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Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry

Gamze Kondakçı, A Fatih Aydın, Semra Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Müjdat Uysal
The effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) (1 g/kg body weight/day) on serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels, insulin resistance (IR), and hepatic and renal prooxidant-antioxidant balance was evaluated in rats treated with homocysteine thiolactone (HcyT) (500 mg/kg body weight/day for 6 weeks). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in the liver and kidney. HcyT elevated serum Hcy levels and caused IR, but liver and kidney function tests remained unchanged...
January 19, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Hussain Al Dera, Samy M Eleawa, Fahaid H Al-Hashem, Moeber M Mahzari, Ibrahim Hoja, Mahmoud Al Khateeb
This study was designed to investigate the role of the liver in lowering fasting blood glucose levels (FBG) in rats native to high (HA) and low altitude (LA) areas. As compared with LA natives, besides the improved insulin and glucose tolerance, HA native rats had lower FBG, at least mediated by inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and activation of glycogen synthesis. An effect that is mediated by the enhancement of hepatic insulin signaling mediated by the decreased phosphorylation of TSC induced inhibition of mTOR function...
January 13, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Romi Dasgupta, Aniruddha Chatterjee, Supriti Sarkar, B R Maiti
Millions of people consume betel nut for increased capacity of work. It contains arecoline which is highly toxic and has several untoward side effects on endocrine functions. In this article, the role of arecoline on thyroid function under metabolic stress was investigated in mice. Water or food-deprivation, each for 5 days, caused ultrastructural degeneration of thyro-follicular cells, evident from pycnotic nuclei, scanty rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria followed by depletion of blood serum T3 and T4 levels with alteration of TSH level as compared with control...
December 26, 2016: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Josilene M Rodrigues, Vinicius P P Oliveira, Julia P Furlan, Ana Claudia Munhoz, Marcelo R S Rempel, Marcia N Brito, Nilton A Brito, Maria M D Pedrosa, Cecília E M Costa
CONTEXT: Residual effects after nandrolone decanoate (ND) treatment are not reported. OBJECTIVE: Immediate and residual effects of low-dose ND and treadmill training were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats were trained and/or ND-treated for four weeks and the assessments were made after this period or four weeks later. RESULTS: The groups did not differ in final plasma glucose or AUC of the ivGTT, but hyperinsulinemia was noticed in some trained/treated groups...
December 25, 2016: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Raida Zouari, Khaled Hamden, Abdelfattah El Feki, Khansa Chaabouni, Fatma Makni-Ayadi, Fahima Sallemi, Semia Ellouze-Chaabouni, Dhouha Ghribi-Aydi
This study investigated the protective and the curative effects of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 crude lipopeptide biosurfactant in alleviating induced obesity complications in rats fed on high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD). Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups with the following treatment schedule: normal diet-fed rats (CD), HFFD-fed rats, HFFD-fed rats supplemented with SPB1 biosurfactant from the first day of the experiment (HFFD + Bios1), rats fed on HFFD receiving standard drug (HFFD + Torva), or SPB1 biosurfactant (HFFD + Bios2) during the last 4 weeks of the study...
December 25, 2016: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Tianyu Zhang, Yingying Mu, Mingqi Yang, Abdullah Al Maruf, Panpan Li, Chao Li, Shaohua Dai, Jiangyi Lu, Qiang Dong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether (+)-catechin, a strong antioxidant, can prevent methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced cytotoxicity and its mechanism. METHODS: Cytotoxicity, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial morphology were measured in EA.hy926 cells. RESULT: MGO (4 mM)-induced cytotoxicity was markedly inhibited by (+)-catechin (0.1-4 mM) in 24 h...
December 22, 2016: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Massara Mzid, Sameh Ben Khedir, Sana Bardaa, Zouheir Sahnoun, Tarek Rebai
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Urtica urens L.(Uu) as well as its anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenan (CARR)-induced paw oedema in rats. METHODS: The leaves were extracted using ethanol (EtOH) and water. The extracts were analysed for proximate composition and antioxidant activity using standard chemical analysis methods. RESULTS: The proximate analysis showed that Uu leaves contained appreciable percentages of dry mass, ashes, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, sugars, anthocyanin, carotenoid and fibre...
December 14, 2016: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Nouf M Al-Rasheed, Hala A Attia, Raeesa A Mohamad, Nawal M Al-Rasheed, Musaed Al Fayez, Maha A Al-Amin
CONTEXT: Date fruits have protective effects against liver fibrosis; however their anti-apoptotic effects have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the modulating effects of date fruits on pro- and anti-apoptotic markers, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in liver fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced by injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for eight weeks. Date flesh extract (DFE) and pits extract (DPE) were taken daily concomitant with CCl4...
December 14, 2016: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Boguslawa Luzak, Hassan Kassassir, Edward Rój, Lidia Stanczyk, Cezary Watala, Jacek Golanski
Hop cones (Humulus lupulus L.), very rich source of phenolic compounds, possessing anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, are considered as beneficial diet ingredients improving human health. In this study, the antiplatelet action of xanthohumol (XN), the principal flavonoid in hop cones, was investigated. XN significantly attenuated ADP-induced blood platelet aggregation (97.2 ± 35.7 AU for 6 μg/ml of XN vs. 120.4 ± 30.1 AU for 0.17% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), p < 0...
