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Health & Place

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103493/individual-educational-attainment-neighborhood-socioeconomic-contexts-and-self-rated-health-of-middle-aged-and-elderly-chinese-exploring-the-mediating-role-of-social-engagement
#1
Wei Zhang, Yan Yan Wu
Analyzing the 2011-2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study with 14,507 respondents from 393 neighborhoods, and applying generalized linear mixed-effects model, this study examines how individual-level education and neighborhood-socioeconomic contexts affect health through social engagement. Findings reveal that measures of social engagement-social activity and productive activity-are significantly related to self-rated health and partially mediate the effects of individual-level education. Neighborhood-socioeconomic contexts have independent effects on self-rated health beyond individual socio-demographics, and social activity mediates the effects of neighborhood recreational facilities...
January 16, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088114/between-exposure-access-and-use-reconsidering-foodscape-influences-on-dietary-behaviours
#2
Christelle Clary, Stephen Augustus Matthews, Yan Kestens
Good accessibility to both healthy and unhealthy food outlets is a greater reality than food deserts. Yet, there is a lack of conceptual insights on the contextual factors that push individuals to opt for healthy or unhealthy food outlets when both options are accessible. Our comprehension of foodscape influences on dietary behaviours would benefit from a better understanding of the decision-making process for food outlet choices. In this paper, we build on the fundamental position that outlet choices are conditioned by how much outlets' attributes accommodate individuals' constraints and preferences...
January 11, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061392/association-of-environmental-indicators-with-teen-alcohol-use-and-problem-behavior-teens-observations-vs-objectively-measured-indicators
#3
Hilary F Byrnes, Brenda A Miller, Christopher N Morrison, Douglas J Wiebe, Marcie Woychik, Sarah E Wiehe
: Most prior studies use objectively measured data (e.g., census-based indicators) to assess contextual risks. However, teens' observations might be more important for their risk behavior. OBJECTIVES: 1) determine relationships between observed and objective indicators of contextual risks 2) determine relations of observed and objective indicators with teen alcohol use and problem behavior. Teens aged 14-16 (N=170) carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one month, with locations documented...
January 3, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061391/associations-between-perceived-neighbourhood-problems-and-quality-of-life-in-older-adults-with-and-without-osteoarthritis-results-from-the-hertfordshire-cohort-study
#4
Erik J Timmermans, Suzan van der Pas, Laura A Schaap, Cyrus Cooper, Mark H Edwards, Catharine R Gale, Dorly J H Deeg, Elaine M Dennison
This study examined whether the association of quality of life (QoL) with perceived neighbourhood problems is stronger in older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) than in those without OA. Of all 294 participants, 23.8% had OA. More perceived neighbourhood problems were associated with a stronger decrease in QoL over time in participants with OA (B=-0.018; p=0.02) than in those without OA (B=-0.004; p=0.39). Physical activity did not mediate this relationship. Older adults with OA may be less able to deal with more challenging environments...
January 3, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049071/pathways-from-neighborhood-poverty-to-depression-among-older-adults
#5
Spruha Joshi, Stephen J Mooney, Andrew G Rundle, James W Quinn, John R Beard, Magdalena Cerdá
The pathways through which neighborhood poverty can affect resident depression are still unknown. We investigated mechanisms through which neighborhood poverty may influence depression among older adults. Participants were drawn from the New York City Neighborhood and Mental Health in the Elderly Study II, a 3-wave study of adults aged 65-75 (n=3,497) at baseline. Neighborhood poverty and homicide were associated with depressive symptoms at follow-up waves (RR:1.20, 95%CI: 1.05, 1.36; RR: 1.09, 95%CI: 1.02, 1...
December 31, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033588/neighborhood-social-and-physical-environments-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-african-americans-the-jackson-heart-study
#6
Samson Y Gebreab, DeMarc A Hickson, Mario Sims, Sharon B Wyatt, Sharon K Davis, Adolfo Correa, Ana V Diez-Roux
Using data from Jackson Heart Study, we investigated the associations of neighborhood social and physical environments with prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in African Americans (AA). Among non-diabetic participants at baseline (n=3670), 521 (14.2%) developed T2DM during a median follow-up of 7.3 years. Measures of neighborhood social environments, and food and physical activity resources were derived using survey-and GIS-based methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) and Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using generalized estimating equations and Cox proportional hazards models...
