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Health & Place

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813690/deep-coal-mining-and-meningococcal-meningitis-in-england-and-wales-1931-38-ecological-study-with-implications-for-deep-shaft-mining-activities-worldwide
#1
Matthew R Smallman-Raynor, Andrew D Cliff
The hypothesized role of deep coal mining in the development of community-based outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis has gone largely unexplored. Taking the coalfields of Britain as a historicalĀ testbed, techniques of linear and binomial logistic regression were used to assess the association between meningococcal meningitis rates and male occupation rates for coal mining in England and Wales during the national epidemic of 1931-32 and in its aftermath. Adjusting for the epidemiological effects of age, residential density, recent changes in the number of families, housing stock and low social class, the analysis yielded evidence of a significant and positive association between coal mining occupation rates and notified levels of meningitis activity in the epidemic period...
August 13, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802872/smoking-and-binge-drinking-among-adolescents-ontario-canada-does-the-school-neighbourhood-matter
#2
Kristian Larsen, Teresa To, Hyacinth M Irving, Angela Boak, Hayley A Hamilton, Robert E Mann, Robert Schwartz, Guy E J Faulkner
This study examines whether access to alcohol and tobacco around the school relates to higher or lower odds of cigarette smoking and binge-drinking among Ontario high school students. The 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey provides data on self-reported smoking and drinking, individual covariates and subjective socio-economic status for 6142 students (grades 9-12) in Ontario, Canada. Locations of schools were geocoded and 1.6km network buffers defined the school neighbourhoods. Multi-level logistic regression examines individual and school neighbourhood factors with smoking and binge drinking as the dependent variable...
August 10, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800476/neighborhood-heterogeneity-in-health-and-well-being-among-the-elderly-in-india-evidence-from-study-on-global-ageing-and-adult-health-sage
#3
Arpita Ghosh, Christopher Millett, S V Subramanian, Santanu Pramanik
We establish a rationale for a multilevel approach in examining health among older adults. Using data on a nationally representative sample of 6560 Indian adults aged 50 years and older, we examine the extent of contextual variation between neighborhoods, after accounting for the compositional effect of individuals' background characteristics, across multiple dimensions of elderly health. The variance apportioned to neighborhoods in null intercept-only models varied widely across different health outcomes examined in the elderly - while neighborhoods accounted for only 4% of the total variation in high blood pressure at exam, 23% of the total variation in self-rated poor quality of life could be attributed to neighborhood-level differences...
August 8, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797903/not-all-built-the-same-a-comparative-study-of-electoral-systems-and-population-health
#4
Andrew C Patterson
Much literature depicts a worldwide democratic advantage in population health. However, less research compares health outcomes in the different kinds of democracy or autocracy. In an examination of 179 countries as they existed between 1975 and 2012, advantages in life expectancy and infant health appear most reliably for democracies that include the principle of proportional representation in their electoral rules. Compared to closed autocracies, they had up to 12 or more years of life expectancy on average, 75% less infant mortality, and double the savings in overall mortality for most other age groups...
August 7, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778036/healthy-urban-living-residential-environment-and-health-of-older-adults-in-shanghai
#5
Yafei Liu, Martin Dijst, Jan Faber, Stan Geertman, Can Cui
A healthy residential environment, especially for older adults, has emerged as an important issue on political and planning agenda in China. This paper aims to investigate the direct and indirect impact of residential environment on the health of older adults in Shanghai, taking into account health-related behaviours, subjective well-being and socio-demographic factors in one comprehensive conceptual model. Our results show that the residential environment is associated with older adults' health directly, and also indirectly through a series of significant behavioural (physical and social activities) and perceptual (subjective well-being) factors...
August 1, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759807/-em-placing-recovery-sites-of-health-and-wellness-for-individuals-with-serious-mental-illness-in-supported-housing
#6
Myra Piat, Kimberly Seida, Judith Sabetti, Deborah Padgett
This study used photo-elicitation methodology to explore how the move from supervised to supported housing affects recovery and community connections for individuals living with serious mental illness (SMI) in four Canadian cities. Qualitative interviews conducted in 2015 revealed five themes: (1) the characteristics distinguishing home from housing; (2) the importance of amenities offered by supported housing; (3) the connections between accessibility, mobility, and wellbeing; (4) the role of certain places in facilitating aspects of recovery such as offering hope or facilitating social connectedness; and (5) the concrete and metaphorical impact of changing vantage points on identity (re)construction...
