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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691585/hyper-brain-connectivity-in-binge-drinking-college-students-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#1
Karl Kashfi, Kareem Al-Khalil, Jiancheng Hou, Dan Fang, Ron Anderson, Ravi Rajmohan, Peter Syapin, Michael W O'Boyle
The current study used diffusion tensor imaging to examine patterns/degree of brain connectivity in 12 college-aged binge drinking (BD) and 12 moderate drinking individuals. Voxel-level and region-of-interest analyses revealed increased connectivity of the BD brain in the right corona radiata, right external capsule, and both the right and left cingulum. Also, fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity values of these regions correlated with a number of drinking behaviors of the BD as well as both groups combined...
July 10, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613138/a-neuropsychological-study-of-older-adult-first-time-sex-offenders
#2
Marcelo Rodriguez, Philip Boyce, John Hodges
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The issue of whether sex offenders have cognitive deficits remains controversial. The objective of this study was to compare the neuropsychological function of older adult first time sex-offenders (FTSO), who had not previously been charged with a sexual offence prior to the age of 50, to historical long-term sex offenders (HSO) and non-sex offenders (NSO). The hypotheses were (a) that FTSO would demonstrate greater deficits in executive function, decision-making, and memory compared to non-sex offenders; and (b) the HSOs would present similar neuropsychological deficits to non-sex offenders...
June 14, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562172/applying-fmri-complexity-analyses-to-the-single-subject-a-case-study-for-proposed-neurodiagnostics
#3
Anca R Rădulescu, Emily R Hannon
Nonlinear dynamic tools have been statistically validated at the group level to identify subtle differences in system wide regulation of brain meso-circuits, often increasing clinical sensitivity over conventional analyses alone. We explored the feasibility of extracting information at the single-subject level, illustrating two pairs of healthy individuals with psychological differences in stress reactivity. We applied statistical and nonlinear dynamic tools to capture key characteristics of the prefrontal-limbic loop...
May 31, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548027/dissociation-between-preserved-body-structural-description-and-impaired-body-image-following-a-pediatric-spinal-trauma
#4
Gerardo Salvato, Valeria Peviani, Elisa Scarano, Pina Scarpa, Alessandra Leo, Tiziana Redaelli, Michele Spinelli, Maurizio Sberna, Gabriella Bottini
In adult patients, Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) may influence the mental Body Representation (BR). Currently, there is no evidence on the modulation of SCI on BR during early stages of cognitive development. Here, we investigated BR in a 3-year-old child with complete SCI. The patient was administered with a specific battery assessing different BR components. We found evidence for putative classical neuropsychological dissociation between a preserved topological map with impaired semantic knowledge of the body...
May 26, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513323/modulation-of-somatoparaphrenia-following-left-hemisphere-damage
#5
Daniela D'Imperio, Giampaolo Tomelleri, Giuseppe Moretto, Valentina Moro
Somatoparaphrenic symptoms after left-hemisphere damage are rare. To verify the potential role of body-related sensory (proprioceptive, visual, and somatosensory) manipulation in patients experiencing sensations of hand disownership, the symptoms of a patient suffering from right-hand somatoparaphrenia were monitored and clinical and neuropsychological variables were controlled. Four types of manipulation were administered: changes in spatial position of the hand, multisensory stimulation, and self-observation using video or mirrors...
May 17, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504056/corrigendum
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485663/can-8-months-of-daily-tdcs-application-slow-the-cognitive-decline-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-case-study
#7
Martin Bystad, Ingrid Daae Rasmussen, Ole Grønli, Per M Aslaksen
This case study presents a patient with early-onset Alzheimer`s disease, who applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) daily for 8 consecutive months. This was a much higher frequency than previous tDCS studies. Neuropsychological assessments were conducted before the first tDCS session, after 5 months and after 8 months. After 8 months, the patient's immediate recall improved with 39%, whereas delayed recall improved 23%. Overall, the results revealed that patient's cognitive functions were stabilized...
May 9, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457185/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-anterior-limb-of-the-internal-capsule-for-treatment-of-therapy-refractory-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd-a-case-study-highlighting-neurocognitive-and-psychiatric-changes
#8
Tabina K Choudhury, Joyce E Davidson, Ashwin Viswanathan, Adriana M Strutt
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by repeated, unwanted thoughts and behaviors. Individuals with this condition often experience significant emotional distress secondary to their symptoms. Additionally, impairments in attention/concentration, processing speed, and executive functions are typically observed. The exact pathology of OCD remains unknown; consequently, it can be difficult to treat patients with severe symptomatology. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) may be a viable treatment option for individuals who do not respond to medication and/or cognitive behavioral therapy...
