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Health & Place

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219854/does-neighborhood-social-and-environmental-context-impact-race-ethnic-disparities-in-childhood-asthma
#1
Mackenzie Brewer, Rachel Tolbert Kimbro, Justin T Denney, Kristin M Osiecki, Brady Moffett, Keila Lopez
Utilizing over 140,000 geocoded medical records for a diverse sample of children ages 2-12 living in Houston, Texas, we examine whether a comprehensive set of neighborhood social and environmental characteristics explain racial and ethnic disparities in childhood asthma. Adjusting for all individual risk factors, as well as neighborhood concentrated disadvantage, particulate matter, ozone concentration, and race/ethnic composition, reduced but did not fully attenuate the higher odds of asthma diagnosis among black (OR=2...
February 17, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219853/what-predicts-children-s-active-transport-and-independent-mobility-in-disadvantaged-neighborhoods
#2
J Veitch, A Carver, J Salmon, G Abbott, K Ball, D Crawford, V Cleland, A Timperio
This study examined two year changes in children's active transport and independent mobility and prospective associations between individual, social and physical environmental predictors of interest and these behaviors two years later. Overall, 43.5% of children (12.0±2.1 years) used active transport on the school journey at T1 and at T2 (p=0.77), and 35.3% engaged in independent mobility on the school journey at T1 and 29.6% at T2 (p=0.07). Enjoyment, parental safety concerns, and proximity to walking tracks were associated with independent mobility on the school journey...
February 17, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214705/home-and-away-area-socioeconomic-disadvantage-and-obesity-risk
#3
Rachel Tolbert Kimbro, Gregory Sharp, Justin T Denney
Although residential context is linked to obesity risk, less is known about how the additional places where we work, shop, play, and worship may influence that risk. We employ longitudinal data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (LAFANS) to derive time-weighted measures of exposure to home and activity space contexts to ascertain the impacts of each on obesity risk for adults. Results show that increased exposure to socioeconomic disadvantage in the residential neighborhood significantly increases obesity risk, and although activity space disadvantage does not directly influence obesity, it reduces the association between residential disadvantage and obesity...
February 16, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199896/the-geography-of-a-rapid-rise-in-elderly-mortality-in-england-and-wales-2014-15
#4
Mark Green, Danny Dorling, Jon Minton
Since at least the early 1900s almost all affluent nations in the world have continually experienced improvements in human longevity. Using ONS mid-year population and deaths estimates for Local Authorities for England and Wales, we show that these improvements have recently reversed. We estimate that in England and Wales there were 39,074 more deaths in the year to July 2015 as compared to the year to July 2014 (32,208 of these were of individuals aged 80+). We demonstrate that these increases occurred almost everywhere geographically; in poor and affluent areas, in rural and urban areas...
February 12, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183012/a-prospective-investigation-of-neighborhood-socioeconomic-deprivation-and-self-rated-health-in-a-large-us-cohort
#5
Qian Xiao, David Berrigan, Charles E Matthews
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood characteristics play a critical role in health. Self-rated health (SRH) is an important indicator of quality of life and a strong predictor of premature death. Prospective study on neighborhood deprivation and SRH is limited. METHODS: We examined neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation with reporting fair/poor SRH at follow-up (2004-2006) in 249,265 men and women (age 50-71) who reported SRH as good or better at baseline (1995-1996) in the NIH-AARP Health and Diet Study...
February 6, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167269/neighborhoods-and-racial-ethnic-differences-in-ideal-cardiovascular-health-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#6
Mahasin S Mujahid, Latetia V Moore, Lucia C Petito, Kiarri N Kershaw, Karol Watson, Ana V Diez Roux
Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis baseline sample from 2000 to 2002 (N=5263; mean age=62) we examined cross-sectional racial/ethnic differences in ideal CVH, defined by the American Heart Association 2020 Impact Goals as a summary measure of ideal levels of blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol, body mass index, diet, physical activity, and smoking. Using three different analytical approaches, we examined differences before and after adjustment for neighborhood socioeconomic, physical, and social environments...
February 3, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167268/do-neighborhoods-matter-differently-for-movers-and-non-movers-analysis-of-weight-gain-in-the-longitudinal-dallas-heart-study
#7
Tammy Leonard, Colby Ayers, Sandeep R Das, Ian J Neeland, Tiffany M Powell-Wiley
The few available population-based longitudinal studies examining the link between change in neighborhood condition and weight change to date have only examined neighborhood changes generated by residential mobility. Applying a difference-in-difference analytic framework to data from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a multi-ethnic, population-based cohort in Dallas County, TX, we evaluated the relationship between changes in neighborhood condition and weight change for both movers and non-movers over an approximate seven-year follow-up period...