July 28, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755653/situating-mental-health-work-in-place-qualitative-findings-from-interviews-with-veterans-in-southeastern-louisiana-and-northern-california
#7
Traci H Abraham, Christopher J Koenig, Kara Zamora, Coleen Hill, Madeline Uddo, Adam P Kelly, Michelle F Hamilton, Geoffrey M Curran, Jeffrey M Pyne, Karen H Seal
Most chronic illness management occurs outside clinics and hospitals, in the everyday lives of individuals. We use data from semi-structured interviews with 37 veterans from Southeastern Louisiana and Northern California to illustrate how "health work" for mental health concerns are shaped by place. Using health work as an orienting concept for analysis, we discerned variation between the two study sites in how Veterans used interacting with the natural environment, cultivating time alone, and religious practice to manage their mental health and well-being...
July 26, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753524/park-availability-and-major-depression-in-individuals-with-chronic-conditions-is-there-an-association-in-urban-india
#8
Debarati Mukherjee, S Safraj, Mohammad Tayyab, Roopa Shivashankar, Shivani A Patel, Gitanjali Narayanan, Vamadevan S Ajay, Mohammed K Ali, Km Venkat Narayan, Nikhil Tandon, Dorairaj Prabhakaran
Green space exposure has been positively correlated with better mental-health indicators in several high income countries, but has not been examined in low- and middle-income countries undergoing rapid urbanization. Building on a study of mental health in adults with a pre-existing chronic condition, we examined the association between park availability and major depression among 1208 adults surveyed in Delhi, India. Major depression was measured using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The ArcGIS platform was used to quantify park availability indexed as (i) park distance from households, (ii) area of the nearest park; and within one km buffer area around households - the (iii) number and (iv) total area of all parks...
July 25, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738213/determinants-of-the-magnitude-of-socioeconomic-inequalities-in-mortality-a-study-of-17-european-countries
#9
Johan P Mackenbach, Matthias Bopp, Patrick Deboosere, Katalin Kovacs, Mall Leinsalu, Pekka Martikainen, Gwenn Menvielle, Enrique Regidor, Rianne de Gelder
The magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality differs importantly between countries, but these variations have not been satisfactorily explained. We explored the role of behavioral and structural determinants of these variations, by using a dataset covering 17 European countries in the period 1970-2010, and by conducting multilevel multivariate regression analyses. Our results suggest that between-country variations in inequalities in current mortality can partly be understood from variations in inequalities in smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and poverty...
July 21, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711859/associations-between-multiple-green-space-measures-and-birth-weight-across-two-us-cities
#10
Leanne Cusack, Andrew Larkin, Susan E Carozza, Perry Hystad
INTRODUCTION: Several measures of green space exposure have been used in epidemiological research, but their relevance to health, and representation of exposure pathways, remains unclear. Here we examine the relationships between multiple urban green space metrics and associations with term birth weight across two diverse US cities. METHODS: We used Vital Statistics data to create a birth cohort from 2005 to 2009 in the cities of Portland, Oregon (n = 90,265) and Austin, Texas (n = 88,807)...
July 13, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692955/ethnic-density-and-risk-of-mental-ill-health-the-case-of-religious-sectarianism-in-northern-ireland-a-population-data-linkage-study
#11
Tania J Bosqui, Aideen Maguire, Anne Kouvonen, David Wright, Michael Donnelly, Dermot O'Reilly
An ethnic group that lives in a neighbourhood in which it is in the minority, termed 'lower ethnic density,' tends to report a higher incidence of mental ill-health. This population-based study investigated for the first time the existence of an own-group density effect among Catholic and Protestant communities in Northern Ireland. The entire Northern Ireland born Catholic and Protestant working age (n = 1, 004,060) enumerated population in the 2011 Census of Northern Ireland were included in the study via administrative data-linkage methodology...
July 7, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689134/was-mackenbach-right-towards-a-practical-political-science-of-redistribution-and-health-inequalities
#12
Ted Schrecker
In 2010, Mackenbach reflected on England's lack of success in reducing health inequalities between 1997 and 2010, asserting that "it is difficult to imagine a longer window of opportunity for tackling health inequalities"; asking "[i]f this did not work, what will?"; and concluding that reducing health inequalities was not politically feasible at least in that jurisdiction. Exploring the empirics of that observation offers a window into the politics of reducing health inequalities. For purposes of future comparative research, I outline three (not mutually exclusive) perspectives on political feasibility, identify their implications for a political science of health inequalities, and explore what they mean for advocacy in support of reducing those inequalities...
July 5, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688317/smelling-therapeutic-landscapes-embodied-encounters-within-spaces-of-care-farming
#13
Richard Gorman
The conceptual framework of 'therapeutic landscapes' has been used as a means of considering the significance of specific environments, spaces, and places for aspects of health. Building on a growing attention to the sensory elements of spaces of health and wellbeing, this article mobilises empirical research on 'care farming' practices to discuss how smellscapes come to be crucial in fulfilling anticipations, imaginations, and expectations of a 'therapeutic space'. This article highlights how embodied relationships with specific scents can constitute a therapeutic encounter with place, actively influencing practices and engagement with(in) place, and the ways by which place can have a meaningful affect on health...
