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Health & Place

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339291/social-capital-and-child-nutrition-in-india-the-moderating-role-of-development
#1
Kriti Vikram
Empirical studies of social capital rarely take into account the socioeconomic context of the region in which it operates, indeed as most of this research has been located in high income countries. It is imperative to investigate how development may influence the impact of social capital, especially in developing countries. This paper examines the relationship between social capital and child nutrition using the India Human Development Survey, 2005-2006. Using a multilevel framework and a sample of 6770 rural children under the age of five, it finds that household based bridging social capital, expressed as connections with development based organizations, is positively associated with child nutrition...
January 13, 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334618/exploring-masculinities-sexual-health-and-wellbeing-across-areas-of-high-deprivation-in-scotland-the-depth-of-the-challenge-to-improve-understandings-and-practices
#2
Karen Lorimer, Lesley McMillan, Lisa McDaid, Dona Milne, Siân Russell, Kate Hunt
Within and across areas of high deprivation, we explored constructions of masculinity in relation to sexual health and wellbeing, in what we believe to be the first UK study to take this approach. Our sample of 116 heterosexual men and women age 18-40 years took part in individual semi-structured interviews (n = 35) and focus group discussions (n = 18), across areas in Scotland. Drawing on a socio-ecological framework, findings revealed experience in places matter, with gender practices rooted in a domestically violent milieu, where localised, socio-cultural influences offered limited opportunities for more egalitarian performances of masculinity...
January 12, 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334617/chains-of-risk-for-alcohol-use-disorder-mediators-of-exposure-to-neighborhood-deprivation-in-early-and-middle-childhood
#3
Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Sara L Lönn, Won K Cook, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
Our goal was to test a cascade model to identify developmental pathways, or chains of risk, from neighborhood deprivation in childhood to alcohol use disorder (AUD) in young adulthood. Using Swedish general population data, we examined whether exposure to neighborhood deprivation during early and middle childhood was associated with indicators of social functioning in adolescence and emerging adulthood, and whether these were predictive of AUD. Structural equation models showed exposure to neighborhood deprivation was associated with lower school achievement during adolescence, poor social functioning during emerging adulthood, and the development of AUD for both males and females...
January 12, 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331786/the-meaning-of-community-in-diverse-neighborhoods-stratification-of-influence-and-mental-health
#4
Emily Walton
As the United States diversifies, individuals are increasingly encountering and managing racial and ethnic difference in their neighboring relationships, thus challenging the "cultural" basis for consensus on the local meaning of community. This mixed-methods study considers the ways in which sense of community relates to mental health in two longstanding racially- and socioeconomically-diverse neighborhoods. I ask how social resources are distributed within diverse neighborhoods, integrating survey (N = 243) and interview (N = 60) data to make observations about both the existence and nature of relationships among the unique dimensions of sense of community and mental health...
January 10, 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331785/causal-nature-of-neighborhood-deprivation-on-individual-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-or-ischemic-stroke-a-prospective-national-swedish-co-relative-control-study-in-men-and-women
#5
Per-Ola Forsberg, Henrik Ohlsson, Kristina Sundquist
We studied the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) or ischemic stroke in the total population and in full- and half-siblings to determine whether these associations are causal or a result from familial confounding. Data were retrieved from nationwide Swedish registers containing individual clinical data linked to neighborhood of residence. After adjustment for individual SES, the association between neighborhood SES and CHD showed no decrease with increasing genetic resemblance, particularly in women...
January 10, 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306140/nature-as-a-facilitator-for-physical-activity-defining-relationships-between-the-objective-and-perceived-environment-and-physical-activity-among-community-dwelling-older-people
#6
Kirsi E Keskinen, Merja Rantakokko, Kimmo Suomi, Taina Rantanen, Erja Portegijs
The aim was to study the correspondence between the objective and perceived environment and to assess their associations with physical activity (PA) in older people. 848 community-dwelling older people aged 75-90 were interviewed on their difficulties in walking 500m, perceiving nature as a facilitator for outdoor mobility, and PA. The presence of water and landscape diversity were objectively assessed inside 500m and 1000m circular buffers around participants' homes. Using logistic regression, participant data were analyzed together with the objectively assessed environmental features...
January 3, 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305267/on-lenses-and-blind-spots-in-qualitative-exercise-and-environment-research-a-response-to-stephanie-coen
#7
Russell Hitchings, Alan Latham, Ucl
Qualitative research focused on how people experience the social and material environments in which they exercise has the potential to inform public health agendas in all sorts of ways. This commentary takes up the claim made by Stephanie Coen that such research should begin with an 'equity lens' and place a greater emphasis on 'critique' than we did in the 'Exercise and Environment' special issue to which she responds. At its best qualitative research reveals new ways of thinking about the social and material contexts at hand...
