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Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090728/exploring-text-and-icon-graph-interpretation-in-students-with-dyslexia-an-eye-tracking-study
#1
Sunjung Kim, Rebecca Wiseheart
A growing body of research suggests that individuals with dyslexia struggle to use graphs efficiently. Given the persistence of orthographic processing deficits in dyslexia, this study tested whether graph interpretation deficits in dyslexia are directly related to difficulties processing the orthographic components of graphs (i.e. axes and legend labels). Participants were 80 college students with and without dyslexia. Response times and eye movements were recorded as students answered comprehension questions about simple data displayed in bar graphs...
January 16, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070979/reading-comprehension-a-computerized-intervention-with-primary-age-poor-readers
#2
Joanna Kathryn Horne
The current study investigates the effectiveness of a computerized reading comprehension programme on the reading accuracy, reading comprehension and reading rate of primary-age poor readers. There is little published literature relating to computerized reading interventions in UK primary schools, and no previous studies have investigated the Comprehension Booster programme. Thirty-eight children (26 boys and 12 girls; aged 6:7 to 11:0) from two schools in East Yorkshire, UK, took part. Half of the participants (the intervention group) undertook the Comprehension Booster programme for a 6-week period, whilst the other half (the control group) continued with their usual teaching...
January 9, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070966/the-1-min-screening-test-for-reading-problems-in-college-students-psychometric-properties-of-the-1-min-til
#3
Tânia Fernandes, Susana Araújo, Ana Sucena, Alexandra Reis, São Luís Castro
Reading is a central cognitive domain, but little research has been devoted to standardized tests for adults. We, thus, examined the psychometric properties of the 1-min version of Teste de Idade de Leitura (Reading Age Test; 1-min TIL), the Portuguese version of Lobrot L3 test, in three experiments with college students: typical readers in Experiment 1A and B, dyslexic readers and chronological age controls in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1A, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were evaluated in 185 students...
January 9, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070910/formation-of-orthographic-representations-in-spanish-dyslexic-children-the-role-of-syllable-complexity-and-frequency
#4
Paz Suárez-Coalla, Fernando Cuetos
Recent studies have suggested that Spanish children with dyslexia have difficulty storing orthographic representations of new words. But given that the syllable plays an important role in word recognition in Spanish, it is possible that the formation of orthographic representations is influenced by the characteristics of the syllables that make up the words. The objective of this study was to determine whether syllabic frequency and syllabic complexity influence orthographic learning in children with dyslexia...
January 9, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004879/comprehension-and-generation-of-metaphoric-language-in-children-adolescents-and-adults-with-dyslexia
#5
Anat Kasirer, Nira Mashal
Difficulties with figurative language comprehension were documented in adult dyslexia (DYS). In the present research, we investigated the comprehension and generation of metaphors in 37 children, 35 adolescents, and 34 adults with and without DYS. We also tested the contribution of executive function to metaphor processing. A multiple-choice questionnaire with conventional and novel metaphors was used to assess comprehension; a concept-explanation task was used to test conventional and novel metaphor generation (verbal creativity)...
December 22, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892659/university-students-with-dyslexia-a-qualitative-exploratory-study-of-learning-practices-challenges-and-strategies
#6
Lois MacCullagh, Agnes Bosanquet, Nicholas A Badcock
People with dyslexia are vastly under-represented in universities (Katusic et al., , Richardson & Wydell, ; Stampoltzis & Polychronopoulou, ). This situation is of concern for modern societies that value social justice. This study was designed to explore learning experiences of university students with dyslexia and factors that could contribute to their success. Thirteen students with dyslexia and 20 non-dyslexic peers were interviewed about their university learning experiences using a semi-structured qualitative approach...
November 28, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892641/the-effect-of-illustration-on-improving-text-comprehension-in-dyslexic-adults
#7
Mona Holmqvist Olander, Eva Wennås Brante, Marcus Nyström
This study analyses the effect of pictures in reading materials on the viewing patterns of dyslexic adults. By analysing viewing patterns using eye-tracking, we captured differences in eye movements between young adults with dyslexia and controls based on the influence of reading skill as a continuous variable of the total sample. Both types of participants were assigned randomly to view either text-only or a text + picture stimuli. The results show that the controls made an early global overview of the material and (when a picture was present) rapid transitions between text and picture...
