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Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

Hiroshige Fujishiro, Masato Okuda, Kunihiro Iwamoto, Seiko Miyata, Youta Torii, Shuji Iritani, Norio Ozaki
AIMS: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and psychiatric symptoms often antedate the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease / dementia with Lewy bodies. The purpose of this study is to investigate RBD and its relevance to Lewy body disease (LBD) in patients with late-onset psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Study subjects included 19 patients with late-onset psychiatric disorders who exhibited REM sleep without atonia (RWA), which is a hallmark of RBD on polysomnography, at our psychiatric ward...
March 14, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Hidenobu Suzuki, Hiroyuki Hibino, Yuichi Inoue, Katsunaka Mikami
Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) is often complicated by mental symptoms, including depressive symptoms, whereas mood disorder is sometimes accompanied by problems with sleep rhythm, which can make it difficult to treat patients with such symptoms. In daily medical practice, an increased dose of aripiprazole is generally administered when an antidepressant is not sufficiently effective.
March 5, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Naohisa Tsujino, Hiromi Tagata, Yoko Baba, Akiko Kojima, Taiju Yamaguchi, Naoyuki Katagiri, Takahiro Nemoto, Masafumi Mizuno
AIM: The importance of early intervention in psychiatry is widely recognised among psychiatrists. However, it is unknown whether precise knowledge of at-risk mental state has been disseminated. With this survey, we aimed to reveal how Japanese psychiatrists diagnosed patients with at-risk mental state and prescribed treatment strategies for them. METHODS: Using fictional case vignettes, we conducted a questionnaire survey of psychiatrists (n = 1,399) who worked in Tokyo...
February 27, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Akemi Miyata, Kunihiro Iwamoto, Naoko Kawano, Branko Aleksic, Masahiko Ando, Kazutoshi Ebe, Kiyoshi Fujita, Motonori Yokoyama, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Yoshio Igarashi, Norio Ozaki
AIM: Although the effects of psychotropics on driving ability have received much attention, little research is available on driving performance of stable outpatients with depression undergoing real-world treatment. This observational study investigated driving performance, cognitive functions and depressive symptomatology of (partly)remitted outpatients with depression under daily-practice psycho-pharmacological treatment. METHODS: Seventy stable outpatients with depression and 67 healthy volunteers were enrolled...
February 27, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Mai Sakai, Hikaru Takeuchi, Zhiqian Yu, Yoshie Kikuchi, Chiaki Ono, Yuta Takahashi, Fumiaki Ito, Hiroo Matsuoka, Osamu Tanabe, Jun Yasuda, Yasuyuki Taki, Ryuta Kawashima, Hiroaki Tomita
AIMS: CX3CR1, a G-protein-coupled receptor, is involved in various inflammatory processes. Two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms, V249I (rs3732379) and T280M (rs3732378), are located in the sixth and seventh transmembrane domains of the CX3CR1 protein, respectively. Previous studies indicated significant associations between T280M and leukocyte functional characteristics, including adhesion, signaling, and chemotaxis, while the function of V249I is unclear. In the brain, microglia are the only proven and widely accepted CX3CR1-expressing cells...
February 27, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Hiroko Sugawara, Yui Murata, Tempei Ikegame, Rie Sawamura, Shota Shimanaga, Yusuke Takeoka, Takeo Saito, Masashi Ikeda, Akane Yoshikawa, Fumichika Nishimura, Yoshiya Kawamura, Chihiro Kakiuchi, Tsukasa Sasaki, Nakao Iwata, Mamoru Hashimoto, Kiyoto Kasai, Tadafumi Kato, Miki Bundo, Kazuya Iwamoto
AIM: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) have been known to share genetic and environmental risk factors, and complex gene-environmental interactions may contribute to their pathophysiology. In contrast to high genetic overlap between SZ and BD, as revealed by genome-wide association studies, the extent of epigenetic overlap remains largely unknown. In the present study, we explore if SZ and BD share epigenetic risk factors in the same manner as they share genetic components...
February 11, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Shotaro Ueda, Toyosaku Ota, Junzo Iida, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Hiroki Yoshino, Naoko Kishimoto, Toshifumi Kishimoto
AIM: Recent developments in near-infrared spectroscopy have enabled non-invasive clarification of brain functions in psychiatric disorders. In pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, reduced prefrontal hemodynamic responses have been observed with near-infrared spectroscopy repeatedly. However, there are few studies of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder by multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. Therefore, in this study, we used multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy to examine the characteristics of prefrontal hemodynamic responses during the Stroop color-word task in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients and in age- and sex-matched control subjects...
February 6, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Masaru Nakamura, Takahiko Nagamine
In psychotic patients, altered hemodynamic responses and its significance in differential diagnosis are reported. However, effects of antipsychotics and associated increase of prolactin levels on prefrontal hemodynamic responses have not been well understood. Antipsychotics may affect neurovascular coupling directly by inhibiting dopamine receptors 1 or indirectly by increasing prolactin, which induces regional vasoconstriction. 2.
February 6, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Noboru Hiroi
Copy number variants are deletions and duplications of a few thousand to million base pairs and are associated with extraordinarily high levels of autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, intellectual disability or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The unprecedented levels of robust and reproducible penetrance of copy number variants make them one of the most promising and reliable entry points to delve into the mechanistic bases of many mental disorders. However, the precise mechanistic bases of these associations still remain elusive in humans due to the many genes encoded in each copy number variant and the diverse associated phenotypic features...
