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Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782457/prospective-memory-in-youth-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-infection
#1
Lynnette L Harris, Miriam C Chernoff, Sharon L Nichols, Paige L Williams, Patricia A Garvie, Cenk Yildirim, Stephen R McCauley, Steven Paul Woods
Youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV) are at increased risk for neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Prospective memory (PM) is a complex neurocognitive function that has been shown to be impaired in adults with HIV disease and independently associated with poorer daily living skills, including medication nonadherence. The current study sought to determine the presence and extent of PM deficits in youth with PHIV. Participants included 173 youth with PHIV and 85 youth perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU), mean age 14...
August 7, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768457/greater-delay-discounting-among-girls-but-not-boys-with-adhd-correlates-with-cognitive-control
#2
Connor H G Patros, Kristie L Sweeney, E Mark Mahone, Stewart H Mostofsky, Keri S Rosch
Cognitive neuroscience models suggest both reward valuation and cognitive control contribute to reward-based decision-making. The current study examined the relationship between cognitive control and delay discounting (i.e., choosing smaller, immediate over larger, delayed rewards) in a large sample of boys and girls diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 95) and typically developing control children (TD; N = 59). Specifically, we examined performance on multiple measures of cognitive control (i...
August 2, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720023/early-motor-development-and-cognitive-abilities-among-mexican-preschoolers
#3
Erika Osorio-Valencia, Luisa Torres-Sánchez, Lizbeth López-Carrillo, Stephen J Rothenberg, Lourdes Schnaas
Psychomotricity plays a very important role in children's development, especially for learning involving reading-writing and mathematical calculations. Evaluate motor development in children 3 years old and its relationship with their cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years. Based on a cohort study, we analyzed the information about motor performance evaluated at 3 years old by Peabody Motor Scale and cognitive abilities at 5 years old. The association was estimated using linear regression models adjusted by mother's intelligence quotient, sex, Bayley mental development index at 18 months, and quality of the environment at home (HOME scale)...
July 18, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701080/neurocognitive-outcomes-in-children-with-unilateral-basal-ganglia-arterial-ischemic-stroke-and-secondary-hemidystonia
#4
Robyn Westmacott, Kyla P McDonald, Gabrielle deVeber, Daune MacGregor, Mahendranath Moharir, Nomazulu Dlamini, Rand Askalan, Tricia S Williams
Dystonia is a movement disorder that involves excessive, involuntary muscle contractions resulting in repetitive movements and/or abnormal posturing. One common cause of unilateral dystonia in childhood is ischemic stroke involving the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. Virtually nothing is known about neuropsychological outcomes in children who have dystonia following basal ganglia stroke. The present study explored whether or not children with secondary dystonia experience additional cognitive challenges when compared to children with similar patterns of brain injury, but no dystonia...
July 12, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693404/the-association-between-the-behavior-rating-inventory-of-executive-functioning-and-cognitive-testing-in-children-diagnosed-with-a-brain-tumor
#5
M de Vries, M A de Ruiter, K J Oostrom, A Y N Schouten-Van Meeteren, H Maurice-Stam, J Oosterlaan, M A Grootenhuis
Pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) suffer from cognitive late effects, such as deteriorating executive functioning (EF). We explored the suitability of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) to screen for these late effects. We assessed the relationship between the BRIEF and EF tasks, and between the BRIEF-Parent and BRIEF-Teacher, and we explored the clinical utility. Eighty-two PBTS (8-18 years) were assessed with EF tasks measuring attention, cognitive flexibility, inhibition, visual-, and working memory (WM), and with the BRIEF-Parent and BRIEF-Teacher...
July 10, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675949/comt-and-dat1-polymorphisms-moderate-the-indirect-effect-of-parenting-behavior-on-youth-adhd-symptoms-through-neurocognitive-functioning
#6
Julia E Morgan, Barbara Caplan, Irene Tung, Amanda N Noroña, Bruce L Baker, Steve S Lee
Although gene × environment interactions contribute to youth attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, the pathways mediating these influences are unknown. We tested genetic moderation of indirect effects from parenting behavior to youth ADHD symptoms through multiple neurocognitive factors. Two hundred and twenty-nine youth with and without ADHD were assessed at baseline (Wave 1; ages 5-10) and at a 2-year follow-up (Wave 2; ages 7-13). At Wave 1, youth completed a neurocognitive battery including measures of response inhibition, visuospatial working memory, and fluid reasoning, and a standardized parent-child interaction task yielding observational measures of positive and negative parenting...
