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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090805/visually-evoked-startle-response-in-a-patient-with-epilepsy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Burcu Zeydan, Aysegul Gunduz, Veysi Demirbilek, Aysin Dervent
Both symptomatic and genetic, cases with hyperekplexia or startle seizures induced by acoustic stimuli, are previously reported. By contrast, startle response induced by visual stimuli is rare. While visual stimuli are more commonly associated with startle seizures, here we present an 11-year-old girl with epilepsy, motor-mental retardation, and spastic tetraparesis, who had repetitive startle responses by photic stimulation during the electroencephalogram recording, without any spike-and-wave discharges associated with the startles...
January 15, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004602/posterior-hippocampal-stroke-presenting-with-transient-global-amnesia
#2
Federica Naldi, Simone Baiardi, Maria Guarino, Luca Spinardi, Fabio Cirignotta, Andrea Stracciari
The acute onset of isolated amnesia is an intriguing challenge for neurologist, because the lack of associated signs can be misleading for diagnosis. The most common cause is transient global amnesia (TGA), a benign condition, but rarely it results from abuse of substance/alcohol or cerebrovascular diseases. In the latter, the brain region involved is the hippocampus. We describe a patient with presenting symptoms of TGA, but affected by an ischemic hippocampal stroke. The computed tomography angiography helped the etiologic diagnosis showing an hemodynamic stenosis of the posterior P2P segment...
December 22, 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938192/hyperreligiosity-in-malignant-brain-tumors-a-case-report-and-accompanying-bibliographic-review
#3
Alberto Carmona-Bayonas, Paula Jiménez-Fonseca, Carlos Vázquez Olmos, Juan Vega Villar
Religion is a complex cognitive process with biopsychosocial and cultural dimensions, product of the activation of different circuits of the neocortex. In some cases, religiosity can appear as a pathological correlate in patients with brain lesions in the areas involved. We present the clinical case of a patient with an astrocytoma in the right prefrontal region, with apparent inflammatory involvement of the right temporal lobe. This tumor debuted almost exclusively as an alteration of personality consisting of hyperreligiosity, logorrhea, and mystical experiences...
December 12, 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934544/a-rehabilitation-program-based-on-music-practice-for-patients-with-unilateral-spatial-neglect-a-single-case-study
#4
Alma Guilbert, Sylvain Clément, Christine Moroni
Two major limitations of unilateral spatial neglect (USN) rehabilitation methods are actually reported: a lack of long-term efficiency and a lack of generalization to daily life. The aim of our case study was to underline how a multisensory method-music practice-could avoid these limitations. Mrs BV suffered from a chronic severe USN. She had rehabilitation sessions of music practice over 8 weeks. An improvement of her USN was found on paper-pencil tests but also in daily activities. Benefits subsisted 4 months after rehabilitation...
December 9, 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915581/ftld-tdp-and-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-in-comorbidity-a-report-of-two-cases-with-different-clinical-presentations
#5
Kateřina Storey, Silvie Johanidesová, Radoslav Matěj, Jiří Keller, Zdeněk Rohan, Robert Rusina
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (FTLD-TDP) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) are distinct neurodegenerations with different clinical presentations. We report two cases with FTLD-TDP and PSP in comorbidity: a patient with amnestic dementia developing frontal lobe dementia, Parkinsonism and supranuclear gaze palsy and a patient with cerebellar ataxia and nystagmus developing akinesia, rigidity, and subcortical dementia. Neuropathological examination revealed neuronal and glial tau pathology together with ubiquitin, and phospho-TDP-43-immunoreactivities in the hippocampus, striatum, mesencephalon, and frontal and temporal cortices...
December 3, 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869541/callosal-disconnection-neglect-reassessment-after-34-years
#6
Allison J Good, Michele K Harris, Adam D Falchook, Robert T Watson, Kenneth M Heilman
In 1984, Watson and Heilman reported a patient with a partial callosal disconnection following an infarction of the anterior portion of her corpus callosum. This woman's performance on line-bisection tasks revealed "callosal disconnection neglect." The objective of this research is to reexamine this woman 34 years after her callosal disconnection to gain information about her recovery. The patient completed visual line-bisection tasks in which horizontal lines were placed in the right, left, and center hemispaces and she performed these bisections using her right or left hand...