November 28, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805322/selective-impairments-in-covert-shifts-of-attention-in-chinese-dyslexic-children
#8
Yun Ding, Jing Zhao, Tao He, Yufei Tan, Lingshuang Zheng, Zhiguo Wang
Reading depends heavily on the efficient shift of attention. Mounting evidence has suggested that dyslexics have deficits in covert attentional shift. However, it remains unclear whether dyslexics also have deficits in overt attentional shift. With the majority of relevant studies carried out in alphabetic writing systems, it is also unknown whether the attentional deficits observed in dyslexics are restricted to a particular writing system. The present study examined inhibition of return (IOR)-a major driving force of attentional shifts-in dyslexic children learning to read a logographic script (i...
November 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753210/prosodic-similarity-effects-in-short-term-memory-in-developmental-dyslexia
#9
Usha Goswami, Lisa Barnes, Natasha Mead, Alan James Power, Victoria Leong
Children with developmental dyslexia are characterized by phonological difficulties across languages. Classically, this 'phonological deficit' in dyslexia has been investigated with tasks using single-syllable words. Recently, however, several studies have demonstrated difficulties in prosodic awareness in dyslexia. Potential prosodic effects in short-term memory have not yet been investigated. Here we create a new instrument based on three-syllable words that vary in stress patterns, to investigate whether prosodic similarity (the same prosodic pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables) exerts systematic effects on short-term memory...
November 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739162/the-effects-of-visual-attention-span-and-phonological-decoding-in-reading-comprehension-in-dyslexia-a-path-analysis
#10
Chen Chen, Matthew H Schneps, Katherine E Masyn, Jennifer M Thomson
Increasing evidence has shown visual attention span to be a factor, distinct from phonological skills, that explains single-word identification (pseudo-word/word reading) performance in dyslexia. Yet, little is known about how well visual attention span explains text comprehension. Observing reading comprehension in a sample of 105 high school students with dyslexia, we used a pathway analysis to examine the direct and indirect path between visual attention span and reading comprehension while controlling for other factors such as phonological awareness, letter identification, short-term memory, IQ and age...
November 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730707/reading-processes-of-university-students-with-dyslexia-an-examination-of-the-relationship-between-oral-reading-and-reading-comprehension
#11
Henriette Folkmann Pedersen, Riccardo Fusaroli, Lene Louise Lauridsen, Rauno Parrila
The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of oral reading and how it relates to reading comprehension in students with dyslexia. A group of Danish university students with dyslexia (n = 16) and a comparison group of students with no history of reading problems (n = 16) were assessed on their oral reading performance when reading a complex text. Along with reading speed, we measured not only the number and quality of reading errors but also the extent and semantic nature of the self-corrections during reading...
November 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714935/is-reading-impairment-associated-with-enhanced-holistic-processing-in-comparative-visual-search
#12
Jiahui Wang, Matthew H Schneps, Pavlo D Antonenko, Chen Chen, Marc Pomplun
This study explores a proposition that individuals with dyslexia develop enhanced peripheral vision to process visual-spatial information holistically. Participants included 18 individuals diagnosed with dyslexia and 18 who were not. The experiment used a comparative visual search design consisting of two blocks of 72 trials. Each trial presented two halves of the display each comprising three kinds of shapes in three colours to be compared side-by-side. Participants performed a conjunctive search to ascertain whether the two halves were identical...
November 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465261/associations-between-the-kiaa0319-dyslexia-susceptibility-gene-variants-antenatal-maternal-stress-and-reading-ability-in-a-longitudinal-birth-cohort
#13
Stephanie D'Souza, Amelia Backhouse-Smith, John M D Thompson, Rebecca Slykerman, Gareth Marlow, Clare Wall, Rinki Murphy, Lynnette R Ferguson, Edwin A Mitchell, Karen E Waldie
Maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with detrimental cognitive developmental outcomes in offspring. This study investigated whether antenatal maternal perceived stress and variants of the rs12193738 and rs2179515 polymorphisms on the KIAA0319 gene interact to affect reading ability and full-scale IQ (FSIQ) in members of the longitudinal Auckland Birthweight Collaborative study. Antenatal maternal stress was measured at birth, and reading ability was assessed at ages 7 and 16. Reading data were available for 500 participants at age 7 and 479 participants at age 16...