February 3, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160672/do-social-relations-buffer-the-effect-of-neighborhood-deprivation-on-health-related-quality-of-life-results-from-the-lifelines-cohort-study
#8
Bart Klijs, Carlos F Mendes de Leon, Eva U B Kibele, Nynke Smidt
We investigated whether social relations buffer the effect of neighborhood deprivation on mental and physical health-related quality of life. Baseline data from the LifeLines Cohort Study (N=68,111) and a neighborhood deprivation index were used to perform mixed effect linear regression analyses. Results showed that fewer personal contacts (b, 95%CI: -0.88(-1.08;-0.67)) and lower social need fulfillment (-4.52(-4.67;-4.36)) are associated with lower mental health-related quality of life. Higher neighborhood deprivation was also associated with lower mental health related quality of life (-0...
February 1, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157622/built-environmental-correlates-of-cycling-for-transport-across-europe
#9
Lieze Mertens, Sofie Compernolle, Benedicte Deforche, Joreintje D Mackenbach, Jeroen Lakerveld, Johannes Brug, Célina Roda, Thierry Feuillet, Jean-Michel Oppert, Ketevan Glonti, Harry Rutter, Helga Bardos, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Delfien Van Dyck
This cross-sectional study aimed to determine which objective built environmental factors, identified using a virtual neighbourhood audit, were associated with cycling for transport in adults living in five urban regions across Europe. The moderating role of age, gender, socio-economic status and country on these associations was also investigated. Overall, results showed that people living in neighbourhoods with a preponderance of speed limits below 30km/h, many bicycle lanes, with less traffic calming devices, more trees, more litter and many parked cars forming an obstacle on the road were more likely to cycle for transport than people living in areas with lower prevalence of these factors...
January 31, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135633/measures-of-the-food-environment-a-systematic-review-of-the-field-2007-2015
#10
REVIEW
Leslie A Lytle, Rebeccah L Sokol
BACKGROUND: Many studies have examined the relationship between the food environment and health-related outcomes, but fewer consider the integrity of measures used to assess the food environment. The present review builds on and makes comparisons with a previous review examining food environment measures and expands the previous review to include a more in depth examination of reliability and validity of measures and study designs employed. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies measuring the food environment published between 2007 and 2015...
January 27, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117218/competing-geographies-of-recreational-running-the-case-of-the-jogging-wave-in-sweden-in-the-late-1970s
#11
Mattias Qviström
Recreational running encompasses more than one type of exercise. Different running practices offer different, even opposing, conceptualisations of the role of the environment. As illustrated in this paper, historical studies can uncover and explain these variations. By studying the clash between two practices in Sweden in the 1970s - the newly translated idea of North American jogging and an already established tradition of fitness running - this paper qualifies the difference between them and illustrates how they assembled competing geographies...
January 20, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103493/individual-educational-attainment-neighborhood-socioeconomic-contexts-and-self-rated-health-of-middle-aged-and-elderly-chinese-exploring-the-mediating-role-of-social-engagement
#12
Wei Zhang, Yan Yan Wu
Analyzing the 2011-2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study with 14,507 respondents from 393 neighborhoods, and applying generalized linear mixed-effects model, this study examines how individual-level education and neighborhood-socioeconomic contexts affect health through social engagement. Findings reveal that measures of social engagement-social activity and productive activity-are significantly related to self-rated health and partially mediate the effects of individual-level education. Neighborhood-socioeconomic contexts have independent effects on self-rated health beyond individual socio-demographics, and social activity mediates the effects of neighborhood recreational facilities...
January 16, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088114/between-exposure-access-and-use-reconsidering-foodscape-influences-on-dietary-behaviours
#13
Christelle Clary, Stephen Augustus Matthews, Yan Kestens
Good accessibility to both healthy and unhealthy food outlets is a greater reality than food deserts. Yet, there is a lack of conceptual insights on the contextual factors that push individuals to opt for healthy or unhealthy food outlets when both options are accessible. Our comprehension of foodscape influences on dietary behaviours would benefit from a better understanding of the decision-making process for food outlet choices. In this paper, we build on the fundamental position that outlet choices are conditioned by how much outlets' attributes accommodate individuals' constraints and preferences...
