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Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

Hideo Matsumoto, Jun Ishigooka, Hiroaki Ono, Yoshihiro Tadori
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of aripiprazole in adolescents with schizophrenia in Japan. METHODS: In a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, dose-comparison study, adolescents (aged 13-17 years) with schizophrenia were randomized to receive aripiprazole 2, 6-12, or 24-30 mg/day. Patients who completed the 6-week study participated in a 52-week, flexible-dose, open-label extension (OLE) study of aripiprazole (initial dose: 2 mg/day, maintenance dose: 6-24 mg/day, maximum dose: 30 mg/day)...
May 18, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Shinji Sato
Apathy occurs in individuals treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) 6, 8, 9 . This adverse effect of SSRIs was first reported as "frontal lobe syndrome" or simply apathy by Hoehn-Saric et al. in 1990 3, 4. Barnhart et al.1 This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 18, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Jun Ishigooka, Shuichi Iwashita, Yoshihiro Tadori
AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of brexpiprazole compared to placebo in Japanese patients with acute schizophrenia. METHODS: We conducted a 6-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2/3 study in Japan. Patients with acute schizophrenia were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive brexpiprazole 1, 2, or 4 mg or placebo once a day. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline to week 6 in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores...
May 18, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Toshikazu Shinba, Nobutoshi Kariya, Saori Matsuda, Hanae Matsuda, Yusuke Obara
AIM: Alterations of cerebral blood flow have been reported in studies of depression treated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). However, the relationship between these changes in activity during stimulation and the effectiveness of TMS is not known. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in frontal cerebral blood volume measured as frontal hemoglobin concentration (fHbC) during TMS are correlated with clinical outcomes of treatment. METHODS: Fifteen drug-resistant patients with depression underwent a standard treatment regimen of TMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
May 18, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Yasuo Mori, Jun Miyata, Masanori Isobe, Shuraku Son, Yujiro Yoshihara, Toshihiko Aso, Takanori Kouchiyama, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
AIM: Echo-planar imaging is a common technique used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), however it suffers from image distortion and signal loss because of large susceptibility effects that are related to the phase-encoding direction of the scan. Despite this relationship, the majority of neuroimaging studies have not considered the influence of phase-encoding direction. Here, we aimed to clarify how phase-encoding direction can affect the outcome of an fMRI connectivity study of schizophrenia...
May 17, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Shu-Yu Yang, Lian-Yu Chen, Eunice Najoan, Roy Abraham Kallivayalil, Kittisak Viboonma, Ruzita Jamaluddin, Afzal Javed, Duong Thi Quynh Hoa, Hitoshi Iida, Kang Sim, Thiha Swe, Yan-Ling He, Yongchon Park, Helal Uddin Ahmed, Angelo De Alwis, Helen Fung-Kum Chiu, Norman Sartorius, Chay-Hoon Tan, Mian-Yoon Chong, Naotaka Shinfuku, Shih-Ku Lin
AIM: The aim of the present study was to survey the prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy and combined medication use across 15 Asian countries and areas in 2016. METHODS: By using the results from the fourth survey of Research on Asian Prescription Patterns on antipsychotics (REAP-AP4), the rates of polypharmacy and combined medication use in each country were analyzed. Daily medications prescribed for the treatment of inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia, including antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, anxiolytics, hypnotics, and antiparkinson agents, were collected...
May 14, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Rodrigo Pérez-Esparza, Teresa Corona, Ramiro Gilberto Ruiz-García, Nelcy Oñate-Cadena, Camilo de la Fuente-Sandoval, Jesús Ramírez-Bermúdez
Growing evidence of the rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine represents a promising advance in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) therapeutics. Most studies provide information after treatment washout, reporting response up to 7 days and remission up to 3-5 days after a single dose.
May 10, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Abdullah Bolu, Abdullah Akgün, Taner Öznur, Cemil Çelik
Retrograde ejaculation (RE) is the absence of ejaculation despite presence of orgasm. The reason for a large number of RE cases is medications used in treatments. Number of RE developed secondary to use of clozapine is very limited. In the following case a clozapine induced RE is reported.
May 7, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Heidi Kuang, Angela Duong, Hyunjin Jeong, Kassandra Zachos, Ana C Andreazza
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating mood disorder with no specific biological marker. No novel treatment has been developed specifically for BD in the last several decades. Although the pathophysiology of BD remains unclear, there is strong evidence in the literature supporting the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in BD. In this systematic review, we identified and investigated twelve studies that measure lactate, which is a direct marker for mitochondrial dysfunction, in BD patients and healthy controls...
May 4, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Oliver Grimm, Sarah Kittel-Schneider, Andreas Reif
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental psychiatric disorder which affects children and adults. ADHD is one of the psychiatric disorders with the strongest genetic basis according to familial, twin and SNP-based epidemiological studies. In this review, we provide an update of recent insights in the genetic basis of ADHD. We discuss recent progress from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) looking at common variants as well as rare copy number variations (CNVs). New analysis of gene groups, so-called functional ontologies, provide some insight into the gene networks afflicted, pointing to the role of neurodevelopmentally expressed gene-networks...
