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Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

Min-Shan Li, Galen Chin-Lun Hung, Shu-Yu Yang, Chun-Hung Pan, Ya-Tang Liao, Shang-Ying Tsai, Chiao-Chicy Chen, Chian-Jue Kuo
AIM: Patients with bipolar disorder had poorer outcomes after pneumonia and could have a higher risk for recurrence of pneumonia. We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of recurrent pneumonia in patients with bipolar disorder. METHODS: In a nationwide cohort of bipolar patients (derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan) who were hospitalized for pneumonia between 1996 and 2012, we identified 188 patients who developed recurrent pneumonia after a baseline pneumonia episode...
January 8, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Burak Yulug, Lütfü Hanoglu, Mehmet Ozansoy, Dogan Isık, Ulkan Kilic, Ertugrul Kilic, Wolf Rüdiger Schabitz
Rifampicin exerts significant brain protective functions in multiple experimental models. Here we summarized the underlying mechanisms of the neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of rifampicin that is mediated by its anti-inflammatory, anti-tau, anti-amyloid and cholinergic effects. Beyond suggesting that rifampicin shows strong brain protective effects in preclinical models of Alzheimer's Disease we also have provided substantial clinical evidence for the neuroprotective and pro-cognitive effects of rifampicin...
January 8, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Adam Lebowitz, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Noriko Yamada, Hitoshi Usuniwa, Masashi Tamura, Kazuhiro Ishikawa, Tetsuaki Arai
Elderly population increase worldwide has driven investigation into physical fitness advantages for cognitive ability1,2 . Randomized controlled trials could validate exercise regime targeting specific domains to improve Executive Function (EF) and working memory (WM).
January 2, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Lara Kular, Sonia Kular
Psychiatric disorders are clinically heterogeneous and debilitating chronic diseases resulting from a complex interplay between gene variants and environmental factors. Epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation and histone posttranslational modifications, instruct the cell/tissue to correctly interpret external signals and adjust its functions accordingly. Given that epigenetic modifications are sensitive to environment, stable and reversible, epigenetic studies in psychiatry could represent a promising approach to better understand and treat disease...
January 2, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Masanao Shirahama, Takeshi Terao, Nobuyoshi Ishii, Koji Hatano, Hirofumi Hirakawa, Kentaro Kohno
AIMS: In order to resolve the equivocal relationship between anxious temperament rated by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) and harm avoidance rated by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the present study aims to investigate whether the anxious temperament scale and the harm avoidance scale are significantly associated with adjustment of relevant factors. Our hypothesis is that anxious temperament may be associated with harm avoidance...
December 29, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Masaki Nishioka, Miki Bundo, Junko Ueda, Katsuoka Fumiki, Yukuto Sato, Yoko Kuroki, Takao Ishii, Wataru Ukai, Shigeo Murayama, Eri Hashimoto, Masao Nagasaki, Jun Yasuda, Kiyoto Kasai, Tadafumi Kato, Kazuya Iwamoto
AIM: Somatic mutations in the human brain are hypothesized to contribute to the functional diversity of brain cells as well as the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases. However, there are still few reports on somatic mutations in non-neoplastic human brain tissues. This study attempted to unveil the landscape of somatic mutations in the human brain. METHODS: We explored the landscape of somatic mutations in human brain tissues derived from three males with no neuropsychiatric diseases by whole-genome deep sequencing at a depth of around 100...
December 28, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Anna Dietrich-Muszalska, Jolanta Kolińska-Łukaszuk
AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effects of a new antipsychotic aripiprazole, unique due to its mechanism of action, with the effects of selected antipsychotic drugs such as quetiapine, olanzapine, clozapine, risperidone and ziprasidone (at the final concentrations corresponding to clinically effective doses used for the treatment of acute episodes of schizophrenia) on lipid peroxidation in human plasma measured by the level of TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), which is a marker of oxidative stress...
