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Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30376759/individual-differences-in-erp-measures-of-executive-function-in-early-childhood-relation-to-low-risk-preterm-birth-and-parent-reported-behavior
#1
Amanda S Hodel, Jane E Brumbaugh, Ruskin H Hunt, Sara E Van Den Heuvel, Anika M Wiltgen, Kathleen M Thomas
Although behavioral studies have demonstrated that executive function (EF) develops rapidly during early childhood, few studies have investigated neural systems supporting EF during the preschool years. These systems are sensitive to variations in children's early life experiences, including preterm birth. The current study collected behavioral and event related potential (ERP) data during an EF task (directional Stroop) in a sample of 150 full-term and low-risk preterm children aged 4-years. Children's IQ and processing speed (WPPSI-III), and parent report of EF (BRIEF-P), were also measured...
October 30, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30348052/executive-functioning-in-adolescent-anorexia-nervosa-neuropsychology-versus-self-and-parental-report
#2
Laura Rebecca Herbrich, Viola Kappel, Sibylle Maria Winter, Betteke Maria van Noort
There is limited research concerning the relationship between neuropsychological assessment and self-report of executive functioning in adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN); available studies demonstrate only low to moderate correlations. Therefore, this study examines the association between neuropsychological test performance and self-report in AN. Forty adolescent inpatients with AN completed an extensive neuropsychological assessment, including set-shifting, central coherence, and questionnaires assessing executive functioning in daily life (BRIEF-SR)...
October 22, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30326774/written-expression-in-boys-with-adhd-the-mediating-roles-of-working-memory-and-oral-expression
#3
Samuel J Eckrich, Mark D Rapport, Catrina A Calub, Lauren M Friedman
The written expression difficulties experienced by children with ADHD are widely recognized; however, scant empirical evidence exists concerning the cognitive mechanisms and processes underlying these deficiencies. The current study investigated the independent and potentially interactive contributions of two developmentally antecedent cognitive processes - viz., working memory (WM) and oral expression - hypothesized to influence written expression ability in boys. Thirty-three boys with ADHD-Combined Presentation and 27 neurotypical (NT) boys 8-12 years of age were administered standardized measures of oral and written expression, and multiple counterbalanced tasks to assess WM central executive (CE) processes, WM phonological short-term memory (PH STM), and WM visuospatial short-term memory (VS STM)...
October 17, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318992/construct-validity-for-the-verbal-associated-pairs-screen
#4
Jonathan Dodd, Samantha Murphy, Meghan Doherty
The present study introduces the Verbal Associated Pairs Screen (VAPS) as a new measure for assessing performance validity in pediatric populations. This study presents initial data on psychometric properties and establishes construct validity for the VAPS in a sample of 30 adolescent healthy controls and 206 youths with traumatic brain injury (TBI: moderate/severe, N = 30; mild, N = 176). The control group's age (M = 14.93, SD = 1.8) was significantly higher than the moderate/severe TBI (M = 13.9, SD = 2...
October 15, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309282/specific-conditions-for-a-selective-deficit-in-memory-for-order-in-children-with-dyslexia
#5
Marisa Giorgetti, Maria Luisa Lorusso
Short-term memory (STM) models distinguish between item and order memorization. The present study aims to explore how item and order STM are affected by the nature of the stimuli, the sequential versus simultaneous mode of presentation, the visual versus auditory presentation modality, the possibility of verbal recoding. A total of 20 children with dyslexia were matched one-by-one with 20 typically reading children on sex, age (8-14 years), and grade. Computerized STM tasks were administered while manipulating type (item vs...
October 11, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301415/examining-the-relationship-between-performance-based-and-questionnaire-assessments-of-executive-function-in-young-preterm-children-implications-for-clinical-practice
#6
Sari O'Meagher, Kimberley Norris, Nenagh Kemp, Peter Anderson
The aim of this study was to determine whether specific performance-based executive function assessment tools were associated with executive functioning in everyday life as reported by parents and teachers of four- to five-year-old preterm and term children. At the age of 4 years, 141 preterm children born <33 weeks' gestation and 77 term children were assessed using performance-based intelligence (WPPSI-III) and executive function (EF) assessment tools (NEPSY-II, Day-Night and Shape School tasks). The assessment results were compared with the parent and teacher completed questionnaires of EF (BRIEF-P) when the children started kindergarten at the age of 4 to 5 years...
October 10, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301412/caregiver-ratings-and-performance-based-indices-of-executive-function-among-preschoolers-with-and-without-maltreatment-experience
#7
Tracey Fay-Stammbach, David John Hawes
Despite the well-documented impact of early maltreatment on children's executive function (EF), there has been limited consensus about how to best assess this neurocognitive domain in high-risk, vulnerable preschool-aged children. Relevant studies have generally utilized either performance-based tests or caregiver ratings of EF, yet multi-method research has been rare. This study examined the EF profiles of preschoolers exposed to maltreatment, as indexed by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P), and investigated associations between caregiver ratings and performance-based measures (Happy-Sad Stroop, Tapping Test, and Dimensional Change Card Sort - DCCS) of EF in this population...
