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Neurocase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310506/neuronal-activity-organization-features-in-human-consciousness-summary-of-introductory-remarks-in-a-dialogue-with-neurological-surgery-residents
#1
Cristian L Vera, Sunil J Patel, Fraser C Henderson, Donna R Roberts, Vibhor Krishna
Agreeing with Damasio's statement defining the "process" of consciousness, we propose the self as created by mind-based knowledge and a combination of images of an organism's intentional motor responses interacting with its environment. The lemniscal system, with plastic capabilities, manages gravity in voluntary movement. The spinal segment motor reflex represents the schema of gravity-managing neuronal activity, and it can become "nested" in cortical areas participating in consciousness-building, allowing consideration of the brain as a hyper-evolved nervous system segment harboring atavic spinal organization...
January 9, 2018: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308699/posterior-cortical-atrophy-a-single-case-cognitive-and-radiological-follow-up
#2
Sol Esteves, Diana Andrea Ramirez Romero, Teresa Torralva, Macarena Martínez Cuitiño, Shannon Herndon, Blas Couto, Agustín Ibañez, Facundo Manes, María Roca
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by initial predominant visuoperceptual deficits followed by a progressive decline in other cognitive functions. This syndrome has not been as thoroughly described as other dementias, particularly from a neuropsychological evolution perspective with only a few studies describing the evolution of its cognitive progression. In this investigation we review the literature on this rare condition and we perform a 7-year neuropsychological and neuroradiological follow-up of a 64-year-old man with PCA...
January 8, 2018: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307276/multiproteinopathy-neurodegeneration-and-old-age-a-case-study
#3
Julio C Rojas, Melanie L Stephens, Gil D Rabinovici, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, William W Seeley
A complex spectrum of mixed brain pathologies is common in older people. This clinical pathologic conference case study illustrates the challenges of formulating clinicopathologic correlations in late-onset neurodegenerative diseases featuring cognitive-behavioral syndromes with underlying multiple proteinopathy. Studies on the co-existence and interactions of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with neurodegenerative non-AD pathologies in the aging brain are needed to understand the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and to support the development of diagnostic biomarkers and therapies...
January 6, 2018: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277135/mixed-language-dominance-insights-from-a-case-of-unexpected-fluent-aphasia-with-semantic-jargon-resulting-from-massive-left-perisylvian-lesion
#4
Dimitrios Kasselimis, Constantin Potagas, Panagiotis Simos, Ioannis Evdokimidis, Harry Whitaker
We report a right-handed patient with a massive lesion in left perisylvian language cortex, who unexpectedly presented with fluent aphasia with semantic jargon. Language deficits were assessed with a comprehensive battery of language tests. Comprehension, naming, reading, and writing were severely impaired, and verbal expression was moderately fluent with semantic jargon. Although the patient's lesion included brain areas typically essential for motor speech coordination, he was neither nonfluent nor apraxic...
December 25, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261031/alterations-of-emotional-reactivity-following-righttemporal-lobectomy
#5
Mary K Morris, Dawn Bowers, John Williamson, Kenneth M Heilman
To learn if a right temporal lobectomy altered a patient's autonomic and cognitive responses to aversive and appetitive pictures, we investigated a man whose right anterior temporal lobe and amygdala had been resected to remove an arteriovenous malformation. This patient revealed unusually low self-reports of arousal with a lack of heightened skin conductance responses to aversive pictures. For pleasant pictures, his self-reports of arousal and his physiological responses were similar to healthy men. This patient's responses are consistent with a bivalent model of emotional processing, with a right temporal lobectomy compromising the activation of his defensive action response system...
December 20, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185377/the-painter-from-sinaloa-artistic-analysis-of-a-case-of-spatial-agnosia-and-neglect-of-visual-shapes
#6
Juan Manuel Orjuela-Rojas, Ana Luisa Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Ruth Díaz-Victoria, Oscar René Marrufo Melendez, Nicolás Leyva Townsend
Paintings produced spontaneously by patients with neurological lesions represent a fascinating opportunity to analyze some aspects of the underlying disease and involved brain mechanisms. Many cases of artists who have suffered spatial neglect following a neurological disease have been reported in the literature. However, only a few studies evaluating the different subtypes of graphic neglect and aspects related to the construction of perspective (three dimensionality) in works of art have been published. In the present article, we present the case of an artist who, after resection of a central neurocytoma that affected the right thalamo-parietal connections, suffered an impairment of the ability to create perspective in his paintings and involuntary omission of only shapes in the left side of his paintings, although colors and contours were preserved...
