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Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497530/short-term-memory-in-childhood-dyslexia-deficient-serial-order-in-multiple-modalities
#1
Nelson Cowan, Tiffany P Hogan, Mary Alt, Samuel Green, Kathryn L Cabbage, Shara Brinkley, Shelley Gray
In children with dyslexia, deficits in working memory have not been well-specified. We assessed second-grade children with dyslexia, with and without concomitant specific language impairment, and children with typical development. Immediate serial recall of lists of phonological (non-word), lexical (digit), spatial (location) and visual (shape) items were included. For the latter three modalities, we used not only standard span but also running span tasks, in which the list length was unpredictable to limit mnemonic strategies...
May 12, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493359/verbal-and-non-verbal-fluency-in-adults-with-developmental-dyslexia-phonological-processing-or-executive-control-problems
#2
James H Smith-Spark, Lucy A Henry, David J Messer, Adam P Zięcik
The executive function of fluency describes the ability to generate items according to specific rules. Production of words beginning with a certain letter (phonemic fluency) is impaired in dyslexia, while generation of words belonging to a certain semantic category (semantic fluency) is typically unimpaired. However, in dyslexia, verbal fluency has generally been studied only in terms of overall words produced. Furthermore, performance of adults with dyslexia on non-verbal design fluency tasks has not been explored but would indicate whether deficits could be explained by executive control, rather than phonological processing, difficulties...
May 11, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470910/word-decoding-development-during-phonics-instruction-in-children-at-risk-for-dyslexia
#3
Moniek M H Schaars, Eliane Segers, Ludo Verhoeven
In the present study, we examined the early word decoding development of 73 children at genetic risk of dyslexia and 73 matched controls. We conducted monthly curriculum-embedded word decoding measures during the first 5 months of phonics-based reading instruction followed by standardized word decoding measures halfway and by the end of first grade. In kindergarten, vocabulary, phonological awareness, lexical retrieval, and verbal and visual short-term memory were assessed. The results showed that the children at risk were less skilled in phonemic awareness in kindergarten...
May 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470909/psychological-well-being-trajectories-of-individuals-with-dyslexia-aged-3-11%C3%A2-years
#4
Julie-Ann Jordan, Kevin Dyer
Dyslexia has been associated with a range of psychological well-being issues in childhood. However, it is unclear if these difficulties stem from coping with academic struggles at school, or from other pre-existing diagnoses that sometimes co-occur with dyslexia. Using UK Millennium Cohort Study data (n = 7224) from 2003 to 2011, the present study compared psychological well-being development from ages 3-11 years for children with (1) dyslexia only; (2) special educational needs excluding dyslexia; (3) comorbid dyslexia and other special educational needs; and (4) no special educational needs...
May 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165169/english-as-a-foreign-language-in-bilingual-language-minority-children-children-with-dyslexia-and-monolingual-typical-readers
#5
Paola Bonifacci, Elisa Canducci, Giulia Gravagna, Paola Palladino
The present study was aimed at investigating literacy skills in English as a foreign language in three different groups of children: monolinguals with dyslexia (n = 19), typically developing bilinguals (language-minority) (n = 19) and a control group of monolinguals (Italian) (n = 76). Bilinguals were not expected to fail in English measures, and their gap with monolinguals would be expected to be limited to the instructional language, owing to underexposure. All participants were enrolled in Italian primary schools (fourth and fifth grades)...
May 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070979/reading-comprehension-a-computerized-intervention-with-primary-age-poor-readers
#6
Joanna Kathryn Horne
The current study investigates the effectiveness of a computerized reading comprehension programme on the reading accuracy, reading comprehension and reading rate of primary-age poor readers. There is little published literature relating to computerized reading interventions in UK primary schools, and no previous studies have investigated the Comprehension Booster programme. Thirty-eight children (26 boys and 12 girls; aged 6:7 to 11:0) from two schools in East Yorkshire, UK, took part. Half of the participants (the intervention group) undertook the Comprehension Booster programme for a 6-week period, whilst the other half (the control group) continued with their usual teaching...
May 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004879/comprehension-and-generation-of-metaphoric-language-in-children-adolescents-and-adults-with-dyslexia
#7
Anat Kasirer, Nira Mashal
Difficulties with figurative language comprehension were documented in adult dyslexia (DYS). In the present research, we investigated the comprehension and generation of metaphors in 37 children, 35 adolescents, and 34 adults with and without DYS. We also tested the contribution of executive function to metaphor processing. A multiple-choice questionnaire with conventional and novel metaphors was used to assess comprehension; a concept-explanation task was used to test conventional and novel metaphor generation (verbal creativity)...