October 9, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269648/associations-of-transcranial-doppler-velocity-age-and-gender-with-cognitive-function-in-children-with-sickle-cell-anemia-in-nigeria
#8
Kemar V Prussien, Auwal Salihu, Shehu U Abdullahi, Najibah A Galadanci, Khadija Bulama, Raymond O Belonwu, Fenella J Kirkham, Janet Yarboi, Heather Bemis, Michael R DeBaun, Bruce E Compas
Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have elevated cerebral blood velocity relative to healthy peers. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the association between cerebral blood velocity, measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound, age, and gender with cognitive function in children with SCA in Nigeria. Eighty-three children (Mage  = 9.10, SD = 1.90 years; 55% female) with SCA in Nigeria completed cognitive assessments and a TCD ultrasound. The association between TCD velocity and measures of perceptual reasoning (Raven's Progressive Matrices), working memory (WISC-IV Digit Span), and executive planning (Tower of London, TOL) were assessed...
October 1, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30253700/targeting-self-regulation-and-academic-functioning-among-preschoolers-with-behavior-problems-are-there-incremental-benefits-to-including-cognitive-training-as-part-of-a-classroom-curriculum
#9
Taylor D Landis, Katie C Hart, Paulo A Graziano
The purpose of this study was to examine the additional benefit of an adaptive Cogmed working memory training (CWMT) to a social-emotional/self-regulation classroom curriculum for preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 49 children (71% boys, Mage  = 4.52) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. Children participated in an 8-week summer treatment program for Pre-Kindergarteners (STP-PreK), where they were randomly assigned to either adaptive CWMT (n = 24), or nonadaptive CWMT (n = 25)...
September 26, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251596/comparisons-of-the-brief-parental-report-and-neuropsychological-clinical-tests-of-executive-function-in-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-data-from-the-uk-national-specialist-clinic
#10
Zameer Mohamed, Alexandra C S Carlisle, Alexandra C Livesey, Raja A S Mukherjee
Extant literature is sparse with regards to the relationship between caregiver reports and neuropsychological tests of executive functioning in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). The goal of this paper was determining the clinical utilities of executive functioning measures used in the United Kingdom national FASD clinic. We examined relationships between outcomes on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), as part of an ongoing service evaluation...
September 25, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30246598/a-preliminary-investigation-of-reaction-time-variability-in-relation-to-social-functioning-in-children-evaluated-for-adhd
#11
Leanne Tamm, Jeffery N Epstein, Stephen P Becker
Reaction time variability (RTV) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Few studies have examined RTV in relation to functional outcomes such as social impairment in children with ADHD. In this exploratory study, we investigated whether RTV is associated with social functioning in children at risk for ADHD. Specifically, we explored the association between RTV (tau derived from correct go trials of a Stop-Signal task) and social functioning in 198 children ages 7-12 years referred for an ADHD evaluation...
September 24, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230401/cognitive-predictors-of-parent-rated-inattention-in-very-preterm-children-the-role-of-working-memory-and-processing-speed
#12
Jenny Retzler, Samantha Johnson, Madeleine Groom, Chris Hollis, Helen Budge, Lucy Cragg
Inattention is one of the most common neurobehavioral problems following very preterm birth. Attention problems can persist into adulthood and are associated with negative socio-emotional and educational outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether the cognitive processes associated with inattention differ between term-born and very preterm children. Sixty-five children born very preterm (<33+0 weeks' gestation) aged 8-11 years were recruited alongside 48 term-born controls (?37 20 +0 weeks' gestation)...
September 19, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30226410/working-memory-and-behavioral-inhibition-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-an-examination-of-varied-central-executive-demands-construct-overlap-and-task-impurity
#13
Stephanie J Tarle, R Matt Alderson, Connor H G Patros, Elaine F Arrington, Delanie K Roberts
The stop-signal paradigm is the premier metric of behavioral inhibition in contemporary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research. The stop-signal paradigm's choice-reaction time component, however, arguably places greater demands on working memory processes (e.g., controlled-focused attention) relative to alternative inhibition metrics (i.e., go/no-go (GNG) tasks), and consequently obscures conclusions about inhibition and working memory deficits in affected children. The current study, therefore, aimed to determine whether shared variance between stop-signal behavioral inhibition and working memory performance in children with ADHD reflects overlap between the working memory and inhibition constructs or insufficient specificity of the stop-signal paradigm...