January 2, 2018: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29253808/modest-ratios-of-fast-food-outlets-to-supermarkets-and-green-grocers-are-associated-with-higher-body-mass-index-longitudinal-analysis-of-a-sample-of-15-229-australians-aged-45-years-and-older-in-the-australian-national-liveability-study
#8
Xiaoqi Feng, Thomas Astell-Burt, Hannah Badland, Suzanne Mavoa, Billie Giles-Corti
Food purchasing decisions are made within the context of the range of options available, yet most epidemiological studies focus upon single outlet types. Ratios of fast food outlets to supermarkets and green grocers were linked to addresses of 15,229 adults in the 45 and Up Study at baseline (2006-2008) and follow-up (2009-2010). Compared to having no fast food outlet but having healthy food outlets within 3.2km from home, multilevel growth curves revealed that relative exposure>25% fast food outlets were associated with 0...
December 15, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227887/-there-is-not-a-safe-space-where-they-can-find-themselves-to-be-free-un-safe-spaces-and-the-promotion-of-queer-visibilities-among-township-males-who-have-sex-with-males-msm-in-cape-town-south-africa
#9
N R Hassan, L Swartz, A Kagee, A De Wet, A Lesch, Z Kafaar, P A Newman
Males who have sex with males (MSM) are prioritised in the global fight against HIV/AIDS, as a key affected population to receive HIV prevention, treatment, and HIV-related care and support (WHO, 2016). There is, however, limited empirical research conducted on how to engage communities of South African MSM in clinical HIV prevention research programs. The development of LGBTIQ safe spaces may potentially be a viable option to promote community-based engagement by bridging the divides between HIV-prevention researchers, marginalised queer populations, and other HIV-prevention stakeholders located in heteronormative spaces (Molyneux et al...
December 8, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227886/traveling-with-blindness-a-qualitative-space-time-approach-to-understanding-visual-impairment-and-urban-mobility
#10
Sandy Wong
This paper draws from Hägerstrand's space-time framework to generate new insights on the everyday mobilities of individuals with visual impairments in the San Francisco Bay Area. While existing research on visual impairment and mobility emphasizes individual physical limitations resulting from vision loss or inaccessible public spaces, this article highlights and bridges both the behavioral and social processes that influence individual mobility. A qualitative analysis of sit-down and mobile interview data reveals that the space-time constraints of people with visual impairments are closely linked to their access to transportation, assistive technologies, and mobile devices...
December 8, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227885/neighbourhood-social-and-physical-environment-and-general-practitioner-assessed-morbidity
#11
Peter P Groenewegen, Jan-Paul Zock, Peter Spreeuwenberg, Marco Helbich, Gerard Hoek, Annemarie Ruijsbroek, Maciej Strak, Robert Verheij, Beate Volker, Geeke Waverijn, Martin Dijst
The aim of our study was to investigate the association between health enhancing and threatening, and social and physical aspects of the neighbourhood environment and general practitioner (GP) assessed morbidity of the people living there, in order to find out whether the effects of environmental characteristics add up or modify each other. We combined GP electronic health records with environmental data on neighbourhoods in the Netherlands. Cross-classified logistic multilevel models show the importance of taking into account several environmental characteristics and confounders, as social capital effects on the prevalence of morbidity disappear when other area characteristics are taken into account...
December 8, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216520/green-pastures-do-us-real-estate-prices-respond-to-population-health
#12
Claudia Nau, David Bishai
We investigate whether communities with improving population health will subsequently experience rising real estate prices. Home price indices (HPIs) for 371 MSAs from 1990 to 2010 are regressed against life-expectancy five years prior. HPIs come from the Federal Housing Finance Agency. Life expectancy estimates come from the Institute of Health Metrics. Our analysis uses random and fixed effect models with a comprehensive set of controls. Life expectancy predicted increases in the HPI controlling for potential confounders...
December 4, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197697/the-development-of-a-spatial-palliative-care-index-instrument-for-assessing-population-level-need-for-palliative-care-services
#13
Nadine Schuurman, Michael Martin, Valorie A Crooks, Ellen Randall
We developed an index to measure potential need for palliative care services (PCIX). This is an instrument that enables spatial identification of potential population-level need for palliative care services and can be developed using census data. Four indicators of potential need for palliative care services -age, sex, living arrangement, socio-economic status (SES)-were used to produce composite potential need scores for DAs. Scores were graphically mapped, producing a spatial delineation of relative need for end-of-life services...