November 21, 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001646/effects-of-vocal-training-in-a-musicophile-with-congenital-amusia
#7
Jonathan M P Wilbiks, Dominique T Vuvan, Pier-Yves Girard, Isabelle Peretz, Frank A Russo
Congenital amusia is a condition in which an individual suffers from a deficit of musical pitch perception and production. Individuals suffering from congenital amusia generally tend to abstain from musical activities. Here, we present the unique case of Tim Falconer, a self-described musicophile who also suffers from congenital amusia. We describe and assess Tim's attempts to train himself out of amusia through a self-imposed 18-month program of formal vocal training and practice. We tested Tim with respect to music perception and vocal production across seven sessions including pre- and post-training assessments...
December 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001645/corrigendum
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001644/music-on-the-mind-an-introduction-to-this-special-issue-of-neurocase
#9
Indre V Viskontas, Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925501/a-case-of-musical-anhedonia-due-to-right-putaminal-hemorrhage-a-disconnection-syndrome-between-the-auditory-cortex-and-insula
#10
Masayuki Satoh, Natsuko Kato, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Chizuru Nakano, Makiko Abe, Risa Fujita, Hirotaka Kida, Hidekazu Tomimoto, Kiyohiko Kondo
A 63-year-old, right-handed professional chorus conductor developed right putaminal hemorrhage, and became unable to experience emotion while listening to music. Two years later, neurological examination revealed slight left hemiparesis. Neuromusicological assessments revealed impaired judgment of "musical sense," and the inability to discriminate the sound of chords in pure intervals from those in equal temperament. Brain MRI and tractography identified the old hemorrhagic lesion in the right putamen and impaired fiber connectivity between the right insula and superior temporal lobe...
December 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869530/composing-alarms-considering-the-musical-aspects-of-auditory-alarm-design
#11
Jessica Gillard, Michael Schutz
Short melodies are commonly linked to referents in jingles, ringtones, movie themes, and even auditory displays (i.e., sounds used in human-computer interactions). While melody associations can be quite effective, auditory alarms in medical devices are generally poorly learned and highly confused. Here, we draw on approaches and stimuli from both music cognition (melody recognition) and human factors (alarm design) to analyze the patterns of confusions in a paired-associate alarm-learning task involving both a standardized melodic alarm set (Experiment 1) and a set of novel melodies (Experiment 2)...
December 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849128/when-the-wedding-march-becomes-sad-semantic-memory-impairment-for-music-in-the-semantic-variant-of-primary-progressive-aphasia
#12
Joël Macoir, Sarah Berubé-Lalancette, Maximiliano A Wilson, Robert Laforce, Carol Hudon, Pierre Gravel, Olivier Potvin, Simon Duchesne, Laura Monetta
Music can induce particular emotions and activate semantic knowledge. In the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), semantic memory is impaired as a result of anterior temporal lobe (ATL) atrophy. Semantics is responsible for the encoding and retrieval of factual knowledge about music, including associative and emotional attributes. In the present study, we report the performance of two individuals with svPPA in three experiments. NG with bilateral ATL atrophy and ND with atrophy largely restricted to the left ATL...
December 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735230/el-sistema-inspired-ensemble-music-training-is-associated-with-changes-in-children-s-neurocognitive-functional-integration-preliminary-erp-evidence
#13
Nina Hedayati, Kylie Schibli, Amedeo D'Angiulli
Children (aged 9-12) training in an El Sistema-inspired program (OrKidstra) and a matched comparison group participated in an auditory Go/No-Go task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Entire-sweep waveform patterns correlated with known ERP peaks associated with executive and other cognitive functions and indicated that the spread of neural activity in the initial 250 ms of executive attention processing (pre-P300) showed higher level of topographical overlap in OrKidstra children. In these children, late potentials (post-P300) concurrent with response control were more widely distributed and temporally coordinated...
December 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726501/classifying-song-and-speech-effects-of-focal-temporal-lesions-and-musical-disorder
#14
Julia Merrill, Marc Bangert, Daniela Sammler, Angela D Friederici
Song and speech represent two auditory categories the brain usually classifies fairly easily. Functionally, this classification ability may depend to a great extent on characteristic features of pitch patterns present in song melody and speech prosody. Anatomically, the temporal lobe (TL) has been discussed as playing a prominent role in the processing of both. Here we tested individuals with congenital amusia and patients with unilateral left and right TL lesions in their ability to categorize song and speech...
