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Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Sujaya Singh, Renu Agarwal, Zulhilmi Abdul Razak, Robin Ngu, Lwin L Nyein, Sushil Vasudevan, Marina Kapitonova, Azida Juana Kadir, Subrayan Visvaraja
PURPOSE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common causative organism for contact lens-associated corneal ulcer and is commonly treated with fluoroquinolones. With the emergence of resistant strains, it is important to investigate alternative therapies. Despite well-established efficacy of tazocin against systemic Pseudomonas infections, its topical use for the treatment of Pseudomonas keratitis has not been described, hence this study was aimed to find the ocular permeation of Tazocin and its efficacy in treating keratitis in rabbit eyes...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Najam A Sharif
Discovery ophthalmic research is centered around delineating the molecular and cellular basis of ocular diseases and finding and exploiting molecular and genetic pathways associated with them. From such studies it is possible to determine suitable intervention points to address the disease process and hopefully to discover therapeutics to treat them. An investigational new drug (IND) filing for a new small-molecule drug, peptide, antibody, genetic treatment, or a device with global health authorities requires a number of preclinical studies to provide necessary safety and efficacy data...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Yuko Sekine, Marie Shimada, Shoko Satake, Masato Okubo, Akihiro Hisaka, Tadashi Hara, Megumi Honjo, Makoto Aihara
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of excipients on latanoprost penetration into the aqueous humor with clinically available 6 products with different solutions mainly in the types and concentrations of preservatives. METHODS: In 363 patients with cataracts, we instilled 1 latanoprost drop in 1 eye before surgery. The drop was randomly selected by brand name product (A) and 5 generic products (B-F) composed with different excipients. B contains similar excipients to A...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Sang Wook Jin, Sae Mi Lee
PURPOSE: To evaluate efficacy and safety of brinzolamide (1%)/brimonidine (0.2%) fixed combination (BBFC) in normal tension glaucoma (NTG). METHODS: This retrospective study included NTG patients treated with BBFC as their primary therapy, NTG patients who had changed their medication to BBFC from brinzolamide or brimonidine, and NTG patients who had changed their medication to BBFC from concomitantly using brinzolamide and brimonidine. The intraocular pressure (IOP), mean deviation value, and adverse drug reactions were evaluated...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jou-Ku Chung, Elizabeth Spencer, Matthew Hunt, Thomas McCauley, Devin Welty
PURPOSE: Lifitegrast is approved in the United States for the treatment of dry eye disease (DED). We assessed lifitegrast's ocular distribution/pharmacokinetic profile in rabbits, and 14C-lifitegrast mass balance/excretion in dogs. METHODS: Female pigmented rabbits received a single topical ocular dose of lifitegrast (Formulation No. 1, n = 25; No. 2, n = 25) per eye twice daily (target, 1.75 mg/eye/dose). Blood/ocular tissues were collected on day 5. Beagle dogs received single intravenous (n = 10; target, 3 mg, 262 μCi/animal) and ocular (n = 8, target, 3 mg, 30 μCi/eye) doses of 14C-lifitegrast (∼8 weeks between doses)...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Catherine A Opere, Segewkal Heruye, Ya-Fatou Njie-Mbye, Sunny E Ohia, Najam A Sharif
Excitotoxicity occurs in neurons due to the accumulation of excitatory amino acids such as glutamate in the synaptic and extrasynaptic locations. In the retina, excessive glutamate concentrations trigger a neurotoxic cascade involving several mechanisms, including the elevation of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) and the activation of α-amino-3-hydroxy 5-methyl-4-iso-xazole-propionic acid/kainate (AMPA/KA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors leading to retinal degeneration. Both ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are present in the mammalian retina...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Sandamali A Ekanayaka, Sharon A McClellan, Ronald P Barrett, Linda D Hazlett
PURPOSE: Glycyrrhizin (GLY), an inhibitor of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protects prophylactically against Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. However, the therapeutic potential of GLY to enhance an antibiotic has not been tested and is our purpose. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice (B6) were infected with a clinical isolate (KEI 1025) of P. aeruginosa and treated topically at 6 h postinfection (p.i.) with GLY or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Clinical scores, photography with a slit lamp, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, myeloperoxidase assay, bacterial plate counts, histopathology, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) assays, and in vitro macrophage (Mφ) stimulation assays were used to assess effects of GLY treatment...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
L David Waterbury
PURPOSE: (1) To determine ketorolac concentrations in selected ocular tissues following the intracameral administration of phenylephrine and ketorolac injection 1%/0.3% (OMIDRIA®) delivered in irrigation solution during lens replacement surgery in beagle dogs. (2) To compare the ketorolac initial dose and resultant concentrations from the above study to those achieved in aqueous and vitreous by topical administration in patients undergoing cataract surgery or vitrectomy, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Sunny E Ohia, Jenaye Robinson, Leah Mitchell, Kalu K Ngele, Segewkal Heruye, Catherine A Opere, Ya Fatou Njie-Mbye
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous transmitter with well-known biological actions in a wide variety of tissues and organs. The potential involvement of this gas in physiological and pathological processes in the eye has led to several in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo studies to understand its pharmacological role in some mammalian species. Evidence from literature demonstrates that 4 enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of this gas (cystathionine β-synthase, CBS; cystathionine γ-lyase, CSE; 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, 3MST; and d-amino acid oxidase) are present in the cornea, iris, ciliary body, lens, and retina...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Heather M Schmitt, Cassandra L Schlamp, Robert W Nickells
