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Health & Place

Sandra Bogar, Staci Young, Shane Woodruff, Kirsten Beyer, Rod Mitchell, Sheri Johnson
The purpose of this study was to explore environmental health perspectives among urban youth. A total of 12 focus groups with 64 youth were conducted. Youth defined environmental health in a multidimensional manner which integrated aspects of the physical, social, and built environment and concentrated on the neighborhood context. A theme of environmental health resilience factors and sub-themes of safety, trust, engagement, leadership, and representation were identified and described. A second theme of underlying structural drivers of environmental health with sub-themes of equitable opportunities and power inform environmental health...
September 18, 2018: Health & Place
Blair Alexandra Burley
Exposure to violence has been deemed as a public health epidemic due to its negative impact on mental health outcomes, especially for residents of neighborhoods where violent crime is prevalent. Access to nature has the potential to mitigate diminished mental health outcomes, such as aggression. However, current literature specifying effective and equitable green infrastructure practices is lacking. The purpose of this study was to measure the extent to which Portland's green infrastructure initiative reduced neighborhood violence by increasing the availability of new trees to residents of underserved communities as a modality for green infrastructure intervention...
September 18, 2018: Health & Place
Jing-Jing Wang, Mei Wang, Patrick W C Lau, Barbara E Ainsworth, Gang He, Yang Gao
This study examined whether physical activity (PA) mediated the relationships of four PA-related environmental settings (home, school, neighborhood environments and convenient facilities) with body mass index (BMI) among Chinese adolescents aged 13-18 years. Two setting indicators were assessed: (1) perceived availability of environmental resources and (2) perceived importance of environmental resources. Mediation analysis indicated that PA mediated the associations of perceived availability of the home environment, convenient facilities, and perceived importance of the school environment and BMI z-score with ratios of mediating to total effects of 46...
September 18, 2018: Health & Place
Stephen Taylor
As the world comes closer to the eradication of polio, the question of preparing for life after this debilitating disease becomes increasingly pertinent. This paper focuses on on-going institutional attempts to conceptualise, plan, and deliver a world after polio. Drawing upon interviews with global health officials and ethnographic fieldwork with eradication initiatives in Nigeria and Pakistan, I explore how international donors are transitioning towards life after the disease and the curtailment of the substantial resources it has successfully mobilised...
September 18, 2018: Health & Place
Chenoa D Allen
In the United States, there is widespread concern that state laws restricting rights for noncitizens may have spillover effects for Latino children in immigrant families. Studies into the laws' effects on health care access have inconsistent findings, demonstrating gaps in our understanding of who is most affected, under what circumstances. Using comparative interrupted time series methods and a nationally-representative sample of US citizen, Latino children with noncitizen parents from the National Health Interview Survey (2005-2014, n = 18,118), this study finds that living in counties with higher co-ethnic density placed children at greater risk of losing Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program coverage when their states passed restrictive state omnibus immigrant laws...
September 14, 2018: Health & Place
Mark A Green, Konstantinos Daras, Alec Davies, Ben Barr, Alex Singleton
Health geographers have been long concerned with understanding how the accessibility of individuals to certain environmental features may influence health and wellbeing. Such insights are increasingly being adopted by policy makers for designing healthy neighbourhoods. To support and inform decision making, there is a need for small area national level data. This paper details the creation of a suite of open access health indicators, including a novel multidimensional index summarising 14 health-related features of neighbourhoods for Great Britain...
September 11, 2018: Health & Place
Christopher G Hoehne, David M Hondula, Mikhail V Chester, David P Eisenman, Ariane Middel, Andrew M Fraser, Lance Watkins, Katrina Gerster
Environmental heat is a growing public health concern in cities. Urbanization and global climate change threaten to exacerbate heat as an already significant environmental cause of human morbidity and mortality. Despite increasing risk, very little is known regarding determinants of outdoor urban heat exposure. To provide additional evidence for building community and national-scale resilience to extreme heat, we assess how US outdoor urban heat exposure varies by city, demography, and activity. We estimate outdoor urban heat exposure by pairing individual-level data from the American Time Use Survey (2004-2015) with corresponding meteorological data for 50 of the largest metropolitan statistical areas in the US...