December 27, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Teresa Costabile, Leonilda Bilo, Anna De Rosa, Chiara Pane, Francesco Saccà
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is a psychiatric illness, presenting with two or more personalities in the same patient, causing an alteration in the sense of self, with amnesia for events of life and personal information1 .
December 27, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Yen-Ni Hung, Shu-Yu Yang, Chian-Jue Kuo, Shih-Ku Lin
AIM: The change in psychiatric diagnoses in clinical practice is not an unusual phenomenon. The interchange between the diagnoses of schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders is a major clinical issue because of the differences in treatment regimens and long-term prognoses. In this study, we used a nationwide population-based sample to compare the diagnostic consistency and interchange rate between schizophrenic disorders and bipolar disorders. METHODS: In total, 25711 and 11261 patients newly diagnosed as having schizophrenic disorder and bipolar disorder, respectively, were retrospectively enrolled from the Psychiatric Inpatient Medical Claims database, between 2001 and 2005...
December 19, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Ryo Sawagashira, Yoshihisa Sasagawa, Mayumi Matsukura, Yuji Takamaru
We present a rare case of myxedema coma (MC), the most extreme manifestation of hypothyroidism, induced by lithium carbonate (Li) in a patient with schizophrenia. A 68-year-old man presented to the emergency department due to unconsciousness. After developing schizophrenia, he had been living in a nursing home for the previous 40 years; he had no any other physical illness.
December 12, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Qizheng Cai, Lei Feng, Kai Zhen Yap
Recent studies suggested oxytocin as a possible drug to treat social deficits caused by Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but the safety of intranasal oxytocin in autistic patients is not established. The aim of this review was to characterise the side effect profile of long-term intranasal oxytocin in treatment of ASD compared to placebo. All randomised controlled trials of intranasal oxytocin in the treatment of ASD published before 1 January 2017 that reported safety data were identified from databases including Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and International Pharmaceutical Abstract...
December 12, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Akane Yoshikawa, Fumichika Nishimura, Aya Inai, Yosuke Eriguchi, Masaki Nishioka, Atsuhiko Takaya, Mamoru Tochigi, Yoshiya Kawamura, Tadashi Umekage, Kayoko Kato, Tsukasa Sasaki, Yoshiaki Ohashi, Kazuya Iwamoto, Kiyoto Kasai, Chihiro Kakiuchi
AIM: Hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). Recently, the glycine cleavage system (GCS) was shown to affect NMDAR function in the brain. GCS functional defects cause nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH), the atypical phenotype of which presents psychiatric symptoms similar to SCZ. Here, we examined the involvement of GCS in SCZ. METHODS: First, to identify the rare variants and the exonic deletions, we re-sequenced all the coding exons and the splice sites of four GCS genes (GLDC, AMT, GCSH, DLD) in 474 patients with SCZ and 475 controls and performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis in SCZ...
December 12, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Chutima Roomruangwong, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Carine Coneglian de Farias, Andressa Keiko Matsumoto, Thiago Hissnauer Leal Baltus, Nayara Rampazzo Morelli, Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sebastien Duleu, Michel Geffard, Michael Maes
AIM: To delineate the effects of IgM-mediated autoimmune responses directed against malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitroso (NO)-adducts on nitro-oxidative stress and depressive and physiosomatic symptoms (DPSS) at the end of term. METHODS: IgM responses to MDA, NO-(nitroso) adducts formed by nitrosylation, and NO2-tyrosine formed by nitration were measured as well as hydroperoxides (FOX), advanced protein oxidation products (AOPP) and NO metabolites (NOx) levels in women at the end of term pregnancy and in normal controls...
December 1, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Abd Rahim Nour El Huda, Ku Zaifah Norsidah, Rahim Mohd Nabil Fikri, Mohd Noor Hanisah, Abdullah Kartini, A Talib Norlelawati
AIM: This study examined catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) DNA methylation in the peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients and also in healthy controls to investigate its potential use as a peripheral biomarker of schizophrenia and its relationships with the clinical variables of schizophrenia patients. METHODS: We examined the DNA methylation levels of COMT using genomic DNA from the peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients (n = 138) and healthy control participants (n = 132); all were Malaysian Malays...
