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Health & Place

M Romeo-Velilla, N Ellis, G Hurst, S Grogan, C Gidlow
Health inequalities are a major concern in the UK. Power imbalances are associated with health inequalities and should be challenged through health promotion and empowering strategies, enabling individuals who feel powerless to take control over their own life and act on the determinants of health (Green and Tones, 2010). This study aimed to explore resident expectations of a community engagement programme that intended to empower communities to take action on pre-identified priorities. The programme targeted communities in deprived areas of a mid-sized city in the UK...
May 16, 2018: Health & Place
Giulia Tattarini, Raffaele Grotti, Stefani Scherer
Unemployment has numerous negative consequences for health, but the family and the welfare state can mitigate these consequences. How the family supports its members and whether and to what extent this interacts with the broader context is still an open question. Our evidence show that job loss is causally linked to significant declines in health for men, but not for women. Yet, the increased risk of poor health is lower for coupled men, especially if the partner is employed. This suggests that both emotional and economic support play a role...
May 16, 2018: Health & Place
Wasan Nagib, Allison Williams
This study explores the challenges faced within the home environment by North American families of children with autism. The study also examines the diversity and extent of physical modifications introduced by the families to alleviate these challenges. The concept of therapeutic landscapes is employed as a framework to examine how physical modifications transform the home environment into a place of healing for both the children with autism and their family members. Finally, the study offers a general design framework that can ultimately guide home designers and policymakers in developing friendly home environments for children with autism and their families...
May 16, 2018: Health & Place
Devajyoti Deka, Charles T Brown, James Sinclair
To examine how violent crime affects people's recreational and transportation walking duration in daytime and after dark on a typical day, this study undertakes associative and causal analyses with geo-referenced crime data, street-audit data, and data collected through an intercept survey in a three-municipality region of New Jersey that is predominantly inhabited by low-income and minority populations. Survey data was collected from 1173 respondents at 87 intersections selected by stratified random sampling...
May 16, 2018: Health & Place
Maho Haseda, Naoki Kondo, Daisuke Takagi, Katsunori Kondo
Although studies have suggested that community social capital contributes to narrow income-based inequality in depression, the impacts may depend on its components. Our multilevel cross-sectional analysis of data from 42,208 men and 45,448 women aged 65 years or older living in 565 school districts in Japan found that higher community-level civic participation (i.e., average levels of group participation in the community) was positively associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms among the low-income groups, independent of individual levels of group participation...
May 15, 2018: Health & Place
Lucy Prior, David Manley, Kelvyn Jones
Deprived neighbourhoods have long been associated with poorer health outcomes. However, many quantitative studies have not evidenced the mechanisms through which place 'gets under the skin' to influence health. The increasing prevalence of biosocial data provides new opportunities to explore these mechanisms and incorporate them into models of contextual effects. The stress pathway is a key biosocial mechanism; however, few studies have explicitly tested it in neighbourhood associations. This paper addresses this gap by investigating whether allostatic load, a biological response to chronic stress, mediates relationships of neighbourhood deprivation to physical and mental health...
May 15, 2018: Health & Place
Nicholas Page, Gary Higgs, Mitchel Langford
Spatial variations in rates of registered organ donors have not been studied in the UK at detailed spatial scales despite some evidence of national and regional differences. By drawing on the findings from the existing literature, this study examines associations between small-area variations in rates of new registrants to the UK organ donor register (ODR) within Wales and key demographic factors. Using map-based visualisations and statistical regression methods, spatial patterns in new registrants to the ODR are identified within Wales, a country which moved to an opt-out system of consent for organ donation following the Human Transplantation (Wales) Act 2013...
May 15, 2018: Health & Place
Kate Senior, Richard Chenhall, Julie Hall, Daphne Daniels
The small, decentralised communities, known as outstations which satellite larger Indigenous Australian remote communities have often been conceptualised as places that are beneficial to health and well-being. This paper provides an exploration of the meaning of their outstation for one family and the benefits that this connection brings to them, which are expressed in a deep connection to the land, continuing relationships with ancestors and a safe refuge from the stresses of the larger community. We argue that the outstation provides a place for people to be in control of their lives and form hopes and plans for the future...
May 11, 2018: Health & Place
Andrew Gorman-Murray, David Bissell
Mobile work is increasingly common. For our purposes, mobile work entails long-distance commuting arrangements with periods living away from the primary domestic residence that may be considered 'home'. Mobile work reconfigures the relational fabric of 'home', introducing multilocal mooring points into worker's lives, and thus reshaping the spatial and temporal patterns and meanings of dwelling. Geography and cognate disciplines have begun to investigate the spatialities and temporalities of mobile work and multilocal dwelling, including the complexities of space-time management, but as yet little attention has been given to implications and impacts on the wellbeing of workers and their families - this is despite growing concern for worker and family wellbeing in some mobile work sectors, such as FIFO mining...
May 9, 2018: Health & Place
Laura Macdonald, Jonathan R Olsen, Niamh K Shortt, Anne Ellaway
This study utilised an innovative application of spatial cluster analysis to examine the socio-spatial patterning of outlets selling potentially health-damaging goods/services, such as alcohol, fast food, tobacco and gambling, within Glasgow City, Scotland. For all categories of outlets combined, numbers of clusters increased linearly from the least to the most income deprived areas (i.e. one cluster within the least deprived quintile to ten within the most deprived quintile). Co-location of individual types of outlets (alcohol, fast food, tobacco and gambling) within similar geographical areas was also evident...
