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Allison J Good, Michele K Harris, Adam D Falchook, Robert T Watson, Kenneth M Heilman
In 1984, Watson and Heilman reported a patient with a partial callosal disconnection following an infarction of the anterior portion of her corpus callosum. This woman's performance on line-bisection tasks revealed "callosal disconnection neglect." The objective of this research is to reexamine this woman 34 years after her callosal disconnection to gain information about her recovery. The patient completed visual line-bisection tasks in which horizontal lines were placed in the right, left, and center hemispaces and she performed these bisections using her right or left hand...
November 21, 2016: Neurocase
Jessica Gillard, Michael Schutz
Short melodies are commonly linked to referents in jingles, ringtones, movie themes, and even auditory displays (i.e., sounds used in human-computer interactions). While melody associations can be quite effective, auditory alarms in medical devices are generally poorly learned and highly confused. Here, we draw on approaches and stimuli from both music cognition (melody recognition) and human factors (alarm design) to analyze the patterns of confusions in a paired-associate alarm-learning task involving both a standardized melodic alarm set (Experiment 1) and a set of novel melodies (Experiment 2)...
November 21, 2016: Neurocase
Joël Macoir, Sarah Berubé-Lalancette, Maximiliano A Wilson, Robert Laforce, Carol Hudon, Pierre Gravel, Olivier Potvin, Simon Duchesne, Laura Monetta
Music can induce particular emotions and activate semantic knowledge. In the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), semantic memory is impaired as a result of anterior temporal lobe (ATL) atrophy. Semantics is responsible for the encoding and retrieval of factual knowledge about music, including associative and emotional attributes. In the present study, we report the performance of two individuals with svPPA in three experiments. NG with bilateral ATL atrophy and ND with atrophy largely restricted to the left ATL...
November 16, 2016: Neurocase
Nina Hedayati, Kylie Schibli, Amedeo D'Angiulli
Children (aged 9-12) training in an El Sistema-inspired program (OrKidstra) and a matched comparison group participated in an auditory Go/No-Go task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Entire-sweep waveform patterns correlated with known ERP peaks associated with executive and other cognitive functions and indicated that the spread of neural activity in the initial 250 ms of executive attention processing (pre-P300) showed higher level of topographical overlap in OrKidstra children. In these children, late potentials (post-P300) concurrent with response control were more widely distributed and temporally coordinated...
October 13, 2016: Neurocase
Julia Merrill, Marc Bangert, Daniela Sammler, Angela D Friederici
Song and speech represent two auditory categories the brain usually classifies fairly easily. Functionally, this classification ability may depend to a great extent on characteristic features of pitch patterns present in song melody and speech prosody. Anatomically, the temporal lobe (TL) has been discussed as playing a prominent role in the processing of both. Here we tested individuals with congenital amusia and patients with unilateral left and right TL lesions in their ability to categorize song and speech...
October 11, 2016: Neurocase
Jessica M Ross, John R Iversen, Ramesh Balasubramaniam
There is growing interest in whether the motor system plays an essential role in rhythm perception. The motor system is active during the perception of rhythms, but is such motor activity merely a sign of unexecuted motor planning, or does it play a causal role in shaping the perception of rhythm? We present evidence for a causal role of motor planning and simulation, and review theories of internal simulation for beat-based timing prediction. Brain stimulation studies have the potential to conclusively test if the motor system plays a causal role in beat perception and ground theories to their neural underpinnings...
October 11, 2016: Neurocase
Vilayanur S Ramachandran, Melissa Vajanaphanich, Chaipat Chunharas
When we visualize a calendar, we have a vague impression of a rectangular grid hovering in front. But 1% of the population "see" vivid, crisp "calendar form" - e.g. an odd V shape as in subject ML. We found that (1) ML could "read off", months of her calendar - or alternate months - backward, unlike controls; (2) her eyes and index finger unconsciously "tracked" her reading; (3) her calendar moved with her gaze and tilted with her head; (4) after looking at a contracting spiral, her calendar expanded. In a second subject EA, the calendar was body centered and the access to episodic memories was partially "blocked" when she "looked away"...
October 2016: Neurocase
Ethan Gore, Brian S Appleby, Mark L Cohen, Suzanne D DeBrosse, James B Leverenz, Bruce L Miller, Sandra L Siedlak, Xiongwei Zhu, Alan J Lerner
Young onset dementias present significant diagnostic challenges. We present the case of a 35-year-old Kuwaiti man with social withdrawal, drowsiness, irritability, anxiety, aphasia, memory loss, hypereflexia, and Parkinsonism. Brain MRI showed bilateral symmetric gradient echo hypointensities in the globi pallidi and substantiae nigrae. Left cortical hypometabolism was seen on brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. A cortical brain biopsy revealed a high Lewy body burden. Genetic testing revealed a homozygous p...
October 2016: Neurocase
Carlo Abbate, Pietro Davide Trimarchi, Emanuela Rotondo, Silvia Inglese, Paola Nicolini, Paolo Dionigi Rossi, Beatrice Arosio, Daniela Mari
Confabulation may be present in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but usually it is not a primary feature of either its typical or atypical variants. In this report, we describe the case of an AD patient who showed an unusual and enduring neuropsychiatric phenotype characterized by early and prominent spontaneous confabulation. Surprisingly, such atypical AD presentation bears a striking resemblance to presbyophrenia, a subtype of dementia which was described at the beginning of the twentieth century and then sank into oblivion...