PURPOSE: HDAC3 regulates nuclear atrophy as an early response to axonal injury in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following optic nerve crush (ONC). Since conditional knockout of Hdac3 prevents nuclear atrophy post ONC, HDAC3 selective inhibition with RGFP966 through localized and systemic dosing of RGFP966 is necessary for application to acute and chronic models of optic nerve injury. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were injected intravitreally with 1-10 μM RGFP966 immediately following ONC, and retinas were analyzed at 5, 7, and 14 days for metrics of nuclear atrophy and cell loss...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Shagufta Khan, Sonali Warade, Dilesh J Singhavi
PURPOSE: Conventional topical delivery in hyperacute bacterial conjunctivitis and endophthalmitis is associated with low drug bioavailability due to rapid precorneal clearance. Hence, in the present investigation, an attempt has been made to enhance ocular bioavailability of tobramycin sulfate by formulating drug-loaded microparticles dispersed in thermosensitive in situ gel. METHODS: Microparticles prepared by emulsion-ionic gelation technique were characterized for drug loading, entrapment efficiency, particle size, surface morphology, and in vitro drug release...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Rachel R Hartman, Uday B Kompella
Even though the very thought of an injection into the eye may be frightening, an estimated 6 million intravitreal (IVT) injections were made in the USA during 2016. With the introduction of new therapeutic agents, this number is expected to increase. In addition, drug products that are injectable in ocular compartments other than the vitreous humor are expected to enter the back of the eye market in the not so distant future. Besides the IVT route, some of the most actively investigated routes of invasive administration to the eye include periocular, subretinal, and suprachoroidal (SC) routes...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Takayoshi Masuoka, Juana Gallar, Carlos Belmonte
PURPOSE: Chronic dryness of the ocular surface evokes sensitization of corneal cold-sensitive neurons through an increase of sodium currents and a decrease of potassium currents, leading to the unpleasant dryness and pain sensations typical of dry eye disease. Here, we explored the effects of amitriptyline, a voltage-gated Na+ channel blocker used for the treatment of depression and chronic pain, on nerve terminal impulse (NTI) activity of cold-sensitive nerve terminals recorded in intact and tear-deficient guinea pig corneas...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Yutong Chen, Rui Hua
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Vladimir Bantseev, Rebecca Erickson, Douglas Leipold, Caroline Amaya, Paul E Miller, Helen Booler, Evan A Thackaberry
PURPOSE: The nonclinical toxicology program described here was designed to characterize the safety profile of anti-factor D (AFD; FCFD4514S, lampalizumab) to support intravitreal (ITV) administration in patients with geographic atrophy (GA). METHODS: The toxicity of AFD was assessed in a single-dose and 6-month repeat-dose study in monkeys at doses up to 10 mg/eye. Toxicity was assessed by clinical ophthalmic examinations, intraocular pressure measurements, ocular photography, electroretinography, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and anatomic pathology...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Stefania Miotto, Nicola Zemella, Elena Gusson, Giacomo Panozzo, Sandro Saviano, Giuseppe Scarpa, Giorgio Boschi, Stefano Piermarocchi
Intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs represent the current standard of care for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Individualized treatment regimens aim at obtaining the same visual benefits of monthly injections with a reduced number of injections and follow-up visits, and, consequently, of treatment burden. The target of these strategies is to timely recognize lesion recurrence, even before visual deterioration. Early detection of lesion activity is critical to ensure that clinical outcomes are not compromised by inappropriate delays in treatment, but questions remain on how to effectively monitor the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) activity...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Panita Suwannoi, Mullika Chomnawang, Narong Sarisuta, Stephan Reichl, Christel C Müller-Goymann
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to develop acyclovir (ACV) ocular drug delivery systems of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles as well as to assess their in vitro transcorneal permeation across human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cell multilayers. METHODS: The ACV-loaded BSA nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation method along with physicochemical characterization, cytotoxicity, as well as in vitro transcorneal permeation studies across HCE-T cell multilayers...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Joshua Seth Eaton, Paul E Miller, Ellison Bentley, Sara M Thomasy, Christopher J Murphy
PURPOSE: To present a survey of the features of published slit lamp-based scoring systems and their applicability in the context of modern ocular toxicology and drug development. METHODS: References describing original or modified slit lamp-based scoring systems for human or veterinary clinical patients or in investigative or toxicologic research were collected following a comprehensive literature review using textbooks and online publication searches. Each system's indications and features were compiled to facilitate comparison...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Pedro Vazquez-Ferreiro, Francisco J Carrera-Hueso, Lidia Barreiro-Rodriguez, Marta Diaz-Rey, Jaime E Poquet-Jornet, María Auxiliadora Ramón-Barrios, Rafael Sanjuan-Cerveró
PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of intracameral phenylephrine and topical mydriatics in achieving mydriasis and protecting against complications during phacoemulsification. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature comparing the mydriatic effect and surgical safety profile of intracameral phenylephrine and topical mydriatics in phacoemulsification was conducted in the Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Web of Science, Cochrane, , and Teseo databases...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Gary D Novack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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