May 2, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Masaru Tateno, Alan R Teo, Takahiro A Kato
As the number of the internet users becomes higher-83.5% of the Japanese population at the end of 2016 with more than half of them (57.9%) accessing the internet through their smartphones1 -besides problematic internet use or internet addiction,2 smartphone addiction may be becoming more serious too.
May 2, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Tsutomu Takahashi, Michio Suzuki
To date, a large number of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have been conducted in schizophrenia, which generally demonstrate gray matter reduction predominantly in the frontal and temporo-limbic regions, as well as gross brain abnormalities (e.g., a deviated sulcogyral pattern). Although the causes as well as timing and course of these findings remain elusive, these morphologic changes (especially gross brain abnormalities and medial temporal lobe atrophy) are likely present at illness onset, possibly reflecting early neurodevelopmental abnormalities...
May 1, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Yukiko Y Lema, Nao J Gamo, Kun Yang, Koko Ishizuka
To further improve clinical activities in psychiatry by early diagnosis and early intervention with novel mechanism-guided treatments, there is a great need for biomarkers that reflect "trait" and "state" in major mental disorders. Stable trait biomarkers would allow early diagnosis, prognosis, and hopefully early intervention in these disorders, while dynamic state markers that reflect symptomatic changes would help to develop treatments that target these molecular mechanisms. However, in the search for such biomarkers, and eventually translating them to the clinic and industry, challenges currently exist at multiple levels, from basic scientific understanding, patient sample collection, and sample and data management, to bridging the gap between basic and clinical research and industry...
April 24, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Shinji Sato
The Japanese herbal medicine Ninjin'yoeito (NYT) improves fatigue, loss of appetite, and anemia.1,2,4 Here we report its efficacy for fatigue and apathy in four cases of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). All the patients were given informed consent and were their anonymity preserved.
April 24, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Ayako Todokoro, Saori C Tanaka, Yuki Kawakubo, Noriaki Yahata, Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi, Yukika Nishimura, Yukiko Kano, Fumio Ohtake, Kiyoto Kasai
AIM: Impulsivity, which significantly affects social adaptation, is an important target behavioral characteristic in interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Typically, people are willing to wait longer to acquire greater rewards. Impulsivity in ADHD may be associated with brain dysfunction in decision making involving waiting behavior under such situations. We tested the hypothesis that brain circuitry during a period of waiting, i.e., prior to the acquisition of reward, is altered in adults with ADHD...
April 24, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Kymberly D Young, Vadim Zotev, Raquel Phillips, Masaya Misaki, Wayne C Drevets, Jerzy Bodurka
Advances in imaging technologies have allowed for the analysis of fMRI data in real-time (rtfMRI), leading to the development of neurofeedback (nf) training. This rtfMRI-nf training utilizes fMRI tomographic localization capacity to allow a person to see and regulate the localized hemodynamic signal from his or her own brain. In this review, we summarize the results of several studies that have developed and applied neurofeedback training to healthy and depressed individuals with the amygdala as the neurofeedback target and the goal to increase the hemodynamic response during positive autobiographical memory recall...
April 23, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Kunitoshi Kamijima, Mahito Kimura, Kazuo Kuwahara, Yuri Kitayama, Yoshihiro Tadori
AIMS: This study compared the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole/sertraline combination (ASC) and placebo/sertraline combination (PSC) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who showed an inadequate response to sertraline 100 mg/day. METHODS: The study comprised a screening period, an 8-week prospective treatment (single-blind sertraline 25-100 mg/day) period, and a 6-week double-blind treatment period. Patients with DSM-5-defined MDD were enrolled. Following the prospective treatment, non-responders were randomly assigned to the ASC group (aripiprazole 3-12 mg/day/sertraline 100 mg/day) or the PSC group (sertraline 100 mg/day)...
April 16, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Minoru Takeshima
Based on the effects of anxiety accompanying major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD), the DSM-5 introduced the "anxious distress" (ANXD) specifier.1 While several studies have reported the clinical characteristics of major depressive episode (MDE) with ANXD due to MDD,2, 3 to the author's knowledge, those of MDE with ANXD due to BD remain unexplored.
April 13, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Momoko Kitazawa, Michitaka Yoshimura, Mayu Murata, Yuka Sato-Fujimoto, Hidefumi Hitokoto, Masaru Mimura, Kazuo Tsubota, Taishiro Kishimoto
AIM: Research on the adverse effects of internet use has gained importance recently. However, there is currently insufficient data on Japanese young adults' internet use, so we conducted a survey targeting Japanese university students to research Problematic Internet Use (PIU). We also investigated the relationship between PIU and multiple psychiatric symptoms. METHODS: A paper-based survey was conducted at five universities in Japan. Respondents were asked to fill out self-report scales regarding their internet dependency using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT)...
April 13, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Akihiro Nakajima, Naomi Matsuura, Keiichiro Mukai, Kyosuke Yamanishi, Hisashi Yamada, Kensei Maebayashi, Kazuhisa Hayashida, Hisato Matsunaga
AIM: Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a well-known chronic illness. This study retrospectively investigated 10-year outcomes and associated clinical factors in Japanese obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. We focused on the impact of several sociocultural factors, including medical expenses and insurance systems specific to each country, on the differences or biases in follow-up procedures of obsessive-compulsive disorder. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder who received a standardized combination of treatments for 10 continuous years were divided into three groups according to their improvement rates on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale after 10 years of treatment...
April 13, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
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