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Health & Place

Suzanne Grant, Aileen Collier
Patient safety and quality of care are increasing concerns for healthcare internationally. This paper examines the spatial achievement of safety and wellbeing by healthcare staff, patients and their carers within UK primary care and Australian palliative care contexts. Two key socio-spatial modes of safety and wellbeing were found across these healthcare contexts. The technical mode was spatially managed by staff and driven by formal approaches to safety with a limited focus on wellbeing. In contrast, the relational mode was driven by attentiveness to the wellbeing and spatial engagement of staff, patients and carers that drew on informal elements of safety...
November 10, 2018: Health & Place
Zhiguang Zhang, João R Pereira, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, Anthony D Okely, Xiaoqi Feng, Rute Santos
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the direct effects of environmental characteristics of early childhood education and care (ECEC) centres on adiposity, and the indirect effects through daily movement behaviours (physical activity, sedentary time and naps). METHODS: 274 children (average age 19.73 ± 4.15 months) from 27 ECEC centres participated in this study. Environmental characteristics of ECEC centres were rated using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-revised edition (ITERS-R)...
November 8, 2018: Health & Place
K Garthwaite, C Bambra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: Health & Place
Leah G Taylor, Andrew F Clark, Jason A Gilliland
Children's perceptions of their environment have been associated with their physical activity (PA) levels, however a better understanding of the formation of perceptions within different contexts is needed. This will help to inform decision making related to physical inactivity trends in Canadian children. We examined socio-ecological factors influencing children's perceptions of barriers to PA in Ontario, Canada. Binary logistic regression models measured the relationship between perceptions of barriers and PA for 892 children in Ontario...
October 24, 2018: Health & Place
Jonathan Kingsley, Emily Munro-Harrison, Anne Jenkins, Alister Thorpe
This article provides an exploration of the cultural determinants of health, based on a research evaluation investigating a number of Aboriginal gathering places in Victoria (Australia). Gathering places are recognised as settings in which people practice and learn about local Aboriginal culture, history and place. Academic literature on gathering places is sparse. Thirteen gathering places were evaluated in this research. Each site is unique and has a specific story that connects it to the history and geography of the place in which it is located...
October 24, 2018: Health & Place
Anta F Yu, Hope House Men And Alumni
In this study, we used photovoice and grounded theory to understand the barriers and resources encountered by Black men navigating substance use recovery and/or reentry following incarceration in an urban, economically disadvantaged neighborhood. The conceptual framework that emerged highlighted the significant impact of traumatic disruptions to place and relationships, as well as an ongoing dialectical tension between considering passive participation in street life or choosing recovery. Regarding action steps, participants recommended investing in community infrastructure, rehabilitating adults to be mentors, and mentoring youth to prevent street involvement...
October 15, 2018: Health & Place
Maya K Gislason, Vanessa Sloan Morgan, Kendra Mitchell-Foster, Margot W Parkes
The 'Ecohealth and Watersheds in Northern BC'' project, situated in a resource rich, settler colonial context, generated three digital stories at the request of the project's Steering Committee members that sought to connect health, environment, and community. Three Steering Committee members championed these stories from their distinct watersheds, resulting in emergent counter-narratives that respond directly to their social-ecological contexts. Nested in literature on blue and green spaces, we present and examine the process of storytelling as emergent counter-narrative and how these narratives challenge us to think of blue and green spaces in interconnected and nuanced ways...
October 12, 2018: Health & Place
Martha J Decker, Sarah Isquick, Lana Tilley, Qi Zhi, Anya Gutman, William Luong, Claire D Brindis
This systematic review examines the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive use, sexual initiation, and birthrate. Several studies found a significant association between higher poverty and increased adolescent birthrate, pregnancy, and earlier age at sexual initiation. Unsafe neighborhoods were associated with earlier sexual initiation and increased adolescent pregnancy. Mixed results were found for neighborhood racial or ethnic composition. Lower collective efficacy and social support were associated with increased rates of adolescent pregnancy and earlier age at sexual initiation...
October 9, 2018: Health & Place
Jennifer Badham, Edmund Chattoe-Brown, Nigel Gilbert, Zaid Chalabi, Frank Kee, Ruth F Hunter
Managing non-communicable diseases requires policy makers to adopt a whole systems perspective that adequately represents the complex causal architecture of human behaviour. Agent-based modelling is a computational method to understand the behaviour of complex systems by simulating the actions of entities within the system, including the way these individuals influence and are influenced by their physical and social environment. The potential benefits of this method have led to several calls for greater use in public health research...
October 2, 2018: Health & Place
Thomas Astell-Burt, Xiaoqi Feng
A type 2 diabetes (T2DM) diagnosis has been referred to as a "wake-up call", but subsequent behavioural change may be influenced by place of residence. Random effects within-between regressions were applied to 130,926 participants in the 45 and Up Study. T2DM diagnoses effected change in the odds of short sleeps and meeting vegetable and alcohol consumption guidelines, but not changes in physical activity. Each of these behaviours varied geographically and were patterned by area disadvantage and geographic remoteness...