May 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177182/morpheme-based-reading-and-spelling-in-italian-children-with-developmental-dyslexia-and-dysorthography
#8
Paola Angelelli, Chiara Valeria Marinelli, Marinella De Salvatore, Cristina Burani
Italian sixth graders, with and without dyslexia, read pseudowords and low-frequency words that include high-frequency morphemes better than stimuli not including any morpheme. The present study assessed whether morphemes affect (1) younger children, with and without dyslexia; (2) spelling as well as reading; and (3) words with low-frequency morphemes. Two groups of third graders (16 children with dyslexia and dysorthography and 16 age-matched typically developing children) read aloud and spelt to dictation pseudowords and words...
February 8, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090728/exploring-text-and-icon-graph-interpretation-in-students-with-dyslexia-an-eye-tracking-study
#9
Sunjung Kim, Rebecca Wiseheart
A growing body of research suggests that individuals with dyslexia struggle to use graphs efficiently. Given the persistence of orthographic processing deficits in dyslexia, this study tested whether graph interpretation deficits in dyslexia are directly related to difficulties processing the orthographic components of graphs (i.e. axes and legend labels). Participants were 80 college students with and without dyslexia. Response times and eye movements were recorded as students answered comprehension questions about simple data displayed in bar graphs...
February 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070966/the-1-min-screening-test-for-reading-problems-in-college-students-psychometric-properties-of-the-1-min-til
#10
Tânia Fernandes, Susana Araújo, Ana Sucena, Alexandra Reis, São Luís Castro
Reading is a central cognitive domain, but little research has been devoted to standardized tests for adults. We, thus, examined the psychometric properties of the 1-min version of Teste de Idade de Leitura (Reading Age Test; 1-min TIL), the Portuguese version of Lobrot L3 test, in three experiments with college students: typical readers in Experiment 1A and B, dyslexic readers and chronological age controls in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1A, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were evaluated in 185 students...
February 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070910/formation-of-orthographic-representations-in-spanish-dyslexic-children-the-role-of-syllable-complexity-and-frequency
#11
Paz Suárez-Coalla, Fernando Cuetos
Recent studies have suggested that Spanish children with dyslexia have difficulty storing orthographic representations of new words. But given that the syllable plays an important role in word recognition in Spanish, it is possible that the formation of orthographic representations is influenced by the characteristics of the syllables that make up the words. The objective of this study was to determine whether syllabic frequency and syllabic complexity influence orthographic learning in children with dyslexia...
February 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892659/university-students-with-dyslexia-a-qualitative-exploratory-study-of-learning-practices-challenges-and-strategies
#12
Lois MacCullagh, Agnes Bosanquet, Nicholas A Badcock
People with dyslexia are vastly under-represented in universities (Katusic et al., , Richardson & Wydell, ; Stampoltzis & Polychronopoulou, ). This situation is of concern for modern societies that value social justice. This study was designed to explore learning experiences of university students with dyslexia and factors that could contribute to their success. Thirteen students with dyslexia and 20 non-dyslexic peers were interviewed about their university learning experiences using a semi-structured qualitative approach...
February 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892641/the-effect-of-illustration-on-improving-text-comprehension-in-dyslexic-adults
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mona Holmqvist Olander, Eva Wennås Brante, Marcus Nyström
This study analyses the effect of pictures in reading materials on the viewing patterns of dyslexic adults. By analysing viewing patterns using eye-tracking, we captured differences in eye movements between young adults with dyslexia and controls based on the influence of reading skill as a continuous variable of the total sample. Both types of participants were assigned randomly to view either text-only or a text + picture stimuli. The results show that the controls made an early global overview of the material and (when a picture was present) rapid transitions between text and picture...
February 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128884/cross-language-transfer-of-metalinguistic-skills-evidence-from-spelling-english-words-by-korean-students-in-grades-4-5-and-6
#14
Sookkyung Yeon, Han Suk Bae, Malatesha Joshi
The present study examined unique and shared contributions of Korean (first language) phonological, orthographic and morphological awareness (PA, OA and MA, respectively) to English (second/foreign language) spelling among 287 fourth-grade, fifth-grade and sixth-grade Korean children. Korean measures of PA, OA and MA were administered, in addition to English vocabulary and spelling measures. Results from structural equation modelling showed that PA, OA and MA were caused by one common construct, metalinguistic awareness (META), and the contribution of Korean META to English spelling was statistically significant, controlling for English vocabulary...