November 21, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Takeshi Inoue, Akira Nishimura, Kiyofumi Sasai, Tadayuki Kitagawa
AIM: Safety and efficacy of vortioxetine (5-20 mg/day) in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder were evaluated in two phase 3 studies consisting of a short-term, 8-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind study followed by a long-term, 52-week, open-label extension study. METHODS: The primary endpoint of the short-term study was change from baseline in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score at week 8. The primary objective of the extension study was vortioxetine's long-term safety; efficacy endpoints included change in MADRS total score, clinical global impression scale-severity (CGI-S) score from the long-term study baseline, and clinical global impression scale-improvement (CGI-I) score over 52 weeks...
November 21, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Shusaku Uchida, Hirotaka Yamagata, Tomoe Seki, Yoshifumi Watanabe
Major depressive disorder is one of the most common mental illnesses as it affects more than 350 million people globally. Major depressive disorder is etiologically complex and disabling. Genetic factors play a role in the etiology of major depression. However, identical twin studies have shown high rates of discordance, indicating non-genetic mechanisms as well. For instance, stressful life events increase the risk of depression. Environmental stressors also induce stable changes in gene expression within the brain that may lead to maladaptive neuronal plasticity in regions implicated in disease pathogenesis...
November 20, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Tomoko Sao, Yuta Yoshino, Kiyohiro Yamazaki, Yuki Ozaki, Yoko Mori, Shinichiro Ochi, Taku Yoshida, Takaaki Mori, Jun-Ichi Iga, Shu-Ichi Ueno
AIM: Despite continuing research into Alzheimer's disease (AD), its pathological mechanisms and modulating factors remain unknown. Several genes influence AD pathogenesis by affecting inflammatory pathways. Myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) is one such candidate gene for AD. METHODS: We examined MEF2C mRNA expression levels and methylation rates of CpGs on its promoter region in peripheral leukocytes from Japanese AD patients compared with age- and sex-matched control subjects...
November 7, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Shunsuke Takagi, Takashi Takeuchi, Naoki Yamamoto, Munehisa Fujita, Ko Furuta, Hiroyo Ishikawa, Nobutaka Motohashi, Toru Nishikawa
AIM: While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a well-established, safe and effective treatment for mental illnesses, the potential for adverse effects on cognitive functions remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate multiple cognitive functions in different time periods before and after ECT in a Japanese population. METHODS: A battery of five neurocognitive tests was administered to patients who underwent a course of ECT treatment at three time-points: before, immediately after, and 4 weeks after ECT...
October 24, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Masanari Itokawa, Mitsuhiro Miyashita, Makoto Arai, Takashi Dan, Katsuyoshi Takahashi, Taro Tokunaga, Kayo Ishimoto, Kazuya Toriumi, Tomoe Ichikawa, Yasue Horiuchi, Akiko Kobori, Satoshi Usami, Takeo Yoshikawa, Naoji Amano, Shinsuke Washizuka, Yuji Okazaki, Toshio Miyata
AIM: The aim of this clinical trial was to obtain proof of concept for high-dose pyridoxamine as a novel treatment for schizophrenia with enhanced carbonyl stress. METHODS: Ten Japanese schizophrenia patients with high plasma pentosidine, which is a representative biomarker of enhanced carbonyl stress, were recruited in a 24 week, open trial in which high-dose pyridoxamine (ranging from 1200 to 2400 mg/day) was administered using a conventional anti-psychotic regimen...
October 24, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Masashi Ikeda, Takeo Saito, Kenji Kondo, Nakao Iwata
Recent advances in molecular genetics have enabled assessments of the associations among genetic variants (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms) and susceptibility for complex diseases, including psychiatric disorders. Specifically, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), meta-analyses of the GWAS summary statistics, and mega-analyses (which use raw data, not summary statistics) of GWAS have provided revolutionary results and have identified numerous susceptibility genes or single-nucleotide polymorphisms...
October 23, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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