May 7, 2018: Health & Place
David Anstiss, Darrin Hodgetts, Ottilie Stolte
Transitions into retirement can be difficult at the best of times. Many men find themselves having to reflect on who they are and what their lives are about. Their access to social supports and material resources are often disrupted. Men's Sheds offer a space where retired men can actively pursue wellbeing, and respond to disruption and loneliness through emplaced community practices. This paper draws on ethnographic research in a Men's Shed in Auckland, New Zealand in order to explore the social practices through which men create a shared space for themselves in which they can engage in meaningful relationships with each other...
May 6, 2018: Health & Place
Andrew D Williams, Maeve Wallace, Carrie Nobles, Pauline Mendola
We examined whether current and/or persistent racial residential segregation is associated with black-white stillbirth disparities among 49,969 black and 71,785 white births from the Consortium on Safe Labor (2002-2008). Black-white segregation was measured using the dissimilarity index and the isolation index, categorized into population-based tertiles. Using hierarchical logistic models, we found low and decreasing levels of segregation were associated with decreased odds of stillbirth, with blacks benefitting more than whites...
April 28, 2018: Health & Place
Margaret S Winchester, Brian King
Healthcare access and utilization remain key challenges in the Global South. South Africa represents this given that more than twenty years after the advent of democratic elections, the national government continues to confront historical systems of spatial manipulation that generated inequities in healthcare access. While the country has made significant advancements, governmental agencies have mirrored international strategies of healthcare decentralization and focused on local provision of primary care to increase healthcare access...
April 27, 2018: Health & Place
Kenisha Russell Jonsson, Irina Vartanova, Marita Södergren
Several studies indicate that young people from certain ethnic minority groups in Britain have significant mental health advantages over their White majority counterparts, but the reasons for these differences have not been adequately explored. This work analyses the impact of neighbourhood characteristics, measured by socioeconomic deprivation; crime; living conditions; ethnic density and parenting behaviour on the mental health of young people. To determine the impact of these factors on mental health among young people, geocoded data from waves 1, 3 and 5 of the UK Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS) are merged with small area statistics from the 2011 census, and multilevel linear regression models are fitted to the sample of 5513 (7302 observations) 10-15-year-olds of varying ethnicity residing in England and Wales...
April 24, 2018: Health & Place
Dirk Kinsey, Carolyn P Paul, Denina Taylor, Roberto Caricchio, Rob J Kulathinal, Allison Hayes-Conroy
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), commonly known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks healthy tissue and organs. Characteristic of the disease is a disproportionate effect on women and communities of color, both in terms of prevalence and severity of symptoms. Lupus is also both genetically driven and subject to external environmental conditions, many with place based corollaries. Thus, lupus presents a series of complex and intersecting biosocial questions regarding its origin and treatment, questions which transdisciplinary approaches are uniquely suited to address...
April 11, 2018: Health & Place
Alexandra B Collins, Jade Boyd, Will Damon, Sandra Czechaczek, Andrea Krüsi, Hannah Cooper, Ryan McNeil
Single room accommodation (SRA) housing is among the only forms of accessible housing to marginalized women who use illicit drugs in many urban settings. However, SRA housing environments may create specific health and drug risks for women. Little research has examined the gendered mechanisms contributing to housing vulnerability for women who use drugs and the subsequent ways they aim to mitigate harm. This study examines the gendered vulnerabilities to, and harms stemming from, evictions from SRAs in Vancouver, Canada...
April 11, 2018: Health & Place
Linde Van Hecke, Ariane Ghekiere, Jenny Veitch, Delfien Van Dyck, Jelle Van Cauwenberg, Peter Clarys, Benedicte Deforche
The objective of this systematic review was to provide insight into the specific characteristics of public open spaces (POS) associated with adolescents' POS visitation and physical activity (PA). Qualitative research suggests many characteristics to be associated with POS visitation and PA. Quantitative evidence confirmed a positive association between presence of trails, playgrounds and specific types of sports fields (e.g. basketball) with POS visitation and PA, whereas safety and aesthetics seemed subordinate...
April 6, 2018: Health & Place
Nathan J Doogan, Sarah Cooper, Amanda J Quisenberry, Theodore M Brasky, Christopher R Browning, Elizabeth G Klein, Alice Hinton, Haikady N Nagaraja, Wenna Xi, Mary Ellen Wewers
INTRODUCTION: Rural Americans are particularly vulnerable to tobacco price reducing promotions are known to be directed to and used by vulnerable populations. Tobacco purchasing decisions, such as unit quantity purchased, may vary by rurality, by price promotion use, and possibly by the interaction between the two. Purchase decisions are likely to affect tobacco use behavior. Therefore, explanation of variation in tobacco purchase quantity by factors associated with rural vulnerability and factors that fall under the regulatory scope of the Tobacco Control Act (TCA) of 2009 could be of value to regulatory proposals intended to equitably benefit public health...
April 3, 2018: Health & Place
Michelle C Kondo, Sara F Jacoby, Eugenia C South
Everyday environmental conditions impact human health. One mechanism underlying this relationship is the experience of stress. Through systematic review of published literature, we explore how stress has been measured in real-time non-laboratory studies of stress responses to deliberate exposure to outdoor environments. The types of exposures evaluated in this review include: nature viewing, outdoor walks, outdoor exercise and gardening. We characterize study design, modalities of stress measurements, and statistical estimates of effect and significance...
March 28, 2018: Health & Place
George A Atiim, Susan J Elliott, Ann E Clarke, Craig Janes
Policy makers and health geographers are increasingly intrigued by the global rise of chronic disease. While current engagement coalesce around cardiovascular disease, cancers, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes, very little attention has been given to other important chronic conditions: e.g., allergic disease. Concerns about how health is shaped by context and experienced in place can provide important insights to understand the trajectory of allergic disease and inform policy especially in developing countries experiencing an epidemiologic transition...
March 27, 2018: Health & Place
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