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Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

Tomoko Sao, Yuta Yoshino, Kiyohiro Yamazaki, Yuki Ozaki, Yoko Mori, Shinichiro Ochi, Taku Yoshida, Takaaki Mori, Jun-Ichi Iga, Shu-Ichi Ueno
AIM: Despite continuing research into Alzheimer's disease (AD), its pathological mechanisms and modulating factors remain unknown. Several genes influence AD pathogenesis by affecting inflammatory pathways. Myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) is one such candidate gene for AD. METHODS: We examined MEF2C mRNA expression levels and methylation rates of CpGs on its promoter region in peripheral leukocytes from Japanese AD patients compared with age- and sex-matched control subjects...
November 7, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Shunsuke Takagi, Takashi Takeuchi, Naoki Yamamoto, Munehisa Fujita, Ko Furuta, Hiroyo Ishikawa, Nobutaka Motohashi, Toru Nishikawa
AIM: While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a well-established, safe and effective treatment for mental illnesses, the potential for adverse effects on cognitive functions remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate multiple cognitive functions in different time periods before and after ECT in a Japanese population. METHODS: A battery of five neurocognitive tests was administered to patients who underwent a course of ECT treatment at three time-points: before, immediately after, and 4 weeks after ECT...
October 24, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Masanari Itokawa, Mitsuhiro Miyashita, Makoto Arai, Takashi Dan, Katsuyoshi Takahashi, Taro Tokunaga, Kayo Ishimoto, Kazuya Toriumi, Tomoe Ichikawa, Yasue Horiuchi, Akiko Kobori, Satoshi Usami, Takeo Yoshikawa, Naoji Amano, Shinsuke Washizuka, Yuji Okazaki, Toshio Miyata
AIM: The aim of this clinical trial was to obtain proof of concept for high-dose pyridoxamine as a novel treatment for schizophrenia with enhanced carbonyl stress. METHODS: Ten Japanese schizophrenia patients with high plasma pentosidine, which is a representative biomarker of enhanced carbonyl stress, were recruited in a 24 week, open trial in which high-dose pyridoxamine (ranging from 1200 to 2400 mg/day) was administered using a conventional anti-psychotic regimen...
October 24, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Takahiko Nagamine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Masashi Ikeda, Takeo Saito, Kenji Kondo, Nakao Iwata
Recent advances in molecular genetics have enabled assessments of the associations among genetic variants (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms) and susceptibility for complex diseases, including psychiatric disorders. Specifically, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), meta-analyses of the GWAS summary statistics, and mega-analyses (which use raw data, not summary statistics) of GWAS have provided revolutionary results and have identified numerous susceptibility genes or single-nucleotide polymorphisms...
October 23, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Mi Kyoung Seo, Jung Goo Lee, Le Thi Hien, Sung Woo Park, Young Hoon Kim
AIM: Early life stress can induce epigenetic changes through genetic and environmental interactions and is a risk factor for depression. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and antidepressant drug action. We investigated epigenetic changes at the BDNF exon I promoter in the hippocampus of adult rats subjected to maternal separation (MS) during early life and treated with an antidepressant drug as adults. METHODS: Rat pups were subjected to MS from postnatal day 1 to 21 and received chronic escitalopram (ESC) as adults...
October 9, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Tadafumi Kato, Shigenobu Kanba
For the revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD)-10 into the ICD-11, the Liaison Committee of Psychiatric Disease Names of Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology concluded that "disorder" should be translated differently from the ICD-10. According to this decision, related Japanese societies have started discussion on how to translate each disease name.
October 9, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Masaru Nakamura, Takahiko Nagamine
Disrupting circadian rhythms and sleep disorder have been implicated in the dysregulation of blood glucose and insulin levels and increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Hypothalamic orexin neurons, which are known to regulate sleep/wake stability, feeding behavior, autonomic nerve activity and energy metabolism, can bidirectionally regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis via control of autonomic balance, leading to generation of the daily blood glucose oscillation and preventing insulin resistance.(1).
September 25, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Hironobu Ichikawa, Michio Hiratani, Akihiro Yasuhara, Noa Tsujii, Takashi Oshimo, Hiroaki Ono, Yoshihiro Tadori
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of aripiprazole in treating irritability in pediatric patients (6-17 years) with autistic disorder (AD) in Japan. METHODS: In this open-label extension study, patients who had completed a previous randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week study were enrolled and were flexibly dosed with aripiprazole (1-15 mg/day) until the new indication of irritability in pediatric autism spectrum disorder was approved in Japan...
