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Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

Taisuke Ono, Takashi Kanbayashi, Kazuhisa Yoshizawa, Seiji Nishino, Tetsuo Shimizu
Orexin (Hypocretin) is a neuropeptide that plays an important role in arousal state and food intake, and was discovered in 1998 (1) (2). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Orexin-A (Hypocretin-1) level is a biomarker used to diagnose narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) (3). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 30, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Bing Cao, Min Jin, Elisa Brietzke, Roger S McIntyre, Dongfang Wang, Joshua D Rosenblat, Renee-Marie Ragguett, Chuanbo Zhang, Xiaoyu Sun, Carola Rong, Jingyu Wang
AIM: We sought to compare alterations in serum bioenergetic markers within a well-characterized sample of adults with schizophrenia at baseline and after 8 weeks of pharmacological treatment with the hypothesis that treatment would be associated with significant changes in bioenergetic markers given the role of bioenergetic dysfunction in schizophrenia. METHOD: We recruited adults with schizophrenia (n=122) who had not received pharmacological treatment for at least one month prior to enrollment, including drug naïve (i...
August 29, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Ryo Kumagai, Masato Koike, Yoshiyuki Iwase, Yosuke Ichimiya
A 79-year-old woman with Alzheimer's disease and chronic renal failure was hospitalized with a trochanteric fracture of the left femur. Surgery was performed, however, from approximately day 30 of hospitalization, the patient's level of activity gradually decreased. Further, her food intake was also reduced to several mouthfuls per day, and the patient became bedridden. In accordance with the wishes of her family, a conservative approach was taken, with oral intake when possible and fluid replacement. Malnutrition, dehydration, and renal dysfunction gradually progressed; on day 89 of admission, the patient's hemoglobin levels had dropped to 7...
August 25, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Beatrix Barth, Kerstin Mayer-Carius, Ute Strehl, Augustin Kelava, Florian Benedikt Häußinger, Andreas Jochen Fallgatter, Ann-Christine Ehlis
AIM: Findings on neurophysiological alterations in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been proposed to underlie ADHD symptoms, with different etiological pathways for different patient biotypes. We aimed at determining whether neurophysiological deviations confirm distinct neurophysiological profiles in ADHD, thus providing direct evidence for the endophenotype concept. METHODS: Neurophysiological biotypes were investigated in 87 adult patients with ADHD using cluster analysis...
August 7, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Vishal Bhavsar, Dinesh Bhugra
AIM: Violence is an important problem for clinicians, for public health, and for victims. Aside from greater risk of perpetrating violence, people with mental illness are also more commonly victimized than the general population. However, guidance on the assessment and management of violent victimization in clinical settings is limited. METHODS: We carried out a review and consolidation of clinical and research literature on violent victimization in people with mental illness...
August 7, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Shreyance Jain, Kartik Singhai, Mukesh Swami
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 30, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Junko Okuyama, Shunichi Funakoshi, Hiroaki Tomita, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Hiroo Matsuoka
AIM: Resilience, the ability to cope with disasters and significant life adversity, is an important factor to consider when studying the mental health of populations affected by a disaster. Although high school students in a community affected by a disaster should have specific characteristics of resilience, little has been reported on the issue. This study was designed to provide initial data regarding characteristics of the resilience of high school students affected by a catastrophe...
July 30, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Marie Grall-Bronnec, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju, Juliette Leboucher, Jean-Marc Fève, Marie Le Moigne, Pascal Derkinderen, Caroline Victorri-Vigneau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 24, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Hsing-Cheng Liu, Galen Chin-Lun Hung, Shu-Yu Yang, Ya-Tang Liao, Chun-Hung Pan, Chiao-Chicy Chen, Chian-Jue Kuo
AIM: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher incidence of tuberculosis than do people in the general population. Information is limited regarding the association between antipsychotic agents and the risk of tuberculosis in patients with schizophrenia. This exploratory study assessed the risk of tuberculosis among patients with schizophrenia on antipsychotic therapy. METHODS: Among a nationwide schizophrenia cohort derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan (n = 32 399), we identified 284 patients who had developed newly diagnosed tuberculosis after their first psychiatric admission...
July 10, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Erik Oudman, Jan W Wijnia, Misha J Oey, Mirjam J van Dam, Albert Postma
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a common eating disorder that affects 2.9 million people worldwide. Not eating a balanced diet or fasting can cause neurological complications after severe vitamin B1 malnourishment, although the precise signs and symptoms of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) are not clear. Our aim was to review the signs and symptoms of WE in patients with AN. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and PiCarta on all case descriptions of WE following AN. All case descriptions of WE in AN, irrespective of language, were included...