December 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726485/motor-simulation-theories-of-musical-beat-perception
#15
Jessica M Ross, John R Iversen, Ramesh Balasubramaniam
There is growing interest in whether the motor system plays an essential role in rhythm perception. The motor system is active during the perception of rhythms, but is such motor activity merely a sign of unexecuted motor planning, or does it play a causal role in shaping the perception of rhythm? We present evidence for a causal role of motor planning and simulation, and review theories of internal simulation for beat-based timing prediction. Brain stimulation studies have the potential to conclusively test if the motor system plays a causal role in beat perception and ground theories to their neural underpinnings...
December 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687156/measuring-the-representational-space-of-music-with-fmri-a-case-study-with-sting
#16
Daniel J Levitin, Scott T Grafton
Functional brain imaging has revealed much about the neuroanatomical substrates of higher cognition, including music, language, learning, and memory. The technique lends itself to studying of groups of individuals. In contrast, the nature of expert performance is typically studied through the examination of exceptional individuals using behavioral case studies and retrospective biography. Here, we combined fMRI and the study of an individual who is a world-class expert musician and composer in order to better understand the neural underpinnings of his music perception and cognition, in particular, his mental representations for music...
December 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367173/preservation-of-cognitive-and-musical-abilities-of-a-musician-following-surgery-for-chronic-drug-resistant-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-case-report
#17
Shantala Hegde, Rose Dawn Bharath, Malla Bhaskara Rao, Karthik Shiva, Arivazhagan Arimappamagan, Sanjib Sinha, Jamuna Rajeswaran, Parthasarathy Satishchandra
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) affects a range of cognitive functions and musical abilities. We report a 16-year-old boy diagnosed with drug-resistant right-medial TLE. He is a professional musician, trained in Carnatic classical music. Clinical, electrophysiological, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography evaluation localized the seizure focus to the right medial temporal lobe. Patient underwent detailed neuropsychological evaluation and functional MRI (fMRI) for musical abilities prior to surgery...
December 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112951/preserved-processing-of-musical-structure-in-a-person-with-agrammatic-aphasia
#18
L Robert Slevc, Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah, Sadhvi Saxena, Brooke M Okada
Evidence for shared processing of structure (or syntax) in language and in music conflicts with neuropsychological dissociations between the two. However, while harmonic structural processing can be impaired in patients with spared linguistic syntactic abilities (Peretz, I. (1993). Auditory atonalia for melodies. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 10, 21-56. doi:10.1080/02643299308253455), evidence for the opposite dissociation-preserved harmonic processing despite agrammatism-is largely lacking. Here, we report one such case: HV, a former musician with Broca's aphasia and agrammatic speech, was impaired in making linguistic, but not musical, acceptability judgments...
December 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825288/calendars-in-the-brain-their-perceptual-characteristics-and-possible-neural-substrate
#19
Vilayanur S Ramachandran, Melissa Vajanaphanich, Chaipat Chunharas
When we visualize a calendar, we have a vague impression of a rectangular grid hovering in front. But 1% of the population "see" vivid, crisp "calendar form" - e.g. an odd V shape as in subject ML. We found that (1) ML could "read off", months of her calendar - or alternate months - backward, unlike controls; (2) her eyes and index finger unconsciously "tracked" her reading; (3) her calendar moved with her gaze and tilted with her head; (4) after looking at a contracting spiral, her calendar expanded. In a second subject EA, the calendar was body centered and the access to episodic memories was partially "blocked" when she "looked away"...
October 2016: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801611/clinical-and-imaging-characteristics-of-late-onset-mitochondrial-membrane-protein-associated-neurodegeneration-mpan
#20
Ethan Gore, Brian S Appleby, Mark L Cohen, Suzanne D DeBrosse, James B Leverenz, Bruce L Miller, Sandra L Siedlak, Xiongwei Zhu, Alan J Lerner
Young onset dementias present significant diagnostic challenges. We present the case of a 35-year-old Kuwaiti man with social withdrawal, drowsiness, irritability, anxiety, aphasia, memory loss, hypereflexia, and Parkinsonism. Brain MRI showed bilateral symmetric gradient echo hypointensities in the globi pallidi and substantiae nigrae. Left cortical hypometabolism was seen on brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. A cortical brain biopsy revealed a high Lewy body burden. Genetic testing revealed a homozygous p...
October 2016: Neurocase
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