January 27, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124462/spelling-and-morphology-in-dyslexia-a-developmental-study-across-the-school-years
#15
Rachel Schiff, Ronit Levie
The current study examined the effect of morphological knowledge on spelling development in Hebrew-speaking schoolchildren, adolescents and adults with dyslexia, compared with typically developing (TD) peers. Participants were 238 Hebrew-speaking readers of five grade levels of whom 139 were TD and 99 had developmental dyslexia (DD). Participants were tested on a function letter spelling task, a phonological awareness task and a morphological awareness task. The overall picture that emerged from the results is that performance on all measures increased with grade level, with TD participants always scoring higher than peers with DD...
January 25, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805322/selective-impairments-in-covert-shifts-of-attention-in-chinese-dyslexic-children
#16
Yun Ding, Jing Zhao, Tao He, Yufei Tan, Lingshuang Zheng, Zhiguo Wang
Reading depends heavily on the efficient shift of attention. Mounting evidence has suggested that dyslexics have deficits in covert attentional shift. However, it remains unclear whether dyslexics also have deficits in overt attentional shift. With the majority of relevant studies carried out in alphabetic writing systems, it is also unknown whether the attentional deficits observed in dyslexics are restricted to a particular writing system. The present study examined inhibition of return (IOR)-a major driving force of attentional shifts-in dyslexic children learning to read a logographic script (i...
November 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753210/prosodic-similarity-effects-in-short-term-memory-in-developmental-dyslexia
#17
Usha Goswami, Lisa Barnes, Natasha Mead, Alan James Power, Victoria Leong
Children with developmental dyslexia are characterized by phonological difficulties across languages. Classically, this 'phonological deficit' in dyslexia has been investigated with tasks using single-syllable words. Recently, however, several studies have demonstrated difficulties in prosodic awareness in dyslexia. Potential prosodic effects in short-term memory have not yet been investigated. Here we create a new instrument based on three-syllable words that vary in stress patterns, to investigate whether prosodic similarity (the same prosodic pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables) exerts systematic effects on short-term memory...
November 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739162/the-effects-of-visual-attention-span-and-phonological-decoding-in-reading-comprehension-in-dyslexia-a-path-analysis
#18
Chen Chen, Matthew H Schneps, Katherine E Masyn, Jennifer M Thomson
Increasing evidence has shown visual attention span to be a factor, distinct from phonological skills, that explains single-word identification (pseudo-word/word reading) performance in dyslexia. Yet, little is known about how well visual attention span explains text comprehension. Observing reading comprehension in a sample of 105 high school students with dyslexia, we used a pathway analysis to examine the direct and indirect path between visual attention span and reading comprehension while controlling for other factors such as phonological awareness, letter identification, short-term memory, IQ and age...
November 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730707/reading-processes-of-university-students-with-dyslexia-an-examination-of-the-relationship-between-oral-reading-and-reading-comprehension
#19
Henriette Folkmann Pedersen, Riccardo Fusaroli, Lene Louise Lauridsen, Rauno Parrila
The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of oral reading and how it relates to reading comprehension in students with dyslexia. A group of Danish university students with dyslexia (n = 16) and a comparison group of students with no history of reading problems (n = 16) were assessed on their oral reading performance when reading a complex text. Along with reading speed, we measured not only the number and quality of reading errors but also the extent and semantic nature of the self-corrections during reading...
November 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714935/is-reading-impairment-associated-with-enhanced-holistic-processing-in-comparative-visual-search
#20
Jiahui Wang, Matthew H Schneps, Pavlo D Antonenko, Chen Chen, Marc Pomplun
This study explores a proposition that individuals with dyslexia develop enhanced peripheral vision to process visual-spatial information holistically. Participants included 18 individuals diagnosed with dyslexia and 18 who were not. The experiment used a comparative visual search design consisting of two blocks of 72 trials. Each trial presented two halves of the display each comprising three kinds of shapes in three colours to be compared side-by-side. Participants performed a conjunctive search to ascertain whether the two halves were identical...
November 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
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