July 8, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Mari Iwata, Kunihiro Iwamoto, Naoko Kawano, Takumi Kawaue, Norio Ozaki
Although automobile driving is necessary for many people, including patients with mental disorders, the influence of psychotropic drugs on driving performance remains unclear and requires scientific verification. Therefore, the objective of this study was to conduct a review of the literature in order to aid the development of a valid evaluation method regarding the influence of medication on driving performance. We conducted a literature search using two sets of terms on PubMed. One set was related to psychotropic drugs, and the other to driving tests...
July 2, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Vasiliki Iliadou, Nikolaos Moschopoulos, Christos Sidiras, Aikaterini Eleftheriadou, Ioannis Nimatoudis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Satona Saito, Toru Horinouchi, Yukako Nakagami, Toshitaka Ii, Siddarth Sarkar, Angela McSweeney, Leo Yoshida, Daruj Aniwattanapong, Li-Min Xin, Nusa Segrec, Svetlin V Varbanov, Syed F Shams, Kouta Suzuki, Melissa Paulita V Mariano, Sophie C Tomlin, Kazuki Kuno, Robert Freedman, Michelle B Riba, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Chiaki Kawanishi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Clara Pretus, Marisol Picado, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Susana Carmona, Vanesa Richarte, Jordi Fauquet, Óscar Vilarroya
AIM: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) neuroimaging studies have identified substantial differences in reward-related circuits on a trial-by-trial basis. However, no research to date has evaluated the effect of motivational context on neural activity in settings with intermittent reward in ADHD. The present study was designed to identify neural processes underlying both immediate effects of reward and sustained effects of reward associated with motivational context in adult ADHD patients...
September 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Yoshikazu Takaesu
Sleep disturbances and circadian rhythm dysfunction have been widely demonstrated in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Irregularity of the sleep-wake rhythm, eveningness chronotype, abnormality of melatonin secretion, vulnerability of clock genes, and the irregularity of social time cues have also been well-documented in BD. Circadian rhythm dysfunction is prominent in BD compared with that in major depressive disorders, implying that circadian rhythm dysfunction is a trait marker of BD. In the clinical course of BD, the circadian rhythm dysfunctions may act as predictors for the first onset of BD and the relapse of mood episodes...
September 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Andrew Stickley, Hisateru Tachimori, Yosuke Inoue, Takahiro Shinkai, Reiji Yoshimura, Jun Nakamura, Gihei Morita, Shigeki Nishii, Yuki Tokutsu, Yuka Otsuka, Kazuteru Egashira, Miyuki Inoue, Takamitsu Kubo, Hirofumi Tesen, Naoyuki Takashima, Hirotaka Tominaga, Ai Koyanagi, Yoko Kamio
AIM: We aimed to examine the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and suicidal behavior in psychiatric outpatients and whether this association differs among patients with different psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional data came from the Japan Prevalence Study of Adult ADHD at Psychiatric Outpatient Care, which included psychiatric outpatients aged 18-65 years recruited from one university hospital and three general psychiatric outpatient clinics in Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka, Japan from April 2014 to January 2015 (N = 864)...
September 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Masaru Tateno, Alan R Teo, Masaki Shiraishi, Masaya Tayama, Chiaki Kawanishi, Takahiro A Kato
AIM: Due to variation in estimates of the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) in prior research, we conducted two cross-sectional studies over 2 years investigating the prevalence rate of IA in college students in Japan and reconsidered appropriate cut-off points of a self-rating scale to screen possible IA. METHODS: This study was composed of two parts: survey I in 2014 and survey II in 2016, which were conducted in the same schools with an interval of 2 years...
September 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Juzoh Umemori, Frederike Winkel, Giuliano Didio, Maria Llach Pou, Eero Castrén
The network hypothesis of depression proposes that mood disorders reflect problems in information processing within particular neural networks. Antidepressants (AD), including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), function by gradually improving information processing within these networks. AD have been shown to induce a state of juvenile-like plasticity comparable to that observed during developmental critical periods: Such critical-period-like plasticity allows brain networks to better adapt to extrinsic and intrinsic signals...
September 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Hideo Matsumoto, Jun Ishigooka, Hiroaki Ono, Yoshihiro Tadori
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole in adolescents with schizophrenia (SCZ) in Japan. METHODS: In a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, dose-comparison study, adolescents (aged 13-17 years) with SCZ were randomized to receive aripiprazole 2, 6-12, or 24-30 mg/day. Patients who completed the 6-week study participated in a 52-week, flexible-dose, open-label extension (OLE) study of aripiprazole (initial dose: 2 mg/day, maintenance dose: 6-24 mg/day, maximum dose: 30 mg/day)...
September 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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