniel M Muñoz, Mauricio Ayala-Rincón
Sorting unsigned permutations by reversals is a difficult problem; indeed, it was proved to be NP-hard by Caprara (1997). Because of its high complexity, many approximation algorithms to compute the minimal reversal distance were proposed until reaching the nowadays best-known theoretical ratio of 1.375. In this article, two memetic algorithms to compute the reversal distance are proposed. The first one uses the technique of opposition-based learning leading to an opposition-based memetic algorithm; the second one improves the previous algorithm by applying the heuristic of two breakpoint elimination leading to a hybrid approach...
February 21, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Josu Ceberio, Borja Calvo, Alexander Mendiburu, Jose A Lozano
In the last decade, many works in combinatorial optimisation have shown that, due to the advances in multi-objective optimisation, the algorithms from this field could be used for solving single-objective problems as well. In this sense, a number of papers have proposed multi-objectivising single-objective problems in order to use multi-objective algorithms in their optimisation. In this article, we follow up this idea by presenting a methodology for multi-objectivising combinatorial optimisation problems based on elementary landscape decompositions of their objective function...
February 15, 2018: Evolutionary Computation
Stephen Kelly, Malcolm I Heywood
Algorithms that learn through environmental interaction and delayed rewards, or reinforcement learning (RL), increasingly face the challenge of scaling to dynamic, high-dimensional, and partially observable environments. Significant attention is being paid to frameworks from deep learning, which scale to high-dimensional data by decomposing the task through multilayered neural networks. While effective, the representation is complex and computationally demanding. In this work, we propose a framework based on genetic programming which adaptively complexifies policies through interaction with the task...
2018: Evolutionary Computation
Adam Gaier, Alexander Asteroth, Jean-Baptiste Mouret
Design optimization techniques are often used at the beginning of the design process to explore the space of possible designs. In these domains illumination algorithms, such as MAP-Elites, are promising alternatives to classic optimization algorithms because they produce diverse, high-quality solutions in a single run, instead of only a single near-optimal solution. Unfortunately, these algorithms currently require a large number of function evaluations, limiting their applicability. In this article, we introduce a new illumination algorithm, Surrogate-Assisted Illumination (SAIL), that leverages surrogate modeling techniques to create a map of the design space according to user-defined features while minimizing the number of fitness evaluations...
2018: Evolutionary Computation
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