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Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230401/cognitive-predictors-of-parent-rated-inattention-in-very-preterm-children-the-role-of-working-memory-and-processing-speed
#1
Jenny Retzler, Samantha Johnson, Madeleine Groom, Chris Hollis, Helen Budge, Lucy Cragg
Inattention is one of the most common neurobehavioral problems following very preterm birth. Attention problems can persist into adulthood and are associated with negative socio-emotional and educational outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether the cognitive processes associated with inattention differ between term-born and very preterm children. Sixty-five children born very preterm (<33+0 weeks' gestation) aged 8-11 years were recruited alongside 48 term-born controls (?37 20 +0 weeks' gestation)...
September 19, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30226410/working-memory-and-behavioral-inhibition-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-an-examination-of-varied-central-executive-demands-construct-overlap-and-task-impurity
#2
Stephanie J Tarle, R Matt Alderson, Connor H G Patros, Elaine F Arrington, Delanie K Roberts
The stop-signal paradigm is the premier metric of behavioral inhibition in contemporary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research. The stop-signal paradigm's choice-reaction time component, however, arguably places greater demands on working memory processes (e.g., controlled-focused attention) relative to alternative inhibition metrics (i.e., go/no-go (GNG) tasks), and consequently obscures conclusions about inhibition and working memory deficits in affected children. The current study, therefore, aimed to determine whether shared variance between stop-signal behavioral inhibition and working memory performance in children with ADHD reflects overlap between the working memory and inhibition constructs or insufficient specificity of the stop-signal paradigm...
September 18, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175686/dimensional-structure-and-measurement-invariance-of-the-brief-2-across-gender-in-a-socially-vulnerable-sample-of-primary-school-aged-children
#3
Angie Jiménez, Beatriz Lucas-Molina
The present study aims to analyze, on the one hand, the dimensional structure of the BRIEF-2 and, on the other, its measurement invariance across gender in a sample of primary school-aged children. Participants were 168 students (51.8% girls) in conditions of social risk and in foster homes, with ages ranging from 6 to 15 years old (M = 10.08; SD = 2.09). The children's executive functioning level was obtained from their parents or caregivers. The analysis of the internal structure using confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the model with three indexes (Behavioral, Emotional and Cognitive) and nine scales (Inhibit, Shift, Self-Monitor, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize, Organization of Materials and Task-Monitor) showed a good fit to the sample...
September 3, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111231/confirmatory-factor-analysis-of-the-behavior-rating-inventory-of-executive-function-in-a-neuro-pediatric-sample-and-its-application-to-mental-disorders
#4
Marianne Halvorsen, Børge Mathiassen, Tarjei Amundsen, Jonas Ellingsen, Per Håkan Brøndbo, Jørgen Sundby, Oddmar Ole Steinsvik, Monica Martinussen
The construct validity of the 9-scale version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) parent form was examined in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders (N = 281). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor model separating the inhibitory behavioral control dimension from the emotional control and metacognitive problem-solving dimensions. The Metacognitive factor was also related to a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after controlling for age, gender, IQ, adaptive functioning, and a conventional behavioral rating scale, which included inattention-hyperactivity symptoms...
August 15, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111229/delay-discounting-of-monetary-gains-and-losses-in-adolescents-with-adhd-contribution-of-delay-aversion-to-choice
#5
Gabry W Mies, Erik de Water, Jan R Wiersema, Anouk Scheres
Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to have stronger preferences for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards in delay discounting tasks than their peers, which has been argued to reflect delay aversion. Here, participants performed a delay discounting task with gains and losses. In this latter condition, participants were asked whether they were willing to wait in order to lose less money. Following the core assumption of the delay aversion model that individuals with ADHD have a general aversion to delay, one would predict adolescents with ADHD to avoid waiting in both conditions...
August 15, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105934/building-capacity-in-neurodevelopment-assessment-of-children-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-quality-assurance-model-to-implement-standardized-neurodevelopment-testing
#6
Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Itziar Familiar, Mary Nyakato, Agatha Kutessa, Jackie Namukooli, Titus Ssesanga, Celeste Joyce, Barbara Laughton, Janet Grab, Miriam Chernoff, Tichaona Vhembo, Lee Fairlie, Portia Kamthunzi, Michael Boivin
Compromised neurodevelopment (ND) among infants and children is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Standardized testing of ND is frequently prohibitive in these contexts, as tests require skilled staff for their application. In this paper, we present a quality assurance (QA) model (QualiND) for standardized ND testing, discussing findings and implications from our experience applying the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children second edition (KABC-II). The QualiND model was implemented within IMPAACT P1104s study, a multisite, prospective study including 615 children affected by HIV...