December 26, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012313/typologies-of-neighbourhood-environments-and-children-s-physical-activity-sedentary-time-and-television-viewing
#7
Anna Timperio, David Crawford, Kylie Ball, Jo Salmon
This study examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between clusters of neighbourhood attributes (typologies) and non-school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time (objectively measured) and proxy-reported television viewing among children aged 5-6 and 10-12 years. Four distinct clusters were identified from seven objectively-measured neighbourhood attributes (land use mix, traffic exposure, playgrounds, sports venues, intersections and cul-de-sacs within 800m, crime/postcode). Some cross-sectional associations with behavior were found...
December 21, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012312/racial-and-ethnic-residential-segregation-and-access-to-health-care-in-rural-areas
#8
Julia T Caldwell, Chandra L Ford, Steven P Wallace, May C Wang, Lois M Takahashi
This study examined the relationship between racial/ethnic residential segregation and access to health care in rural areas. Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were merged with the American Community Survey and the Area Health Resources Files. Segregation was operationalized using the isolation index separately for African Americans and Hispanics. Multi-level logistic regression with random intercepts estimated four outcomes. In rural areas, segregation contributed to worse access to a usual source of health care but higher reports of health care needs being met among African Americans (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 1...
December 21, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003100/how-social-is-recreational-running-findings-from-a-qualitative-study-in-london-and-implications-for-public-health-promotion
#9
Russell Hitchings, Alan Latham
Recreational running is increasingly widespread and could therefore be seen as the obvious target for those hoping to encourage greater public health through exercise. Existing qualitative research on this topic has, however, tended to focus on groups of highly committed runners. It is accordingly unclear whether their findings can be extrapolated to the much larger population of comparatively casual runners. This existing work has also tended to emphasise the social nature of the activity in particular ways...
December 18, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997864/does-contextual-unemployment-matter-for-health-status-across-the-life-course-a-longitudinal-multilevel-study-exploring-the-link-between-neighbourhood-unemployment-and-functional-somatic-symptoms
#10
Anna Brydsten, Per E Gustafsson, Anne Hammarström, Miguel San Sebastian
This study examines whether neighbourhood unemployment is related to functional somatic symptoms, independently of the individual employment, across the life course and at four specific life course periods (age 16, 21, 30 and 42). Self-reported questioner data was used from a 26-year prospective Swedish cohort (n=1010) with complementary neighbourhood register data. A longitudinal and a set of age-specific cross-sectional hierarchal linear regressions was carried out. The results suggest that living in a neighbourhood with high unemployment has implications for residents' level of functional somatic symptoms, regardless of their own unemployment across time, particularly at age 30...
December 17, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984767/understanding-the-local-food-environment-a-participatory-photovoice-project-in-a-low-income-area-in-madrid-spain
#11
Julia Díez, Paloma Conde, María Sandin, María Urtasun, Remedios López, José Luis Carrero, Joel Gittelsohn, Manuel Franco
There is a need to partner between researchers, practitioners and residents to increase our understanding of environmental influences on dietary behaviors. We used the participatory method of Photovoice to understand key determinants of the local food environment influencing residents' diets. This project was conducted in Villaverde, a low-income area located in Madrid, Spain. From February to May 2015, 24 residents working in four Photovoice groups, took photographs related to their local food environment...
December 13, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914271/individual-exposure-estimates-may-be-erroneous-when-spatiotemporal-variability-of-air-pollution-and-human-mobility-are-ignored
#12
Yoo Min Park, Mei-Po Kwan
This study aims to empirically demonstrate the necessity to consider both the spatiotemporal variability of air pollution and individual daily movement patterns in exposure and health risk assessment. It compares four different types of exposure estimates generated by using (1) individual movement data and hourly air pollution concentrations; (2) individual movement data and daily average air pollution data; (3) residential location and hourly pollution levels; and (4) residential location and daily average pollution data...
November 30, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903417/running-health-and-the-disciplining-of-women-s-bodies-the-influence-of-technology-and-nature
#13
Jo Little
This paper explores the relationship between health, the body and exercise through an examination of women's running practices. Drawing on a series of original interviews with women it shows how running reflects anxieties about health and the unruly body and how running practices are firmly linked to ideas about body size and shape and to the 'ghosts' of potential, future illness. The paper then explores the ways in which running practices are shaped by attitudes to technology and by the relationship between nature, environment and the body...