November 29, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070006/accelerated-long-term-forgetting-limited-to-the-recollection-component-of-recognition-memory-in-a-temporal-lobe-epileptic-patient
#7
Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo, Antonio Daniele, Maria Giovanna Lombardi, Giordano Lacidogna, Alfredo La Cara, Lucia Fadda, Carlo Caltagirone
Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is a frequent finding in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here we report the case of a TLE patient who complained of marked difficulties in remembering personal events and information even though repeated neuropsychological assessments had failed to detect any deficit on common laboratory memory tests. The patient underwent an experimental investigation that involved estimating recollection and familiarity processes in the performance on verbal and visual recognition tests, over intervals ranging from 10 minutes to 7 days...
October 26, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063814/the-use-of-cannabidiol-for-seizure-management-in-patients-with-brain-tumor-related-epilepsy
#8
Paula Province Warren, E Martina Bebin, L Burt Nabors, Jerzy P Szaflarski
Epilepsy, commonly encountered by patients with brain tumors, is often refractory to standard therapies. Our aim was to examine the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical grade cannabidiol (CBD; Epidiolex, GW Pharmaceuticals) in those patients with epilepsy with concomitant tumors enrolled in The University of Alabama at Birmingham CBD Program (NCT02700412 and NCT02695537). Of the three patients with refractory seizures and a history of a primary brain tumor, two had improvement in seizure frequency and all three had improvement in seizure severity...
October 24, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063812/reorganized-neural-activation-in-motor-cortex-following-subdural-fluid-collection-an-fmri-and-dti-study
#9
Layla Gould, Michael E Kelly, Marla J S Mickleborough, Chelsea Ekstrand, Kyle Brymer, Tasha Ellchuk, Ron Borowsky
We report a patient with a cavernous malformation involving the right lentiform nucleus. Pre-surgical planning included fMRI localization of language, motor, and sensory processing, and DTI of white matter tracts. fMRI results revealed no activation near the planned resection zone. However, post-surgery the patient developed a subdural fluid collection, which applied pressure to the primary motor cortex (M1). Follow-up scans revealed that motor activation had shifted due to pressure, and then shifted to a new location after the fluid collection subsided...
October 24, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052465/evaluating-the-roles-of-left-middle-frontal-gyrus-in-word-production-using-electrocorticography
#10
Jianbin Wen, Tao Yu, Li Liu, Zhenhong Hu, Jiaqing Yan, Yongjie Li, Xiaoli Li
To assess the specific roles of left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG) in word production, electrocorticography signals were recorded from an epilepsy patient when he participated in language tasks. We found three sites of LMFG showed high-gamma perturbations with distinct patterns across tasks; and neural activities elicited in the same tasks shared similar patterns, while those elicited by stimuli leading to the same articulations did not. These findings confirmed that the LMFG takes active parts in word production, and suggested that it may serve as a temporal perceptual information storage space, supporting the hierarchical state feedback control model of word production...
October 20, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032699/a-patient-with-aphasia-using-the-nonsemantic-lexical-route-for-kanji-reading
#11
Kosei Hashimoto, Akira Uno, Ami Sambai, Go Mizumoto
We report a patient with aphasia, caused by cerebral hemorrhage, who probably used the nonsemantic lexical route when reading words aloud. To investigate the mechanisms underlying her reading dysfunction, we analyzed her reading abilities using the Dual-Route Cascaded Model. Language tests resulted in low correct percentages for both reading comprehension and reading nonwords aloud, suggesting problems in the semantic system and the nonlexical route. Conversely, the patient showed high scores on the reading words aloud task...
October 16, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027506/coprolalia-in-aphasic-patients-with-stroke-a-longitudinal-observation-from-the-blas2t-database
#12
Fazlallah Afshangian, Mohammad Nami, Amin Abolhasani Foroughi, Amir Rahimi, Ryan Husak, Franco Fabbro, Barbara Tomasino, Christine Kremer
The BLAS2T (bilingual aphasia in stroke-study team) initiative has been a multi-center attempt to investigate longitudinal changes in language function in a cohort of stroke subjects. This report discusses linguistic performance in four cases from the BLAS2T database who demonstrated coprolalia as an irresistible urge to say obscene words.  Coprolalia was found to partly resolve in a 30-day follow-up in three cases. Recognition of coprolalia and language recovery patterns in bilingual aphasic patients with stroke would potentially lead to their even better individualized care and neurolinguistic/cognitive rehabilitation...
October 13, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952404/partial-resection-of-presurgical-fmri-activation-is-associated-with-a-postsurgical-loss-of-language-function-after-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery
#13
Kirsten Labudda, Markus Mertens, Thilo Kalbhenn, Reinhard Schulz, Friedrich G Woermann
We describe five patients with frontal lobe epilepsy who underwent electrocortical stimulation (ES) for language localization and language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to epilepsy surgery. Six months after surgery, three patients suffered from a drop of verbal fluency. In all of them, frontal areas with presurgical language fMRI activity were resected. Our results suggest that resection in regions of areas with presurgical fMRI activation is not without risk for a postsurgical loss of function, even when ES results were negative for language function in these areas...