October 1, 2018: Health & Place
Nicholas A Howell, Steven Farber, Michael J Widener, Jeff Allen, Gillian L Booth
Studies employing 'activity space' measures of the built environment do not always account for how individuals self-select into different residential and non-residential environments when testing associations with physical activity. To date, no study has examined whether preferences for walkable residential neighborhoods predict exposure to other walkable neighborhoods in non-residential activity spaces. Using a sample of 9783 university students from Toronto, Canada, we assessed how self-reported preferences for a walkable neighborhood predicted their exposure to other walkable, non-residential environments, and further whether these preferences confounded observed walkability-physical activity associations...
October 1, 2018: Health & Place
Lirong Kou, Honggang Xu, Mei-Po Kwan
Seasonal retired migrants have increased rapidly in developing countries in recent years. This article adopts a relational perspective to understand the relationships between older people's seasonal mobility and well-being. It shows that the complex spatiotemporal dynamics of seasonal mobility and the non-western sociocultural context influence older people's relations with their places of origin and destination, which in turn shape their well-being experiences during seasonal mobility. Narrative analysis of interview data from five pairs of 'snowbirds' to Sanya, China, reveals that seasonal mobility and well-being of older people are evolving processes, interwoven with risks and opportunities...
September 27, 2018: Health & Place
Xi Huang, Christian King, Jennifer McAtee
Exposure to violence in youths has been associated with negative health outcomes, yet evidence of such in adults is limited. Additionally, it is unknown whether these negative associations persist over time and whether neighborhood characteristics affect such associations. Using longitudinal data from a sample of 2481 mostly low-income urban mothers, logistic regressions indicate that exposure to violence is associated with several poorer health outcomes after accounting for neighborhood and social factors...
September 25, 2018: Health & Place
Thomas Astell-Burt, Xiaoqi Feng
Cross-sectional studies of Alzheimer's disease tend to report higher risk in 'rural' areas. Multilevel longitudinal analysis of 261,669 participants in the Sax Institute's 45 and Up Study was conducted, tracking incidence of Alzheimer's disease defined by the first cholinesterase inhibitor prescription via linked records from the Department of Human Services in Australia. Alzheimer's disease was diagnosed in 3046 participants over 11 years. Adjusting for age, gender, education, income and area disadvantage, Alzheimer's disease risk was lower in 'outer regional and remote areas' (incident rate ratio 0...
September 25, 2018: Health & Place
Erika Ikeda, Erica Hinckson, Karen Witten, Melody Smith
This systematic review summarised and evaluated the evidence for associations between school travel modes in children aged 5-13 years and perceived physical environments as well as social and sociodemographic characteristics. A computerised electronic search was performed for English articles published between January 2000 and July 2017. Data were extracted, study quality was assessed, and findings were analysed using a vote-counting technique. Thirty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed...
September 24, 2018: Health & Place
Seraphim Dempsey, Mel T Devine, Tom Gillespie, Seán Lyons, Anne Nolan
This paper tests whether higher exposure to coastal blue space is associated with lower risk of depression using data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), a nationally representative longitudinal study of people aged fifty and over in Ireland. We contribute to the literature on blue space and health by (i) using scores from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to measure depression outcomes (ii) using new measures of coastal blue space visibility (iii) studying the association in an older population (iv) using data from Ireland...
September 24, 2018: Health & Place
T Chambers, A L Pearson, I Kawachi, J Stanley, M Smith, M Barr, C Ni Mhurchu, L Signal
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Neighbourhood alcohol availability has been associated with alcohol consumption by children, despite children rarely acquiring alcohol from retailers. This study explores one potential reason for this finding, by evaluating the relationships between neighbourhood alcohol availability and children's actual exposure to alcohol marketing. METHOD: Wearable cameras and GPS devices were worn by 167 children (aged 11-13 y) over a four-day period. Image and GPS data were linked and compared to known alcohol availability data...
September 22, 2018: Health & Place
Colleen E Reid, Laura D Kubzansky, Jiayue Li, Jessie L Shmool, Jane E Clougherty
Growing evidence suggests that exposure to greenness benefits health, but studies assess greenness differently. We hypothesize greenness-health associations vary by exposure assessment method. To test this, we considered four vegetation datasets (three Normalized Difference Vegetation Index datasets with different spatial resolutions and a finely-resolved land cover dataset), and six aggregation units (five radial buffer sizes and self-described neighborhoods) of each dataset. We compared associations of self-rated health and these metrics of greenness among a sample of New York City residents...
September 21, 2018: Health & Place
Florence Wullo Anfaara, Kilian Nasung Atuoye, Paul Mkandawire, Isaac Luginaah
This study examined the role of health facilities on testing for Hepatitis B virus in a policy context where screening is only available at a cost. We fitted multivariate multinomial logistic regression models to cross-sectional data (n = 1374) collected from Upper West Region of Ghana. The analysis showed that approximately 28% of respondents reported ever testing for HBV. Although source of healthcare influenced HBV testing, traders (RRR = 0.29, p ≤ 0.001) and farmers (RRR = 0.34, p ≤ 0...
September 21, 2018: Health & Place
Tom Koch
Models of epidemic disease and programs for their management require accurate population data as a critical component of most studies. But the traditional definitions of urban places assumed discrete borders and localized populations. The vast increase in urban travel at all scales has raised the problem of how we define those urban populations. This paper reviews the issues as an areal unit problem within the context of the evolving idea of "megaregions" and their defintion.
September 21, 2018: Health & Place
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