August 14, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102106/effects-of-inter-character-spacing-on-saccade-programming-in-beginning-readers-and-dyslexics
#7
Stéphanie Bellocchi, Delphine Massendari, Jonathan Grainger, Stéphanie Ducrot
The present study investigated the impact of inter-character spacing on saccade programming in beginning readers and dyslexic children. In two experiments, eye movements were recorded while dyslexic children, reading-age, and chronological-age controls, performed an oculomotor lateralized bisection task on words and strings of hashes presented either with default inter-character spacing or with extra spacing between the characters. The results of Experiment 1 showed that (1) only proficient readers had already developed highly automatized procedures for programming both left- and rightward saccades, depending on the discreteness of the stimuli and (2) children of all groups were disrupted (i...
August 13, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30049262/parent-reported-executive-functioning-in-young-children-treated-for-cancer
#8
Jennifer L Harman, Andrew E Molnar, Lauren E Cox, Niki Jurbergs, Kathryn M Russell, Jillian Wise, Victoria W Willard
It is well known that children treated for cancer are at risk for cognitive and functional impairments. Such research is largely based on studies of late effects in school-aged or older children. However, far less is known about executive function weaknesses in preschool-aged children treated for cancer. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine executive functioning in a clinically referred sample of young oncology patients, and its association with broader domains of functioning. Data from 61 young children with cancer, who were referred for clinical cognitive evaluations, were abstracted and included in this study...
July 26, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041581/initiation-of-joint-attention-and-related-visual-attention-processes-in-infants-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-literature-review
#9
Martina Franchini, Vickie L Armstrong, Marie Schaer, Isabel M Smith
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represents a group of neurodevelopmental disabilities that can be difficult to identify before the age of 2 or 3 years, the age when the full range of behavioral symptoms has emerged in most cases. Initiation of joint attention is an important developmental function in which impairments are already observable before the second birthday and can predict children's ASD symptomatology. In the first part of this review, we summarize results pertaining to retrospective studies of initiation of joint attention in children with ASD and prospective studies of infants at high risk for ASD during the first 2 years, when this behavior is becoming more complex in terms of frequency, quality, and variety...
July 25, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30010484/social-information-processing-skills-link-executive-functions-to-aggression-in-adolescents-with-mild-to-borderline-intellectual-disability
#10
Maaike M Van Rest, Walter Matthys, Maroesjka Van Nieuwenhuijzen, Marleen H M De Moor, Aart Vriens, Carlo Schuengel
Executive Functions (EFs) have been associated with aggression in children and adolescents. EFs as higher-order cognitive abilities are assumed to affect cognitive functions such as Social Information Processing (SIP). We explored SIP skills as a mediating mechanism linking EFs to aggression in adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID with IQ from 50-84), a high risk group for aggressive behaviors and EF impairments. A total of 153 adolescents (Mage  = 15.24, SD = 1.35; 54% male) with MBID participated...
July 16, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29996711/factors-predictive-of-a-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-diagnosis-parent-and-teacher-ratings
#11
Nicole M Taylor, Leah N Enns
Diagnostic assessment in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is informed by multidisciplinary assessment incorporating objective (i.e., test measures) and subjective means, such as parent and teacher behavior ratings. The purpose of this study was to extend our previous neuropsychological test findings by identifying parent and teacher ratings of academic achievement, attention, executive functioning, and adaptive functioning as predictors of an FASD diagnosis. The charts of 315 children and adolescents with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) who underwent assessment for FASD were retrospectively reviewed...
July 12, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29954249/executive-performance-on-the-preschool-executive-task-assessment-in-children-with-sickle-cell-anemia-and-matched-controls
#12
Michelle Downes, Fenella J Kirkham, Christine Berg, Paul Telfer, Michelle de Haan
Executive deficits are commonly reported in children with sickle cell anemia. Earlier identification of executive deficits would give more scope for intervention, but this cognitive domain has not been routinely investigated due to a lack of age-appropriate tasks normed for preschool children. In particular, information relating to patient performance on an executive task that reflects an everyday activity in the classroom could provide important insight and practical recommendations for the classroom teacher at this key developmental juncture as they enter the academic domain...
June 28, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950145/pitch-direction-ability-predicts-melodic-perception-in-autism
#13
Esther Germain, Nicholas E V Foster, Megha Sharda, Rakhee Chowdhury, Ana Tryfon, Krissy A R Doyle-Thomas, Evdokia Anagnostou, Krista L Hyde
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often present atypical auditory perception. Previous work has reported both enhanced low-level pitch discrimination and superior abilities to detect local pitch structure on higher-level melodic tasks in ASD. However, it is unclear how low and high levels of auditory perception are related in ASD or typical development (TD), or how this relationship might change across development and stimulus presentation rates. To these aims, in the present study, children with ASD and TD were tested on a low-level pitch direction discrimination task and a high-level melodic global-local task...