May 1, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427306/prefrontal-tdcs-and-sertraline-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Ulrich Palm, Bianka Leitner, Beatrice Kirsch, Nora Behler, Ulrike Kumpf, Linda Wulf, Frank Padberg, Alkomiet Hasan
Obsessive-compulsive (OC) disorder is a disabling disorder resulting in tremendous individual and social burden. It has a large overlap with depression and anxiety disorders and shows treatment resistance in a relevant proportion of patients. Since a couple of years, different noninvasive brain stimulation methods have been investigated to improve OC symptoms. The application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has shown inconsistent results which can probably be attributed to a lack in randomized controlled trials with adequate sample size...
April 21, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387593/a-case-of-posterior-cortical-atrophy-with-vertical-neglect
#10
Hilary Glazer, Leila Saadatpour, Leilani Doty, Kenneth M Heilman
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a syndrome caused by a neurodegenerative disease that often presents with visuospatial deficits, and can be debilitating. PCA is often characterized by elements of Balint's syndrome and dyslexia. The most common underlying pathology has been found to be Alzheimer's disease. Signs of horizontal neglect are frequently associated with PCA, but the presence of vertical (or altitudinal) neglect has not yet been reported in a patient with PCA or other forms of neurodegenerative dementia...
April 7, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447507/akinetic-mutism-reversibility-after-l-dopa-therapy-in-unilateral-left-anterior-cerebral-artery-infarction
#11
Guery Deborah, Elodie Ong, Norbert Nighoghossian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347212/mapping-nouns-and-finite-verbs-in-left-hemisphere-tumors-a-direct-electrical-stimulation-study
#12
Adrià Rofes, Giannantonio Spena, Andrea Talacchi, Barbara Santini, Antonio Miozzo, Gabriele Miceli
Neurosurgical mapping studies with nouns and finite verbs are scarce and subcortical data are nonexistent. We used a new task that uses finite verbs in six Italian-speaking patients with gliomas in the left language-dominant hemisphere. Language-relevant positive areas were detected only with nouns in four patients, with both tasks yet in distinct cortical areas in one patient, and only with finite verbs in another patient. Positive areas and types of errors varied across participants. Finite verbs provide complementary information to nouns, and permit more accurate mapping of language production when nouns are unaffected by electrical stimulation...
March 27, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347207/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-and-psychosensory-stimulation-through-docs-scale-in-a-minimally-conscious-subject
#13
Danilo Dimitri, Daniela De Filippis, Valentina Galetto, Marina Zettin
The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on alertness improvement in a patient in a minimally conscious state (MCS) by means of disorders of consciousness scale combined with psycho-sensory stimulation. The effects of tDCS on muscle hypertonia through the Ashworth scale were also examined. tDCS was performed through a two-channel intra-cephalic stimulator. After stimulation, the patient followed a psychosensory stimulation training. Results pointed out an increase in DOCunit score, as well as an increase in alertness maintenance and an improvement in muscle hypertonia, although a MCS state persisted...
March 27, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165911/acute-severe-depression-induced-by-stimulation-of-the-right-globus-pallidus-internus
#14
Johanna Philipsson, Rickard L Sjöberg, Jerome Yelnik, Patric Blomstedt
Depressive symptoms may occur after Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus. This is often explained by reduced pharmacological treatment after surgery, and not as a direct effect of DBS. Pallidal DBS seems not to be associated with such side effects and have not, to our knowledge, previously been reported. We present a patient with acute depressive symptoms induced by pallidal DBS. We believe this case strengthen the hypothesis that the basal ganglia and structures involved in the functional connectome of these nucleuses play a role not only in regulation of movement but also in regulation of mood...
February 6, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165861/-i-feel-your-disgust-and-relief-can-the-action-understanding-system-mirror-neuron-system-be-recruited-to-induce-disgust-and-relief-from-contamination-vicariously-in-individuals-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-symptoms
#15
Baland Jalal, Vilayanur S Ramachandran
Research has shown that brain regions mediating disgust (e.g., the insula) become activated when viewing others' disgust, a response mediated, perhaps by the mirror neuron system or the Theory of Mind module. In a novel behavioral experiment, we explore vicarious disgust and relief, in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Participants (N = 10) provided disgust ratings to self-contamination or watching the contamination of an experimenter; and to the experimenter washing his own hands after the subjects had been contaminated...