September 23, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Mary M Y Waye, Ho Yu Cheng
Autism is a developmental disorder that starts before age 3 years, and children with autism have impairment in both social interaction and communication, and have restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. There is a strong heritable component of autism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as studies have shown that parents who have a child with ASD have a 2-18% chance of having a second child with ASD. The prevalence of autism and ASD have been increasing during the last 3 decades and much research has been carried out to understand the etiology, so as to develop novel preventive and treatment strategies...
September 23, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Shuken Boku, Shin Nakagawa, Hiroyuki Toda, Akitoyo Hishimoto
The monoamine hypothesis has been accepted as the most common hypothesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) for a long period because of its simplicity and understandability. Actually, most currently used antidepressants have been considered to act based on the monoamine hypothesis. However, an important problem of the monoamine hypothesis has been pointed out as follows: it fails to explain the latency of response to antidepressants. In addition, many patients with MDD have remained refractory to currently used antidepressants...
September 19, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Mariachiara Buonocore, Marta Bosia, Maria Alice Baraldi, Margherita Bechi, Marco Spangaro, Federica Cocchi, Laura Bianchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Antonella Rita Mastromatteo, Roberto Cavallaro
AIM: Recovery, or functional remission represents the ultimate treatment goal in schizophrenia. Despite its importance, a standardized definition of remission is still lacking, thus reported rates significantly vary across studies. Moreover, the effects of rehabilitative interventions on recovery are still poorly investigated. This study aims to evaluate recovery in a sample of patients with chronic schizophrenia engaged in rehabilitation programs and to explore contributing factors, with a focus on of socio-cognitive rehabilitative interventions...
September 19, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Masaki Fujiwara, Masatoshi Inagaki, Naoki Nakaya, Maiko Fujimori, Yuji Higuchi, Chinatsu Hayashibara, Ryuhei So, Kyoko Kakeda, Masafumi Kodama, Yosuke Uchitomi, Norihito Yamada
AIM: The influence of schizophrenic patients' functional disability on cancer screening participation worldwide is unclear. There are few findings on the disparities in schizophrenic patients' participation in cancer screening programs in Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate the screening rate and the associations between screening and symptom severity/functional disability in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a psychiatric hospital outpatient clinic in Japan...
September 5, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Evelien M Barendse, Lisanne J Schreuder, Geert Thoonen, Marc P H Hendriks, Roy P C Kessels, Walter H Backes, Albert P Aldenkamp, Jacobus F A Jansen
AIM: People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) typically have deficits in the working memory (WM) system. Working memory is found to be an essential chain in successfully navigating in the social world. We hypothesize that brain networks for WM have an altered network integrity in ASD compared to controls. METHODS: 13 adolescents (1 female) with autistic disorder (n = 1), Asperger's disorder (n = 7), and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (n = 5), and 13 typically developing control adolescents (1 female) participated in this study...
September 4, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Akira Nishimura, Yutaka Aritomi, Kiyofumi Sasai, Tadayuki Kitagawa, Atul R Mahableshwarkar
AIM: This study assessed the efficacy and safety of vortioxetine in adults with major depressive disorder. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 600 patients with major depressive disorder were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to receive vortioxetine 5, 10, or 20 mg, or placebo once daily for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale total score at week 8, evaluated by the last observation carried forward method...
August 31, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Hideaki Kitamura, Mami Saito, Toshiyuki Someya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Hajime Baba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Monika Szymanska, Marie Schneider, Carmela Chateau-Smith, Sylvie Nezelof, Lauriane Vulliez-Coady
Oxytocin (OT), often called the 'hormone of love' or 'hormone of attachment,' plays a fundamental role in the establishment and quality of parent-infant bonding. However, emerging evidence indicates that OT can also produce antisocial behavior. To clarify these effects, we review studies examining the role of endogenous and exogenous OT on several determinants of attachment: parental sensitivity, and bonding or synchrony in parent-child dyads. Contextual and individual factors moderating the effect of intranasal OT and its peripheral levels are also reviewed...
October 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Burak Yulug, Lutfu Hanoglu, Ertugrul Kilic
Sleep is an important factor that plays a key role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. However, it is still unclear whether poor-quality sleep may overlap with sleep disturbances in the underlying dysfunctional mechanisms of amyloid beta (Aβ) clearance metabolism. Here, we aimed to evaluate the current evidence on the role of sleep deprivation in Aβ clearance metabolism. To that end, we discuss possible mechanisms underlying the bidirectional interaction between the sleep deprivation and Aβ clearance pathways...
October 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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