September 7, 2018: Health & Place
Eduardo Faerstein, Ismael Henrique da Silveira, Karine de Lima Sírio Boclin, Cintia Chaves Curioni, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de Castro, Washington Leite Junger
Positive influences of natural and built environment characteristics on human physical activity have been observed mainly in high-income countries, but mixed results exist. We explored these relationships in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where exuberant nature coexists with high levels of social inequality and urban violence. Data originated from questionnaires self-administered by 1731 civil servants at university campuses who participated in 4 waves (1999, 2001, 2007, 2012) of a longitudinal study, and had their residential addresses geocoded...
August 8, 2018: Health & Place
Amy Ehntholt, Mauricio Avendano, Roman Pabayo, Lisa F Berkman, Ichiro Kawachi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible effects of middle and high school racial composition on later reporting of lifetime non-medical use of prescription painkillers (NMUPP) in young adulthood, and to explore whether there is evidence of variability by individual race/ethnicity in such effects. METHODS: Using data from Wave 1 (1994/5) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we categorized the sample's 52 middle schools and 80 high schools as majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, majority non-Hispanic black, or neither...
August 6, 2018: Health & Place
Mariëlle A Beenackers, Joost Oude Groeniger, Carlijn B M Kamphuis, Frank J Van Lenthe
We investigated the association and underlying pathways between urban population density and mortality in a compact mid-sized university city in the Netherlands. Baseline data from the GLOBE cohort study (N = 10,120 residents of Eindhoven) were linked to mortality after 23 years of follow up and analyzed in multilevel models. Higher population density was modestly related to increased mortality, independently of baseline socioeconomic position and health. Higher population density was related to more active transport, more perceived urban stress and smoking...
July 26, 2018: Health & Place
Carly Guest, Oonagh Corrigan
Based on audio diaries and narrative interviews with family carers, this paper suggests care can be understood as an experience of 'extraordinary normalcy', meaning that profound shifts in home, relationships and identities take place whilst caring, yet these become part of the normalcy of family life. To maintain and understand a sense of normalcy, our participants utilise professional and technological interventions in the home and draw on notions of responsibility, reciprocity and role-reversal as frameworks for explaining why they continue to care, despite the challenges it brings...
July 26, 2018: Health & Place
Sarah D Mills, Lisa Henriksen, Shelley D Golden, Rachel Kurtzman, Amanda Y Kong, Tara L Queen, Kurt M Ribisl
This study describes retail marketing for menthol cigarettes and its relationship with neighborhood demographics in a national sample of tobacco retailers in the United States. Mixed-effects models were used to examine three outcomes: menthol cigarette exterior advertising, menthol cigarette price promotions, and the pack price of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes. Thirty-eight percent of retailers displayed at least one menthol advertisement on the store exterior and 69% advertised price promotions. Retail advertising was more common in neighborhoods in the second (OR = 1...
July 26, 2018: Health & Place
Amy J Peterson, Chris Bonell
Schools are considered high-potential environments for promoting adolescent sexual and reproductive health outcomes among young women. Qualitative studies provide context and meaning to how school experiences and systems contribute to pregnancy and parenthood decisions from the perspectives of youth. This systematic review screened 24,711 references from 8 databases, yielding 28 qualitative studies. Included studies were assessed for quality and synthesised using meta-ethnographic approaches. Reciprocal translation revealed that young women's education and life trajectories were at least partially shaped by a commitment to school values and expectations for academic achievement, influenced by structural and relational factors within the school...