September 27, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929921/clinical-implications-of-interictal-epileptiform-discharges-in-cognitive-functioning-in-cec-syndrome-with-evolution-into-epileptic-encephalopathy
#14
Paolo Bonanni, Susanna Negrin, Lisa Antoniazzi, Martina Da Rold, Franco Fabbro, Anna Serafini
In epileptic encephalopathies (EE), interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) contribute to cognitive impairment. The EE process has been studied in a patient affected by epilepsy with occipital calcification and celiac disease (CEC syndrome) by combining the administration of brain area stimulus specific (visual and auditory) reaction times (RT) during continuous EEG monitoring with the off-line reconstruction of auditory and visual evoked potentials (EP). Visual RT and VEP were abnormal only if recorded concomitantly to the IEDs...
September 20, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859551/fractionating-controlled-memory-processes-and-recall-of-context-in-recognition-memory-a-case-report
#15
Kata Pauly-Takacs, Chris J A Moulin
Recollection has been described as both a recognition memory judgment requiring cognitive control and the ability to retrieve contextual information about a prior occurrence. At the core of this article is the question whether or not these two subcomponents of recollection are dissociable in amnesia. In three experiments, we explored the influence of exclusion task instructions on performance in a single case (CJ), with the view to understand the relative contributions of control and source memory to recognition memory decisions...
September 1, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805104/present-and-future-selves-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Alexandra Ernst, Joanne Allen, Lydia Dubourg, Céline Souchay
The study of the self in neuropsychological patients raises not only theoretical questions on the relationships between the self, autobiographical memory (AM), and episodic future thinking but also clinical issues for patients' daily life and care. We addressed this issue in Parkinson's disease patients for whom AM and future thinking impairments have been documented. All patients and controls generated and dated up past and future self-images and provided associated past and future events. Our findings suggest a subtle pattern of preservation/impairment of different dimensions (quantitative and qualitative) of self-images, which rely partially on the episodic quality of past and future events...
August 13, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789579/reading-on-the-right-when-there-s-nothing-left-probabilistic-tractography-reveals-hemispheric-asymmetry-in-pure-alexia
#17
Michele Veldsman, Tobias Loetscher, Amanda Wood, Amy Brodtmann
We present a patient with reading inexpertise and right hemianopia following left posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. We examine the extent of disruption to reading performance and the extent of white matter tract damage relative to a patient with more limited PCA infarction and isolated right hemianopia. We show white matter disconnection of the temporal occipital fusiform cortex in our pure alexia patient. Connectivity-based laterality indices revealed right hemisphere laterality in the alexia patient; this was not associated with improved reading function...
August 9, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786315/enhanced-cognition-and-emotional-recognition-and-reduced-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-in-two-adults-with-high-functioning-autism-as-a-result-of-deep-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-dtms-a-case-report
#18
Keren Avirame, Jimmy Stehberg, Doron Todder
We report reduced repetitive behaviors similar to obsessive compulsive disorder and improved emotional recognition and cognitive abilities in two young patients diagnosed with high-functioning Autism as a result of deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS). The patients received daily high-frequency (5 Hz) dTMS with HAUT-coil over the medial prefrontal cortex for a period of 5-6 weeks. A computerized cognitive battery, tasks for testing emotional recognition, and clinical questionnaires were used to measure the effects of treatment...
August 8, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774229/what-role-for-prism-adaptation-in-the-rehabilitation-of-pure-neglect-dyslexia
#19
Radek Ptak
Prism adaptation (PA) has been successfully applied in the rehabilitation of spatial neglect, with significant transfer to classic neglect tests and activities of daily living. However, well-controlled studies were unable to replicate these findings, and recent reports suggest that PA may affect selectively visuo-motor symptoms. Here, a patient with pure left neglect dyslexia was tested before, immediately after, and 24 h after PA. Despite a significant adaptation aftereffect adaptation had no effect omissions, substitutions and letter-based errors...
August 4, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691585/hyper-brain-connectivity-in-binge-drinking-college-students-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#20
Karl Kashfi, Kareem Al-Khalil, Jiancheng Hou, Dan Fang, Ron Anderson, Ravi Rajmohan, Peter Syapin, Michael W O'Boyle
The current study used diffusion tensor imaging to examine patterns/degree of brain connectivity in 12 college-aged binge drinking (BD) and 12 moderate drinking individuals. Voxel-level and region-of-interest analyses revealed increased connectivity of the BD brain in the right corona radiata, right external capsule, and both the right and left cingulum. Also, fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity values of these regions correlated with a number of drinking behaviors of the BD as well as both groups combined...
July 10, 2017: Neurocase
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