November 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465210/calibration-of-self-reports-of-anxiety-and-physiological-measures-of-anxiety-while-reading-in-adults-with-and-without-reading-disability
#14
Yael Meer, Zvia Breznitz, Tami Katzir
Reading difficulty has been linked to anxiety in adults yet and has not been systematically studied especially in compensated adults with dyslexia. This study examined the relationships between anxiety ratings and physiological arousal while reading among adults with reading disability (RD) compared to skilled readers (SR). Nineteen compensated adults with RD and 20 SR adults were administered a battery of reading tasks and anxiety self-report questionnaires. Physiological measures of arousal were recorded during text reading task...
August 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465209/why-are-reading-difficulties-associated-with-mental-health-problems
#15
Mark E Boyes, Suze Leitao, Mary Claessen, Nicholas A Badcock, Mandy Nayton
A growing literature indicates that children with reading difficulties are at elevated risk for mental health problems; however, little attention has been given to why this might be the case. Associations between reading difficulties and mental health differ substantially across studies, raising the possibility that these relationships may be ameliorated or exacerbated by risk or resilience-promoting factors. Using socio-ecological theory as a conceptual framework, we outline four potential lines of research that could shed light on why children with reading difficulties are at risk of mental health problems and identify potential targets for intervention...
August 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465208/responsiveness-to-intervention-in-children-with-dyslexia
#16
Elisabeth A T Tilanus, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
We examined the responsiveness to a 12-week phonics intervention in 54 s-grade Dutch children with dyslexia, and compared their reading and spelling gains to a control group of 61 typical readers. The intervention aimed to train grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs), and word reading and spelling by using phonics instruction. We examined the accuracy and efficiency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences, decoding words and pseudowords, as well as the accuracy of spelling words before and after the intervention...
August 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315421/comparing-bilingual-to-monolingual-learners-on-english-spelling-a-meta-analytic-review
#17
REVIEW
Jing Zhao, Blanca Quiroz, L Quentin Dixon, R Malatesha Joshi
This study reports on a meta-analysis to examine how bilingual learners compare with English monolingual learners on two English spelling outcomes: real-word spelling and pseudo-word spelling. Eighteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and 2014 were retrieved. The study-level variables and characteristics (e.g. sample size, study design and research instruments) were coded, and 29 independent effect sizes across the 18 retrieved studies were analysed. We found that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals on real-word spelling overall and more so in early grades, but monolinguals outperformed bilinguals on pseudo-word spelling...
August 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27194598/a-special-font-for-people-with-dyslexia-does-it-work-and-if-so-why
#18
Eva Marinus, Michelle Mostard, Eliane Segers, Teresa M Schubert, Alison Madelaine, Kevin Wheldall
In 2008 Christian Boer, a Dutch artist, developed a special font ("Dyslexie") to facilitate reading in children and adults with dyslexia. The font has received a lot of media attention worldwide (e.g., TheGuardian.com, Slate.com, TheAtlantic.com, USA Today, and io9.com). Interestingly, there is barely any empirical evidence for the efficacy of Dyslexie. This study aims to examine if Dyslexie is indeed more effective than a commonly used sans serif font (Arial) and, if so, whether this can be explained by its relatively large spacing settings...
August 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121331/self-reports-of-increased-prospective-and-retrospective-memory-problems-in-adults-with-developmental-dyslexia
#19
James H Smith-Spark, Adam P Zięcik, Christopher Sterling
Short-term and working memory problems in dyslexia are well-documented, but other memory domains have received little empirical scrutiny, despite some evidence to suggest that they might be impaired. Prospective memory is memory for delayed intentions, whilst retrospective memory relates to memory for personally experienced past events. To gain an understanding of subjective everyday memory experience, a self-report measure designed to tap prospective and retrospective memory was administered to 28 adults with dyslexia and 26 IQ-matched adults without dyslexia...
August 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146375/spelling-errors-in-french-speaking-children-with-dyslexia-phonology-may-not-provide-the-best-evidence
#20
Daniel Daigle, Agnès Costerg, Anne Plisson, Noémia Ruberto, Joëlle Varin
For children with dyslexia, learning to write constitutes a great challenge. There has been consensus that the explanation for these learners' delay is related to a phonological deficit. Results from studies designed to describe dyslexic children's spelling errors are not always as clear concerning the role of phonological processes as those found in reading studies. In irregular languages like French, spelling abilities involve other processes than phonological processes. The main goal of this study was to describe the relative contribution of these other processes in dyslexic children's spelling ability...
May 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
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