October 2016: Neurocase
Simon Kang Seng Ting, Pei Shi Chia, Kevin Kwek, Wilnard Tan, Shahul Hameed
Number processing disorder is an acquired deficit in mathematical skills commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), usually as a consequence of neurological dysfunction. Common impairments include syntactic errors (800012 instead of 8012) and intrusion errors (8 thousand and 12 instead of eight thousand and twelve) in number transcoding tasks. This study aimed to understand the characterization of AD-related number processing disorder within an alphabetic language (English) and ideographical language (Chinese), and to investigate the differences between alphabetic and ideographic language processing...
October 2016: Neurocase
Brian M Sandroff, Julia M Balto, Rachel E Klaren, Sarah K Sommer, John DeLuca, Robert W Motl
Cognitive impairment is common and debilitating among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and might be managed with exercise training. The present pilot study adopted a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) design and is the first to examine the effect of a systematically developed, progressive treadmill walking exercise training intervention on cognition among fully ambulatory persons with MS. Ten fully ambulatory females with MS were randomly assigned into exercise training intervention or waitlist control conditions...
October 2016: Neurocase
Aislinn J Williams, Zhenni Wang, Stephan F Taylor
New-onset psychotic symptoms often respond well to antipsychotic treatment; however, symptoms may be difficult to treat when an underlying brain malformation is present. Here, we present a case of atypical psychotic symptoms in the context of a congenital cerebellar malformation (Dandy-Walker variant). The patient ultimately improved with paliperidone palmitate after multiple antipsychotic medication trials (both oral and one long-acting injectable) were ineffective. Neuroimaging may provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information in cases of new-onset psychosis with atypical features and treatment resistance, even in the absence of neurologic signs and symptoms...
October 2016: Neurocase
Christopher O'Grady, Antonina Omisade, R Mark Sadler
This report describes the findings of language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a left-handed Urdu and English speaker with right hemisphere-originating epilepsy and unclear language dominance. fMRI is a reliable method for determining hemispheric language dominance in presurgical planning. However, the effects of bilingualism on language activation depend on many factors including age of acquisition and proficiency in the tested language, and morphological properties of the language itself. This case demonstrates that completing fMRI in both spoken languages and interpreting the results within the context of a neuropsychological assessment are essential in arriving at accurate conclusions about language distribution in bilingual patients...
October 2016: Neurocase
M Rosa Elosúa, Matías Peinado, María José Contreras, J Manuel Reales, Pedro R Montoro
This study adapted a new task to assess visuospatial and verbal working memory impairments in patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD), including an executive strategy of information suppression. The aim was to examine the visuospatial and verbal difficulties, and additionally to explore the average sex differences, during a 2-year follow-up study. The results indicated that patients with AD showed a significantly lower performance, compared with healthy elderly controls, especially with the suppression of information required in this new task...
October 2016: Neurocase
Chia-Pei Lin, Chih-Pang Chu, Hsing-Cheng Liu
Apathy is a common neurobehavioral sign in cases of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. However, there is still no established sustained effective treatment. We present the case of a 65-year-old man with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia who suffered from severe apathy, but his apathy improved after a 10-month period of bupropion treatment. His single photon emission computed tomography report also showed slight improvement. To the best of our knowledge, such a case with imaging evidence has never been reported...
October 2016: Neurocase
Yang-Teng Fan, Keh-Chung Lin, Ho-Ling Liu, Ching-Yi Wu, Yau-Yau Wai, Tsong-Hai Lee
Robot-assisted bilateral arm therapy (RBAT) has shown promising results in stroke rehabilitation; however, connectivity mapping of the sensorimotor networks after RBAT remains unclear. We used fMRI before and after RBAT and a dose-matched control intervention (DMCI) to explore the connectivity changes in 6 subacute stroke patients. Sensorimotor functions improved in the RBAT and DMCI groups after treatment. Enhanced activation changes were observed in bilateral primary motor cortex (M1) and bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA) after RBAT...
October 2016: Neurocase
Juan E Small, P Monroe Butler, Yuval Zabar, Jed A Barash
Acute and complete ischemia of the hippocampi represents a rare cause of amnesia. This paper describes the features of four such cases presenting to a single tertiary care center over a 3-year period. Interestingly, in three instances, toxicology screening was positive for opioids at the time of presentation, while in the fourth, there was a known, reportedly remote, history of heroin use. Taken together with the known literature on the topic, complete hippocampal ischemia appears at least highly suggestive of a toxic exposure...
October 2016: Neurocase
Daniel J Levitin, Scott T Grafton
Functional brain imaging has revealed much about the neuroanatomical substrates of higher cognition, including music, language, learning, and memory. The technique lends itself to studying of groups of individuals. In contrast, the nature of expert performance is typically studied through the examination of exceptional individuals using behavioral case studies and retrospective biography. Here, we combined fMRI and the study of an individual who is a world-class expert musician and composer in order to better understand the neural underpinnings of his music perception and cognition, in particular, his mental representations for music...
August 12, 2016: Neurocase
M de Montalembert, N Coulon, D Cohen, O Bonnot, S Tordjman
Timing disorders in schizophrenia are a well-known phenomenon. However, no studies have yet assessed the role of temporal distortions in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), despite evidence that distorted time perception may share genetic risk factors with schizophrenia and may be a useful indicator in identifying individuals at risk for schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the ability of 10 patients with EOS (mean age = 21.5 years, SD = 6) matched with 20 healthy control participants (mean age = 25...
August 2016: Neurocase
Yumiko Yamaoka, Mitsuaki Bandoh, Kensuke Kawai
We report two extremely rare cases involving the development of transient selective retrograde amnesia for simple machine operation lasting for several hours. A 61-year-old male taxi driver suddenly became unable to operate a taximeter, and a 66-year-old female janitor suddenly became unable to use a fax machine. They could precisely recount their episodes to others both during and after the attacks, and their memories during their attacks corresponded to the memory of the witness and the medical records of the doctor, respectively...
August 2016: Neurocase
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