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Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

Vasiliki Vivian Iliadou, Nikolaos Moschopoulos, Christos Sidiras, Aikaterini Eleftheriadou, Ioannis Nimatoudis
Auditory memory is thought to depict an accurate representation of our auditory environment1 but its accuracy may be negatively influenced when the auditory sensory system is not functioning properly. Auditory functioning is thought to be reflected in the pure tone audiogram and most physicians and clinical psychologists believe that they can easily spot patients with a hearing loss. This might be more tricky. Efficient hearing in everyday life is only partially represented by what we know as a hearing test2 ...
July 12, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Satona Saito, Toru Horinouchi, Yukako Nakagami, Toshitaka Ii, Siddarth Sarkar, Angela McSweeney, Leo Yoshida, Daruj Aniwattanapong, Li-Min Xin, Nusa Segrec, Svetlin V Varbanov, Syed F Shams, Kouta Suzuki, Melissa Paulita V Mariano, Sophie C Tomlin, Kazuki Kuno, Robert Freedman, Michelle B Riba, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Chiaki Kawanishi
Each year since 2006, 12 early career psychiatrists from around the world are selected to participate in the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (JSPN) fellowship award symposium to form friendships and stimulate academic collaborations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 10, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Hsing-Cheng Liu, Galen Chin-Lun Hung, Shu-Yu Yang, Ya-Tang Liao, Chun-Hung Pan, Chiao-Chicy Chen, Chian-Jue Kuo
AIMS: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher incidence of tuberculosis than do people in the general population. The information regarding the association between antipsychotic agents and the risk of tuberculosis in the patients with schizophrenia is limited. This exploratory study assessed the risk of tuberculosis among patients with schizophrenia on antipsychotic therapy. METHOD: Among a nationwide schizophrenia cohort derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan (n = 32,399), we identified 284 patients who developed newly diagnosed tuberculosis after their first psychiatric admission...
July 10, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Erik Oudman, Jan W Wijnia, Misha J Oey, Mirjam J van Dam, Dr Albert Postma
Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a common eating disorder that affects 2.9 million people worldwide. Not eating a balanced diet or fasting can cause neurological complications after severe vitamine B1 malnourishment, although the precise signs and symptoms of Wernicke's Encephalopathy (WE) are not clear. Our aim was to review the signs and symptoms of WE in patients with AN. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, PiCarta on all case descriptions of WE following AN. All case descriptions of WE in AN irrespective of language were included...
July 8, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Mari Iwata, Kunihiro Iwamoto, Naoko Kawano, Takumi Kawaue, Norio Ozaki
AIM: Although automobile driving is necessary for many people, including patients with mental disorders, the influence of psychotropic drugs on driving performance remains unclear and requires scientific verification. Therefore, the objective of this study was to conduct a review of the literature in order to aid the development of a valid evaluation method regarding the influence of medication on driving performance. METHODS: We conducted a literature search using the two sets of terms on PubMed...
July 2, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Alan R Teo, Jason I Chen, Hiroaki Kubo, Ryoko Katsuki, Mina Sato-Kasai, Norihiro Shimokawa, Kohei Hayakawa, Wakako Umene-Nakano, James E Aikens, Shigenobu Kanba, Takahiro A Kato
AIM: Hikikomori, a form of severe social withdrawal, is an emerging issue in mental health, for which validated measurement tools are lacking. The object was to develop a self-report scale of hikikomori, and assess its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: A sample of 399 participants from clinical and community settings completed measures. Psychometric properties were assessed with factor analysis; diagnostic accuracy was compared against a semi-structured diagnostic interview...
June 21, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Clara Pretus, Marisol Picado, Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Susana Carmona, Vanesa Richarte, Jordi Fauquet, Óscar Vilarroya
AIM: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) neuroimaging studies have identified substantial differences in reward-related circuits on a trial-by-trial basis. However, no research to date has evaluated the effect of motivational context on neural activity in settings with intermittent reward in ADHD. The present study was designed to identify neural processes underlying both immediate effects of reward and sustained effects of reward associated with motivational context in adult ADHD patients...
June 11, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Yoshikazu Takaesu
Sleep disturbances and circadian rhythm dysfunction have been widely demonstrated in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Irregularity of the sleep-wake rhythm, eveningness chronotype, abnormality of melatonin secretion, vulnerability of clock genes, and the irregularity of social time cues have also been well-documented in BD. Circadian rhythm dysfunction is prominent in BD compared with that in major depressive disorders, implying that circadian rhythm dysfunction is a trait marker of BD. In the clinical course of BD, the circadian rhythm dysfunctions may act as predictors for the first onset of BD and the relapse of mood episodes...
June 5, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Masaru Tateno, Alan R Teo, Masaki Shiraishi, Masaya Tayama, Chiaki Kawanishi, Takahiro A Kato
AIM: Due to variation in estimates of the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) in prior research, we conducted two cross-sectional studies over 2 years investigating the prevalence rate of IA in college students in Japan and reconsidered appropriate cut-off points of a self-rating scale to screen possible IA. METHODS: This study was composed of two parts: survey I in 2014 and survey II in 2016, which were conducted in the same schools with an interval of 2 years...