July 4, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637379/neuropsychological-outcomes-of-pediatric-demyelinating-diseases-a-review
#7
Alexander Tan, Cole Hague, Benjamin M Greenberg, Lana Harder
Immune-mediated central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating diseases impact various areas of the brain, optic nerves, and/or spinal cord and can result in a wide range of neurologic symptoms including adverse cognitive outcomes. Neuropsychological outcomes in adult multiple sclerosis (MS) are well documented, while literature on such outcomes in pediatric cohorts is more limited. Furthermore, literature on neuropsychological outcomes in pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and transverse myelitis (TM) is even more limited...
June 21, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627295/socialization-of-prosocial-behavior-gender-differences-in-the-mediating-role-of-child-brain-volume
#8
Rianne Kok, Peter Prinzie, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Frank C Verhulst, Tonya White, Henning Tiemeier, Marinus H van IJzendoorn
Evidence has been accumulating for the impact of normal variation in caregiving quality on brain morphology in children, but the question remains whether differences in brain volume related to early caregiving translate to behavioral implications. In this longitudinal population-based study (N = 162), moderated mediation was tested for the relation between parental sensitivity and child prosocial behavior via brain volume, in boys and girls. Both maternal and paternal sensitivity were repeatedly observed between 1 and 4 years of age...
June 18, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565996/task-utility-and-norms-for-the-preschool-executive-task-assessment-peta
#9
Michelle Downes, Christine Berg, Fenella J Kirkham, Laura Kischkel, Imogen McMurray, Michelle de Haan
Earlier identification of executive deficits in preschool children using an ecological approach would give more scope for intervention. The Preschool Executive Task Assessment (PETA) was developed to resemble an everyday age-appropriate task in order to examine the self-direction and integration of executive functions during a multistep task. It was designed so that performance can be evaluated in a microanalytic way and so individualized feedback and support can be easily communicated. The utility of the PETA was assessed with 166 three-to five-year olds...
May 31, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562173/a-novel-working-memory-task-for-preschoolers-sensitivity-to-age-differences-from-3-5-years
#10
Ainsley M Boudreau, Erin E Dempsey, Isabel M Smith, Nancy Garon
Working memory (WM) plays an important role in children's learning and is linked to later academic and occupational success. Understanding the early development of WM can provide critical clues regarding the underlying structure of executive functions and how they change over the life span. The main objectives of the present study were to (1) investigate age differences in the development of three components of WM (retrieval, substitution, transformation) on a novel preschool WM measure and (2) explore whether findings are consistent with the hierarchical model of WM development by examining perseverative and non-perseverative WM errors...
May 31, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554265/secondary-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-following-perinatal-and-childhood-stroke-impact-on-cognitive-and-academic-outcomes
#11
Tricia S Williams, Samantha D Roberts, Andrea M Coppens, Jennifer Crosbie, Nomazulu Dlamini, Robyn Westmacott
This cross-sectional retrospective clinical research study examines a large group of children followed within a pediatric stroke program and a developmental attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) clinic at the Hospital for Sick Children, between May 2004 and June 2016. All children with a history of stroke who participated in a neuropsychological assessment between the ages of 4 and 18 years were considered for inclusion. From a sample of 275 participants with a history of stroke, 36 children (13...
May 30, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609060/-formula-see-text-selecting-measures-for-the-neurodevelopmental-assessment-of-children-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#12
Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Regilda Anne A Romero, Elizabeth L Prado, Elsa G Shapiro, Paul Bangirana, Chandy C John
Diseases affecting millions of children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), such as malnutrition, micronutrient deficiency, malaria, and HIV, can lead to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Thus, a key health outcome in children is neurodevelopmental status. In this paper, the neurodevelopmental screening and testing measures most commonly utilized in LMICs are reviewed, and a matrix is presented to help researchers and clinicians determine which measures may be most useful for various LMIC inquiries...
October 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468789/the-test-retest-reliability-of-the-latent-construct-of-executive-function-depends-on-whether-tasks-are-represented-as-formative-or-reflective-indicators
#13
Michael T Willoughby, Laura J Kuhn, Clancy B Blair, Anya Samek, John A List
This study investigates the test-retest reliability of a battery of executive function (EF) tasks with a specific interest in testing whether the method that is used to create a battery-wide score would result in differences in the apparent test-retest reliability of children's performance. A total of 188 4-year-olds completed a battery of computerized EF tasks twice across a period of approximately two weeks. Two different approaches were used to create a score that indexed children's overall performance on the battery-i...