July 5, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688316/cultivating-our-humanity-a-systematic-review-of-care-farming-traumatic-grief
#14
REVIEW
Richard Gorman, Joanne Cacciatore
Traumatic grief is a complex biopsychosocial experience, frequently (and contentiously) medicalized in the Western world. Care farming is an increasingly popular place-based intervention utilizing agricultural settings to care for vulnerable groups. We sought to establish the extent of care farming in relation to traumatic grief and query the potential of care farming as an intervention for this specific population. A systematic review highlights that whilst understudied, the success of care farming as an intervention for other populations experiencing psychological distress demonstrates the huge potential for care farming as a means to therapeutically engage with individuals experiencing traumatic grief...
July 5, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688315/the-effect-of-health-on-urban-settlement-intention-of-rural-urban-migrants-in-china
#15
Shenghua Xie, Jinxian Wang, Juan Chen, Veli-Matti Ritakallio
Previous studies have not paid enough attention to the effect of health on urban-settlement intention of rural-urban migrants in China. Using survey data from the Rural Urban Migration in China project, this article examines how self-rated physical and mental health influence rural-urban migrants' intention to settle down in cities. First, the results show that both self-rated physical and mental health are significant factors influencing the migrants' intention to permanently move to cities. Second, the effect of physical health on rural-urban migrants' intentions to permanently reside in cities can be moderated by their length of urban residence...
July 5, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686999/school-poverty-effects-on-trajectories-of-child-behaviour-do-they-depend-on-gender-and-ethnicity
#16
Emily Midouhas
This study examined English school poverty effects on trajectories of child behaviour across ages 3, 5, 7 and 11, and the moderating roles of ethnicity and gender. School poverty predicted internalising and externalising problems concurrently, and internalising problems longitudinally. In poor schools, girls had a steeper incline in internalising problems, but made greater reductions in externalising problems. Ethnic differences were also found in the association between school poverty and child adjustment...
July 4, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672147/children-s-exposure-to-alcohol-marketing-within-supermarkets-an-objective-analysis-using-gps-technology-and-wearable-cameras
#17
T Chambers, A L Pearson, J Stanley, M Smith, M Barr, C Ni Mhurchu, L Signal
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Exposure to alcohol marketing within alcohol retailers has been associated with higher rates of childhood drinking, brand recognition, and marketing recall. This study aimed to objectively measure children's everyday exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets. METHOD: Children aged 11-13 (n = 167) each wore a wearable camera and GPS device for four consecutive days. Micro-spatial analyses were used to examine exposures within supermarkets...
June 30, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666236/do-greener-areas-promote-more-equitable-child-health
#18
Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas Astell-Burt
Several recent studies have suggested that people in socioeconomically disadvantaged circumstances may benefit more from local green space ('equigenesis'). This study provides a test of this hypothesis in children aged 0-13 years old. Results from multilevel models suggest the odds of sub-optimal general health were 14% lower among children in areas containing >21.5% green space compared to those with <10%. Higher parent-reported quality green space was associated with 18% lower odds of sub-optimal child health...
June 27, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666235/how-do-moving-and-other-major-life-events-impact-mental-health-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-uk-children
#19
Tim Morris, David Manley, Kate Northstone, Clive E Sabel
Research has suggested that children who move home report poorer mental health than those who remain residentially stable. However, many previous studies have been based on cross sectional data and have failed to consider major life events as confounders. This study uses longitudinal data from ALSPAC, a UK population based birth cohort study, and employs within-between random effect models to decompose the association between moving in childhood and poor mental health. Results suggest that while unobserved between-individual differences between mobile and non-mobile children account for a large portion of this association, within-individual differences remain and indicate that moving may have a detrimental impact upon subsequent mental health...
June 27, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648926/does-opening-a-supermarket-in-a-food-desert-change-the-food-environment
#20
Madhumita Ghosh-Dastidar, Gerald Hunter, Rebecca L Collins, Shannon N Zenk, Steven Cummins, Robin Beckman, Alvin K Nugroho, Jennifer C Sloan, La'Vette Wagner, Tamara Dubowitz
Improving access to healthy foods in low-income neighborhoods is a national priority. Our study evaluated the impact of opening a supermarket in a 'food desert' on healthy food access, availability and prices in the local food environment. We conducted 30 comprehensive in-store audits collecting information on healthy and unhealthy food availability, food prices and store environment, as well as 746 household surveys in two low-income neighborhoods before and after one of the two neighborhoods received a new supermarket...
June 22, 2017: Health & Place
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