February 6, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376696/functional-brain-alterations-during-self-reference-processing-in-adolescents-with-sexual-abuse-related-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-preliminary-report
#16
Fanny Dégeilh, Armelle Viard, Fabian Guénolé, Malo Gaubert, Pierre-Jean Egler, Stéphanie Egret, Priscille Gerardin, Jean-Marc Baleyte, Francis Eustache, Jacques Dayana, Bérengère Guillery-Girard
We proposed to explore the functional brain changes during a self-reference processing (SRP) task in adolescents with sexual abuse-related post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 10), compared with healthy adolescents (N = 10). While patients showed no behavioral disturbances in (SRP), they exhibited changes in activity and connectivity in regions involved in emotional regulation (amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortex) and semantic memory (temporal and ventrolateral prefrontal regions). These preliminary results suggest that these alterations may have an effect on self-esteem which may contribute to a possible retention and impairment of symptoms in adulthood...
February 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376695/added-value-and-limitations-of-amyloid-pet-imaging-review-and-analysis-of-selected-cases-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#17
David A Weidman, Edward Zamrini, Marwan N Sabbagh, Sandra Jacobson, Anna Burke, Christine Belden, Jessica Powell, Nidhi Bhalla, Auttawut Roontiva, Xiaoying Kuang, Ji Luo, Kewei Chen, Garrett Riggs, William Burke
Amyloid-positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the brain detects elevated amyloid-beta (amyloid-β) neuritic plaques in vivo, which can be helpful in appropriately selected cases of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia, when Alzheimer's disease remains a possible etiology, after a comprehensive clinical evaluation. We reviewed cases of cognitively impaired patients who underwent amyloid-PET imaging because of diagnostic uncertainty. Pre- and post-PET elements of diagnosis and management were first compared, to assess impact of scan results on clinical decision-making, and then an analysis of those decisions was undertaken in appropriate clinical situations, to delineate the added value and limitations of amyloid-PET imaging...
February 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376694/identification-of-a-rare-coding-variant-in-trem2-in-a-chinese-individual-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Luke W Bonham, Daniel W Sirkis, Jia Fan, Renan E Aparicio, Marian Tse, Eliana Marisa Ramos, Qing Wang, Giovanni Coppola, Howard J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, Jennifer S Yokoyama
Rare variation in the TREM2 gene is associated with a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). TREM2 encodes a receptor expressed in microglia which is thought to influence neurodegeneration by sensing damage signals and regulating neuroinflammation. Many of the variants reported to be associated with AD, including the rare R47H variant, were discovered in populations of European ancestry and have not replicated in diverse populations from other genetic backgrounds. We utilized a cohort of elderly Chinese individuals diagnosed as cognitively normal, or with mild cognitive impairment or AD to identify a rare variant, A192T, present in a single patient diagnosed with AD...
February 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376693/a-formal-analysis-of-alexia-in-persistent-aura-and-a-comparison-to-acquired-pure-alexia
#19
Tobias Bormann, Konrad H Stopsack, Irina Mader, Cornelius Weiller, Michel Rijntjes
A patient is reported with reversible pure alexia in the context of migraine with aura. Following previous, anecdotal reports, the present study is the first to formally assess word reading, writing, and other linguistic and visual processing and to compare these to a patient with stroke-related pure alexia. The reading impairment, suggestive of letter-by-letter reading, was observed across 7 days but had remitted at a 3-month follow-up. The deficit also affected recognition of letters, suggesting a functional impairment at the level of letter recognition, not just word reading...
February 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376692/neuroversion-using-electroconvulsive-therapy-as-a-bridge-to-deep-brain-stimulation-implantation
#20
Nolan R Williams, Greg Sahlem, Jaspreet Pannu, Istvan Takacs, Baron Short, Gonzalo Revuelta, Mark S George
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder with significant neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is effective in treating these neuropsychiatric symptoms; however, clinicians are reluctant to use ECT in patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantations for fear of damaging the device, as well as potential cognitive side effects. Right unilateral ultra-brief pulse (RUL UBP) ECT has a more favorable cognitive side-effect profile yet has never been reported in PD patients with DBS implants...
February 2017: Neurocase
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