July 25, 2018: Health & Place
Melissa Giesbrecht, Kelli I Stajduhar, Ashley Mollison, Bernie Pauly, Sheryl Reimer-Kirkham, Ryan McNeil, Bruce Wallace, Naheed Dosani, Caelin Rose
The process of dying pronounces inequities, particularly for structurally vulnerable populations. Extending recent health geography research, we critically explore how the 'places' of formal healthcare settings shape experiences of, and access to, palliative care for the structurally vulnerable (e.g., homeless, substance users). Drawing on 30 months of ethnographic data, thematic findings reveal how symbolic, aesthetic, and physical elements of formal healthcare 'places' intersect with social relations of power to produce, reinforce, and amplify structural vulnerability and thus, inequities in access to care...
July 25, 2018: Health & Place
Nichola Shackleton, Frances Darlington-Pollock, Paul Norman, Rodney Jackson, Daniel John Exeter
We used longitudinal information on area deprivation status to explore the relationship between residential-deprivation mobility and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Data from 2,418,397 individuals who were: enrolled in any Primary Health Organisation within New Zealand (NZ) during at least 1 of 34 calendar quarters between 1st January 2006 and 30th June 2014; aged between 30 and 84 years (inclusive) at the start of the study period; had no prior history of CVD; and had recorded address information were analysed...
July 24, 2018: Health & Place
Antonia Hodgson, Russell Hitchings
This paper examines how interviews with outdoor recreational runners can help us understand how urban air pollution insinuates itself into the consciousness of those who may be breathing more polluted air than most. It begins by making the case for why studies of air pollution perception might turn to the subjectivities associated with taking part in relevant social practices. Then, with reference to debate about the extent to which groups of exercisers are thinking about certain aspects of what is physically happening during their exercise, we examine how outdoor recreational runners in London talk about the air that they breathe when running...
July 23, 2018: Health & Place
Prince M Amegbor, Mark W Rosenberg, Vincent Z Kuuire
Studies on the victimization and abuse of seniors in Canada have largely ignored the influence of place-based variations in social bonds and socioeconomic characteristics. Using the 2014 General Social Survey (GSS) data on Canadians' safety, we examine neighborhood, social capital, and socioeconomic characteristics as predictors of the incidence of victimization among seniors and their satisfaction with personal safety from crime. Generally, seniors with poor neighborhood ties and social capital were more likely to have experienced victimization and have a lower satisfaction with personal safety...
July 23, 2018: Health & Place
Anna Mölter, Miguel Belmonte, Victoria Palin, Chirag Mistry, Matthew Sperrin, Andrew White, William Welfare, Tjeerd Van Staa
Antimicrobial resistance is an important public health concern. As most antibiotics are prescribed in primary care, understanding prescribing patterns in General Medical (GP) practices is vital. The aim of this study was a spatial pattern analysis of antibiotic prescribing rates in GP practices in England and to examine the association of potential clusters with area level socio-economic deprivation. The pattern analysis identified a number of hot and cold spots of antibiotic prescribing, with hot spots predominantly in the North of England...
July 19, 2018: Health & Place
Qiang Fu
The new urban landscape in countries experiencing unprecedented urban transformation has a profound impact on the global burden of depression. Based on survey data from 39 neighborhoods in Guangzhou, China, this study assesses the relationship between communal space and depression. To unravel the relational and psycho-spatial embeddedness of communal space, a structural equation analysis suggests that neither the use of nor the sense of communal space has a direct association with depressive symptoms. Instead, the indirect effect of the use of communal space on depression is mediated by neighborhood-based social networks and neighborhood attachment, while the indirect effect of the sense of communal space on depression is only mediated by neighborhood attachment...
July 17, 2018: Health & Place
Graham Moon, Ross Barnett, Jamie Pearce, Lee Thompson, Liz Twigg
An increasing number of countries across the world are planning for the eradication of the tobacco epidemic. The actions necessary to realise this ambition have been termed the tobacco endgame. The focus of this paper is on the intersection between the tobacco endgame with place, a neglected theme in recent academic and policy debates. We begin with an overview of the key themes in the literature on endgame strategies before detailing the international landscape of engame initiatives, paying particular attention to the opportunities and challenges of endgame strategies in low and middle income countries...
September 2018: Health & Place
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