September 18, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175686/dimensional-structure-and-measurement-invariance-of-the-brief-2-across-gender-in-a-socially-vulnerable-sample-of-primary-school-aged-children
#14
Angie Jiménez, Beatriz Lucas-Molina
The present study aims to analyze, on the one hand, the dimensional structure of the BRIEF-2 and, on the other, its measurement invariance across gender in a sample of primary school-aged children. Participants were 168 students (51.8% girls) in conditions of social risk and in foster homes, with ages ranging from 6 to 15 years old (M = 10.08; SD = 2.09). The children's executive functioning level was obtained from their parents or caregivers. The analysis of the internal structure using confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the model with three indexes (Behavioral, Emotional and Cognitive) and nine scales (Inhibit, Shift, Self-Monitor, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, Organization of Materials and Task-Monitor) showed a good fit to the sample...
September 3, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347861/positive-emotional-attention-bias-in-young-children-with-symptoms-of-adhd
#15
Amanda Cremone, Claudia I Lugo-Candelas, Elizabeth A Harvey, Jennifer M McDermott, Rebecca M C Spencer
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience emotional dysregulation. Dysregulation can arise from heightened attention to emotional stimuli. Emotional attention biases are associated with a number of adverse socioemotional outcomes including reward sensitivity and externalizing behaviors. As reward sensitivity and externalizing behaviors are common in children with ADHD, the aim of the current study was to determine whether emotional attention biases are evident in young children with clinically significant ADHD symptoms...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052463/hot-and-cool-executive-function-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-cross-sectional-developmental-trajectories
#16
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Claire P Monks
The development of executive function (EF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has only been investigated using "cool"-cognitive-EF tasks. Little is known about the development of "hot"-affective-EF and whether it follows a similar developmental pathway. This study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach to examine the developmental changes in cool (working memory, inhibition, and planning) and hot EF (delay discounting and affective decision-making) of ASD participants (n = 79) and controls (n = 91) relative to age and IQ, shedding more light on the hot-cool EF organization...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050518/naming-speed-as-a-predictive-diagnostic-measure-in-reading-and-attentional-problems
#17
Débora Areces, Trinidad García, Paloma González-Castro, David Alvarez-García, Celestino Rodríguez
This study aimed to describe and compare naming speed abilities in children diagnosed with either Reading Learning Difficulties (RLD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or comorbidity for both (ADHD+RLD). To examine the explanatory power of naming speed and ADHD symptomatology in predicting group associations (while controlling for gender and age), the "Rapid Automatized Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus Tests" (RAN/RAS) were utilized. A sample of 101 children (age range = 5-16 years) was divided into four groups: RLD (n = 14), ADHD (n = 28), comorbid (n = 19), and control (n = 40)...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041835/assessment-of-executive-function-in-adhd-adolescents-contribution-of-performance-tests-and-rating-scales
#18
Virginia Krieger, Juan Antonio Amador-Campos
This study aimed to analyze performance on measures of neuropsychological and behavioral executive functions (EF) in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to evaluate the utility of performance-based tests for predicting scores on behavioral EF ratings. One hundred eighteen adolescents (75 ADHD and 43 controls) aged 12-16 years performed neuropsychological tests and completed a behavior rating scale of EF. The ADHD group presented significantly lower scores than controls on Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and all indexes of the WISC-IV, except the verbal comprehension index (VCI)...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017430/characterizing-neurocognitive-late-effects-in-childhood-leukemia-survivors-using-a-combination-of-neuropsychological-and-cognitive-neuroscience-measures
#19
Ellen Van Der Plas, Lauren Erdman, Brian J Nieman, Rosanna Weksberg, Darci T Butcher, Deborah L O'connor, Susanne Aufreiter, Johann Hitzler, Sharon L Guger, Russell J Schachar, Shinya Ito, Brenda J Spiegler
Knowledge about cognitive late effects in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is largely based on standardized neuropsychological measures and parent reports. To examine whether cognitive neuroscience paradigms provided additional insights into neurocognitive and behavioral late effects in ALL survivors, we assessed cognition and behavior using a selection of cognitive neuroscience tasks and standardized measures probing domains previously demonstrated to be affected by chemotherapy. 130 ALL survivors and 158 control subjects, between 8 and 18 years old at time of testing, completed the n-back (working memory) and stop-signal (response inhibition) tasks...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914149/identifying-the-nature-of-impairments-in-executive-functioning-and-working-memory-of-children-with-severe-difficulties-in-arithmetic
#20
Pamela A McDonald, Derek H Berg
An age-matched achievement-matched design was used to examine whether the executive functioning and working memory impairments exhibited by children with severe difficulties in arithmetic (SDA) are better viewed as developmental lags or as cognitive deficits. Three groups of children were included: 20 SDA children, 20 typically achieving children (CM) matched in chronological age with the SDA children, and 20 younger typically achieving children (AM) matched in achievement with the SDA group. While children with SDA did not exhibit impairments in color-word inhibition and verbal working memory, they did demonstrate impairments in shifting, quantity-digits inhibition, and visuospatial working memory...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
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