November 30, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190517/comparing-residence-based-to-actual-path-based-methods-for-defining-adolescents-environmental-exposures-using-granular-spatial-data
#14
Alison J Culyba, Wensheng Guo, Charles C Branas, Elizabeth Miller, Douglas J Wiebe
This paper uses data from a population-based case control study of daily activities and assault injury to examine residence-based versus actual path-based approaches to measuring environmental exposures that pose risks for violence among adolescents. Defining environmental exposures based on participant home address resulted in significant misclassification compared to gold standard daily travel path measures. Dividing participant daily travel paths into origin-destination segments, we explore a method for defining spatial counterfactuals by comparing actual trip path exposures to shortest potential trip path exposures...
November 27, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161656/comparing-objective-measures-of-the-built-environment-in-their-associations-with-youth-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-across-heterogeneous-geographies
#15
Melissa N Poulsen, Emily A Knapp, Annemarie G Hirsch, Lisa Bailey-Davis, Jonathan Pollak, Brian S Schwartz
We compared two strategies for measuring built environment features in their associations with youth physical activity and sedentary behavior across heterogeneous geographies of Pennsylvania. Physical activity environments of communities representing a rural-to-urban gradient were characterized through direct observation and spatially referenced archival data subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. Stratified regression analyses assessed associations between environmental measures and behavioral outcomes by community type...
November 17, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156416/the-natural-context-of-wellbeing-ecological-momentary-assessment-of-the-influence-of-nature-and-daylight-on-affect-and-stress-for-individuals-with-depression-levels-varying-from-none-to-clinical
#16
Femke Beute, Yvonne A W de Kort
This paper explores how everyday encounters with two natural phenomena -natural elements and daylight- influence affect and stress levels for people differing in mental health. Nature and daylight exposure both have well-documented beneficial effects on mental health and affect but to what extent their exposure has beneficial effects in daily life is currently under investigated, as is the question whether lower mental health would make one more, or instead, less responsive. To this end, an ecological momentary assessment protocol was employed for a period of 6 days...
November 17, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156415/patterns-of-food-and-physical-activity-environments-related-to-children-s-food-and-activity-behaviors-a-latent-class-analysis
#17
Robin S DeWeese, Punam Ohri-Vachaspati, Marc A Adams, Jonathan Kurka, Seung Yong Han, Michael Todd, Michael J Yedidia
Relationships between food and physical activity (PA) environments and children's related behaviors are complex. Latent class analyses derived patterns from proximity to healthy and unhealthy food outlets, PA facilities and parks, and counts of residential dwellings and intersections. Regression analyses examined whether derived classes were related to food consumption, PA, and overweight among 404 low-income children. Compared to children living in Low PA-Low Food environments, children in High Intersection&Parks-Moderate Density&Food, and High Density-Low Parks-High Food environments, had significantly greater sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (ps<0...
November 17, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150314/connecting-qualitative-research-on-exercise-and-environment-to-public-health-agendas-requires-an-equity-lens
#18
Stephanie E Coen
In this commentary, I respond to the special section in Health&Place (vol. 46) on "Exercise and environment: new qualitative work to link popular practice and public health" edited by Hitchings and Latham. I argue that if qualitative research is to effectively inform public health policy and practice it cannot ignore the fact that physical activity participation is inequitable. Without building in a critical equity lens, geographers risk perpetuating the "inequality paradox"-that is, the potential for population health interventions to inadvertently exacerbate health inequalities...
November 14, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128719/bring-out-your-dead-a-study-of-income-inequality-and-life-expectancy-in-the-united-states-2000-2010
#19
Terrence D Hill, Andrew Jorgenson
We test whether income inequality undermines female and male life expectancy in the United States. We employ data for all 50 states and the District of Columbia and two-way fixed effects to model state-level average life expectancy as a function of multiple income inequality measures and time-varying characteristics. We find that state-level income inequality is inversely associated with female and male life expectancy. We observe this general pattern across four measures of income inequality and under the rigorous conditions of state-specific and year-specific fixed effects...
November 9, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121536/a-far-greater-sense-of-community-the-impact-of-volunteer-behaviour-on-the-wellness-of-rural-older-australians
#20
Jeni Warburton, Rachel Winterton
This paper builds on place-based research investigating the transformative potential of volunteering for service-deprived, ageing rural communities. Here, we critically explore the relationship between communities of place, voluntarism and wellness for rural older Australians. We draw on data from a large qualitative multi-site study, and utilise Ryan et al.'s (2005) systemic model of community attachment. Findings support the dual perspective of strong community sentiments through social embeddedness in rural communities; and personal interests, associated with rational choice theory, through healthy ageing practices...
November 6, 2017: Health & Place
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