October 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424626/-formula-see-text-working-memory-outcomes-following-unilateral-arterial-ischemic-stroke-in-childhood
#14
Amanda Fuentes, Robyn Westmacott, Angela Deotto, Gabrielle deVeber, Mary Desrocher
There is a dearth of research examining working memory (WM) following pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). This study assesses the WM patterns of 32 children, aged 6 to 14 years, with a history of unilateral AIS and 32 controls using a paradigm based on Baddeley and Hitch's multi-component WM model. The results indicate compromised WM in children with AIS relative to controls and parent reports confirm higher rates of dysfunction. Supplementary analyses of impairment confirm higher rates in children with AIS, ranging from 31...
October 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27387447/a-structural-equation-modeling-of-executive-functions-iq-and-mathematical-skills-in-primary-students-differential-effects-on-number-production-mental-calculus-and-arithmetical-problems
#15
Vanessa Arán Filippetti, María Cristina Richaud
Though the relationship between executive functions (EFs) and mathematical skills has been well documented, little is known about how both EFs and IQ differentially support diverse math domains in primary students. Inconsistency of results may be due to the statistical techniques employed, specifically, if the analysis is conducted with observed variables, i.e., regression analysis, or at the latent level, i.e., structural equation modeling (SEM). The current study explores the contribution of both EFs and IQ in mathematics through an SEM approach...
October 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282627/body-representation-in-children-with-hemiplegic-cerebral-palsy
#16
Patrícia Lemos Bueno Fontes, Thalita Karla Flores Cruz, Deisiane Oliveira Souto, Ricardo Moura, Vitor Geraldi Haase
Clinical observations indicate that many children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy refrain from using or disregard the affected upper limb. The aim of the present study is to investigate deficits in different body representations (body schema, body structural description, and body image) in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) compared to typically-developing (TD) children. Three groups of children participated in this study: 42 TD children (aged 5.17-10.91 years), 23 children with right HCP (aged 5...
October 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27472007/heterogeneity-in-adhd-neurocognitive-predictors-of-peer-family-and-academic-functioning
#17
Michael J Kofler, Dustin E Sarver, Jamie A Spiegel, Taylor N Day, Sherelle L Harmon, Erica L Wells
Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with impairments in peer, family, and academic functioning. Although impairment is required for diagnosis, children with ADHD vary significantly in the areas in which they demonstrate clinically significant impairment. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms and processes underlying these individual differences. The current study examined neurocognitive predictors of heterogeneity in peer, family, and academic functioning in a well-defined sample of 44 children with ADHD aged 8-13 years (M = 10...
August 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282764/-formula-see-text-parent-rating-of-executive-function-in-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-a-review-of-the-literature-and-new-data-on-aboriginal-canadian-children
#18
Jaspreet K Rai, Maurissa Abecassis, Joseph E Casey, Lloyd Flaro, Laszlo A Erdodi, Robert M Roth
Aboriginal children in Canada are at high risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) but there is little research on the cognitive impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in this population. This paper reviews the literature on parent report of executive functioning in children with FASD that used the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). New data on the BRIEF is then reported in a sample of 52 Aboriginal Canadian children with FASD for whom a primary caregiver completed the BRIEF. The children also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests...
August 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279010/-formula-see-text-dorsal-and-ventral-visual-streams-typical-and-atypical-development
#19
Nevena Simic, Joanne Rovet
The literature on visuospatial processing describes two distinct pathways within the brain: a dorsal route extending from the visual cortex into the parietal lobes that is critical for spatial processing and a ventral route extending from the visual cortex into the temporal lobes that is critical for form perception. These visual streams appear to differ in their developmental trajectories and their vulnerabilities to diverse neurodevelopmental conditions. The present work aims to investigate development and vulnerability in two aspects of dorsal and ventral visual-stream function, namely attention to location and attention to identity...
August 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27258210/virtual-reality-based-attention-assessment-of-adhd-clinicavr-classroom-cpt-versus-a-traditional-continuous-performance-test
#20
Alexandra Neguț, Anda Maria Jurma, Daniel David
Virtual-reality-based assessment may be a good alternative to classical or computerized neuropsychological assessment due to increased ecological validity. ClinicaVR: Classroom-CPT (VC) is a neuropsychological test embedded in virtual reality that is designed to assess attention deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or other conditions associated with impaired attention. The present study aimed to (1) investigate the diagnostic validity of VC in comparison to a traditional continuous performance test (CPT), (2) explore the task difficulty of VC, (3) address the effect of distractors on the performance of ADHD participants and typically-developing (TD) controls, and (4) compare the two measures on cognitive absorption...
August 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
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