January 11, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033588/neighborhood-social-and-physical-environments-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-african-americans-the-jackson-heart-study
#14
Samson Y Gebreab, DeMarc A Hickson, Mario Sims, Sharon B Wyatt, Sharon K Davis, Adolfo Correa, Ana V Diez-Roux
Using data from Jackson Heart Study, we investigated the associations of neighborhood social and physical environments with prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in African Americans (AA). Among non-diabetic participants at baseline (n=3670), 521 (14.2%) developed T2DM during a median follow-up of 7.3 years. Measures of neighborhood social environments, and food and physical activity resources were derived using survey-and GIS-based methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) and Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using generalized estimating equations and Cox proportional hazards models...
December 26, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012313/typologies-of-neighbourhood-environments-and-children-s-physical-activity-sedentary-time-and-television-viewing
#15
Anna Timperio, David Crawford, Kylie Ball, Jo Salmon
This study examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between clusters of neighbourhood attributes (typologies) and non-school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time (objectively measured) and proxy-reported television viewing among children aged 5-6 and 10-12 years. Four distinct clusters were identified from seven objectively-measured neighbourhood attributes (land use mix, traffic exposure, playgrounds, sports venues, intersections and cul-de-sacs within 800m, crime/postcode). Some cross-sectional associations with behavior were found...
December 21, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003100/how-social-is-recreational-running-findings-from-a-qualitative-study-in-london-and-implications-for-public-health-promotion
#16
Russell Hitchings, Alan Latham
Recreational running is increasingly widespread and could therefore be seen as the obvious target for those hoping to encourage greater public health through exercise. Existing qualitative research on this topic has, however, tended to focus on groups of highly committed runners. It is accordingly unclear whether their findings can be extrapolated to the much larger population of comparatively casual runners. This existing work has also tended to emphasise the social nature of the activity in particular ways...
December 18, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997864/does-contextual-unemployment-matter-for-health-status-across-the-life-course-a-longitudinal-multilevel-study-exploring-the-link-between-neighbourhood-unemployment-and-functional-somatic-symptoms
#17
Anna Brydsten, Per E Gustafsson, Anne Hammarström, Miguel San Sebastian
This study examines whether neighbourhood unemployment is related to functional somatic symptoms, independently of the individual employment, across the life course and at four specific life course periods (age 16, 21, 30 and 42). Self-reported questioner data was used from a 26-year prospective Swedish cohort (n=1010) with complementary neighbourhood register data. A longitudinal and a set of age-specific cross-sectional hierarchal linear regressions was carried out. The results suggest that living in a neighbourhood with high unemployment has implications for residents' level of functional somatic symptoms, regardless of their own unemployment across time, particularly at age 30...
December 17, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984767/understanding-the-local-food-environment-a-participatory-photovoice-project-in-a-low-income-area-in-madrid-spain
#18
Julia Díez, Paloma Conde, María Sandin, María Urtasun, Remedios López, José Luis Carrero, Joel Gittelsohn, Manuel Franco
There is a need to partner between researchers, practitioners and residents to increase our understanding of environmental influences on dietary behaviors. We used the participatory method of Photovoice to understand key determinants of the local food environment influencing residents' diets. This project was conducted in Villaverde, a low-income area located in Madrid, Spain. From February to May 2015, 24 residents working in four Photovoice groups, took photographs related to their local food environment...
December 13, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914271/individual-exposure-estimates-may-be-erroneous-when-spatiotemporal-variability-of-air-pollution-and-human-mobility-are-ignored
#19
Yoo Min Park, Mei-Po Kwan
This study aims to empirically demonstrate the necessity to consider both the spatiotemporal variability of air pollution and individual daily movement patterns in exposure and health risk assessment. It compares four different types of exposure estimates generated by using (1) individual movement data and hourly air pollution concentrations; (2) individual movement data and daily average air pollution data; (3) residential location and hourly pollution levels; and (4) residential location and daily average pollution data...
November 30, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903417/running-health-and-the-disciplining-of-women-s-bodies-the-influence-of-technology-and-nature
#20
Jo Little
This paper explores the relationship between health, the body and exercise through an examination of women's running practices. Drawing on a series of original interviews with women it shows how running reflects anxieties about health and the unruly body and how running practices are firmly linked to ideas about body size and shape and to the 'ghosts' of potential, future illness. The paper then explores the ways in which running practices are shaped by attitudes to technology and by the relationship between nature, environment and the body...
November 28, 2016: Health & Place
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