June 28, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347861/positive-emotional-attention-bias-in-young-children-with-symptoms-of-adhd
#14
Amanda Cremone, Claudia I Lugo-Candelas, Elizabeth A Harvey, Jennifer M McDermott, Rebecca M C Spencer
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience emotional dysregulation. Dysregulation can arise from heightened attention to emotional stimuli. Emotional attention biases are associated with a number of adverse socioemotional outcomes including reward sensitivity and externalizing behaviors. As reward sensitivity and externalizing behaviors are common in children with ADHD, the aim of the current study was to determine whether emotional attention biases are evident in young children with clinically significant ADHD symptoms...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052463/hot-and-cool-executive-function-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-cross-sectional-developmental-trajectories
#15
Evangelia-Chrysanthi Kouklari, Stella Tsermentseli, Claire P Monks
The development of executive function (EF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has only been investigated using "cool"-cognitive-EF tasks. Little is known about the development of "hot"-affective-EF and whether it follows a similar developmental pathway. This study employed a cross-sectional developmental trajectories approach to examine the developmental changes in cool (working memory, inhibition, and planning) and hot EF (delay discounting and affective decision-making) of ASD participants (n = 79) and controls (n = 91) relative to age and IQ, shedding more light on the hot-cool EF organization...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050518/naming-speed-as-a-predictive-diagnostic-measure-in-reading-and-attentional-problems
#16
Débora Areces, Trinidad García, Paloma González-Castro, David Alvarez-García, Celestino Rodríguez
This study aimed to describe and compare naming speed abilities in children diagnosed with either Reading Learning Difficulties (RLD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or comorbidity for both (ADHD+RLD). To examine the explanatory power of naming speed and ADHD symptomatology in predicting group associations (while controlling for gender and age), the "Rapid Automatized Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus Tests" (RAN/RAS) were utilized. A sample of 101 children (age range = 5-16 years) was divided into four groups: RLD (n = 14), ADHD (n = 28), comorbid (n = 19), and control (n = 40)...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041835/assessment-of-executive-function-in-adhd-adolescents-contribution-of-performance-tests-and-rating-scales
#17
Virginia Krieger, Juan Antonio Amador-Campos
This study aimed to analyze performance on measures of neuropsychological and behavioral executive functions (EF) in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and to evaluate the utility of performance-based tests for predicting scores on behavioral EF ratings. One hundred eighteen adolescents (75 ADHD and 43 controls) aged 12-16 years performed neuropsychological tests and completed a behavior rating scale of EF. The ADHD group presented significantly lower scores than controls on Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and all indexes of the WISC-IV, except the verbal comprehension index (VCI)...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017430/characterizing-neurocognitive-late-effects-in-childhood-leukemia-survivors-using-a-combination-of-neuropsychological-and-cognitive-neuroscience-measures
#18
Ellen Van Der Plas, Lauren Erdman, Brian J Nieman, Rosanna Weksberg, Darci T Butcher, Deborah L O'connor, Susanne Aufreiter, Johann Hitzler, Sharon L Guger, Russell J Schachar, Shinya Ito, Brenda J Spiegler
Knowledge about cognitive late effects in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is largely based on standardized neuropsychological measures and parent reports. To examine whether cognitive neuroscience paradigms provided additional insights into neurocognitive and behavioral late effects in ALL survivors, we assessed cognition and behavior using a selection of cognitive neuroscience tasks and standardized measures probing domains previously demonstrated to be affected by chemotherapy. 130 ALL survivors and 158 control subjects, between 8 and 18 years old at time of testing, completed the n-back (working memory) and stop-signal (response inhibition) tasks...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914149/identifying-the-nature-of-impairments-in-executive-functioning-and-working-memory-of-children-with-severe-difficulties-in-arithmetic
#19
Pamela A McDonald, Derek H Berg
An age-matched achievement-matched design was used to examine whether the executive functioning and working memory impairments exhibited by children with severe difficulties in arithmetic (SDA) are better viewed as developmental lags or as cognitive deficits. Three groups of children were included: 20 SDA children, 20 typically achieving children (CM) matched in chronological age with the SDA children, and 20 younger typically achieving children (AM) matched in achievement with the SDA group. While children with SDA did not exhibit impairments in color-word inhibition and verbal working memory, they did demonstrate impairments in shifting, quantity-digits inhibition, and visuospatial working memory...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903621/virtual-environments-as-an-assessment-modality-with-pediatric-asd-populations-a-brief-report
#20
Tyler C Duffield, Thomas D Parsons, Allisen Landry, Shaza Karam, Tiffany Otero, Sarah Mastel, Trevor A Hall
Virtual environments (VEs) have demonstrated promise as a neuropsychological assessment modality and may be well suited for the evaluation of children suspected of having an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some recent studies indicate their potential for enhancing reliability, ecologically validity, and sensitivity over traditional neuropsychological evaluation measures. Although research using VEs with ASD is increasing to the degree that several reviews of the literature have been conducted, the reviews to date lack rigor and are not necessarily specific to cognitive or neuropsychological assessment as many focus on intervention...
November 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
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