November 28, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902960/optimising-measurement-of-health-related-characteristics-of-the-built-environment-comparing-data-collected-by-foot-based-street-audits-virtual-street-audits-and-routine-secondary-data-sources
#14
Triantafyllos Pliakas, Sophie Hawkesworth, Richard J Silverwood, Kiran Nanchahal, Chris Grundy, Ben Armstrong, Juan Pablo Casas, Richard W Morris, Paul Wilkinson, Karen Lock
The role of the neighbourhood environment in influencing health behaviours continues to be an important topic in public health research and policy. Foot-based street audits, virtual street audits and secondary data sources are widespread data collection methods used to objectively measure the built environment in environment-health association studies. We compared these three methods using data collected in a nationally representative epidemiological study in 17 British towns to inform future development of research tools...
November 27, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898313/wellbeing-in-the-aftermath-of-floods
#15
Kate Walker-Springett, Catherine Butler, W Neil Adger
The interactions between flood events, their aftermath, and recovery leading to health and wellbeing outcomes for individuals are complex, and the pathways and mechanisms through which wellbeing is affected are often hidden and remain under-researched. This study analyses the diverse processes that explain changes in wellbeing for those experiencing flooding. It identifies key pathways to wellbeing outcomes that concern perceptions of lack of agency, dislocation from home, and disrupted futures inducing negative impacts, with offsetting positive effects through community networks and interactions...
November 26, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898312/effects-of-living-near-a-new-urban-motorway-on-the-travel-behaviour-of-local-residents-in-deprived-areas-evidence-from-a-natural-experimental-study
#16
Louise Foley, Richard Prins, Fiona Crawford, Shannon Sahlqvist, David Ogilvie
We evaluated the effects of a new motorway built through deprived neighbourhoods on travel behaviour in residents. This natural experiment comprised a longitudinal cohort (n=365) and two cross-sectional samples (baseline n=980; follow-up n=978) recruited in 2005 and 2013. Adults from one of three study areas - surrounding the new motorway (South), an existing motorway (East), or no motorway (North) - completed a previous day travel record. Adjusted two-part regression models examined associations between exposure and outcome...
November 26, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898311/premature-mortality-resilience-and-wellbeing-within-urban-m%C3%A4-ori-communities
#17
Andrew M Waa, Amber L Pearson, John L Ryks
Māori (the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand) experience of colonisation has negatively affected access to many of the resources (e.g. income, adequate housing) that enable health and well-being. However Māori have actively responded to the challenges they have faced. With the majority of the Māori population now living in urban settings this exploratory study aimed to understand factors contributing to mortality resilience despite exposure to socio-economic adversity with reference to Māori well-being...
November 26, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894846/maintaining-physical-exercise-as-a-matter-of-synchronising-practices-experiences-and-observations-from-training-in-mixed-martial-arts
#18
Stanley Blue
This paper is concerned with the establishment, maintenance, and decline of physical exercise practices. Drawing on experiences and observations taken from a carnal ethnography and rhythmanalysis of the practices involved in training in Mixed Martial Arts (MMA), I argue that maintaining this physical exercise practice is not straightforwardly an outcome of individual commitment, access to facilities, or the availability of free time. It rather depends on the synchronisation of practices: those of MMA, those that support MMA, and those that more broadly make up everyday life...
November 25, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894018/managing-mosquito-spaces-citizen-self-governance-of-disease-vectors-in-a-desert-landscape
#19
Nicolena vonHedemann, Paul Robbins, Melinda K Butterworth, Katheryn Landau, Cory W Morin
Public health agencies' strategies to control disease vectors have increasingly included "soft" mosquito management programs that depend on citizen education and changing homeowner behaviors. In an effort to understand public responses to such campaigns, this research assesses the case of Tucson, Arizona, where West Nile virus presents a serious health risk and where management efforts have focused on public responsibility for mosquito control. Using surveys, interviews, and focus groups, we conclude that citizens have internalized responsibilities for mosquito management but also expect public management of parks and waterways while tending to reject the state's interference with privately owned parcels...
November 25, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894017/the-regional-geography-of-alcohol-consumption-in-england-comparing-drinking-frequency-and-binge-drinking
#20
Javier Malda Castillo, Stephen Jivraj, Linda Ng Fat
Alcohol consumption frequency and volume are known to be related to health problems among drinkers. Most of the existing literature that analyses regional variation in drinking behaviour uses measures of consumption that relate only to volume, such as 'binge drinking'. This study compares the regional association of alcohol consumption using measures of drinking frequency (daily drinking) and volume (binge drinking) using a nationally representative sample of residents using the Health Survey for England, 2011-2013...
November 25, 2016: Health & Place
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