February 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Malgorzata A Kępczyńska, Mohamed S Zaibi, Suliman Y Alomar, Paul Trayhurn
The role of IL-1β in regulating the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell adhesion genes in human adipocytes has been examined. Adipocytes differentiated in culture were incubated with IL-1β for 4 or 24 h and RNA probed with PCR arrays for 84 ECM and cell adhesion genes. Treatment with IL-1β resulted in changes in the expression at one or both time points of ∼50% of the genes probed by the arrays, the majority being down-regulated. Genes whose expression was down-regulated by IL-1β included those encoding several collagen chains and integrin subunits...
February 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Amel Ben Gara, Rihab Ben Abdallah Kolsi, Neila Jardak, Rim Chaaben, Abdelfattah El-Feki, Lotfi Fki, Hafedh Belghith, Karima Belghith
The present study investigated the effect of the Cystoseira crinita sulfated polysaccharide (CCSP) on key enzymes activities related to diabetes in vitro and in diabetic rats. We found that CCSP inhibited pancreatic α-amylase with IC50 = 39.16 μg/ml and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity with IC50 = 58.35 μg/ml in vitro. In diabetic rats, the administration of CCSP reduced the activity of α-amylase in serum, pancreas, and intestine by 23%, 44.38%, and 45%, respectively as compared to untreated diabetic rats...
February 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Shaimaa A Fattah, Maivel H Ghattas, Samy M Saleh, Dina M Abo-Elmatty
CONTEXT: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a CD28-family receptor expressed on T-cells which suppresses T cell proliferation. CTLA-4 -318C/T polymorphism is involved in regulation of CTLA-4 expression. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the genetic association of CTLA-4 -318C/T polymorphism with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the activity and severity of the disease in the Egyptian population. METHODS: A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs5742909) in CTLA-4 was genotyped in 100 RA patients and 100 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism...
February 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
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February 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Tomasz Szkudelski, Katarzyna Szkudelska
Adipose tissue plays a key role in energy homeostasis. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important intracellular energy sensor. Effects of activation of AMPK by aminomidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) on lipolysis in the rat adipocytes were determined in the presence of 3 or 12 mM glucose. Response to epinephrine or dibutyryl-cAMP was higher in the presence of 12 mM glucose. AICAR decreased lipolysis, also when glucose was replaced by alanine or succinate and without decrease in cAMP levels...
February 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Suat Tekin, Yavuz Erden, Suleyman Sandal, Ebru Etem Onalan, Fatma Ozyalin, Hasan Ozen, Bayram Yilmaz
Apelin is an adipose tissue derived peptidergic hormone. In this study, 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used (four groups; n = 10). Apelin-13 at three different dosages (1, 5 and 50 μg/kg) was given intraperitoneally while the control group received vehicle the same route for a period of 14 days. In results, apelin-13 caused significant decreases in serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p < 0.05). Administration of apelin-13 significantly increased body weights, food intake, serum low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels (p < 0...
February 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Suliman Al Humayed
AIM: We evaluated the potential preventive and therapeutic effects of Crataegus aronia (C. aronia) in NAFLD induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in rat models. METHODS: Protective effect of Crataegus aronia or simvastatin was investigated in Wistar rats fed either low-fat diet (LFD) or HFD. RESULTS: Liver histopathological examinations confirmed the development of NAFLD in rats fed HFD. In both protective and therapeutic treatments, C. aronia significantly reduced liver index (3...
February 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Anastasiya M Kaneva, Natalya N Potolitsyna, Evgeny R Bojko
CONTEXT: The ratio of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to apolipoprotein-B (LDL-C/apoB) conventionally represents an alternative index of LDL particle size. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to determine the importance of LDL-C/apoB ratio in the overall evaluation of atherogenicity of lipid profile. METHODS: The plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apoB and apoE were measured in 186 apparently healthy men using enzymatic and immunoturbidimetric methods...
February 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Lawrence A Olatunji, Taofeek O Usman, Young-Mi Seok, In-Kyeom Kim
CONTEXT: Clinical studies have shown that combined oral contraceptive (COC) use is associated with cardiometabolic disturbances. Elevated renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have also been implicated in the development of cardiometabolic events. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of COC treatment on cardiac RAS and PAI-1 gene expressions, and whether the effect is circulating aldosterone or corticosterone dependent. METHODS: Female rats were treated (p...
February 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Stefan Lehr, Daniel Markgraf
Investigating complex signatures of biomolecules by mass spectrometry approaches has become indispensable in molecular life science research. Nowadays, various mass spectrometry-based omics technologies are available to monitor qualitative and quantitative changes within hundreds or thousands of biological active components, including proteins/peptides, lipids and metabolites. These comprehensive investigations have the potential to decipher the pathophysiology of disease development at a molecular level and to monitor the individual response of pharmacological treatment or lifestyle intervention...
December 2016: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Tamara Džinić, Sonja Hartwig, Stefan Lehr, Norbert A Dencher
Cytotoxic effects, including oxidative stress, of low linear energy transfer (LET)-ionizing radiation are often underestimated and studies of their mechanisms using cell culture models are widely conducted with cells cultivated at atmospheric oxygen that does not match its physiological levels in body tissues. Also, cell differentiation status plays a role in the outcome of experiments. We compared effects of 2 Gy X-ray irradiation on the physiology and mitochondrial proteome of nondifferentiated and human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells treated with retinoic acid cultivated at 21% and 5% O2...
December 2016: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
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