January 25, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Mustafa Ali, Soumitra Das
We report a case of seizure developed in a patient with paranoid schizophrenia on a low dose of zotepine. A 23 years-old -man diagnosed with ICD-10 paranoid schizophrenia at age 19 years and has been treated with adequate dosage and duration of risperidone, olanzapine and aripiprazole before the introduction of zotepine.
January 24, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Noriyuki Kawamura, Kosaku Shinoda, Hajime Sato, Kazunori Sasaki, Makoto Suzuki, Kumi Yamaki, Tamaki Fujimori, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Douglas Osei-Hyiaman, Yoshiaki Ohashi
AIM: This study sought to characterize the plasma metabolite profiling of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Psychiatric assessments were made with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis. In the exploratory cohort, plasma metabolite profiles of 34 MDD patients and 31 mentally healthy controls were compared using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Among the candidate metabolites, we focused on a metabolite showing the largest difference...
January 22, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Najat O Hamed, Laila-Al-Ayadhi, Mohamed A Osman, Elkhawad Abdalla O, Hanan Qasem, Majida Al-Marshoud, Nada M Merghani, Afaf El-Ansary
BACKGROUND: AIM: Autism is a heterogeneous neurological disorder that is characterized by impairments in communication and social interactions, repetitive behaviors and sensory abnormalities. The etiology of autism remains unclear. Animal, genetic and postmortem studies suggest that an imbalance exists in the neuronal excitation and inhibition (E/I) system in autism. The aim of this study was to determine whether alterations of the measured parameters in children with autism are significantly associated with the risk of a sensory dysfunction...
January 22, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Min-Shan Li, Galen Chin-Lun Hung, Shu-Yu Yang, Chun-Hung Pan, Ya-Tang Liao, Shang-Ying Tsai, Chiao-Chicy Chen, Chian-Jue Kuo
AIM: Patients with bipolar disorder had poorer outcomes after pneumonia and could have a higher risk for recurrence of pneumonia. We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of recurrent pneumonia in patients with bipolar disorder. METHODS: In a nationwide cohort of bipolar patients (derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan) who were hospitalized for pneumonia between 1996 and 2012, we identified 188 patients who developed recurrent pneumonia after a baseline pneumonia episode...
January 8, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Burak Yulug, Lütfü Hanoglu, Mehmet Ozansoy, Dogan Isık, Ulkan Kilic, Ertugrul Kilic, Wolf Rüdiger Schabitz
Rifampicin exerts significant brain protective functions in multiple experimental models. Here we summarize the underlying mechanisms of the neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of rifampicin that are mediated by its anti-inflammatory, anti-tau, anti-amyloid, and cholinergic effects. Beyond suggesting that rifampicin shows strong brain protective effects in preclinical models of Alzheimer's disease, we also provide substantial clinical evidence for the neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of rifampicin...
January 8, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Adam Lebowitz, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Noriko Yamada, Hitoshi Usuniwa, Masashi Tamura, Kazuhiro Ishikawa, Tetsuaki Arai
Elderly population increase worldwide has driven investigation into physical fitness advantages for cognitive ability1,2 . Randomized controlled trials could validate exercise regime targeting specific domains to improve Executive Function (EF) and working memory (WM).
January 2, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Lara Kular, Sonia Kular
Psychiatric disorders are clinically heterogeneous and debilitating chronic diseases resulting from a complex interplay between gene variants and environmental factors. Epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation and histone posttranslational modifications, instruct the cell/tissue to correctly interpret external signals and adjust its functions accordingly. Given that epigenetic modifications are sensitive to environment, stable and reversible, epigenetic studies in psychiatry could represent a promising approach to better understand and treat disease...
January 2, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Masanao Shirahama, Takeshi Terao, Nobuyoshi Ishii, Koji Hatano, Hirofumi Hirakawa, Kentaro Kohno
AIMS: In order to resolve the equivocal relationship between anxious temperament rated by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) and harm avoidance rated by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the present study aims to investigate whether the anxious temperament scale and the harm avoidance scale are significantly associated with adjustment of relevant factors. Our hypothesis is that anxious temperament may be associated with harm avoidance...
December 29, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Masaki Nishioka, Miki Bundo, Junko Ueda, Katsuoka Fumiki, Yukuto Sato, Yoko Kuroki, Takao Ishii, Wataru Ukai, Shigeo Murayama, Eri Hashimoto, Masao Nagasaki, Jun Yasuda, Kiyoto Kasai, Tadafumi Kato, Kazuya Iwamoto
AIM: Somatic mutations in the human brain are hypothesized to contribute to the functional diversity of brain cells as well as the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases. However, there are still few reports on somatic mutations in non-neoplastic human brain tissues. This study attempted to unveil the landscape of somatic mutations in the human brain. METHODS: We explored the landscape of somatic mutations in human brain tissues derived from three males with no neuropsychiatric diseases by whole-genome deep sequencing at a depth of around 100...
December 28, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Anna Dietrich-Muszalska, Jolanta Kolińska-Łukaszuk
AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effects of a new antipsychotic aripiprazole, unique due to its mechanism of action, with the effects of selected antipsychotic drugs such as quetiapine, olanzapine, clozapine, risperidone and ziprasidone (at the final concentrations corresponding to clinically effective doses used for the treatment of acute episodes of schizophrenia) on lipid peroxidation in human plasma measured by the level of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), which is a marker of oxidative stress...
December 27, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Teresa Costabile, Leonilda Bilo, Anna De Rosa, Chiara Pane, Francesco Saccà
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is a psychiatric illness, presenting with two or more personalities in the same patient, causing an alteration in the sense of self, with amnesia for events of life and personal information1 .
December 27, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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