May 30, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Andrew Stickley, Hisateru Tachimori, Yosuke Inoue, Takahiro Shinkai, Reiji Yoshimura, Jun Nakamura, Gihei Morita, Shigeki Nishii, Yuki Tokutsu, Yuka Otsuka, Kazuteru Egashira, Miyuki Inoue, Takamitsu Kubo, Hirofumi Tesen, Naoyuki Takashima, Hirotaka Tominaga, Ai Koyanagi, Yoko Kamio
AIM: We aimed to examine the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and suicidal behavior in psychiatric outpatients and whether this association differs among patients with different psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional data came from the Japan Prevalence Study of Adult ADHD at Psychiatric Outpatient Care, which included psychiatric outpatients aged 18-65 years recruited from one university hospital and three general psychiatric outpatient clinics in Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka, Japan from April 2014 to January 2015 (N = 864)...
May 29, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Akihiko Kondo, Yoshihisa Shoji, Kiichiro Morita, Mamoru Sato, Youhei Ishii, Hiroko Yanagimoto, Shinya Nakano, Naohisa Uchimura
AIM: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have been reported to show cognitive impairment in attention, cognition control, and motivation. The prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the pathophysiology of depression. Neurophysiological abnormalities have been examined in MDD patients by several neuroimaging studies. However, the underlying neural mechanism is still unclear. We evaluated brain function during pleasant and unpleasant image-recall tasks using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in MDD patients...
May 29, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Juzoh Umemori, Frederike Winkel, Giuliano Didio, Maria Llach Pou, Eero Castrén
The network hypothesis of depression proposes that mood disorders reflect problems in information processing within particular neural networks. Antidepressants (AD), including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), function by gradually improving information processing within these networks. AD have been shown to induce a state of juvenile-like plasticity comparable to that observed during developmental critical periods: Such critical-period-like plasticity allows brain networks to better adapt to extrinsic and intrinsic signals...
May 26, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Ruu-Fen Tzang, Chuan-Hsin Chang, Yue-Cune Chang, Kate Hsu, Chiao-Chicy Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Hideo Matsumoto, Jun Ishigooka, Hiroaki Ono, Yoshihiro Tadori
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole in adolescents with schizophrenia in Japan. METHODS: In a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, dose-comparison study, adolescents (aged 13-17 years) with schizophrenia were randomized to receive aripiprazole 2, 6-12, or 24-30 mg/day. Patients who completed the 6-week study participated in a 52-week, flexible-dose, open-label extension (OLE) study of aripiprazole (initial dose: 2 mg/day, maintenance dose: 6-24 mg/day, maximum dose: 30 mg/day)...
May 18, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Shinji Sato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Jun Ishigooka, Shuichi Iwashita, Yoshihiro Tadori
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of brexpiprazole compared to placebo in Japanese patients with acute schizophrenia. METHODS: We conducted a 6-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2/3 study in Japan. Patients with acute schizophrenia were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive brexpiprazole 1, 2, or 4 mg or placebo once a day. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to week 6 in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores...
May 18, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Toshikazu Shinba, Nobutoshi Kariya, Saori Matsuda, Hanae Matsuda, Yusuke Obara
AIM: Alterations of cerebral blood flow have been reported in studies of depression treated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). However, the relationship between these changes in activity during stimulation and the effectiveness of TMS is not known. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in frontal cerebral blood volume measured as frontal hemoglobin concentration (fHbC) during TMS are correlated with clinical outcomes of treatment. METHODS: Fifteen drug-resistant patients with depression underwent a standard treatment regimen of TMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
May 18, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Yasuo Mori, Jun Miyata, Masanori Isobe, Shuraku Son, Yujiro Yoshihara, Toshihiko Aso, Takanori Kouchiyama, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
AIM: Echo-planar imaging is a common technique used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), however it suffers from image distortion and signal loss because of large susceptibility effects that are related to the phase-encoding direction of the scan. Despite this relationship, the majority of neuroimaging studies have not considered the influence of phase-encoding direction. Here, we aimed to clarify how phase-encoding direction can affect the outcome of an fMRI connectivity study of schizophrenia...
May 17, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Shu-Yu Yang, Lian-Yu Chen, Eunice Najoan, Roy Abraham Kallivayalil, Kittisak Viboonma, Ruzita Jamaluddin, Afzal Javed, Duong Thi Quynh Hoa, Hitoshi Iida, Kang Sim, Thiha Swe, Yan-Ling He, Yongchon Park, Helal Uddin Ahmed, Angelo De Alwis, Helen Fung-Kum Chiu, Norman Sartorius, Chay-Hoon Tan, Mian-Yoon Chong, Naotaka Shinfuku, Shih-Ku Lin
AIM: The aim of the present study was to survey the prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy and combined medication use across 15 Asian countries and areas in 2016. METHODS: By using the results from the fourth survey of Research on Asian Prescription Patterns on antipsychotics, the rates of polypharmacy and combined medication use in each country were analyzed. Daily medications prescribed for the treatment of inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia, including antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, anxiolytics, hypnotics, and antiparkinson agents, were collected...
May 14, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Rodrigo Pérez-Esparza, Teresa Corona, Ramiro Gilberto Ruiz-García, Nelcy Oñate-Cadena, Camilo de la Fuente-Sandoval, Jesús Ramírez-Bermúdez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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